Volume 8 - Issue 1

S.NO Title & Authors Name page
Evaluation of Novel Ion Sensitive In situ Gelling Polymer in the Development of Ophthalmic Drug Delivery System
Atish S Mundada
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The attempt has been made in the present work to formulate an ion sensitive in situ gel of an antibacterial agent, Ciprofloxacin HCl employing a novel in situ gelling low methoxy pectin (obtained from the heads of Helianthus annuus Linn) as bioadhesive polymer. The drug loaded in situ gelling formulation was developed employing the cold method. The prepared formulations were evaluated for appearance, clarity, pH, gelling capacity, viscosity, drug content, mucoadhesive force, gelling strength, in vitro drug release, isotonicity study, sterility test and stability study. The results of various physicochemical evaluation shows that the formulation comprising of 2.5% w/v low methoxy pectin to be considered as an optimized in terms of gelling capacity, viscosity, gelling strength, the drug release study giving sustained release behavior over period of 11 h. Thus we claim that ion sensitive in situ gel of Ciprofloxacin HCl was successfully formulated using low methoxy pectin obtained from heads of Helianthus annuus L as a natural ion sensitive, bioadhesive polymer. Thus, it can be concluded that formulation containing low methoxy pectin (2.5% w/v) showed better potential for sustained topical ocular delivery as supported by ex- vivo test studies.
Cubosomes - A Novel Drug Delivery System
Ancy Thomas
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Cubosomes are discrete, sub-micron, nanostructured particles of the biscontinuous cubic liquid crystalline phase. It consists of honeycombed structures separating two internal aqueous channels and a large interfacial area. Cubosomes are composed of polymers, lipids and surfactants with polar and non-polar components hence said as amphiphilic. Thus cubosomes are bicontinuous cubic liquid phase enclosing two separate regions of water divided by surfactant controlled bilayers and hence the prodrugs and cyclodextrins can be incorporated into it among others. Cubic liquid crystals are physically transparent and isotropic phases that are stable in excess water and show a unique system for the production of pharmaceutical dosage forms. The structure of cubosomes generally maintains the efficacy; stability of actives such as vitamins and proteins. Cubosomes are thermodynamically stable; lasting indefinitely. Colloidal dispersions of cubosomes can be stabilized by the addition of polymers. Improved stability of drug in formulation, desired particle size range, maximum drug loading capacity and well controlled drug release made cubosomal systems superior to other novel delivery systems like solid lipid nanoparticles, microemulsions, microspheres and liposome. The choice of technique depends on the nature of polymer as well as the nature of drug and the duration of therapy. The most important physico chemical factors that may be controlled in cubosome manufacture are also being considered. The cubosomes offer well controlled delivery to variety of drug candidates like anti-inflammatory compounds, local anesthetics, antibiotics and anticancer drugs and the lipid entrapped cubosomal vaccines. The controlled release application of these nanoparticles is of a great significance in cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical fields.
A Brief Review on: Hazelnuts
Kiran Dobhal
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Different types of nuts like almonds, Brazil nuts, hazelnuts, peanuts, pine nuts, walnuts and cashews are present all over the world. Hazelnut is the nut of the hazel deriving from species of the genus Corylus, especially the nuts of the species Corylus avellana. It is the second most expensive nut and needs cold and hilly terrain with a few days of sub-zero temperature. Therefore, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir, Silguri, Uttarakhand & North-East states make the best choice in India. It takes three to five years for hazelnut plants to grow and yield fruit. Hazelnuts are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, antioxidant bioactive substances & rich source of oleic acid (about 80%), which decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is used as antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory & in production of biodiesel. Turkey is the biggest market of the hazel nut in the world. The present article provides an overview about the significant of hazelnut.

Probiotics, Zinc Re-Inforced Dextrin Compensated Reduced Glucose Hypo-Osmolar Oral Rehydration Salts
D. H. Pathirana
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Use of standard Oral Rehydration Salts in diarrheal diseases has been limited by its inability to reduce severity or duration of diarrhea. Proposed formula has dextrin replacing 70% glucose, a reduced osmolarity (206 mosmol/L), with zinc and probiotics, the last three being therapeutically effective. Starch in rice grains of Madathawalu species was partially hydrolyzed to dextrin at 1300C for 3.5 hours. Comparative glucose release studies with rice flour and dextrinized rice flour and electrolyte contents were determined where Na+, K+ and Zn2+ was found distributed within ± 4% of the target British Pharmacopeia specifications. The product was stable for three months with no effect to flow properties of the powder and color.

Analytical Methods of Six FDA Approved Molecular Entities Used for the Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Concise Review
Mohammad Shahriar
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Analytical method development and validation are continuous inter-dependent tasks associated with research and development, quality control and quality assurance departments as they help to understand the critical process parameters and to minimize their influence on accuracy and precision. Standard and analytical procedures of anticancer drug may not be available in pharmacopeias. The time and effort that are put into developing scientifically sound, robust, and transferrable analytic methods should be aligned with the drug development stage. Therefore it becomes necessary to develop and validate new analytical methods for such drugs. In this review the methods for the analysis of such recently approved new molecular entities in various matrices are presented. This review helps in understanding the further need for the development of analytical methods for the estimation of such drugs.

