Country-wise Listing - India

To view the articles from different countries, Please click on the country name on left side countries menu.
S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
Considering Various Components for Rational Development of Solid Dispersion with Better Affectivity
Poonam Mogal, Deeliprao Derle
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The goal of pharmaceutical preparation investigation is to utilize to the full of every bang-up properties while overcoming as many another as manageable unsought properties of existent operational drugs & formed drug molecules. The choice of accepted applied science & technology in the formulation is habitually favored to maintain a time table and success rate requirements in industry. But in numerous cases new excipients for formulation or delivery technologies are required to formulate coveted clinically significant improvements, for differentiation in the market and to those fortifying for industrial protection. This is important aspect influencing development and industrialization is the scale-up in the production of formulation excipients and delivery systems. A methodical consideration of the processes taking place at a molecular stage is crucial for the logical development of solid dispersions. The parameters like manufacturing certain thermodynamic properties of BCS class II drugs, factors that affects stability of the system, physicochemical properties of drug in solid dispersion, mechanisms responsible solubility & dissolution rate enhancement as well as mechanisms to make the system stable, for choosing the right polymeric carrier & the solubilizing formation techniques all these should be well thought-out before forming solid dispersion. Systematically done workings come out to be indispensable for enhancing potential of many existing & outdated copious BCS class 2/4 drugs as well as new chemical entities.
162-190
2
An assessment of Antioxidant potential and in-vitro SPF activity of Amaranthus tricolor and Curcuma longa
Suchita Wamankar, Anshita Gupta, Pragati Baghel, Pranita Kashyap, Chanchal Deep Kaur
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of present research work is to focus on analysis of the antioxidant activity and in-vitro SPF value Amaranthus tricolor and Curcuma longa. These types of herbs contains various organic and inorganic molecules (pigments) and their mixture, it had nature of absorption light in the visible region of 400-800nm. In the phytochemical analysis of A. tricolor and C.longa it was found that they contain glycosides, alkaloids, tannin, saponin and flavonoids as well as herbal dyes. The antioxidant properties of ethanolic extract of both herbs were analysed by DPPH percentage free radical inhibition activity. The antioxidant activity was found to be 36.06 ±30.00 % for A. tricolor and 8.17± 20.7% was found for C. longa The SPF value was found to be 4.118 ± 0.0035 A. tricolor, and 4.626 ± 0.018 was found for C. longa. The future prospects of the study lies in developing novel suitable formulations of these herbal dyes.
155-161
3
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF ZAFIRLUKAST
T. Lakshm Prasanna, Dr. P. Jayachandra Reddy, Dr. K. Umasankar, K. Jyosthana Devi, I. Rajitha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Pulsatile delivery system is capable of delivering drug when and where it required  most.Time delayed tablets,designed to release drug after apredictable lagtime, are intended for oral chronotherapy.The basic design consists of a core tablets prepared by direct compression method. The tablets were coated with an inner swellable layer containing sodium alginate & ethyl cellulose.The prepared pulsatile tablets were evaluated for the drug content,thickness and in-vitro release profile, etc. In-vitro releaseprofile sofpulsatile device during six hours studies were found to have very good sustaining efficacy. During the first five hour sit shows minimum drug release and at the end of six hours immediate release was observed. Increasing the level of the rupturable layer increased mechanical strength and retarded the water uptake and thus prolonged the lagtime. Stability studies proved that coating of tablets seems to decrease the effect of temperature and moisture on the degradation of Zafirlukast. The programmable pulsatile release has been achieved from table to vera 7-8 hr period, consistent with the demands of chrono therapeutic drug delivery.

