Country-wise Listing - Bangladesh

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S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
Molecular Docking of Macarangin isolated from Macaranga denticulata with two targets related to diabetes
Abul Hasanat, Arkajyoti Paul, Tanvir Nehal Hossain, Md. Shamsuzzaman, Md. Rahimul Hasan, Mohammed Sohel Meah, Arafat faraque, H.M. Mehedi Hasan, Md. Sajjad Ul Hoque, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

To investigation Macarangin, an isolated compound of Macaranga denticulata, can be considered for developing into a potent antidiabetic drug by docking analysis. The plant has used for carminative, emetic, haemoptysis and healing wounds by the tribal in Khagrachari, Bangladesh. Macarangin isolated from Macaranga tanarius was taken as ligand for molecular docking. The molecular targets Alpha amylase and Glucokinase whose crystallographic structures are available on the PDB database as 1PPI, 1V4S respectively, were used for the docking analysis using the Schrödinger-Maestro v10.1. The docking studies of the ligand Macarangin with three different target proteins showed -5.238 and -4.534 respectively Alpha amylase and Glucokinase. According, to the molecular docking it is proved that Macarangin is a potent antidiabetic compound. So, it is need to in vivo investigation in future to identify appropriate antidiabetic activity of Macarangin.

142-145
2
Toxicological studies of an ayurvedic medicine Yogendra Ras used in epilepsy
Mustari Hossain, Md. Rakib Hasan, Majana Khalil, Maksud Hasan Binoy, Md. Mamun Sikder, Tahmina Akter Sony, Afaz Uddin, M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Yogendra Ras (YR) is an ayurvedic preparation used as a traditional medicine in the treatment of epilepsy. To find out the toxicological characteristic of YR, it was administered chronically to the Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 40 mg/kg for 28 days. After 28 days chronic administration of the YR preparation, the following toxicological changes were noted. All throughout the experimental period, the YR treated animals were always maintaining negligible changes in overall body weight. There is a statistically very highly significant (p=0.001; 25.50% decrease) decrease in the absolute weight of the male rat liver and a highly significant (p=0.006; 23.53% decrease) decrease in the relative percent weight of the male rat liver. There is also a statistically highly significant (p=0.002; 18.90% decrease) decrease in the absolute weight of the male rat kidney and a statistically significant (p=0.015; 16.69% decrease) decrease in the relative percent weight of the kidney. There is a statistically significant decrease in the absolute weight of the male rat spleen (p=0.017; 31.10% decrease) and the relative percent weight of the male rat spleen (p=0.021; 30.48 % decrease).
 
31-37
3
Toxicological evaluation of Guducyadi Louha, an ayurvedic formulation, on biochemical parameters of sprague-dawley rats
Tanmoy Sana, Md. Mamun Sikder, Nayma Abedin, Md. Al Foyjul Islam, Anindya Barua, Md. Abu Adnan Khan, A. A. M. Rakibur Rahman and M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Guducyadi Louha (GCD) is an ayurvedic medicine which is used in the treatment of gout. It is important to evaluate its toxicity in the animal system. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of this ayurvedic formulation, Guducyadi Louha in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Acute toxicity tests were conducted to determine the LD50 of the drug. In chronic study, animals were administered with GCD at a dose of and 400 mg/kg body weight for a period of 51 days. The effects of GCD on biochemical parameters (total protein content, lipid profiles, hepatic function test, kidney function test, uric acid level) were measured as indices of organ toxicity. The drug (GCD) did not affect serum total protein and globulin level; however, a significant (p<0.05) increase occurred in albumin and albumin/globulin ratio in the treated group. In lipid profile study, GCD significantly (p<0.05) increased total cholesterol (TC) and Non HDL-C level; thus leading to a statistically significant increase (p<0.05) of both Cardiac Risk Ratio (TC/HDL-C) and Atherogenic Coefficient [(TC - HDL-C)/HDL-C)]. The drug did not significantly (p<0.05) alter the levels of bilirubin, creatinine, urea, urea/creatinine ratio and uric acid. Overall, the alterations in the biochemical parameters especially lipid profile have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals. Therefore, the drug GCD at the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary.

17-22
4
Toxicological Studies of an Ayurvedic Medicine \"Swalpo Chandrodoy Makardhwaj\" Used as Geriatric Rejuvenator
Massnoon Ali, Md. Mamun Sikder, Uday Krishna Mondal, Konica Arju Leeza, Manoth Kumer Biswas, Md. Rakib Hasan, Runa Masuma, and M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Swalpo Chandrodoy Makardhwaj (SCM) is an Ayurvedic geriatric rejuvenator used as a traditional medicine in the rural area of Bangladesh. To find out the toxicological characteristic of SCM, it was administered chronically to the male Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg for 32 days and the following toxicological changes were noted. All throughout the experimental period the SCM treated animals were always maintaining negligible changes in body weight. There is a statistically significant (p=0.012) decrease in the organ water content of the male rat lungs whereas a statistically significant (p=0.044) increase was noted in case of organ water content of liver. There is a statistically significant increase in relative percent weight of rat kidney (p=0.028) and absolute weight of rat spleen (p=0.024). There is also a statistically significant (p=0.034) increase in the relative percent weight of the male rat spleen.

84-89
5
A Comparative Study between Market products and Immediate Release Loratadine Tablets Formulation using different Superdisintegrants
Samira Karim, Saimum Islam, Khurshid Jahan, Md.HaiderAli, Kanij Nahar Deepa and Mohammad Shahriar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Aim of the present study was to develop immediate release tablets of loratadine. Loratadine immediate release tablets were formulated by using different ratios of different superdisintegrants like sodium starch glycolate and kollidon CL with direct compression method. Tablets were prepared and evaluated for different quality parameters. A comparison of commercial loratadine tablets has also been evaluated. The percent releases of the all formulations (total six) were from 91.47%- 98.70% after 1 hr dissolution studies. Best formulation was F3 because of lesser disintegration time and highest percentage drug release at the end of 1 hr. On the other hand, sample-A released 99.83% of drug while sample-B released 99.04% of drug within 1 hr from release pattern of commercial product of loratadine tablets. The study reveals that the superdisintegrants of the study have the capacity to speed up the release of the drug from the immediate release tablets and the more is the amount of the superdisintegrants in the formulation the more is the release of drug showing more immediate action of drug release.
 

79-83
6
ANTIOXIDANT, BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF GALPHIMIA GRACILIS BARTL. STEM USING IN VITRO ASSAY MODELS
Md. Rakib Hasan, Nizam Uddin, Md. Monir Hossain, Sabiha Begum, Arjyabrata Sarker, D. M. Jakaria, Md. Emtiaz Yousuf, Md. Sohel Rana
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Galphimia gracilis Bartl. (Family- Malpighiaceae) is known as gold shower and available almost everywhere in Bangladesh. This plant has some medicinal properties and is used as a source of vitamins. The current study was designed to evaluate in vitro antioxidant, brine shrimp lethality and antimicrobial activities of methanol (GSM), ethyl-acetate (GSEA) and petroleum ether (GSPE) extracts of G. gracilis stem. In vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts were studied using DPPH radical scavenging assay, NO scavenging assay, total phenol, total flavonoid content, total antioxidant capacity, total tannin content and lipid peroxidation in human erythrocyte cell assays. Lethality bioassay was performed on Artemia salina Leach nauplii. Antimicrobial activity was investigated by disc diffusion technique. Presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, tannins, saponins and glycosides were identified in the extracts. Ethyl-acetate extract showed highest activities in DPPH (IC50 22.82±0.172 µg/ml), NO (IC50 72.886±0.394 µg/ml) and total antioxidant assay (210.86±3.436 mg/gm Ascorbic Acid Equivalent). Methanol extract showed highest content in total phenol (972.02±4.56 mg/g Gallic Acid Equivalent), total flavonoid (135.98±1.103 mg/g Quercetin Equivalent) and total tannin content assays (111.454±1.462 mg/g Tannic Acid Equivalent). Ethyl acetate extract showed promising reducing capacity than other extracts in cupric reducing (correlation coefficient r= 0.99 and P<0.01) and reducing power capacity assays (r= 0.99 and P<0.001). Besides, it showed dose dependent activity in both assays. In brine shrimp lethality bioassay, methanol extract was found to be more potent than other extracts (LC50=58.583 µg/ml, ?2=170.967, P<0.001). In disk diffusion technique methanol extract showed highest zone of inhibition against maximum number of microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella abony and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.75±0.353 mm). The present findings suggest that the stem extracts of G. gracilis can be used as a source of potential candidates for lead compounds.

