||Dexmedetomidine is a novel sedative that was approved for use in the US at the end of the last century. Currently, the FDA labeling for its use are: sedation in non-intubated patients prior to and during surgical and other procedures, and in intubated and mechanically ventilated patients during treatment in an intensive care setting and to be administered by continuous infusion not to exceed 24 hours. Multiple investigations for other indications and prolonged durations have caused controversies for its use. Given the risks of this medication, strict adherence to guidelines for its use is recommended. The aim of this review is to discuss the approved and the not yet approved indications to use this medication.