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Title : TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF CASSIA PETERSIANA BOLLE (CAESALPINIACEAE), AN ANTITYPHOID MEDICINAL PLANT
Authors : Donatien Gatsing and Godwin I. Adoga
Abstract : Typhoid fever continues to be a serious health problem in developing countries. In our search for therapeutic agents from natural sources with potential for the treatment of typhoid fevers, an anti-typhoid aqueous extract was obtained from the leaves of Cassia petersiana and tested for possible toxicity risks. Toxicological study was done in mice and rats using both acute and sub-chronic techniques. Results obtained showed that, at high doses, the extract may have a depressant effect on the central nervous system, and may induce hypersensitiveness. The LD50 (lethal dose 50) values of the extract were 20 g/kg and 22 g/kg, for male and female mice, respectively. Rats administered C. petersiana extract showed significantly increased kidneys and liver to body weight ratios, increased serum total protein, and a decrease in total protein titre of the liver at high doses. Also, significant increases in serum transaminase (ALT and AST) activities were observed at high doses. Significant decreases in serum total protein and urinary protein were seen in male and female rats administered the extract at 75 mg/kg. However, urinary protein showed a significant increase in male rats treated at 4800 mg/kg. Significant increases in haematocrit values were observed in male and female rats receiving the dose 300 mg/kg. These data suggest that this extract, at moderate doses, may be used without any toxicity risk, and besides may have strengthening effects on the liver and kidneys. However, at high doses, it may create injury to the liver and kidneys.

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