44-52
7
Molecular docking and PASS prediction for antinociceptive activity of some isolated compounds from Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze. and ADME/T property analysis of the compounds
Arkajyoti Paul, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Mohuya Mojumdar, Joy Chakraborty, Hilton Banik, Risan Paul, Kishwar Ayesha Siddika, Joynab Al Gazzaly, Mohammed Sohel Chowdhury, Md. Mominur Rahman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Anisomeles Indica (L.) Kuntze (Family - Lamiaceae) is commonly known as Gobura, is found in fallow lands throughout Bangladesh. The plant has used for carminative, astringent, tonic properties and uterine infection by the tribal in Khagrachari, Bangladesh. The aim of present study to investigate in silico molecular docking study used for four phytoconstituents Acteoside, betonyoside A, campneoside II, β-Sitosterol, Isoacteoside, Ovatodiolide and stigmasterol which are isolated from A. indica to identify whether these compounds interact with the responsible protein (Cyclooxygenase 1 enzyme) and PASS prediction is done by sever. Also ADME/T properties of the phytoconstituents were analyzed using Qikprop 3.2 module. A wide range of docking score found during molecular docking by Schrodinger. Acteoside, betonyoside A, campneoside II, β-Sitosterol, Isoacteoside, Ovatodiolide and stigmasterol showed the docking score -5.362 , -2.468 , -4.711 , -2.575 , -6.771 , -1.806 and -2.397 respectively . Among all the compounds Isoacteoside showed highest docking score. So, Isoacteoside is the best compounds for selective Cyclooxygenase 1 (COX 1) enzyme inhibition, as it possessed best value in Molecular docking. In the PASS prediction for their analgesic activity of the isolated phytoconstituents, we found wide range of activity and all the compounds showed greater Pa than Pi value. From the ADME/T profiles of all the tested compounds, it cleared that they might safe for human. Further in vivo investigation need to identify Cyclooxygenase (COX 1) enzyme inhibitory activity of isolated compounds from A. indica.
161-167
8
In vivo antidepressant and anxiolytic activities of ethanol extract of Trema orientalis leaves in mice
Md. Saiful Islam Arman, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Sumya Afroze, Md. Forhad Alam, Md. Amdadul Haque, Tariqul Islam, Abdullah Al Ragib, Md. Tareq Rahman, Khondoker Md. Akter-Uz-Zaman, Md. Mominur Rahman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The goal of our investigation was to determine whether the leaf extracts of Trema orientalis held any significant antidepressant and anxiolytic properties. Leaves of T. orientalis was extracted with pure ethanol (EETO). The forced swimming and tail suspension tests were used as predictive animal models of antidepressant activity, where the time of immobility was considered. Anxiolytic activity was evaluated by elevated plus mazes (EPM) and hole board model. For all in vivo tests, doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight were used. The extract also significantly decreases the duration of immobility in both animal models of antidepressant activity, forced swimming and tail suspension tests. In EPM test, the extract significantly increased time spent in open arms compared to control and in the hole board test, they also significantly increase in the number of head pokes in comparison to control. The overall results of the study indicated significant antidepressant and anxiolytic activities of ethanol extract of T. orientalis leaves. So this plant deserves further investigation to isolate the active constituents responsible for these activities and to establish the mechanism of action.
143-148
9
In vitro anthelmintic activity of Macaranga denticulata and in silico molecular docking analysis of its isolated compounds with tubulin
Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Arkajyoti Paul, Mohuya Mojumdar, Abul Hasanat, Md. Mohaiminul Islam, Afia Nabila, Md. Jakiul Islam, Md. Rabiul Hossain, Nishan Chakrabarty, Mohammad Nazmul Islam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study was to evaluate anthelmintic activity on Tubifex tubifex worm of methanol extract of Macaranga denticulata (Muell. Arg.) leaves and in silico molecular docking used for six phytoconstituents namely 3-acetylaleuritolic acid, oleanolic acid, macarangin, scopoletin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol isolated from M. denticulata, to identify whether these compounds interact with tubulin. M. denticulata leaves extract exhibited strong anthelmintic activity in vitro. Where it paralyzed (10.22±0.69min) and produced death (19.43±0.80 min) of the Tubifex tubifex at 10 mg/ml dose and the standard, Levamisole (3.3±0.38min and 6.5±0.76min) at 1 mg/ml. A wide range of docking score found during molecular docking by Schrodinger. 3-acetylaleuritolic acid, oleanolic acid, macarangin, scopoletin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol showed the docking score -5.733, -3.951, -7.584, -6.115, -8.307-, and 8.021 respectively. Among all the compounds, β-sitosterol showed highest docking score. So, β-sitosterol is the best compounds as anthelmintic drug, as it possessed higher value in Molecular docking. Methanol extract of M. Denticulata leaves showed well anthelmintic activity. Further in vivo investigation need to identify that isolated compounds from M. denticulata have anthelmintic activity.
131-136
10
Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial property of different extracts of litsea salicifolia (roxb.ex nees) leaf.
Md. Afaz Uddin, D. M. Jakaria, Aumit Roy, Md. Ariful Islam, Md. Emdadullah,Md. Sameul Ahmed , F. M. Shah NomanUl Bari, Md. Nuruzzaman Neon
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A lot of research works are going on worldwide to find out natural antioxidants of plants origins as various oxidative stress related diseases result due to accumulation of free radicals in the body. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activities and antimicrobial property of Litseasalicifolia(ROXB.EX NEES) leaf.In total phenol content determination methanolic extract showed highest value of 102±1.414 mg/gm as Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE). Ethyl acetate extract showed highest total flavonoid content with 285.5±6.364 mg/gm as Quarcetin Equivalent (QE) and total anti-oxidant capacity with 264.5 ±10.607 mg/gm as Ascorbic Acid Equivalent (AAE). Methanolic extract showed highest tannin content with 253.5714 ±5.051mg/gm as Tannic Acid Equivalent (TAE) and good DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 251.227 µg/mL. In antimicrobial assay extracts showed poor activity. Further studies are needed to isolate active compounds.
116-123
11
Toxocological studies of an ayurvedic medicine “Slesma Sailendra Ras(SLS)” after chronic administration to male Sprague-dawley rats
Chinmoy Kumar Sen, Mariyam Akter, Palash Karmakar, Latifa Bulbul, M.S.K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Slesma Sailendra Ras (SLS) an Ayurvedic preparation used as a traditional medicine in the treatment of cold, flu and fever in the rural population of Indian subcontinent. After 54 days chronic administration of the SLS preparation to the male rats at a dose of 400 mg/kg, the following toxicological changes were noted. In the male rats there were decrease in Total Protein, Albumin and Globulin content in the plasma. Statistically very highly significant decrease plasma Total Protein content was noted. There was a negligible increase Triglyceride level and VLDL content in the plasma whereas statistically very highly significant decrease in Total Cholesterol, HDL and LDL content. After chronic administration of SLS to the male rats’ decrease of plasma Bilirubin and Creatinine level were noted in comparison to their control group. On the contrary, a very highly significant decrease in urea & Urea/Creatinine level in plasma were noted. SLS caused decrease in plasma uric acid which was not statistically significant.
27-32
12
Sedative and Anxiolytic activities of methanol extract of Boehmeria platyphylla D Don Leaves.
Syed Md. Abdul Kader, Md. Abdullah al Masum, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Md. Saif Uddin, Mohammad Nazmul Hoque Jony, Mohammed Sohel Chowdhury, Imran Bin Habib, Arkajyoti Paul, Shefatun Nur, Joy Chakraborty, Abul Hasanat, Md. Rafikul Islam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Boehmeria platyphylla leaves are deliberated as worthy traditional medicine. To give a scientific basis for traditional usage of this medicinal plant, the methanol leaf extract (MEBP) was applied for its sedative and anxiolytic activities. In this study, the sedative activity was also evaluated using open field test, hole-cross test. Besides, elevated plus maze test, hole-board test for exploratory behavior in mice were used to evaluate its anxiolytic activities. The in vivo action was done using mice of both sexes. The extract showed a dose dependent sedative effect. The number of squares traveled by the mice was decreased significantly (P<0.01) from its initial value at 0 to 90 min at the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract. In the EPM, the behavior of mice model, as observed, confirmed the anxiolytic activity of diazepam as reported previously. The methanol extract of B. platyphylla leaves (MEBP) at the dose of 400 mg/kg, significantly increased the time spent in the open arms. Hole Board test proved that the extract have significant anxiolytic activity. Because, head dipping of mice increased with the treatment of MEBP. The obtained results support that B. platyphylla has well sedative and anxiolytic effects and deserve further investigation to isolate the specific components that are responsible for the sedative and anxiolytic effects. Components from this plant may have a great potential value as medicinal agents, as leads or model compounds for synthetic or semi synthetic structure modifications and optimization.
292-298
13
Total phenol, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of methanol extract of Lygodium palmatum (Bernh.) Sw. leaves.
Tanvir Ahmad Chowdhury, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Syed Md. Abdul Kader, Mahmudul Hasan, Md. Ariful Islam, Md. Rakibul Hasan, Md. Nazmul Huda, Shefatun Nur, Joy Chakraborty, Abul Hasanat, Md. Mominur Rahman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Lygodium palmatum (Bernh.) Sw. leaves are deliberated as worthy traditional medicine. To give a scientific basis for traditional usage of this medicinal plant, the leaf extract were appreciated for its antioxidant activity. In this study, in vitro antioxidant activities of the leaf extract of L. palmatum were determined by total antioxidant, DPPH, Reducing power capacity, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content. The extract showed a dose dependent radical scavenging effect in DPPH assay. IC50 for free radicals achieved by the extract is 46.94 µg/ml. The extract showed significant reducing power activity as compared to ascorbic acid and proportionally increased with the increasing concentration of the extract. Increase in absorbance of the reaction mixture indicates the increase in the reducing power of the extract. Phenol content was 96.67± 0.82 mg gallic acid/g and flavonoid content was 27.30 ± 0.30 mg quercetin/g. Our current results emerged that L. palmatum act as an antioxidant agent due to its free radical scavenging and cytoprotective activity. So, the plant may be further pursued to find out for its pharmacological active natural products.