147-154
4
FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CEFIXIME MICROSPHERES
Y. Manjula Devi, S. Venkata Naidu, G. Sailaja, R. Ramachandra Murthy, B. Ranganath
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The purpose of this research work was to increase the residence time of drug Cefixime by formulating as floating microspheres and to study the effect of formulation variables on microsphere characteristics. Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation method in which ethyl cellulose used as a release retardant polymer. Nine different formulations were prepared by changing drug to polymer ratio, volume of internal phase, volume of external phase and stirring time. The prepared microspheres were characterized for drug - polymer compatibility by IR, percentage yield, particle size analysis, drug entrapment efficiency, surface morphology by SEM, bulk density, percentage buoyancy, in-vitro release and release kinetic studies. Results of these evaluations showed that particle size in the range of 102.5±1.3µm to 110±2.21 µm, entrapment efficiency was found to be 75.69±1.91 to 88.35±2.67%, drug content was found to be in the range of 97.46±2.4 to98.95±1.8.  Fourier-Transform Infra Red (FT-IR) studies ensured that no drug - polymer interaction in the formulated microspheres and the surface topography revealed a spherical surface for all the formulations and a round cavity enclosed by an outer shell composed of the drug and polymer. In- vitro release profile of microspheres for F6 formulation was found to be 97.87±0.2 at the end of 12 hrs.  In release kinetic studies, the F6 formulation followed zero order drug release with non-Fickian diffusion mechanism.

138-146
5
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF LAMOTRIGINE IN A TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Dr M. Paul Richard, Dr Kiran Kumar P.Govardhan Reddy, P.Uma Mahesh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

A simple, sensitive, and precise high performance liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of Lamotrigine has been developed and validated for the  determination of compound in commercial pharmaceutical products. The compounds were well separated on BDS Hypersil C18 reverse phase column by the use of a mobile phase of mixed phosphate buffer and acetonitrile in a ratio of 40:60 v/v, at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min with detection wavelength at 248nm. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity, robustness and solution stability. The method does require only 10 minutes as runtime for analysis which prove the adoptability of the method for the routine quality control analysis of the drug.

132-137
6
DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MICROSPONGE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF INDOMETHACIN
Inukonda Rajitha, Dr K. Umasankar, Dr. P. Jayachandra reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

In the present study controlled release formulation of Indomethacin microsponges were prepared by using Carbopol 940, PVA. Microsponges were prepared by Quasi emulsion solvent diffusion method by changing drug polymer ratio (1:0.5-1:4) and process was optimized. Microsponges were evaluated by micromeritic properties, drug content, encapsulation efficiency, and particle size. Characterization of Indomethacin microsponges were done by FT-IR spectroscopy,. In-vitro dissolution study indicated that the release of Indomethacin varied according to the concentration of matrix forming polymer, drug  release mechanism was found to be super case II transport Therefore, Indomethacin microsponges prepared in thus study are promising as being more useful than conventional formulation intherapy.

125-131
7
A novel method for the simultaneous determination of Azelnidipine and Olmesartan in Human plasma by using liquid chromatography-electro spray Ionization tandem mass spectrometry and application to a pharmacokinetic study
Ramesh Adepu, Dr. B. Neelima, Dr. Leela Mohan Kumar Pallapothu and Dr. A. Ashok Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

A novel rapid, specific and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Azelnidipine and Olmesartan in K2EDTA human plasma. The method involves simple, solid phase extraction procedure and separation with an C18 column (5 µm, 100 x 4.6 mm) with Acetonitrile/5mM Ammonium Formate pH-3.00 [80/20, V/V]  isocratic elution at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL/min with a total run time of 3.0 minutes. Labeled isotopes were used as the internal standard. The protonate of analyte’s were quantitated in positive ionization by multiple reaction monitoring with a mass spectrometer. The mass transitions m/z 583.300 ?167.200 and m/z 447.400 ?207.000 were used to measure Azelnidipine and Olmesartan respectively. The method was developed and validated using 200 µL of plasma, over a concentration range of 0.100 – 40.070 ng/mL for Azelnidipine and 3.001 – 1200.340 ng/mL for Olmesartan. The intra and inter day Precision and Accuracy values were found to be within the assay variability limits as per regulatory guidelines. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study involving a single oral administration of a combination tablet to human male volunteers.