Role of Prior Rituximab on Outcomes of Asct in Patients with Relapsed or Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Li Li
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The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of prior rituximab on the subsequent results of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for relapsed or primary refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The random-effect model was used with the relative risk (RR) as the measure indicator. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether rituximab was administered (R group) or not (No-R group) prior to ASCT. The meta-analyzed RR and 95% confidence interval in the R group versus the No-R group were: 0.83 (0.69,0.99), 0.84 (0.72,0.98), 0.94 (0.71,1.25) for two-, three-, five-year overall survival (OS); 0.91 (0.77,1.08), 0.85 (0.69,1.06), 0.85 (0.62,1.17) for two-, three-, and five-year progress free survival (PFS); 0.46 (0.27,0.80), 0.47 (0.29,0.76), 0.74 (0.15,3.52) for two-, three-, and five-year event free survival (EFS). The results show the treatment trend of pre-treating with first-line rituximab-containing therapy for relapsed or refractory DLBCL is more favorable than with ASCT-naive.

Does Epstein - Barr Virus Cross Talks with Sex Hormone Receptors on Lymphoid Cells Differently to Produce Lymphoma?
Ahed J Alkhatib
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It has been recently reported that the idea of cross-talks between hormone receptors including estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in breast cancer to have significant impacts on breast cancer. The interactions of Epstein - Barr virus (EBV) and lymphoma have been previously demonstrated by many studies including ours. In this study, we aimed to examine the hypothesis that “EBV crosstalk with sex hormones plays a role in directing the type of lymphoma, Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (HL) or non –Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL)”. We studied the expression of sex hormones, ER, and PR in addition to EBV in lymphoma cases representing HL and NHL. Immunoperoxidase staining was used to assess the expression of these biomarkers in lymphoma cases. The findings of our study showed that EBV cross talks with ER significantly associated with HL (p<0.05), while its talk with PR was significantly associated with NHL (p<0.05). Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that EBV may work as the maestro of an orchestra and leads the events of lymphoma through different crosstalk with sex hormones. This may open the door for new therapeutic options for lymphoma.
Concepts for Alzheimer’s Disease Drug Development
Prayuth Poowaruttanawiwit
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) was a neuronal disease with no completely cure drug [1,2]. Patient with AD suffer from symptoms which required closely attention [2-5]. The important limitations of management include lacking of good and practical diagnostic methods and insufficient choice in medications. The crucial barriers to the discovery or synthesis of effective drug for treatments of AD including AD are caused by integration and simultaneous occurrence of several complex pathologies in the patient’s brain treating at a single pathology is inadequate to effectively stop or even slow down the disease progression. [6,7].
Platelets as Regulators of Wound Healing
Wayne Roberts
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Wound healing occurs through a well-orchestrated series of events encompassing hemostasis, inflammation, cellular proliferation and tissue remodeling. Platelets are specialized vascular secretory cells that rapidly accumulate at sites of injury, quickly becoming the most prevalent cell type. They undergo expansive activation within damaged tissue, initiated by the exposure of extracellular matrix proteins and by the local generation of thrombin. Platelets contain numerous granule types which hold more than 300 biological active components. The content of these granules are released upon platelet activation. A wealth of studies now demonstrates that the contents of these granules are able to regulate most stages of wound healing. In the past two decades an increased understanding of the physiological roles of platelets in wound healing has led to the idea of using platelet products as therapeutic tools to enhance skin repair. This article highlights the mechanisms by which platelets enhance wound closure and discusses the clinical effect of platelet therapy on wound healing.
Exploring Over-The-Counter Medication Use among College Students and the Role of Pharmacists
Olufunmilola Abraham
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Over-the-counter (OTC) medications are easily accessible and allow access to treatment options for people who do not or are too busy to receive care from physicians or other healthcare providers [1]. Consequently, OTC medications provide treatment to 60 million people in the U.S [1]. Besides convenience, OTC medications are also affordable treatment options [1]. Therefore, self-medication is a common practice, particularly with the use of OTC medications [2]. However, this practice puts people at risk of developing adverse events, side-effects, or adverse drug reactions (ADRs) [2]. Additionally, self-medication could lead to misusing or abusing OTC medications [2]. Previous studies have shown that a common misconception about OTC medications is that they are safe [3,4]. However, these medications are only safe when used as directed. This perception that OTC medications are safe is a problem because risks of self-medication include incorrect self-diagnosis, delays in seeking medical treatment, incorrect medication choice, masking of a severe disease, and the risk of dependence or abuse [5].
Drug Prescribing Pattern and Cost Analysis of Antipsychotics at a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India
S. Vedha Pal Jeyamani
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Aim: The aim of the present study was to analyze the cost of Psychiatric drugs in the elderly and to evaluate potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in them at the Neurology Outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital using Beers criteria and factors associated with it. Study design: An observational cross-sectional study was carried out in the elderly patients aging ≥ 60 years from the Neurology OPD department for a period of 6 months. PIMS and other risk factors were identified with the help of Beers 2015 criteria. Direct cost of prescribed drugs was calculated making use of guidelines like CIMS, MIMS etc., Results and discussion: Among the psychological conditions evaluated Epilepsy (23.6%) and Schizophrenia (15.6%) were found to be more common among others. Sedative-Hypnotics (39.2%) and anti-epileptics (23.6%) were the commonly prescribed category of drugs. Cost-ratio analysis of Anti-psychotics was found to vary greater when compared to others. Olanzapine (1:12), Chlorpromazime (1:5.1) and Risperidone (1:15) were the prescribed anti-psychotics. All other categories of drugs were found to comply to certain extent with economic status of patients. Antidepressants prescribed posed about 30% patients with PIMs. Typical and atypical anti-psychotics also were PIM with a percentage of 25.7%. Other PIMs due to disease, drug interactions were also studied. Conclusion: A cost-effective management with availing of more economic therapy to the patients could be carried by a clinical pharmacist. Programs encouraging the prescribing of generic drug practice and their benefits compared to brand drugs could be clearly worked out bring more awareness to public.