277-282
14
BIOASSAY OF BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY, CARDIOPROTECTIVE AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF FICUS BENJAMINA
Md. Irfan Amin Chowdury, Mohammad Nazmul Alam, Dewan Shakibuzzaman, Galib Ahsan, Rajesh Barua, Md. Faruky Azam Chowdhury, Muhammad Moin Uddin Mazumdar, Md. Rabiul Islam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Brine shrimp lethality bioassay, clot lysis and hypotonicity induced membrane lysismethod was used to evaluate the cytotoxic,cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory activity of methanolicextract of Ficus benjamnia. The extract showed moderate cytotoxic activity. LC50 value of the extract was 232.71µg/ml, which was compared with vincristine sulphate (12.59µg/ml). Methanolic leaf extract of Ficus benjamina was treated with human blood to evaluate Cardioprotective effect. It showed promising Cardioprotective activity which was about (34.95± 1.98)% compared to streptokinase which was used as standard (63.54 ± 2.61)%. In the case of anti-inflammatory study, methanolic leaf extract showed (20.79±1.07)% and (58.06±1.03)%of membrane stabilization activity at 31.25µg/ml and 1000 µg/ml concentration respectively.

71-77
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Evaluation of antioxidants, membrane stabilizing, cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity with phytochemical screening of Chromolaena odorata: A medicinal shrub
Md. Tanvir Haider Tanna, Aninda Kumar Nath, Mohammad Nurul Amin, Md. Ibrahim, Manjurul Islam Chowdhury, Md. Emdadul Hasan Mukul, Md. Saif Uddin Rashed, Asma Kabir, Monsur Ahmed, Mohammad Salim Hossain
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The present study was an attempt to evaluate the antioxidant, membrane stabilizing, anthelmintic and cytotoxic properties of crude methanolic extract of C. odorata and different fractions of the crude extract. The phytochemical screening revealed the potent presence of alkaloids, phytosterols, tannins, terpenes, fats and fixed oils. Determination of total phenolic contents and DPPH methods were evaluated for antioxidant activity. The total phenolic content (mg of GAE / gm) of Crude Methanol Extract (CME), Petroleum Ether Soluble Fraction (PESF), Ethyl Acetate Soluble Fraction (EASF) and Chloroform Soluble Fraction (CSF) were 71.08±0.38, 52.08±1.01, 86.33±0.38 and 54.25±0.90, respectively. In case of DPPH method, the IC50 values were 19.48±0.49 µg/ml, 22.44±0.63µg/ml, 99.05±0.81µg/ml, 166.96±0.51 µg/ml, 317.10±0.99 µg/ml for standard (BHT: tert-butyl-1-hydroxytoluene) and the four extracts, respectively. Inhibition of haemolysis by standard acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) (70.82% and 75.91%), CME (20.65% and 53.53%), PESF (35.59% and 36.28%), EASF (34.74% and 30.18%), and CSF (30.01% and 32.26%) for hypotonic and heated solution respectively, were evaluated. For the anthelmintic test, paralysis and death time for standard (albendazole) 10mg/ml and crude extracts (10, 20, 30, 40, 50) mg/ml are 56.20±0.20 and 77.4±0.24, 30.4±0.75 and 60.8±1.03, 24.6±0.32 and 50.2±0.37, 20.6±0.40 and 40.8±0.51, 16.4±0.68 and 32.4±1.29, 10.2±0.40 and 10.2±0.40 minutes respectively. Moreover, the LC50 values were 0.839µg/ml, 10.245µg/ml, 8.98µg/m, 8.28µg/ml and 9.298µg/ml for standard group (vincristin sulphate), CME, PESF, EASF and CSF respectively in brine shrimp lethality bioassay. From the study it was revealed that all the extracts were abundant of various phytochemicals and showed various biological activities.

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Antithrombotic, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of methanol extract of Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn leaves.
Syed Md. Abdul Kader, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Mahmudul Hasan, Md. Saif Uddin, Md. Abu Aiube Ansary, Muhammad Abdulla Al Noman, Fahima Zaheed, Md. Rabiul Hossain, Mohammad Zia Habib, Md. Ismail Hossain, Abul Hasanat, Md. Rafikul Islam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Extract from the leaves of Antidesma ghaesembilla were screened for their antithrombotic, cytotoxic and antimicrobial exercises. The cytotoxicity was surveyed with the brine shrimp lethality bioassay and antithrombotic impact with human blood. The brine shrimp lethality bioassay was utilized to assess cytotoxicity (LC50 = 432.13 µg/ml) contrasted with Vincristine sulfate (LC50 = 0.74 µg/ml). It was also assessed as antithrombotic activity when contrasted with streptokinase. It has significant antithrombotic movement (63.45±2.08%) contrasted with standard streptokinase (81.32±1.46%). The extract indicated zone of inhibition against Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram negative bacteria (Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) 1000 µg/disc. Gram negative bacteria Bacillus cereus demonstrated no action against at both doses. A. ghaesembilla leaves extract and relative percentage inhibition of the extract also calculated. These results indicate that A. ghaesembilla have favorable Antithrombotic, cytotoxic and antibacterial effects of A. ghaesembilla extract to be processed for pharmaceutical use.
45-52
17
BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY, THROMBOLYTIC AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF BOEHMERIA PLATYPHYLLA D DON LEAVES
Md. Saif Uddin, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Syed Md. Abdul Kader, Mahmudul Hasan, Md. Abu Aiube Ansary, Md. Mosarraf Hossen, Atiqur Rahman, Mohammad Abdul Awal, Mahmud Mostofa Hridoy, Abul Hasanat, Shaikh Bokhtear Uddin, Md. Masudur Rahman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Extract from the leaves of Boehmeria platyphylla D Don were screened for their brine shrimp lethality bioassay, thrombolytic and antimicrobial activities. The cytotoxicity was surveyed with the brine shrimp lethality bioassay and thrombolytic impact with human blood. The brine shrimp lethality bioassay was utilized to assess cytotoxicity (LC50 = 75.26 µg/ml) contrasted with Vincristine sulfate (LC50 = 0.74 µg/ml). It was also assessed as thrombolytic activity when contrasted with streptokinase. It has significant thrombolytic movement (73.17±2.08%) contrasted with standard streptokinase (81.32±1.46%). The extract indicated zone of inhibition against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus) and Gram negative bacteria (Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) at 1000 µg/disc. Gram negative bacteria Staphylococcus aureus demonstrated no action against B. platyphylla leaves extract at both doses. Relative percentage inhibition of the extract against each bacterium also calculated. These results indicated that B. platyphylla have favorable thrombolytic, cytotoxic and antibacterial effects and capacities of B. platyphylla extract to be processed for pharmaceutical use.

29-36
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PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, CUPRIC REDUCING ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY (CUPRAC), NITRIC OXIDE SCAVENGING ASSAY, SCAVENGING OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AND REDUCING POWER CAPACITY ASSESSMENT OF LEAF EXTRACT OF AVERRHOA BILIMBI (FAMILY- OXALIDIACEAE)
Mohammad Mooneem Mannan, Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan, Mohammad Shahriar, Fariha Nowshin Ara Khan, Milton Kumar Kundu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The leaf extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi were subjected to a comparative evaluation of the phytochemical screening, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, nitric oxide scavenging assay, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and reducing power capacity assessment. The preliminary phytochemical screening of three different extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi leaves was carried out according to the standard methods and found tannin, phenol, carbohydrate, flavonoid, cardiac glycoside, alkaloid and saponin. In addition, the three different extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi leaves were screened to evaluate cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, nitric oxide scavenging assay, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and reducing power capacity assessment. It is demonstrated that the three different extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi leaves showed different level of antioxidant activity and is a potential source of antioxidants and thus could prevent many radical related diseases.
1327-1332
19
IN VITRO AND IN VIVO BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE WHOLE PLANT EXTRACTS OF CHROZOPHORA PROSTRATA (DALZ.)
Md. Shawkatul Islam Bakhtiar, Rumana Akhter, Syeda Najah Narjish, Sharmin Jahan Chisty, Mohammad Shahriar and Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Chrozophora prostrata (Family-Euphorbiaceae), it is an herbaceous perennial plant, is found throughout Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Western Arabia, tropical Africa from Senegal to Ethiopia, South Africa (Transvaal) and tropical Asia and it is the most important herb in ayurvedic medicine. The herb has been highly valued for its traditional use as blood purifier which is also used for the treatment of chronic persistent fever, syphilis, gonorrhea, leucoderma as well as its antioxidant properties helps to maintain cell integrity. In the present study In vitro thrombolytic activity and membrane stabilizing activity, In vivo GI motility and neurophramacological activity of the whole plant extract of C. prostrata (Suryavarta, Neel kanthi, Shad, Khudi okra) was evaluated. The plant extract showed mild thrombolytic activity and membrane stabilizing activity. This plant extracts also exhibit significant GI motility and neurophramacological activity.
1188-1195
20
IN-VIVO PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF CITRUS HYSTRIX
Laboni Barai, Rumana Akhter, Uddipon Aziz, Mohammad Ali, Mohammad Shahriar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was done to evaluate in vivo anti-pyretic, gastrointestinal motility, anti-nociceptive and acute toxicity effect of different leaf extracts of Citrus hystrix in Swiss albino mice following oral administration. In vivo anti-pyretic test of methanol and ethanol extracts of Citrus hystrix leaf was done brewer's yeast method; GI motility test was done by charcoal induced anti motility test, anti-nociceptive activity was tested by acetic acid induced writhing method and tail immersion method, acute toxicity study was done by investigating mortality/morbidity status of test animal. Statistically significant (pless than 0.05) result was found in case of in vivo anti-nociceptive activity test for the 100 mg/kg methanol extract when compared to standard diclofenac-Na. None of the extracts showed any significant in vivo acute toxicity effect on mice. This plants leaf extracts exhibit some antipyretic activity and significant anti-nociceptive activity without inducing any discernible acute toxicity effect.