111-124
8
DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND DISSOLUTION ENHANCEMENT OF SIMVASTATIN WITH POLOXAMER 407 BY KNEADING METHOD
Taranjit kaur, Harpreet Singh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The aim of the present study was to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of Simvastatin (SIM) under the frame of improved bioavailability and dissolution rate. Solid dispersion of SIM was prepared by using LBG, PXM407 as carrier in different ratios through Kneading method. A 32 full factorial design was applied systematically and effect the influence of the individual and combined effect of independent variables (X1) ratio and (X2) concentration of surfactants on the dependent variables percent dissolution efficiency at 60 min (percentage DE 60) and yield percent. The solid dispersions and optimized formula was characterised on the basis of drug content analysis, percentage yield and in vitro dissolution study, Differential scanning calorimetry, Scanning transmission microscopy, X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy was performed to identify the physicochemical interaction between drug, carrier and other formulation constituents. Results showed that significantly better dissolution rate of solid dispersion SIM with PXM407 in the ratio of 1:8. This study could be very much helpful for better bioavailability and dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drug avoiding first pass metabolism.

99-110
9
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BILAYER FLOATING TABLETS OF CIPROFLOXACIN AND ALOE VERA GEL POWDER FOR TREATMENT OF GASTRIC ULCERS
M. Yasmin Begum*, G.Prathyusha Reddy, Chitampally Sirisha, V.Lakshman rao, Muvvala Sudhakar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The aim of the present work was to design and develop a bilayer floating tablet of Ciprofloxacin and Aloe vera gel powder for the treatment of peptic ulcer, with the objective of retaining the dosage form in stomach for better antiulcer activity using the synthetic drug with a herbal product. Aloe  vera gel powder was used for its cytoprotective action. Six Bilayer floating formulations were prepared by using direct compression method.The formulation has been  developed using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose HPMC K4M and HPMC K100M at varying concentrations. FTIR studies showed no incompatibility between the drug and excipients. The ratios of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was adjusted to get the least possible lag time less than one minute with good matrix integrity and total floating log time greater than eight hours. Among all the six formulations F4 showed the maximum drug release of 96.018% within eight hours.

91-98
10
ASSESSMENT OF SEASONAL VARIATION OF HEAVY METALS IN THREE DIFFERENT FISH SPECIES FROM SOUTHEAST COAST REGION OF CUDDALORE
S. Celine Hilda Mary, R. Ramabai, A.Vinodhini and R.Anandan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Fish has been consider as a one of the most important source of nutrients. These nutrients can be affected by manmade pollution and leads to some toxic effects. The main purpose of this study to assess the seasonal variation of proximate composition, level of heavy metals such as mercury, arsenic and lead in seawater and different fish species. The muscle tissues of three commonly demanded fish species [Lutjanus sanguineus, Loligo duvauceli and Leiognathus splendens] and sea water samples was collected from southeast coast region of Cuddalore at three different seasons [winter, summer and Monsoon]. The level of heavy metals in different fish species was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The result of the current study revealed that all the metals were present below the permitted level in sea water and fish sample at all three seasons. They are present in the following order in all the seasons Hg

