Country-wise Listing - Egypt

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S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
NEW VALIDATED SPECTROFLUORIMETRIC AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CLOPIDOGREL IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS USING EOSIN
M. Sharaf El-Din, F. Ibrahim, Sh. Shalan and Heba Abd El-Aziz
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
New Sensitive and accurate two spectroscopic methods were developed and validated for the determination of Clopidogrel (CLP) in tablet dosage forms. The spectrophotometric method (Method I) is based on the formation of red colored complex with eosin at (545 nm) in sodium acetate – acetic acid buffer of pH 3. The absorbance-concentration plot is rectilinear over the range (0.5-9 µg mL-1) with LOD of (0.076 µg mL-1) and LOQ of (0.23 µg mL-1). The Spectrofluorimetric method (Method II) depends on the quantitative quenching effect of Clopidogrel on the native fluorescence of eosin at the same pH. The quenching effect of the formed ion-pair complex of the drug with eosin was measured at (560 nm) after excitation at (499 nm). The fluorescence-concentration plot is rectilinear over the range (0.2-6 µg mL-1) with LOD of (0.0341 µg mL-1) and LOQ of (0.1033 µg mL-1). Under the optimized experimental conditions, the proposed methods were validated as per International Conference of Harmonization guidelines. The proposed methods were perfectly applied to the analysis of commercial tablets containing the drug. Statistical comparison of the results with those of the reference method illustrate good agreement and confirm that there were no significant difference in the accuracy and precision between the proposed and reference one respectively.
53-63
2
SAFETY AND FERTILITY ENHANCING ROLE OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN NEW ZEALAND RABBIT BUCKS
Walaa H. Khalifa, Faten M. Ibrahim, Aida I. El Makawy, Hafiza A. Sharaf, Wagdy K. B. Khalil, Nagwa A. Maghraby
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety of Moringa oleifer leaves aqueous extract and its role on fertility of New Zealand rabbit bucks.  Two doses of Moringa oleifera leaves extract (200 and 400 mg/kg/day) were administrated to rabbit bucks via gavage for 21 days. Sildenafil citrate at dosage of 5mg/kg was used as reference drug.   Liver, kidney and lipid profile functions were evaluated as safety profile agent of Moringa oleifera leaves extract.  Fertility parameters such as body weight, testosterone and thyroid hormones levels, physical characteristics of epididymal sperm, expression of reproductive genes and histopatholological changes in rabbit bucks were investigated to evaluate the role of Moringa oleifera on enhancing the fertility of rabbit bucks.  Results revealed that Moringa oleifera did not cause any toxic effect. In addition, the results illustrated that the effect of Moringa oleifera in enhancing male fertility clearly manifested in increase  the level of testosterone,  thyroid activity, sperm (motility, viability, membrane integrity), up regulation of reproductive gene expression. In addition, Moringa oleifera showed improvement in the histological structure of rabbit bucks testicular tissue. Based on these findings, we can conclude that the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera leaves is safe and has the potential to enhancing the rabbit bucks fertility.

156-168
3
PLASTICIZATION OF PVC MEMBRANES WITH EUGENOL FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS
Ahmed M. Omer, Tamer M. Tamer, Mohamed A. Hassan, Maysa M. Sabet, Mohamed S. Mohy Eldin
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Fungal endophytes isolated from medicinal plants viz. Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia and Ficus religiosa were screened for their ability to produce acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, which are important in the treatment of various diseases and disorders related to decline in acetylcholine levels. Nine cultures were found to exhibit significant inhibitory activity (>50%). Molecular characterization of the producer isolates was carried out using ITSI-5.8S-ITSII rDNA sequencing. The generated dendrogram showed that the isolates were distributed within Ascomycota phylum and belonged to three classes Eurotiomycetes, Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes. Maximum inhibition (95.8%) was evinced by Cladosporium uredinicola isolated from Tinospora cordifolia after 10days of incubation on malt extract medium when diethyl ether was used as an extraction solvent. Thin layer chromatography based bioassay revealed the presence of at least two bioactive molecules. Acetycholinesterase inhibitory activity is being reported for the first time from endophytic Cladosporium uredinicola, Nigrospora sp. and Colletotrichum sp.