1149-1154
21
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PRELIMINARY ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THREE DIFFERENT PLANT EXTRACTS
Mohammad Nazmul Alam, Md. Hasibur Rahman, Md. Jainul Abeden, Md. Faruk, Md. Shahrear Biozid, Sudipta Chowdhury, Md. Rafikul Islam, Mohammed Abu Sayeed
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Disk diffusion method was performed to evaluate the ex-vivo comparative study of preliminary antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of Thunbergia grandiflora, Breynia retusa and Nymphaea capensis leaves. Among the three plants, T. grandiflora and N. capensis showed more antibacterial activity than B. retusa. T. grandiflora showed its highest activity against a gram positive bacterium Bacillus cereus with the inhibition ring of 17 mm in diameter at 1000 mg/disc. In case of B. retusa, highest activity was found against the gram negative bacterium Salmonella typhi which is 16 mm at 1000 mg/disc. N. capensis exhibited its highest antibacterial activity against the gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli which is 19 mm at 1000 mg/disc.
1087-1090
22
ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PATTERN OF BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM ICU PATIENTS WITH URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS
Rumana Ferdousi, Syeda Najah Narjish, Dipjoy Chowdhury, Mohammad Shahriar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study has assessed the resistance pattern of common respiratory pathogens among the hospitalized ICUs patients. A total number of 51 clinical samples were collected of which 33 (64.71%) were from male and 18 (35.29%) were from female. Out of 51 samples, 45 (88.24%) samples yielded growth while no bacterial pathogen was isolated from rest 6 (11.76%) samples. The common infecting organisms isolated in this study were Staphylococcus aureus (n=27, 36.98%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=27, 36.98%), followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=10, 13.69%), Salmonela enterica (n=5, 6.85%), Serrata marcescens (n=1, 1.37%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=1, 1.37%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n=1, 1.37%), Enterobacter aerogenes (n=1, 1.37%). Most of the isolates were 100% resistant to Penicillin, Ceftazidime, Ceftriaxone, Tetracycline, Cotrimoxazole and Piperacillin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus show good sensitivity to all of the examined antibiotics. More specifically, Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed 100% sensitivity to Levofloxacin, Nalidixic acid, Cefotaxim, Piperacillin and Ceftriaxone.
1079-1086
23
SCREENING OF IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT, BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF EXTRACTS OF BRIDELIA RETUSA (L.) SPRENG. FRUIT
Tufikul Islam, Mohammad Raquibul Hasan, Aumit Roy, Md. Shafiqul Islam, Md. Afaz Uddin, Md. Ariful Islam, Md. Nuruzzaman Neon, Md. Sohel Rana
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of present study was to investigate the antioxidant, brine shrimp lethality and antimicrobial activities of Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng. fruit using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. Several methods were used for assessing antioxidant activity. In total phenol content determination methanolic extract showed highest value of 134.5 mg/g as Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE). N-hexane extract showed highest total flavonoid content with 60.50 Plus or Minus 4.95 mg/gm as Quarcetin Equivalent (QE). Methanolic extract showed highest tannin content with 652.50 Plus or Minus 3.53 mg/gm as Tannic Acid Equivalent (TAE) and total anti-oxidant capacity with 236.00 Plus or Minus 36.78 mg/gm as Ascorbic Acid Equivalent (AAE). Methanolic extracts showed good DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 168.757 mg/mL. Ethyl acetate extract showed highest reducing capacity in CUPRAC test. Methanolic extracts showed good cytotoxic activity with IC50 value of 20 mg/ml in brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In antimicrobial assay extracts showed poor activity. Further studies are needed to isolate active compounds.
1058-1067
24
In vitro drug-drug interaction study between Montelukast Sodium and Amlodipine Besylate at gastric and intestinal pH
Kazi Ashfak Ahmed Chowdhury, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Tanvir Ahmad Chowdhury, Mohammed Munawar Hossain, A.T.M. Mostafa Kamal, Md. Rafi-Uz-Zaman Akanda, Abul Hasanat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Present study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro complexation nature and strength of complex which may be formed due to interaction between Montelukast Sodium and Amlodipine Besylate. The interaction of Montelukast Sodium and Amlodipine Besylate has been studied in aqueous systems at a fixed temperature (370C) at both gastric pH (pH 1.0 and pH 3.0) and intestinal pH (pH 6.5 and pH 6.8) by using some physical methods as spectral observation, Jobs method of continuous variation, Ardons method. From spectrophotometric study, Montelukast Sodium and Amlodipine Besylate give different spectra when Montelukast Sodium mixed with Amlodipine Besylate in 1:1 ratio the intensity of the spectra of Montelukast Sodium change remarkably due to interaction. The jobs plot was obtained by plotting absorbance difference against the mole fraction of the each drug at pH 1.0, pH 3.0, pH 6.5 and pH 6.8. Montelukast Sodium strong 1:1 complex with Amlodipine Besylate and lower spectra indicate the formation of 1:1 complexes of Montelukast Sodium with Amlodipine Besylate. These may indicate strong kinetics of complexation between Montelukast Sodium with Amlodipine Besylate. The value of stability constant for the complexation of Montelukast Sodium with Amlodipine Besylate at pH 1.0, pH 3.0, pH 6.5 and pH 6.8 were obtained from the spectral data using Ardons plot. The value of stability constant for the drug-drug system at pH pH 1.0, pH 3.0, pH 6.5 and pH 6.8 are 1.9412, 2.0323, 2.0952 and 2.2203 respectively. At pH 6.8 it is found that Montelukast Sodium form relatively stable complex with Amlodipine Besylate (stability constant 2.2203) is high in comparison to pH 1. It can therefore be concluded that a careful consideration is needed during concurrent administration of Montelukast Sodium with Amlodipine Besylate.
1003-1009
25
Antibacterial activity on some gram positive and gram negative bacteria and antihelmintic activity on Tubifex tubifex worm of methanol extract of Macaranga denticulata (MUELL. ARG.) bark.
Kazi Ashfak Ahmed Chowdhury, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Tanvir Ahmad Chowdhury, Mahmudul Hasan, Syed Md. Abdul Kader, Md. Shahidul Alam, Javed Hossain, Md. Shakhawat Hossain, Abul Hasanat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study was to evaluate antibacterial activity on three Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria and antihelmintic activity on Tubifex tubifex worm of methanol extract of M. denticulata (Muell. Arg.) bark. The extract showed zone of inhibition in highest concentration of 900 mg/ml against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (8mm), Bacillus subtilis (12mm), Bacillus cereus(8mm)and Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella typhi (12mm), Salmonella paratyphi (Nil), Escherichia coli (13mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11mm).M. denticulata bark extract exhibited strong anthelmintic activity in vitro. Where it paralyzed (6.52 apx 0.53 min) and produced death (12.36 apx0.81 min) of the Tubifex tubifex at 20 mg/ml dose near the value of the standard, Levamisole (3.3,0.38 min and 6.5 apx 0.76 min) at 1 mg/ml. So methanol extract of M. denticulata barks showed moderate antibacterial activity and well antihelmintic activity.
985-990
26
ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF FICUS RACEMOSA (L.) IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETES MICE
Chand Sultana, Naznin Ara khatune, A. K. Azad, Bytul Mokaddesur Rahman and Mir Imam Ibne Wahed
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of ethanolic extracts of different parts from the plant Ficus racemosa (FR) in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (100mg/kg) in Swiss Albino Mice. Metformin HCl (150mg/kg body weight, op.) was used as a standard antidiabetic agent. After oral administration of fruits (300 mg/kg) and bark extracts (300 mg/kg), changes in blood sugar levels, body weight and organ weight were measured for seven days. At the end of the experiment blood samples were analyzed for the estimation of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), phospholipid levels and liver glycogen content. The result indicated that oral ingestion of FR extracts significantly reduced blood glucose levels in Group-DFF (50.45%) and Group-DFB (60.53%) when compared to Group-DC mice. Short-term treatment did not alter the body weight among the mice; however the liver weight to body weight ratios were significantly reduced in Group-DFF and Group-DFB. Administration of extracts greatly reduced the serum cholesterols, triglycerides, phospholipids levels and the glycogen content were significantly restored in Group-DFF and Group-DFB as compared to Group-DC mice. Our findings suggested that extracts from different parts of Ficus racemosa have glucose and lipid lowering efficacy and may have some beneficial effects in patients with diabetes.