82-90
11
EVALUATION OF INVITRO ANTICANCER AND ANTI INFLAMMATORY POTENTIAL OF MITRACARPUS VILLOSUS (Sw) DC.
K. Poonkodi, K. Vimala devi, M. Rubini, R. Priya dharsini and S. Vinitha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The present study examines the in vitro anti inflammatory potential of ethanol and petroleum ether extracts of Mitracarpus villosus by HRBC stabilization method. In addition to that invitro anti cancer potential of ethanol extract of the M.villosus was evaluated by MTT assay. The results revealed that the petroleum ether and ethanol extracts has significant anti inflammatory activities compared to the standard. The petroleum ether extract showed the percentage of lysis of about 25.64 for 20µl followed by 36.25, 47.21 for 40 µl and 60 µl respectively. The ethanol extract showed % of lysis of 54.24, 66.17 and 78.71 for 20µl, 40 µl and 60 µl respectively.  The ethanol extract showed very good percentage of membrane lysis in all the concentrations employed.  The ethanol extract was tested for its anticancer potential against MCF-7-Human breast cancer cell line and HEK- 293-Human embryonic kidney cell line by MTT assay. The ethanol extract showed significant cytotoxic effect on the MCF-7 and HEK-293 cancer cell lines in dose dependant pattern and the IC50 values were determined as 217.6 and 196.8 µg/ml, respectively. This is the first report of its kind to test the ethanol extract of M.villosus for anticancer activity. 

78-81
12
RP- HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR DETERMINATION OF RIVAROXABAN IN THE PURE AND PHARMACUETICAL DOSAGE FORM
R. Nageswara Rao, L Sivasankar Reddy2 and R. Meenakshi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

A simple, rapid, accurate, precise, robust and reproducible RP-HPLC method was developed for the determination of Rivaroxaban in pure drug and pharmaceutical dosage form. The quantification was carried out using enable C18 (250×4.6mm, 5µm) column in a binary mode with mobile phase comprising 0.1% GAA : ACN in 30:70 %v/v at flow rate 1ml/min, detection was carried out at 250nm using PDA detector with injection volume 20µl, the retention time was found to be 3.44min.The method produced linear response in the concentration range of 2-10µg/ml (R2 ˜0.9993). The recovery studies were carried out and %RSD was found to be 0.21. LOD and LOQ of Rivaroxaban for the method were found to be 0.008µg/ml and 0.248µg/ml respectively. The proposed method was statistically evaluated and found to be highly sensitive, precise, accurate, robust and fast. The shorter retention time allows the analysis of large number of samples in short period of time and it is cost effective, so it can be successfully applied for routine analysis of quality control of raw materials and formulation of different strengths of Rivaroxaban.

71-77
13
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CHLOROFORM FRACTION OF RUBIA CORDIFOLIA AND CARVEDILOL AGAINST IN VIVO MODEL OF MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION INJURY IN RATS
Shabari Girinath K, D. Midhun Kumar, Lohithasu Duppala, Pankaj Bhatt
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Present study evaluated the cardioprotective effect of chloroform fraction of root of Rubiacordifolia (CFRRC) against ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) and Cardioprotective effect of CFRRC was evaluated. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of CFRRC was supported by its in vitro DPPH scavenging activity. Serum estimations revealed a significant decrease in activities of cardiac biomarkers (LDH and CK-MB) in the groups pre-treated with CFRRC. Pre-treatment with CFRRC prevented GSH depletion and also inhibited lipid peroxidation in heart tissue. in vitro and in vivo studies of CFRRC and comparative study with Carvedilol indicate that pretreatment with CFRRC at the doses (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) showed significant therapeutically changes in a  dose dependent manner against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Further clinical research is needed to confirm the beneficial effects of Rubiacordifolia in various cardiovascular disorders.

57-64
14
FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND INVITRO EVALUATION OF MATRIX TYPE TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM USING CETYL PYRIDINIUM
Vanitha Rapaka, G. Haritha, D.Sreekanth, Vishwanadham Yerragunta
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

At present, the most common form of delivery of drugs is the oral route, its advantage of easy administration. It also has significant drawbacks –poor bioavailability due to hepatic metabolism (first pass) and the tendency to produce rapid blood level spikes, which can be both cost prohibitive and inconvenient. To overcome these difficulties there is a need for the development of new drug delivery system; which will improve the therapeutic efficacy and safety of drugs. Hence in present work, an attempt is been made to provide development and optimization a matrix type Transdermal drug delivery system using water insoluble polymers with model drug as Cetylpyridinium  and to study the effect of various concentration of polymers on In-vitro membrane permeation studies.

