||The present work was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Matricaria chamomilla L. essential oil in rodents. The flowers of Matricaria chamomilla L. was subjected to extraction by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of the essential oil was assessed through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The effect of the essential oil against acute inflammation was studied using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats at different doses (100, 200 mg/kg p.o.) and compared with standard drug (indomethacin) and with control group. Matricaria chamomilla L. essential oil contained Chamazulene (25.21 %), Cis-beta-farnesene (12.51 %), Eucalyptol (9.19 %), Coumarin (7.72 %), Galaxolide (6.28 %) and Camphor (4.3 %) this essential oil produced significant anti-inflammatory effect (P<0.001) at all doses studied in both models when compared with control group. This study revealed that M. chamomilla L. essential oil has a potent anti-inflammatory activity. This effect, at least in part, depend upon the chemical composition properties of the essential oil of this medicinal plant from Morocco.