924-929
27
EVALUATION OF TOTAL CONDENSED TANNIN CONTENT AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITIES OF ORGANIC EXTRACTS OF FOUR BANGLADESHI PLANTS ON TUBIFEX TUBIFEX WORM USING IN VITRO METHOD
Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Shabbir Ahmad, Md. Sofi Mahamoud, Md. Abdullah Al Masum, A.T.M. Mostafa Kamal, Md. Akramul Hoque1, Nishan Chakrabarty, Abul Hasanat , Md. Adnan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
To explore the therapeutic effects of methanol extract of roots of Curculigo recurvata W. T. Aiton (Satipata), leaf of Amorphophallus bulbifer (Roxb.) Bl. (Olkachu), leaf of Phyllanthus sikkimensis Muell. Arg. (Dalpata) and whole plant of Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. (Nillata) in anthelmintic (in vitro) and to determine their total condensed tannin content. Roots of C. recurvata , leaf of A. bulbifer, leaf of P. sikkimensis and whole plant of T. grandiflora was extracted with pure methanol, which are tested for anthelmintic activity on aquarium worm Tubifex tubifex by using three concentrations viz., 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/ml of each. Total condensed tannin content determined based on the procedure of Oyedemi et al (2010). Among the four extract, P. sikkimensis exhibited strong anthelmintic activity in vitro. Where it paralyzed (6.48±0.09 min) and produced death (12.26±0.65 min) of the Tubifex tubifex at 10 mg/ml dose near the value of the standard, Levamisole (3.3±0.38 min and 6.5±0.76 min) at 1 mg/ml. The content of condensed tannin well to moderate at all, but P. sikkimensis (45.14±0.5mg catechin/g) contained highest among them. For both of experiment, activity found as follows, P. sikkimensis > A. bulbifer > T. grandiflora > C. recurvata. These findings suggest that P. sikkimensis and A. bulbifer among the four plants may be potential source for the development of new anthelmintic and condensed tannin may one of such phytochemical, which exhibit anthelmintic activity.
903-910
28
PRECLINICAL BLOOD CHEMISTRY SAFETY PROFILE STUDIES OF \"BALARISTA\" ON THE KIDNEY FUNCTION AFTER CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION TO MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS
Sadia Sultana, Md. Rakib Hasan, Paritosh Chakma, Mohammad Jashim Uddin, Ishtiaque Ahmed Chowdhury, Marjana Khalil, Mohammed Motaher Hossain Chowdhury and M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Balarista (BLR) is an Ayurvedic preparation used as a traditional medicine to treat debility in the rural population of Bangladesh. To find out the effect of chronic administration of BLR on serum blood chemistry profile, it was administered chronically to the male Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 40 ml/kg for 28 days. In this study, the total protein (TP) content was increased (16.15 %) in BLR treated male rats and it was statistically significant (p=0.022). The globulin content was highly significantly (p=0.003) increased (62.83 %) and as a result the decrease (45.16%) in the Albumin / Globulin (A/G) ratio was noticed and it was also statistically highly significantly (p=0.004) different from their corresponding control. There were also a statistically significant decrease of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level (22.69% decrease; p=0.039) and BUN/Creatinine ratio (26.96% decrease; p=0.021).
779-783
29
PRODUCT QUALITY AND CUSTOMER PERCEPTION OF PRESSURIZED METERED DOSE INHALER (pMDI) MANUFACTURED IN BANGLADESH
Abdur Rashid, An-Nurul Masud, Nazrul Islam and Ayman Allahham
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was aimed to investigate the in-vitro deposition, the market status and the customer’s perception of different pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) preparations, available in Bangladesh. In order to test the efficiency of pMDI, the in-vitro deposition of locally manufactured salmeterol xinafoate from two brands, considered as product A and product B, was carried out using a Twin-Stage-Impinger (TSI) and was correlated with the customer perception. The market status and customer’s perception has been studied through three different market surveys conducted on patients, (n=50), physicians (n=50) and pharmacy shops (n=50). In all three surveys the usage pattern of salbutamol has been found to be highest among various antiasthmatic drugs and has showed market share of 18.2 %. The manufacturer of this product occupied the highest market share compared with those of others. The in-vitro deposition of salmeterol xinafoate from both products revealed that the fine particle fractions (FPF, the amount of deposited salmeterol xinafoate in the lower airway of lung) of these products were within 32-44% and deposition was observed to be higher for product A compared to product B. Both the market status and efficiency testing results indicated that product A showed superior performance and more efficacy compared to the product B.
772-778
30
TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF AN AYURVEDIC MEDICINE (BRIHOT CHANDRODOY MAKARDHWAJ) USED AS REJUVENATOR
Tahmina Akter Sony, Md. Rakib Hasan, Mst. Reshma Khatun, Md. Mamun Sikder, Mustari Hossain, Shemonty Hasan, Massnoon Ali, M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Brihot Chandrodoy Makardhwaj (BCM) is an Ayurvedic preparation used as a traditional medicine in the old age in the rural population. To find out the toxicological characteristic of BCM, it was administered chronically to the male Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg. After 32 days chronic administration of the BCM preparation the following toxicological changes were noted. All throughout the experimental period the BCM treated animals were always maintaining insignificant increase in body weight in the body weight study. There is a statistically significant increase in the relative percent weight of the male rat heart (p=0.024) and kidney (p=0.032). There is a statistically highly significant increase in the absolute weight of the male rat spleen (p=0.009) and relative percent weight of the spleen (p=0.003). There is also a statistically significant (p=0.028) increase in the absolute weight of the rat testis.
759-764
31
EVALUATION OF TOTAL FLAVONOLS, TOTAL PROANTHOCYANIDINS CONTENT AND THROMBOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOL EXTRACTS OF THREE BANGLADESHI PLANTS
Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Mohammad Abdul Hakim Murad, Abul Hasanat, Md. Abdul Hamid, Md. Imtiaze Islam, , Tanvir Ahmad Chowdhury, Mahmudul Hasan, Mohammed Munawar Hossain, Md. Abdullah Al Masum, Mohammed Rakib Uddin
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Premna esculenta (Roxb.), Crotalaria pallida (Aiton.) and Euphorbia neriifolia (Linn.) are three Bangladeshi plants, which examined for determination of proanthocyanidins, flavonols content and thrombolytic activity of methanol extracts. Crotalaria pallida showed highest content of flavonols (82.45±0.44 mg Quercetin/g) and proanthocyanidins (120.97±1.02 mg Catechin/g). It also showed highest clot lysis effect, which was 41.81±4.12%.  Premna esculenta and Euphorbia neriifolia exhibit 17.27±1.57% and 34.57±1.99% compared with standard Streptokinase 75±0.09% clot lysis. They both showed well flavonols content, but proanthocyanidins content of Euphorbia neriifolia (17.86±0.26 mg Catechin/g) is less, where Premna esculenta had 106.62±1.29 mg Catechin/g.
747-751
32
TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF AN AYURVEDIC MEDICINE \"KARPUR RAS\" USED IN DIARRHOEA
Md. Mamun Sikder, Md. Rakib Hasan, Swagata Sarkar Lopa, Nayma Abedin, Mohammad Jashim Uddin, Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker, Mohammed Motaher Hossain Chowdhury and M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Karpur Ras (KRP) is an Ayurvedic preparation used as a traditional medicine in the treatment of diarrhea in the rural population. To find out the toxicological characteristic of KRP, it was administered chronically to the male Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 40 mg/kg for 28 days. All throughout the experimental period the KRP treated animals were always maintaining decrease in body weight in the overall body weight study compare to their control counterpart. There were a statistically significant (p=0.013) decrease in the absolute weight of rat heart and a statistically highly significant (p=0.009) decrease in the relative percent weight of the heart. There were a statistically highly significant decrease in the absolute weight of the liver (p=0.002) and the relative percent weight of the liver (p=0.005). Also there was a statistically very highly significant (p=0.001) decrease in the organ water content of the liver. There was a statistically highly significant (p=0.004) decrease in the absolute weight of the rat kidney but a statistically significant (p=0.015) decrease was noticed in relative percent weight of the rat kidney. There were a statistically very highly significant (p=0.001) decrease in the absolute weight of spleen relative percent weight of spleen.
472-477
33
PRECLINICAL BLOOD CHEMISTRY SAFETY PROFILE STUDIES OF \"ROHITAKARISTA\" ON THE KIDNEY FUNCTION AFTER CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION TO MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS
Md. Arif Hasan, Md. Rakib Hasan, Mohammad Jashim Uddin, Gulshanara Begum, Nawfel Abdullah, Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker, Mohammed Motaher Hossain Chowdhury and M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Rohitakarista (RHT) is an Ayurvedic preparation used as a traditional medicine in the treatment of splenomegaly. To find out the effect of chronic administration of RHT on serum blood chemistry profile, it was administered chronically to the male Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 40 ml/kg for 28 days. In this study, the albumin content was decreased (9.17 %) in RHT treated male rats and it was statistically significant (p=0.047), the globulin content was highly significantly (p=0.012) increased (53.10 %) as a result the decrease (43.18%) in the Albumin / Globulin (A/G) ratio was statistically highly significantly different from their corresponding control values (p=0.005). There were a statistically very highly significant (p=0.001) decrease of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level (23.97%) and BUN/Creatinine ratio (21.62 %). It was observed that there was a 15.0% decrease  in serum uric acid content of RHT treated male rats in comparison to their control male rats which was also statistically significant (p=0.049).
367-373
34
EVALUATION OF IN VITRO MEMBRANE STABILIZING ACTIVITY AND THROMBOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF AVERRHOA BILIMBI LEAF EXTRACTS
Mohammad Mooneem Mannan, Rumana Akhter, Mohammad Shahriar and Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Averrhoa bilimbi L. belonging to the family Oxalidiaceae has local name include belembuis an important multipurpose tropical tree under-recognized for its nutritional medicinal properties. In this present study, the leaf extracts of A. bilimbi were subjected to a comparative evaluation of the membrane stabilization and thrombolytic activity. The thrombolytic and membrane stabilizing activities were assessed by using human erythrocyte and the results were compared with standard streptokinase (SK) and standard anti-inflammatory drug, acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) respectively. The crude chloroform extract of the leaves of A. bilimbi demonstrated better membrane stabilizing activity, whereas its methanol and ethanol soluble fractions revealed moderate membrane stabilizing properties compared with standard. The crude extracts were found to have thrombolytic activity with a maximum effect in ethanolic fraction comparable with streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control.