51-56
15
INFLUENCE OF SUPER DISINTEGRATING AGENTS ON IN-VITRO RELEASE OF CHLORPHENIRAMINE MALEATE SUBLINGUAL TABLETS
Reddy Sunil, Goli. Vinitha, Yasmeen Tabassum, A. Venkatesham
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The term Sublingual referred as “under the tongue”. In this route of administration the drug permeates through the tissues under tongue into the blood stream. The Sublingual route of administration play important role in avoiding first pass metabolism. The main objective is to improve bioavailability, rapid onset of action and solubility of the drug increased and protein binding is avoided. Sublingual tablets of Chlorpheniramine maleate formulated by using direct compression method. Nine formulations were formulated using Rotary compression machine to explain the effects of the sodium starch glycolate, Cross Povidone, Cross Carmellose Sodium on disintegration time, In-vitro release of the drug and % drug release. In addition the tablets are also evaluated for the weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, wetting time, water absorbivity ratio, FTIR, DSC and drug release studies. The Batch F8 is having the higher dissolution and disintegration rate for optimized sublingual Chlorpheniramine maleate tablet, for rapid onset of action for management of tussiveness. The F8 Formulation is having less wetting time and high water absorption ratio. 

17-28
16
Development and Validation of Stability Indicating RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of Epalrestat and Pregabalin in bulk and tablet dosage form
B. Madhu Harika, Y. Rajendra Prasad
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The proposed study, a new stability- indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed for estimation of Epalrestat and Pregabalin in bulk and tablet dosage form. The present method was a sensitive, precise, and accurate RP-HPLC method for the analysis of Epalrestat and Pregabalin. To optimize the mobile phase, various combinations of buffer and organic solvents were used on Xterra-(150x4.6mm, 5µ) column. Then the mobile phase containing a mixture of Ammonium acetate buffer (pH 10): ACN 70:30 % v/v was selected at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min for developing the method and the peaks with good shape and resolution was found resulting in short retention time, baseline stability and minimum noise. The retention times of Epalrestat and Pregabalin were found to be 2.516 min and 3.132 min respectively. Quantitative linearity was obeyed in the concentration range of 37.5-225 and 18.75-112.5 µg/mL of Epalrestat and Pregabalin respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were found to be 0.19µg/mL and 0.57µg/mL (Epalrestat); 0.50µg/ mL and 1.51 µg/mL (Pregabalin) respectively, which indicates the sensitivity of the method. The high percentage recovery indicates that the proposed method is highly accurate. No interfering peaks were found in the chromatogram indicating that excipients used in injection formulations didn’t interfere with the estimation of the drugs by the proposed HPLC method.
157-164
17
MICROWAVE ASSISTED SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF NOVEL BENZIMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES
Maneshwar.T, K.Radhika, Rajeswari G.L, Geethanjali.K.B, Umarani.R, Srividya Girija.P.V, Spandana.D.L, Priyanka.S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new class of potentially biological active novel bezimidazole derivatives containing Benzimidazole moiety has been synthesized and evaluation of novel Benzimidazole derivatives for Anthelmintic activity. The title compounds were synthesized in a good yield. The synthesized Compounds 3a-3h was characterized by FT-IR, Mass and 1H NMR data and evaluated for their anthelmintic activities by standard protocol available in literature. All the compounds were subjected for Anthelmintic screening, among this series of compounds 3d and 3e showed high activity against.
151-156
18
Antinociceptive activity of methanol extract of Begonia thomsonii A. DC. leaves
Mohammed Farhad, Mohammed Sohel Meah, Ovil Das, Md. Salauddin, Md. Abu Hanif, Md. Rahimul Hasan, Md. Shamsuzzaman, Asifur Rahman, Mofiza Akter, Md. Mominur Rahman, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The nature has provided abundant plant wealth for all the living creatures, which possess medicinal virtues. Therefore, there is a necessity to explore their uses and to ascertain their therapeutic properties. The present study was to investigate anti-nociceptive action of the methanol extract of Begonia thomsonii A.DC. leaves. The mice were submitted to acetic acid-induced writhing test and Formalin induced licking test to assess antinociceptive activities, respectively. Two doses 400 and 200 mg/kg were administered for testing. The methanol extract of B. thomsonii at both doses, exhibited a significant (P < 0.001) dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in acetic acid writhing test and Formalin test. In acetic acid-induced writhing test, oral administration of methanol extract of B. thomsonii (200 and 400 mg/kg) also decreased the writhing significantly while compared to control. The dose 400 mg/kg showed maximum percentage of pain inhibition (33.33%). Aspirin (10 mg/kg) was used as reference antinociceptive drugs. Methanol extract of B. thomsonii (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly suppressed the licking activity in both phase of the formalin-induced pain in mice in a dose dependant manner.  The  reference  analgesic  drug Aspirin (10  mg/kg)  also  significantly  inhibited the  licking  activity  against  both  phases  of  formalin induced pain. The leaf extract has potential antinociceptive activity. The present study supports the use of B. thomsonii in different pain states.