149-155
4
VALIDATED SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC AND SPECTROFLUORIMETRIC METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PREGABALIN IN ITS PURE AND DOSAGE FORMS USING EOSIN
Mohammed I. Walash, N. El-Enany and H. Askar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Two sensitive spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods were developed for determination of pregabalin (PGB) in its pure and pharmaceutical dosage forms. For spectrophotometric method (Method I), absorbance value of a binary complex with eosin was measured at 550 nm at pH 3.5. The absorbance-concentration plot was rectilinear over the range of 4-80 µg mL-1. For spectrofluorimetric method (Method II), the decreasing in the fluorescence intensity of the native fluorescence of eosin was measured at 544 nm after excitation at 304 nm at the same pH. The fluorescence-concentration plot was rectilinear over the range of 0.05-1 ug mL-1. Statistical comparison of the results with those of the reference method indicated that there was no significant difference between the two methods respectively.
14-28
5
CYTOTOXIC NAPHTHALENE BASED-SYMMETRICAL DISELENIDES WITH INCREASED SELECTIVITY AGAINST MCF-7 BREAST CANCER CELLS
Saad Shaaban, Hatem E. Gaffer, Yasir Jabar, Saad S. Elmorsy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A series of naphthalene based-symmetrical diselenides were synthesized in good-moderate yields and their in vitro cytotoxic activity was evaluated against breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and compared with their cytotoxicity in normal fibroblast cells (WI-38). Furthermore, their in vitro antimicrobial activities were also evaluated against gram-negative (Escherichia coli), gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria and the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. A significant difference in toxicity zones between the breast solid tumor MCF-7 cells and normal WI-38 cells was observed indicating that it is not general selenium toxicity. Within this context, compounds 2, 9, 10, 12, 19, and 20 exhibited therapeutic indices (TI) up to eleven fold and in most cases were higher than the TI of 5-fluorouracil (5-fu) suggesting their effectiveness as anti-cancer agents. Indeed, these ccompounds exhibited also good antibacterial activity against E. coli bacteria compared to the known drug, ampicillin. Moreover, compounds 2, 7, 8 and 10 exhibited good antifungal activity against C. albicans compared to colitrimazole.
721-737
6
EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL GENOTOXICITY AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF MANJARIX
Aida I El makawy, Ashraf B Abdel-Naim, Alaa Barakat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Manjarix is herbal drug composed of ginger and turmeric powdered as active compounds. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity and developmental toxicity of manjarix. The genotoxicity assessment was conducted by in vitro Bacterial reverse mutation assay and in vivo chromosome aberrations and micronucleus test in rats. Bacterial reverse mutations assay was performed in Salmonella typhimurium strains and Escherichia coli (WP2-uvrA/) with and without metabolic activation system (S9 mix).  For in vivo study, Manjarix in three doses (250,500 and 1000 mg /kg/daily) was tested. In the developmental toxicity study, Manjarix treated female and male rats were mated to evaluate the effect of Manjarix on their fetuses’ development. Results revealed that Manjarix did not cause any genotoxic effects, as determined by the Ames test, in vivo chromosomal aberration and micronucleus assays. In addition, Manjarix did not show obvious alteration in the reproductive performance or fetal development. Based on these ?ndings, we can conclude that the use of Manjarix in traditional medicine poses no risk.
711-720
7
CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE DIETHYL ETHER EXTRACT OF WILD SONCHUS ASPER AND SONCHUS OLERACEUS GROWING IN LIBYA
Fouad Ibrahim, Mohamed H. M. Abed El-Azim, Ahmida Mohamed and Wesam A. Kollab
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Twelve compounds were identified from Sonchus asper by using GC-Mass spectroscopy, the main constituents were found to be Phytol 33.89 % and trans-anethole 20.22 %. While, eighteen compounds were identified from Sonchus oleraceus, among them Ethyl linoleate 43.05 %, (E)-9-Octadecenoic acid ethyl ester 24.02 % were found to represent the major constituents. Anti-tumor activity of the two Sonchus species showed that Sonchus oleraceus has a moderate inhibition with Hep-G2 and HCT-116 cells, while Sonchus asper has low inhibition against all cells (Hep-G2, HCT-116 and MCF-7). The antioxidant activity of Sonchus oleraceus showed a relatively strong antioxidant scavenging affinity against DPPH radicals.