357-360
35
COMPARATIVE IN VITRO PHARMACEUTICAL EQUIVALENCE STUDIES OF DIFFERENT BRANDS OF ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM TABLETS MARKETED IN BANGLADESH
Md. Abir Khan, Abu Asad Chowdhury, Nur Jaharat Lubna
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The main target of the present study was to evaluate the pharmaceutical equivalence of atorvastatin calcium tablets of five brands marketed in Bangladesh using in vitro dissolution study. The dissolution was carried out using the apparatus II according to USP guidelines. Evaluation of physicochemical parameters such as content uniformity test, weight variation analysis, and hardness, friability and disintegration test was carried out according to United States of Pharmacopoeia. All brands complied with the official specification for content uniformity test, weight variation, hardness, and friability and disintegration time. Despite the inter brand and intra brand variability of dissolution profiles of the atorvastatin tablets, three out of five brands attained more than 75% dissolution within 45 minutes. For comparative analysis of dissolution, a model independent approach of similarity factor (f2) was used. The results showed that three brands of atorvastatin calcium tablets out of five passed all the pharmacopoeia tests for satisfactory quality. Thus, only these can be interchanged in clinical practice.
347-351
36
PRECLINICAL BLOOD CHEMISTRY SAFETY PROFILE STUDIES OF “BASANTA KUSUMAKAR RAS” AFTER CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION TO MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS
Kamrun Nahar, Md. Rakib Hasan, Sumon Kanti Chowdhury, Paritosh Chakma, Gulshanara Begum, Nawfel Abdullah, Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker and M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Basanta Kusumakar Ras (BKR), an Ayurvedic preparation is used as a traditional medicine in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus. We were eager to know the effect of chronic administration of BKR on the lipid profile, liver function test and kidney function test. To find out the toxicological characteristic of BKR, it was administered chronically to the male Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 400 mg/kg. After 28 days chronic administration of the BKR preparation the following toxicological changes were noted. There was a statistically significant increase in serum total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C level besides a statistically significant decrease in serum HDL-C level; thus leading to a statistically significant increase of both Cardiac Risk Ratio (TC/HDL-C) and Castelli’s Risk Index (LDL-C/HDL-C). There was a statistically significant increase in both bilirubin and creatinine level. Chronic BKR administration revealed dyslipidemia, possible loss of liver function and kidney function.
146-152
37
LARVICIDAL AND INSECTICIDAL EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF MALLOTUS REPANDUS (WILLD.) MUELL.- ARG. LEAF AND STEM AGAINST CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS SAY (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) AND SITOPHILUS ORYZAE LINN. (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE)
Md. Rakib Hasan, Nizam Uddin, Md. Mahadi Hasan, Md. Monir Hossain, Mohammad Mostafa Kamal, Kaniz Fatema, H. M. Lutfor Rahman Mazumder, Kabirul Bashar, Md. Sohel Rana
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was designed to evaluate larvicidal bioassay of different extracts of Mallotus repandus against Culex quinquefasciatus and insecticidal bioassay against Sitophilus oryzae in the laboratory. In larvicidal bioassay, methanol extract of leaf, petroleum ether extract of leaf and methanol extract of stem showed good LC50 values (median lethal time) found in three consecutive days (24, 48 and 72 hours). Methanol extract of leaf showed the highest larvicidal activity in each specific time interval. Moreover, the extract also exhibited dose dependent lethal time effect (LT50). In insecticidal bioassay, among all extracts ethyl acetate extract of stem showed the highest insecticidal activity after 24 and 48 hours while petroleum ether extract of leaf exhibited the highest insecticidal activity in 72 hours. Ethyl acetate extract of stem also showed dose dependent LT50. Highly significant (P < 0.0001) relationship between different hours and LC50 values were found in both bioassays. These findings suggest that the extracts have potential toxicity against both insects.
127-133
38
ANALGESIC AND ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF FRUIT RIND OF CITRULLUS LANATUS (THUNB)
Md. Abdul Jalil, Nushrat Jahan, Md. Mohaiminul Islam, A.B. Ripon Khalipha, Chand Sultana Khatun, Md. Mofizur Rahman, Md. A.K. Azad
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Almost all diseases are associated with the inflammation and pain. The Present study was designed to evaluate analgesic and anti inflammatory potentialities of methanolic extract of Cirtrullus lanatus rind which belongs to Cucurbitaceae family. Potent analgesic activity was observed (p<0.05) in extract 400mg/kg by 66.45% inhibition of writhing reflex and mild (50.63% inhibition) activity was observed in 200mg/kg compare to inhibition of 82.91% of standard Diclofenac 10 mg/kg. On the other hand, anti-inflammatory effect was remarkable (p<0.05) with 400mg crude compare with Standard Diclofenac 5 mg/kg body weight. Dunet test represents 46% reduction of paw edema compare to standard of 56.71%. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant extract showed the presence of Glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, steroids and protein were present in the rind of Citrullus lanatus one of which has analgesic, anti inflammatory properties. These provide scientific evidence to support the isolation and development of biologically active components as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents.
65-68
39
PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND IN VITRO - IN VIVO EVALUATION OF GLICLAZIDE LOADED POLYMERIC MICROSPHERES
Mohammad Sofiqur Rahman, Amit Kumar Chaurasiya, Sazia Afreen Rahee, Ikramul Hasan, Mohammad Shahriar, Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan and Md. Selim Reza
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disease which involves both defective insulin secretion and peripheral insulin resistance. Despite the availability of other agents for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus gliclazide, is preferred in diabetic therapy because of its selective inhibitory activity towards pancreatic K+-ATP channels, antioxidant property, low incidence of producing severe hypoglycemia and other haemobiological effects. In the present study gliclazide microspheres were prepared using combination of Ethyl cellulose (20 cps), Methocel K4M, Methocel K15M and Eudragit-RSPO by solvent evaporation method. They were evaluated for their microencapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, and surface morphology, compatibility between drug and polymers and in vivo anti-diabetic study. The microspheres were almost spherical and slightly rough. The encapsulation efficiency was in the range of 68-92%. The drug release was also found to be slow which extended for almost 8 hours. FTIR and DSC analysis indicated the good compatibility between the dug and polymers. In vivo study of the gliclazide microspheres in albino rats demonstrated significant antidiabetic effect of gliclazide. In case of gliclazide microspheres the hypoglycemic effect obtained was for more than 10 hours whereas pure gliclazide produce antidiabetic effect for only 4-5 hours suggesting that microspheres of gliclazide may be a potential candidate for safe and effective controlled drug delivery for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.</div><div style="text-align: justify"><br /></div>
189-198
40
PRECLINICAL ANEMIA PANEL STUDIES OF “ROHITAKARISTA” AFTER CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION TO MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS
K. N. Roy Niyati, Md. Rakib Hasan, Swagata Sarker Lopa, Ishtiaque Ahmed Chowdhury, Marjana Khalil, Maksud Hassan Binoy, M Salahuddin Bhuiya and M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Rohitakarista (RHT) is an Ayurvedic preparation used as a traditional medicine in the South Asian countries for the treatment of liver disorders, splenomegaly and other spleen related problems. The effect of chronic administration of Rohitakarista on the hematological parameters and serum iron profile was studied in this experiment. The acute toxicity test of RHT recorded no death, even at the highest dose of 80 ml/Kg body weight. The animals were divided into two groups. The first group was given RHT preparation at a dose of 40 ml/Kg body weight for 28 days while the second group that served as the control received water for the same period. After 28 days chronic administration of the RHT preparation to the male Sprague-Dawley rats the following hematological changes were noted. There were a statistically significant decrease in total red blood cell (RBC) count (p=0.03) and Hemoglobin content of the blood (p=0.04) whereas a highly significant decrease (p=0.01) in case of Hematocrit level of the blood. The erythrocytic indices such as mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and red cell volume distribution width (RDW) did not change significantly. A significant decrease was noted in case of serum Iron level (p=0.044) whereas a statistically significant (p=0.039) increase was noticed in serum Ferritin level.</div>
168-174
41
PRECLINICAL LIPID PROFILE STUDIES OF A CLASSICAL AYURVEDIC PREPARATION “ARJUNARISTA” AFTER CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION TO MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS
Marjana Khalil, Swagata Sarker Lopa, Md. Rakib Hasan, Md. Mahmudur Rahman Mamun, Paritosh Chakma, Arjyabrata Sarkar, Mohammed Motaher Hossain Chowdhury and M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Arjunarista (RJN) is an Ayurvedic preparation used as a traditional medicine in the south Asian countries for the treatment of cardiac diseases. We were eager to know the effect of chronic administration of RJN on the lipid profile test. To find out the effect of chronic administration of RJN on the lipid profile it was administered chronically to the male Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 40 ml/Kg. After 28 days of chronic administration of the RJN preparation, the following effects on the lipid profile were noted. There was a very highly significant increase in LDL Cholesterol (p=0.001). A very highly significant (0.001) decrease was noticed in triglyceride (TG), VLDL-C & HDL-C level; thus leading to a statistically very highly significant (p=0.001) increase in Cardiac Risk Ratio (CRR) (TC/HDL-C), Castelli’s Risk Index-II (CRI-II) (HDL-C/LDL-C) and Atherogenic Coefficient (AC) [(TC/HDL-C)/HDL-C)], but a statistically significant (p=0.033) decrease in case of Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) (log (TG/HDL-C)).