146-150
19
Development and Validation of UV/Visible Spectrophotometric Method for the Estimation of Simavastatin in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Formulations
R. Sai Bharath, A. Aswini, J. Arshiya, J. Nikhil Yadav, G. Siddartha,Paul Richards M
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Simavastatin is an antihyperlipedemic drug used in the treatment of atherosclerosis a cardiovascular disorder A simple, sensitive, accurate and reproducible UV/visible spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of Simavastatin in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The solvent used was distilled water and wavelength corresponding to maximum absorbance for the drug was found at 238 nm. Drug obeyed beer’s law in the concentration range of 10 – 60µg/ml. with a correlation coefficient of 0.999. The linear regression equation obtained was y=0.0565x+0.0249, where y is the absorbance and x is the concentration of the pure drug solution. The method was validated for several parameters such as Linearity, Accuracy, Precision and Robustness as per the ICH guidelines. The % recovery value which is close to 100% indicates reproducibility of the method and absence of interference of the excepients present in the formulation. The authors conclude that the proposed spectrophotometric method for the estimation of Simavastatin can be used for routine analysis of Simavastatin in bulk as well as in tablet dosage form.
138-141
20
ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC AND AQUEOUS WHOLE PLANT EXTRACT OF ASYSTASIA GANGETICA
Mohd Mudassir Hussain, Vinesh Kumar, G Jeyabalan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

In the present study ethanolic and aqueous whole plant extract of Asystasia gangetica was investigated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. Analgesic activity was determined by two different methods (tail immersion & hot plate) & anti-inflammatory activity was determined by three different methods (carrageenan, formalin induced paw edema & cotton pellet granuloma) at dose 200 & 400mg/kg b.wt in experimental animals using diclofenac sodium, tramadol, Indomethacin as reference drugs. In all the animals models the results obtained were statistically significant (P<0.05) in comparison to control. The results obtained indicate that Asystasia gangetica has significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in those animal models.

174-179
21
REGISTRATION PROCESS OF GENERIC DRUGS IN USFDA
Mamatha M, Kranthi Kumar B, Ch. Ramya Sree, Teja D, Sravani M, Elphine Prabhahar A, Rama Rao N
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Regulatory involvement in the generic drug development hastens the drug approval process which directly or indirectly accelerated the launching of drug into the market. The regulatory documents whether in-house of documents to be submitted to regulatory authorities should be carefully reviewed by the skilled personal to minimize the queries raised by the regulatory agencies and speed up the approval process . Sponsors must ensure submissions meet the USFDA requirements for format and content.

