Country-wise Listing - Ethiopia

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S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
IN-VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIFUNGAL AND ANTHELMINTHIC ACTIVITY OF THE BARK OF MADHUCA INDICA
K. Pavan Kumar, Balisa Mosisa Ejeta, Biniam Paulos Bura, Madhusudhana Reddy Induri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The research work was carried on the evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and anthelminthic activities of the methanolic, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts of Madhuca indica bark belonging to family Sapotaceae. Disc diffusion technique was used for in-vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities using ciprofloxacin (5µg/disc) and clotrimazole (10µg/disc), zone of inhibition was observed against two gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis), two gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), two fungal species (Aspergillus Niger, Candida albicans) at concentration of 50, 100, 150, 200µg/mL). Anthelminthic activity was investigated in pheretima posthuma (Indian Earth Worm) at concentration 10, 20, 50mg/mL against standard drug piperazine citrate (10mg/mL). For antibacterial and antifungal activity of all the extracts has shown moderate to good activity against standard drugs. Among all the extracts aqueous extract and methanolic extract have shown good activity when compared to petroleum ether extract which showed moderate activity against standard drugs. For anthelminthic activity of petroleum ether extract has shown good activity against the other extracts.

116-121
2
ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES REGARDING EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE AMONG THE RESIDENTS OF HARAR, EASTERN ETHIOPIA
Temam Aman, Vijaibasker G
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a disease of humans and other primates, which is caused by an RNA virus of the family Filoviridae and genus Ebolavirus. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes regarding Ebola virus disease among the residents in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia. This study was carried out from March 4 to April 20, 2015. A descriptive cross sectional study design was used in this study. The respondents were interviewed on a pre-tested structured questionnaire after their verbal consent. The data was collected by direct face to face interview and the outcome variables were knowledge and attitudes regarding Ebola virus disease. The knowledge and attitudes score was classified as adequate if score was = 70%, moderately adequate if score was 41-60% and inadequate if score was < 40%. Of 269 respondents, only 67 (24.9%) had adequate knowledge, 121 (45%) had moderately adequate knowledge and 81 (30.1%) had inadequate knowledge regarding Ebola virus disease. Out of 269 respondents, 146 (54.3 %) had positive attitude and 123 (45.7 %) had negative attitude regarding Ebola virus disease. In the present study, it was found that residents in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia had unsatisfactory knowledge regarding Ebola Virus Disease. Also 123 (45.7 %) had negative attitudes regarding Ebola virus disease among the residents in kebele 18 were not satisfactory too. Hence findings of this study pinpoint the necessity of inculcation of health education programs, which will create the public to be aware against the EVD.
209-221
3
POTENTIAL DRUG-DRUG INTERACTIONS IN MEDICAL WARDS OF TIKUR ANBESSA SPECIALIZED HOSPITAL, ETHIOPIA
Mohammed Biset Ayalew
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs), to identify drugs frequently involved in interaction and to identify factors associated with pDDIs in medical wards of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH). A prospective crossectional study was conducted on 163 patients admitted in medical wards of TASH. Presence of interaction was cheeked using medscape drug-drug interaction checker. Data was analysed using SPSS version 21. A test of association was done using binary and multiple logistic regressions. The overall prevalence of potential drug-drug interaction was 86.5%. Interactions of major severity account for about one fifth of total pDDIs. The number of drugs taken by the patient was found to be significantly associated with pDDIs. The study highlighted the need to carefully select drugs and implement active pharmaceutical care services in order to prevent harmful effect of these interactions.
64-70
4
Assessment of drug prescription practice using who prescribing indicators in Felege Hiwot referral hospital (FHRH) outpatient department, North Ethiopia
Laychiluh Bantie
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Drug therapy is the most commonly used method of any disease treatment in general practice. However, the patterns of drug prescription are often inappropriate and the need for registration and evaluation of these patterns is essential in an effort to improve prescription standards. Cross sectional retrospective study was used. Prescriptions were selected by using simple random sampling technique from accumulated prescriptions over a period of six months (May 2013 to October 2013). The Data was evaluated using standardized World Health Organization prescription indicators for studies of rational drug use. Data was collected from prescriptions by using pre-prepared data collection tool. The average number of drugs per encounter was 1.83; with 97.4% drugs prescribed by generic names. 38% & 10.8% of the prescriptions contained encounters with antibiotics and injections use respectively. 100% of drugs prescribed were from the essential drugs list of Ethiopia. It is concluded from the study that the number of drugs prescribed per encounter, prescribing practices for injections, generic prescribing and prescribing from essential drug list are encouraging, whereas prescribing practices for antibiotic need to be regulated closely since study shows deviation from the standard recommended by World Health Organization guideline.
89-94
5
A RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW OF ANTIBIOTIC UTILIZATION IN ADULT MEDICAL WARDS OF A PRIMARY CARE HOSPITAL IN ETHIOPIA
Zenaw Tessema, Chalachew Teshale, Segewkal Hawaze
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Inappropriate antibiotic use results emergence of resistance, preventable morbidity and mortality and resource wastage. Institution based retrospective cross sectional study was conducted using patient cards and prescription registration books to assess antibiotics utilization pattern in adult medical wards of Finote Selam Hospital (FSH). 30 cases per quarter were selected from the documented cards, based on Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Organizations (JCAHO) sample size recommendation. Out of 130 cards reviewed, ceftriaxone (31.02%), amoxicillin (14.29%) and gentamicin (13.88%) were commonly prescribed. Combined antibiotics were used in 17.50% of cases and 18.77% of prescribed antibiotics were inappropriately indicated. 53.88% of prescribed antibiotics were administered through the intravenous route. Average number of antibiotics per encounter was 1.22 and 97.1% of antibiotics were prescribed with generic name. 58% of antibiotics were prescribed from Essential Drug List (EDL). Correct frequency and duration were specified in 88.16% and 42.04% of the antibiotics respectively. Duration, dosage form, route and frequency were not specified in 57.96%, 10.20%, 8.57% and 6.53% of antibiotics respectively. Not specifying dosage form, route, and duration; prescription habit deviating from EDL and improper indication were problems identified. Good generic prescription habit, low level poly-pharmacy and specifying frequency were the good practices observed.
56-62
6
ASSESSMENT OF DISPENSING PRACTICE IN SOUTH WEST ETHIOPIA: THE CASE OF JIMMA UNIVERSITY SPECIALIZED HOSPITAL
*Workneh Etefa, Chalachew Teshale, Segewkal Hawaze
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Dispensing is a crucial part of drug use process. This study aimed at assessing quality of dispensing in Jimma University Specialized Hospital Outpatient Pharmacy. A prospective participatory observation of dispensing process and interview of patient were conducted using checklist and semi structured questionnaire. World Health Organization patient care indicators and other quality indicators were employed. Pearson Chi-Square test was used to determine association and P&lt;0.005 was considered statistically significant. Average number of drugs per prescription was 1.84 and 81% of prescriptions were fully dispensed. Mean labeling score was 2.5 and mean dispensing time was 22.5 seconds. Mean knowledge score was 2.8 and 69% of patients had adequate knowledge. Adequate knowledge was significantly associated with educational status (p&lt;0.005). Correct dosage was recalled by 79% patients and knowledge about correct dosage was significantly associated with age and educational status (p&lt;0.005). Inadequate labeling, short dispensing time and unavailability of essential drugs and dispensing aids reflect discrepancies in quality of care.<br />
668-674