146-150
42
HPLC PROFILING OF POLYPHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND FREE RADICAL ASSAY OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ANNONA RETICULATA GROWING IN BANGLADESH
Ismet Ara Jahan, Hemayet Hossain, Shaikh Emdadur Rahman, Shirin Sultana, Proity Nayeeb Akbar, Sabina Yeasmin, Tanzir Ahmed Khan, Md. Mahfuzur Rahman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study investigates the HPLC profiling of phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activities of Annona reticulata. Through HPLC assay, high levels of rutin hydrate (603.88 mg/100 g extract) and moderate amount of catechin, epicatechin, and p-coumeric acid were determined (99.00, 78.19, 85.38 mg/100 g extract, respectively). Some amount of vanillic acid, ellagic acid, and quercetin were also detected (19.80, 31.56, 8.83 mg/100 g extract, respectively). Antioxidant activity tests such as, ABTS radical scavenging activity, reducing power, total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and flavanoid content determination, were also performed. At 250 μg/ml, the percentage inhibition value of Annona reticulata for ABTS scavenging was 99.93 μg/ml, and the maximum absorbance for reducing power assay was 0.195. The total antioxidant capacity, and phenolic and flavonoid contents were calculated to be 419.20 mg of ascorbic acid/g, 120.07 mg/g of gallic acid, and 90.05 mg/g of quercetin equivalent, respectively. These results suggested that polyphenolic compounds in Annona reticulata might be responsible for their antioxidant activities.
133-139
43
THE IN VITRO PHARMACEUTICAL EQUIVALENCE STUDIES OF LOSARTAN TABLETS OF DIFFERENT MANUFACTURERS AVAILABLE IN BANGLADESH
Rehana Begum, Md. Zakir Sultan, Asma Rahman, Md. Akter Hossain and Md. Shah Amran
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The study was aimed to assess the pharmaceutical equivalence of some losartan potassium tablets of different manufacturers marketed in Bangladesh using in vitro dissolution study. The dissolution was carried out using the apparatus II according to USP guidelines. Other general quality assessment tests like hardness, friability, disintegration time were also determined. All brands complied with the official specification for hardness, friability and disintegration time. The dissolution profiles showed inter brand and intra brand variability. All samples attained more than 85% dissolution within 30 minutes. The results were subjected to statistical analysis to compare the dissolution profiles. A model independent approach of similarity factor (f2) was employed. The data indicated that only two brands may be used interchangeably.
128-132
44
ANALGESIC AND NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF WITHANIA SOMNIFERA ROOT
Mohammad Shahriar, Fariha Alam and Mir Muhammad Nasir Uddin
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was designed to evaluate the analgesic and neurophramacological investigations of root extracts of Withania somnifera in Swiss albino mice following oral administration. In-vivo analgesic activity test was evaluated by acetic acid induced writhing method and tail immersion test. In-vivo neurophramacological investigations were determined by open field and swimming test. There is no scientific report on analgesic activity and neuropharmacological activity of Withania somnifera, therefore the present study was undertaken to examine the possible in-vivo analgesic activity and neuropharmacological activity of this plant extracts. In-vivo analgesic activity test showed that methanol, ethanol and chloroform extract inhibited writhes in a dose dependent manner. But ethanol extract at 150 mg/kg showed highest inhibition (70.56%) which is even higher than the standard drug (25.55%). And in case of tail immersion test the basal reaction time was more for standard drug when compared to plant extracts. The ethanol extracts showed more reaction time and that is recovered after 120 min the order of potency in 60 min after dose administration is diclofenac Na > ethanol > chloroform > methanol > control. This plants root extracts also exhibit significant neuropharmacological activity.
203-208
45
ANALGESIC AND NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA
Mir Muhammad Nasir Uddin, Md. Ruhul Amin, Amitabh Basak, Mohammad Shahriar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was designed to evaluate the analgesic and neurophramacological investigations of leaf extract of Sesbania grandiflora in Swiss albino mice following oral administration. In-vivo analgesic activity test was evaluated by acetic acid induced writhing method and tail immersion test. In-vivo neurophramacological investigations was determined by open field and hole cross test. In-vivo analgesic activity test shows that methanolic extract (250 & 500 mg/kg b.w.) performed good activity in mice comparing to the standard drug diclofenac Na. Methanolic extract of Sesbania grandiflora displayed a significant and dose dependent analgesic activity, the percent inhibition was 68.13%, 85.56% respectively in the test group (250 & 500 mg/kg b.w.).
179-182
46
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENINGS, MEMBRANE STABILIZING ACTIVITY, THROMBOLYTIC ACTIVITY AND CYTOTOXIC PROPERTIES OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF MIMOSA PUDICA
Mohammad Shahriar, Tanjida Ahmed, Shahjabeen Sharif, Rumana Akter and Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In this present study, the leaf extracts of Mimosa pudica were subjected to a comparative evaluation of the membrane stabilization, thrombolytic and cytotoxic activity to brine shrimps (Artemia salina). The thrombolytic and membrane stabilizing activities were assessed by using human erythrocyte and the results were compared with standard streptokinase (SK) and standard anti-inflammatory drug, acetyl salicylic acid (ASA), respectively. The extracts demonstrated significant toxicity to A. salina with LC50 values ranging from 1.58 to 3.38 μg/ml as compared to standard vincristine sulphate (VS, LC50value 0.92 μg/ml). Preliminary phytochemical investigation suggested the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides and steroids.
155-158
47
EVALUATION OF IN-VITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, THROMBOLYTIC AND CYTOTOXIC PROPERTIES OF LABLAB NIGER LEAVES
Md. Reyad-ul-Ferdous, Hasnin Rahman Jisha, Md. Golam Azam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was undertaken to investigate anti-inflammatory, thrombolytic and cytotoxic activities of methanol extracts of Lablab niger leaves and its different fractions. In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the L. niger leaves was evaluated by heat and hypotonic solution induced membrane stabilization method. Thrombolytic activity was evaluated using blood clot lysis model and cytotoxicity test was carried out by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The crude methanolic extract and all tested fractions of L. niger leaves significantly (p< 0.005) protected erythrocyte membrane lysis comparable to standard aspirin, demonstrating its strong anti-inflammatory activity. In thrombolytic study, the crude methanolic extract and its different fractions demonstrated moderate to strong thrombolytic activity (25.62-40.88% lysis of human blood clot), in comparison to 66.75 % clot lysis by standard streptokinase. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, methanolic extract and its different fractions of L. niger leaves showed significant lethality with LC50 =value of 1.171-8.15 μg/mL, compared with vincristine sulphate (LC50=0.451 μg/mL). These finding indicate that L. niger leaves could be a potential source of natural anti-inflammatory, thrombolytic and cytotoxic agents.
106-109
48
IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND IN VIVO ANTI-NOCICEPTIVE AND NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF MIMOSA PUDICA
Tanjida Ahmed, Rumana Akter, Shahjabeen Sharif, Mohammad Shahriar, Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Mimosa pudica is the herb that shows sensation on touch. It has been identified as Lajjalu in Ayurveda and has been found to have anti-asthmatic, aphrodisiac, analgesic, anti- inflammatory and antidepressant activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate in-vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo biological activity considering anti-nociceptive assessment & neuropharmacological study include open field and swimming test. There is no scientific report on analgesic activity and neuropharmacological activity of Mimosa pudica, therefore the present study was undertaken to examine the possible in-vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts of Mimosa pudica was performed using DPPH free radical scavenging, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, total antioxidant capacity, total phenol and total flavonoid content determination assays. The result of tests for in-vitro antioxidant activity indicates that petroleum ether extract shows maximum antioxidant activity. This plants leaf extracts also exhibit significant anti-nociceptive activity and neuropharmacological activity.
70-78
49
PATTERN OF DRUG PRESCRIBING DURING PREGNANCY IN NEPALESE WOMEN
*Priyanka Shrestha and Shiva Kumar Bhandari
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Objective of this study is to assess the utilization pattern and the teratogenesity risk of the drugs prescribed among pregnant women in Nepal. The drugs that were prescribed during pregnancy were assessed retrospectively in 94 Nepalese pregnant women who attended the prenatal clinic of the two Hospitals in Nepal.&nbsp; From Patient medical record, FDA drug category of prescribed drugs was identified. Maximum number of pregnant women was from age grouping 15 to 25 (72%). According to FDA drug category, our finding reveals that two drugs prescribed of FDA category X were oxytocin and dydrogesterone. A majority of drugs prescribed were from category B (42%). A majority of drugs were given as an oral dosage form i.e. Tablet form (56%) and in severe cases injection was preferred i.e. 24%. Anthelminthic was prescribed to all pregnant women during their second trimester. The most commonly prescribed drugs were nutritional supplements like Iron, Folate, Calcium, Vitamins followed by Tetanus Toxoid. <br />
680-688
50
THROMBOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF CENTELLA ASIATICA LEAVES
*Rishikesh, Drishti Rani Ghosh, Md. Moshfiqur Rahman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The methanol extract of Centella asiatica was estimated for thrombolytic effect. The extract demonstrated moderate thrombolytic activity which was 25.01 % where as the thrombolytic activity of standard was found 88.23 %. Thrombolytic indicates that have potent clot lysis property and anti-oxidative activity. The result showed momentous effect with comparison to standard thrombolytic agent, streptokinase. The obtained results support for the uses of this plant as traditional medicine.