693-701
8
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF DAUCUS CAROTA CANOPY
Nabila Helmy Shafik, Reham Ezzat Shafek, Helana Naguib Michael
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Antimicrobial study of Daucus Carota Canopy extracts against bacteria and fungi showed that the ethanolic extract was the most active.  Phytochemical investigation of the active ethanolic extract gave rise to 12 natural flavone compounds including the new C-glycoside; diosmetin 6,8-Di-C-a-L-rhamnopyranoside besides the first isolation of luteolin 8-C-ß-L-arabinopyranoside and luteolin 6,8-Di-C-a-L-rhamnopyranoside from this plant and the rest 9 known compounds including 3 luteolin glycosides, 1 diosmetin glycosides, 2 chrysoeriol glycosides and 3 aglycones. Their structures were established by chromatographic methods, chemical degradation and various spectroscopic data.
352-356
9
SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF ESOMEPRAZOLE MAGENISUM TRIHYDRATE AND NAPROXEN BY COMBINED HPLC-CHEMOMETRIC TECHNIQUES AND RP- HPLC METHOD
Amira H Kamal, Mokhtar M Mabrouk, Hamed M El-Fatatry, Sherin F Hammad
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
New chemometric approaches were applied to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for simultaneous determination of esomeprazole magenisum trihydrate and naproxen in their synthetic mixture. These chemometric approaches were applied to the multiwavelength HPLC peak area ratio obtained by plotting the chromatograms at the five wavelengths using diclofenac sodium as internal standard (IS). The multichromatograms were obtained by using the diode array detector (DAD). A mixture of 20 mM acetate buffer (pH=4.2) and acetonitrile (35:65, v/v) was used as a mobile phase on a 5µm (4.6 x 250mm) Inertsil® C18 Column at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min to separate and determine the investigated drugs in their synthetic mixture. For comparison purposes, a new validated developed classic HPLC method at 299 nm was used to confirm the results obtained from HPLC-chemometric calibration techniques. There was no significant difference between the methods compared.
107-121
10
NEW PYRIMIDINE AND FUSED PYRIMIDINE DERIVATIVES: SYNTHESIS AND ANTI HEPATITIS A VIRUS (HAV) EVALUATION
Ahmed Ali El-Sayed, Mahmoud El-Shahat, Samira T. Rabie, Eman M. Flefel, Dina N. Abd-Elshafy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Some novel fused pyrimidine derivatives 5–14 were prepared starting with compound 4. Also, Ethyl 4-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-6-methyl-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate 2 was used for the preparation of some fused pyrimidine analogs 15–19.  All synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antiviral activity against HAV virus by determination of plaque infectivity count assay on HepG2 cells. Compound 7 has high antiviral activity against HAV even higher than Amentadine (positive control) and on studying its mechanism of action it showed combined action between adsorption and replication of HAV.
69-79
11
A NOVEL FUSED PYRIDOPYRIMIDINE DERIVATIVES: SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION
Mahmoud El-Shahat, Eman A. Elhefny, Ahmed A. El-Sayed, Mowafia A.M. Salama
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Because of its potent and significant pharmacological activities, The 2-amino-4,6-bis(4-chlorophenyl) nicotinonitrile (1) used as a starting material to synthesis of pyridopyrimidine derivatives 3–7. On the other hand, we used the pyridopyrimidine 4 to synthesis of tricycle heterocyclic derivatives; pyridopyrimidotriazine 8–10; pyridotriazolopyrimidine 11–13 and pyridotetrazolopyrimidine 14.