132-137
22
Determination of Oseltamivir Phosphate in Capsules by Visible Spectrophotometry
Prasad B, T. Meeravali, N. Durga Bhavani, Y. Rajesh, Sunkara Bhawani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

A simple, sensitive, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method was described for the determination of Oseltamivir Phosphate in bulk dosage forms. The method is based on the formation of ion-pair of the drug with anionic dye such as bromophenol blue (BPB) which is extracted into chloroform having absorption maxima at 420 nm Regression analysis of the Beer's plots showed good correlation in the concentration ranges 10-100 µg/ml. The proposed method was successfully applied to the dosage forms containing the Oseltamivir Phosphate.   No interference from common excipients was observed.

115-119
23
Determination of Oseltamivir Phosphate in Capsules by Visible Spectrophotometry
Prasad B, T. Meeravali, N. Durga Bhavani, Y. Rajesh, Sunkara Bhawani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

A simple, sensitive, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method was described for the determination of Oseltamivir Phosphate in bulk dosage forms. The method is based on the formation of ion-pair of the drug with anionic dye such as bromophenol blue (BPB) which is extracted into chloroform having absorption maxima at 420 nm Regression analysis of the Beer's plots showed good correlation in the concentration ranges 10-100 µg/ml. The proposed method was successfully applied to the dosage forms containing the Oseltamivir Phosphate.   No interference from common excipients was observed.

115-119
24
Determination of Oseltamivir Phosphate in Capsules by Visible Spectrophotometry
Prasad B, T. Meeravali, N. Durga Bhavani, Y. Rajesh, Sunkara Bhawani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

A simple, sensitive, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method was described for the determination of Oseltamivir Phosphate in bulk dosage forms. The method is based on the formation of ion-pair of the drug with anionic dye such as bromophenol blue (BPB) which is extracted into chloroform having absorption maxima at 420 nm Regression analysis of the Beer's plots showed good correlation in the concentration ranges 10-100 µg/ml. The proposed method was successfully applied to the dosage forms containing the Oseltamivir Phosphate.   No interference from common excipients was observed.

115-119
25
Free radical scavenging and antioxidant efficacy of ethanolic fractions from an edible medicinal mushroom - Auricularia polytricha
B. Packialakshmi, G. Sudha, M. Charumathy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The main aim of this research was to analyse the free radical scavenging potency and antioxidant capacity of ethanolic fractions from Auricularia polytricha (APEF) fruiting bodies. The free radical scavenging property was evaluated using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl), ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid)) radical scavenging assay, reducing power, phenanthroline and lipid peroxidation (LPO) inhibition assays and the activity was compared with standard antioxidants. The EC50 values were observed to be 3.15 mg/ml, 3.90 mg/ml, 2.07 mg/ml, 3.12 mg/ml and 6.32 mg/ml respectively. The content of total phenol and flavonoid in APEF were 17.60 mg/g as Ferulic Acid Equivalents (FAE) and 4.96 mg/g as Catechin Equivalents (CAE) respectively. The present study reveals the potential of APEF to scavenge free radicals and the activity was found to be higher in all used in vitro methods. Thus, Auricularia polytricha mushrooms could be used as a potent therapeutic agent and a food supplement.

108-114
26
A study of awareness about prescription writing among undergraduate medical students: A cross-sectional study
Dr. Mayur M. Sisodiya, Dr. Anuradha Gandhi, Dr Prakruti Patel, Dr Mira Desai
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Aims: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and skill of undergraduate medical students about prescription writing. Materials and Methods: The observational, questionnaire based, cross sectional study was carried out in II (group A), III part 1 (group B) and III part 2 (group C) MBBS students. Data was collected through structured, prevalidated questionnaire which included information about demographic details, knowledge about prescription writing, rules and regulation of prescription writing with example to be written by students. Result: A total 475 medical students were divided in group A (n=213), group B (n=144) and group C (n=118). All students knew that the prescription can be written by registered medical practitioner, but only 20.2% students knew that an intern doctor can also write a prescription. Only 40.4% students knew that diagnosis of disease is required in prescription. According to 97.68% students, date of prescription is required to prevent the misuse of blank prescription. Signature of doctor, registration number and contact number of doctor are also important was known by 30.52% students. The refilling information was known by 83.1% students. Prescription was correctly written by 76.05% students of group A followed by group B (56.25%) and group C (34.74%). Total 98.9% students believe that non-pharmacological advice is included in prescription, though 18.52% students did not write non-pharmacological advice in prescription. Conclusion: Students lack detailed knowledge about rules and regulation of prescription writing. Hence a Regular training and evaluation of prescription writing skill can help to promote rational prescribing of medicine.