308-311
51
Evaluation of Antidiarrhoeal, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic activities of Cinnamomum tamala Leaves from Bangladesh
*Md. Hemayet Hossain, Md. Sariful Islam Howlader, Shubhra Kanti Dey, Arpona Hira, Arif Ahmed, Ferdoushi Jahan and Ram Proshad Sarkar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The crude ethanolic extract of the leaves of Cinnamomum tamala (family: Lauraceae) was evaluated for its possible phytochemical nature (group determination of plant constituent) and selected pharmacological activities (Antidiarrhoeal, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic activity) growing in Bangladesh. Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of C. tamala indicated the presence of reducing sugar, glycoside, tannins, steroid, amino acid &amp; alkaloid types of compounds. The ethanolic extract of leaves of C. tamala on Castor oil induced diarrheal method in mice. The result showed that extract inhibited the mean number of defecation which were 24.49 % (P&lt;0.01) and 40.82 % (P&lt;0.001) at the doses of 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg respectively. The latent period for the extract treated group was (p&lt;0.01 &amp; P&lt;0.001) increased as compared to control group. The extract of C. tamala (500 &micro;g/disc) showed moderate anti-microbial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis(10), Vibrio cologet (Zone of inhibition 11mm), Streptococcus agalactiae (9mm), Shigella sonnei (9 mm), Streptococcus pyogenes (9mm), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (11mm), Staphylococcus aureus ( 8 mm). The extract of leaves of C. tamala showed significant (p&lt;0.001) toxicity to the brine shrimp nauplii. The concentrations of crude extract for 50% mortality (LC50) and 90% mortality (LC90) were 32 &mu;g/mL and 74.29 &mu;g/mL respectively. Therefore, the obtained results tend to suggest the antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of C. tamala (Buch.-Ham.)&nbsp; leaves from Bangladesh and justify its use in folkloric remedies.<br />
731-736
52
EVALUATION OF ANTINOCICEPTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SIDA CORDIFOLIA ROOT FROM BANGLADESH
*Md. Hemayet Hossain, Md. Sariful Islam Howlader, Shubhra Kanti Dey, Arpona Hira, Arif Ahmed
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The crude ethanolic extract of the roots of Sida cordifolia Linn. (Family: Malvaceae) was evaluated for its possible antinociceptive and antioxidant properties growing in southeast part of Bangladesh. The ethanolic extract of roots of Sida cordifolia exhibited statistically significant (p&gt;0.001) writhing inhibition in acetic acid induced writhing model in white albino mice (Swiss-webstar strain). The crude extract produced 25.77% inhibition of writhing at the dose of 250 mg/kg body weight &amp; 44.11 % inhibition of writhing at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight while the standard drug diclofenac inhibition was found to 51.97 % at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight. The antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia was assessed by DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value was found to be (65 &micro;g/ml) which was comparable to the standard ascorbic acid (16 &micro;g/ml). Phytochemical nature (group determination of plant constituent) and selected phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of the roots of Sida cordifolia indicated the presence of steroid, reducing sugars, tannin &amp; saponin types of compounds. The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine and its further investigation.
712-716
53
MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION AND MINIMUM BACTERICIDAL CONCENTRATION OF AZITHROMYCIN TABLET IN BANGLADESH
*Suharto Chakma and M. Amirul Islam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The azithromycin tablet in Bangladesh maintains standard MIC and MBC. But how much is this assumption is true; this will be evaluated through this research work. This is a cross sectional study to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of selected azithromycin tablet. The collected samples were analyzed according to USP specification. The MICs of azithromycin were determined by broth dilution method. MBCs were determined by the drop plate method from the tubes, where apparently no visible growth found. This study showed that MIC &amp; MBC values of azithromycin tablet found highest against Pseudomonas spp., Shigella spp. and E. coli were &gt; 64.0 mg/ml (micro gram per milliliter) and lowest against B. pumillus was 1.0/2.0 mg/ml. MIC and MBC values higher than that of the peak serum concentration of azithromycin must have chance of therapeutic failure and development of azithromycin tolerance and resistance to the bacteria tested. To evaluate the efficiency of antibiotic there are two factors2. Which influence potential utility of a antibiotics in a specific clinical situation. The first is the measure of potency of the antibiotic for the pathogen in question minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). The second is relationship between the concentration time profile and potency of the antibiotics. This research work will play an important role to determine the MIC and MBC of selected azithromycin tablet in Bangladesh. <br />
696-699
54
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF FIVE DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF WITHANIA SOMNIFERA ROOT
*Mohammad Shahriar, Abu Nizam Md Bahar, Md. Ismail Hossain, Sadika Akhter, Md. Aminul Haque and Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Current investigation aimed to assess the phytochemical screening, free radical scavenging potential and cytotoxic activity of the root extracts of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha). Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenol, flavonoid, tannin, saponin, alkaloid, glycoside and carbohydrate. In evaluation, methanol, ethanol, chloroform, pet-ether and n-hexane extract of the root powder was prepared and screened for in-vitro antioxidant activities by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity where chloroform, pet-ether and methanol extract of Withania somnifera showed noticeable effect in the DPPH scavenging assay. All five extracts were subjected to brine shrimp lethality bioassay for possible cytotoxicity. Concentration dependent increment in percent mortality of Brine Shrimp nauplii produced by the ethanol extract of Withania somnifera indicates the presence of cytotoxic principles in these extractives.
450-453
55
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY, TOTAL FLAVONOIDS AND TANNINS CONTENT FROM THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SPILANTHES PANICULATA LEAF GROWING IN BANGLADESH
*Hemayet Hossain, A.F.M Shahid-Ud-Daula, Kamrul Hasan, Abdullah-Al-Mansur and Muhammad Mahbubul Haq
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The crude ethanolic extract of the leaves of Spilanthes paniculata Wall.ex DC (Family: Asteraceae) was evaluated for its possible anti-inflammatory activity as well as total flavonoids and tannins content growing in northeast part of Bangladesh. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied using carrageenan and histamine-induced rat paw edema test at different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) of the ethanol extract. At the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight, the extract showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity both in the carrageenan and histamine-induced oedema test models in rats showing 55.63% and 56.52% reduction in the paw volume (P&lt;0.01) comparable to that produced by the standard drug indomethacin (61.27% and 63.35%) at 4h respectively. The percentage inhibition of the oedema paw volume by the 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract was also statistically significant (P&lt;0.05; P&lt;0.01) compared favorably with the indomethacin treated animals at 1, 2 and 3 h in both models. The total flavonoids and tannins content were calculated as quite high in ethanolic extract (112.98 mg/g of quercetin equivalent and 187.27 mg of gallic acid equivalent respectively). Acute toxicity test showed that the plant might be safe for pharmacological uses. Therefore, the obtained results tend to suggest the acute anti-inflammatory activity as well as total flavonoids and tannins content from the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Spilanthes paniculata and thus provide the scientific basis for the traditional uses of this plant as a remedy for toothache, pain and inflammations.
271-277
56
UV-SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC AND RP-HPLC METHODS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ACETAMINOPHEN AND CAFFEINE: VALIDATION, COMPARISON AND APPLICATION FOR MARKETED TABLET ANALYSIS
*SM Ashraful Islam, Shamima Shultana, Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed and Irin Dewan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple and fast method was developed for simultaneous quantitative determination of two biologically active flavonoid compounds i.e. quercetin and rutin in bark of Anogeissus latifolia using High-Performance Thin-layer Chromatography. The separation was performed on TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60 F254. Good separation was achieved in the mobile phase of Ethyl acetate: Formic acid: Glacial acetic acid: Water (100:11:11:26, v/v) and densitometric determination of these compounds was carried out at 366 nm in reflection/absorbance mode. The rutin and quercetin content of hydroalcohol bark extract of Anogeissus latifolia were found to be 0.1617% w/w and 1.875%w/w respectively. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed a good linear relationship with r=0.9997 and r= 0.9942 for rutin and quercetin, respectively.  The average recovery of rutin and quercetin was 99.98 % and 100.11%, respectively indicating the excellent reproducibility. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the method is reproducible. The present method is being reported first time and may be used for routine quality control of the bark of Anogeissus latifolia. This HPTLC method was found to be simple and convenient for rapid screening of active compounds and quantification of the investigated flavonoids in Anogeissus latifolia.
39-45
57
ANTIDIARRHEAL ACTIVITY OF LEAVES EXTRACT OF MICROCOS PANICULATA LINN IN MICE
*Md. Masudur Rahman, Abu Mohammed Taufiqual Islam, Md. Ashraf Uddin Chowdhury, Muhammad Erfan Uddin and Ahsan Jamil
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The experiment of methanolic extract of Microcos paniculata leaves showed significant (p&lt;0.001) inhibitor activity against castor oil induced diarrhea and castor oil induced enteropooling in mice at dose of 400 mg/kg body weight. There was also significant (p&lt;0.01) reduction in gastrointestinal motility in the charcoal meal test. Loperamide (5 mg/kg b. wt) was used as positive control. These results revealed that the leaves extract possess pharmacological activity against diarrhea and may possibly explain the use of the plant in traditional medicine.
21-25