53-58
12
ANTIPROTOZOAL AND MOLLUSCICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF PELARGONIUM GRAVEOLENS
Eman Al-Sayed , Hoda Abdel Hamid , Hanaa M. Abu El Einin, Eman Ali, Zeinab Fahmy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">In this study, the ethanol extract of Pelargonium graveolens (PGE) exhibited a strong molluscicidal against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, as well as a strong biocidal activity against the larval stages of Schistosoma &nbsp;mansoni (miracidia and cercariae). Treatment of the snails with the LC25 (59.7 ppm) of PGE induced a remarkable decrease in the protein levels in the snail tissues and hemolymph by 18 and 29%, respectively. A significant increase in the levels of the transaminases ALT (143%) and AST (161%) in the hemolymph was observed. Alkaline phosphatase was significantly increased by 124% in the snail tissues, while ACP was significantly increased by 76% in the hemolymph. PGE conferred the same inhibitory activity as metronidazole on Blastocystis hominis at a concentration of &nbsp;200 &micro;g/ml. The % mortality was 50, 60 and 70% after 24, 72 and 144 h incubation with PGE. The present study is the first report to provide evidence that PGE has a potent molluscicidal, biocidal and anti-Blastocystis effects.&nbsp;</div>
209-214
13
Antitumor activity of Moringa Oleifera leaf extract against Ehrlich solid tumor
Wagdy K. B. Khalil, Inas S. Ghaly, Kawthar A. E. Diab, Aida I. ELmakawy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) is promising plant for biomedicine applications because it has an impressive range of medicinal purposes with high nutritional value. Therefore, we investigated the therapeutic effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MOLE) on Ehrlich\'s solid tumor implanted mice (EST-mice). Swiss male albino mice were implanted intramuscularly with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). Three doses of MOLE extract (125, 250 and 500mg kg-1 ) were administrated to EST-mice for 14 days. The standard drug vincristine (VCR) was i.p injected (0.1 mg kg1- ) after the implantation of EST. The antitumor activity of MOLE was assessed using several tumor markers. Modulating activity of MOLE against EST was evaluated using comet assay, micronucleus test and morphological apoptotic changes as well as DNA fragmentation assay. The expression analysis of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and apoptosis related genes (p53, p21 and bcl2) were evaluated. Treatment of EST-mice with the highest dose of MOLE exhibited inhibition of tumor growth and the tumor markers in solid tumor. MOLE inhibited the apoptotic/necrotic cells, decrease of micronucleus formation and DNA damage in EST-mice. Expression of iNOS, VEGF, p53 mutation, p21 and bcl2 genes in EST-mice were significantly over-expressed compared with control group. These observations were markedly inhibited with the highest dose of extract. Moringa oleifera leaf extract revealed antitumor, antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic activities in EST-mice. The biological activities of Moringa oleifera leaf extract were discussed
68-82
14
Chemical and photochemical behavior of progesterone hybrids with antiviral activity
Manal M.T. El-Saidi, Maher A. El-Hashash, Nahid Y. Khaireldin
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The reaction of progesterone 1 with different aromatic aldehydes refluxed in absolute ethanol in the presence of sodium hydroxide afforded new progesterone chalcone hybrids (2a-e). Chalcone progesterone 2b reacted with (cyclohexyl amine, o-anisidine and p-toluidine) in boiling absolute ethanol to yield the corresponding adducts (3, 4 and 5). Treatment of 2b with (2-aminothiophenol) gave the adduct 6. Hetero-aryl chalcones (2d,e) were exposed to UV lamp (125w) in the presence of benzene yielded cyclobutane derivatives (7a,b). Compound 2d,e were irradiated in ethanol a pinacol dimeric products were obtained 8a,b. The antiviral of some newly products were examined.
47-56
15
MODULATION OF NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE AND SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE GENE EXPRESSION BY ALTERED THYROID LEVELS IN ADULT RAT BRAIN
Mariam G. Eshak and Wafaa A. Hassan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The effects of altered thyroid hormones level (through induction of Hypothyroidism or Hyperthyroidism) on oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers as well as on gene expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and superoxide dismutase of adult male rat brain were studied. Hypothyroidism was induced by daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of propylthiouracil (PTU, 10 mg/kg body weight) for 4 weeks. Hyperthyroidism was elicited by daily i.p. injection of L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300 µg/kg body weight) for 3 weeks. In hypo- or hyperthyroid rats, significant increases in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide concentrations associated with significant decreases in reduced glutathione content, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were recorded compared to the controls. Activity of glutathione peroxidase was increased in hypo- and hyperthyroid rats compared to control rats. Augmentation in the gene expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and decline in the gene expression of superoxide dismutase was observed in both hypo- and hyperthyroid rat brain. DNA damage of brain was higher in the two thyroid hormone states compared to the control groups. The random amplified polymorphic DNA- polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis indicated the presence of 48 % new bands (polymorphic) in hypothyroid (PTU) and hyperthyroid (L-T4) treated brain samples and the absence of such bands in the control groups. Marked histopathological alterations were also observed in brain sections of either hypo- or hyperthyroid rats. These results provide evidence that the changes in the oxidative stress and antioxidant status in altered thyroid hormone levels are exerted through modulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and superoxide dismutase gene expression in adult rat brain.
10-23
16
Establishment and validation of Two Smart UV-Spectrophotometric and a Novel Spectrodensitometric Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride/ Pyridoxine Binary Mixture in Raw Material and in Syrup
*Amira M. Hegazy, Nagiba Y. Hassan, Fadia H. Metwally, Mohammad Abdel-Kawy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Currently the anti-emetic drug metoclopramide hydrochloride (MCP-HCl) is co-formulated with pyridoxine (VB6). Three simple, economic and fast spectroscopic methods for determination of both drugs, simultaneously and without previous separation were developed. The first method is a ratio derivative spectrophotometry. The peaks amplitudes of first derivative spectra of MCP-HCl and VB6 were measured at 318.5 nm and 327.5 nm, respectively. The second one is an isosbestic point spectrophotometry. The peaks amplitudes of MCP-HCl and VB6 spectra were measured at 321.5 and 299.5 nm, respectively. The third method is spectrodensitomerty. The mobile phase was composed of benzene, methanol, glacial acetic acid, and acetone (10: 8: 0.5: 0.5; by volume). It gave typical chromatogram for MCP-HCl and VB6 at Rfs 0.2 &plusmn; 0.02 &amp; 0.51 &plusmn; 0.01, respectively and the UV scanning was carried out at 245 nm. Complete validation processes of the established methods were performed according to ICH guidelines and USP requirements.&nbsp; All methods were linear within wide concentrations ranges with high correlation coefficients.&nbsp; The proposed methods showed high accuracy, precision and selectivity results. Relative standard deviation values for all the key parameters were less than 2.00%. <br />
490-500
17
Application and Validation of Two Smart Spectrophotometric and a HP-TLC Densitometric Methods for Determination of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride/ Paracetamol in Raw Material and in Pharmaceuticals
*Amira M. Hegazy, Nagiba Y. Hassan, Fadia H. Metwally, Mohammad Abdel-Kawy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Currently the anti-emetic drug metoclopramide hydrochloride (MCP-HCl) is co-formulated with paracetamol (PCM). Three simple, economic and fast methods for determination of both drugs, simultaneously and without previous separation were developed. In first method (A), a third derivative spectrophotometric method was developed. The peaks amplitudes of third derivative spectra of MCP-HCl and PCM were measured at 334.5 and 299 nm, respectively. In second method (B), a ratio subtraction spectrophotometric method was developed. The peak amplitude of first derivative spectrum of MCP-HCl was measured at 321 nm at which PCM spectrum gives zero crossing point whereas the peak amplitude of ratio subtraction spectrum of PCM was measured at 292 nm.&nbsp; Both spectrophotomertric methods were linear within concentration range of MCP- HCl; 12-60 &micro;g/mL and PCM; 35-165 &micro;g/mL with&nbsp; high correlation coefficients.&nbsp; In third method (C), HP-TLC method was developed. The mobile phase composed of methanol, chloroform and conc. ammonia solution (10: 2: 0.15) gave typical chromatogram for MCP-HCl and PCM at Rfs 0.21 &plusmn; 0.02 &amp; 0.59 &plusmn; 0.02, respectively and the UV scanning was carried out at 270 nm. The method was linear within range of MCP- HCl; 6-18 &micro;g/mL and PCM; 5-50 &micro;g/mL giving high correlation coefficients. Complete validation process of the established methods was performed according to ICH guidelines and USP requirements and gave relative standard deviation values for all the key validation parameters less than 2.00%. <br />
470-481
18
A NOVEL RAPIDLY DISINTEGRATING TABLET OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE WITH ENHANCED STABILITY: DESIGN AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION
*Mahmoud M. Ghorab, Yasser S. El-Saharty, Amna A. Makky, Shaimaa M. Badr-Eldin
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This work aimed to formulate sildenafil citrate rapidly disintegrating tablets with enhanced stability utilizing the approach of incorporating antioxidant simultaneously with pH modifier for adjusting the tablet microenvironmental pH. Studies for effect of pH on the drug saturated solutions stability revealed that the drug exhibited maximum stability at pH 4.6. Studies for the effect of antioxidants on drug stability revealed marked stabilizing effect of sodium metabisulphite. Tablets were prepared by direct compression according to 22 factorial design considering the factors; filler and disintegrant types. All blends contained sodium metabisulphite as antioxidant and potassium dihydrogen phosphate as microenvironmental pH adjuster. Two-way ANOVA was performed to assess effects and interactions of formulation factors on tablets characteristics. Two selected formulae (F b and F ab) were subjected to storage at 50 &ordm;C/75 % R.H for 12 weeks, where no significant changes was observed for F ab, while marked discoloration was observed for F b. The results suggested that F ab could be a promising drug formulation with rapid disintegration and enhanced stability.
28-39
19
EVALUATION OF PHARMACOKINETICS AND LIVER FUNCTION EVALUATED IN RATS FOLLOWING THE CO-ADMINISTRATION OF CAPTOPRIL AND CIPROFLOXACIN
*Essam Ezzeldin and Hebatalla Ibrahim Ahmed
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Simultaneous co-administration of multiple drugs is highly probable to allow effective treatment of a disease or multiple disease symptoms. Ciprofloxacin antibiotic is in use worldwide and it is possible to be used in cardiovascular patient&rsquo;s treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the biochemical and pharmacokinetic interactions between ciprofloxacin and captopril in rats. The study was conducted in six groups of rats that received captopril 7.5 mg/kg, ciprofloxacin 50 and 100 mg/kg alone or co-administered with captopril 7.5 mg/kg for 28 days. Captopril and Ciprofloxacin plasma levels were determined by validated HPLC methods. Liver function biomarkers were also assessed. Ciprofloxacin significantly increased the Cmax AUC0-12 and AUC0-inf and prolonged t1/2 and MRT of captopril. Conversely, captopril had no significance effect on the ciprofloxacin.&nbsp; Ciprofloxacin elevated the liver function biomarkers. Therefore the clinical significant of this work should be taken into consideration when these two agents are concomitantly administered. <br />
244-251
20
IMPACT OF CLINICAL PHARMACIST INTERVENTION ON DECREASING INCIDENCE OF PREVENTABLE ADVERSE DRUG EVENTS AFTER HOSPITAL DISCHARGE
*Osama H. Mohamed Ibrahim
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Most of the time discharge from the hospital after hospitalization involves disturbance of care, multiple changes in medications and medication regimens, and insufficient patient education, which can cause several adverse drug events (ADEs) and unnecessary health care utilization that can be avoided. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of clinical pharmacist intervention on decreasing the incidence of preventable ADEs after patient discharge. A randomized trial was conducted involving 250 patients being discharged from the general medicine service at a large teaching hospital in Cairo (Egypt). Patients in the intervention group received pharmacist counseling at discharge and a follow-up telephone call 3 to 4 days later. Intervention group counseling concentrates on reviewing indications, clarifying medication regimens; explaining directions of use, explaining potential side effects of medications; screening for barriers to adherence; and providing patient counseling. Patients in the control group received the standard dispensing and counseling with no follow-up telephone call. The primary outcome was the rate of preventable ADEs. All patients in the trial were contacted 30 days after discharge to assess adherence and the occurrence of ADE. Clinical pharmacists observed that medication non-adherence happened in about 13%.of the intervention group versus 24% in the control group (P-value &lt; 0.05). Comparing study outcomes 30 days after discharge, preventable ADEs were detected in 14% of patients in control group and 3% of patients in intervention group (P-value&lt;0.05). Clinical pharmacists&rsquo; interventions such as medication review, patient counseling, and telephone follow-up were associated with a statistically significant lower rate of preventable ADEs 30 days after hospital discharge (P-value &lt;0.05) through reduction in medication discrepancies and improvement of adherence to medication regimen. Greater roles for clinical pharmacists in hospital care should be considered, especially in case of patient at high risk to ADE and poor compliance.
237-243