103-107
27
Development and characterization of Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres loaded with Flutamide, an anticancer drug for controlled drug delivery
P. Kumara Babu, Y. Maruthi, A. Parandhama, C. Madhavi, H. Sudhakar, U. Sajankumarji Rao, K.V. Sekharnath, M.C.S.Subha and K. Chowdoji Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Poly (Lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres were prepared through Oil in Water (O/W) emulsion-solvent evaporation method using dichloromethane as solvent. Flutamide (FLT), an anti Cancer drug, was used for encapsulation within PLGA microspheres. Morphology, size, encapsulation efficiency and drug release from these microspheres were evaluated. The Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed the molecular level dispersion of Flutamide in the microspheres. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies confirmed the spherical nature and smooth surface of the microspheres produced. X-ray diffraction studies (X-RD) was performed to understand the crystalline nature of drug after encapsulation into the microspheres.  In-vitro release studies indicated a dependence of release rate on the concentration of polymer, the amount of drug loading, but slow release rates was extended up to 14 h.

96-102
28
Antioxidants in Endodontics
Dr. Reena Eknath Dudhe, Dr. N. Vimala, Dr. Leena Padhye
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

In recent years, free radical chemistry has received a great deal of attention. Our body generates Free radicals as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) by various endogenous systems and exposure to various physiochemical conditions or pathological states. Oxidative stress results if free radicals overwhelm the body’s ability to regulate them. Free radical thus decreases lipids, proteins, and DNA and leads to number of human diseases. Hence use of external source of antioxidants can help to overcome this oxidative stress. Over the past years, the free radicals and antioxidants have gained tremendous importance in the era of dentistry. These free radicals in the body, can be beneficial or hazardous. Antioxidants are the substances that coincide with and stabilize free radicals thereby guarding and sheltering cells from the harm caused by free radicals. The present article represents a review how free radicals are formed, their interaction in disease pathogenesis, and their potential use in endodontics.

90-95
29
Nanosuspensions: A Review
Kamala Kumari, P.V and Srinivasa Rao, Y.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The current article cites the importance of the emerging and promising future of new age dosage form, ‘nano suspensions’. Particle size reduction, particularly nanonization, is a non-specific, universal approach to improve the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. The article emphasizes importance in the preparation, evaluation and the research work going on with various drugs and their appropriate applications. Nano suspensions have emerged as a promising strategy for the efficient delivery of hydrophobic drugs because of their versatile features and unique advantages. Techniques such as media milling and  high-pressure homogenization have been used commercially for producing nano suspensions. The unique features of nano suspensions have enabled their use in various dosage forms, including specialized delivery systems such as mucoadhesive hydrogels. Rapid strides have been made in the delivery of nano suspensions by parenteral, peroral, ocular and pulmonary routes. Currently, efforts are being directed to extending their applications in site-specific drug delivery.

77-89
30
Structure Based Drug Design and Synthesis of Ibuprofen analogs as Cox Inhibitors
T.Umema Naaz, Shaheen Begum, Nameera Jabeen, Yerragunta Vishwanadham
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is one of the important targets for treatment of inflammation related diseases. Structure based drug design was carried out for about 1000 molecules and then molecules having good interactions with 3NT1 protein were synthesized. According to the results of molecular docking, the synthesized novel ibuprofen schiff bases derivatives have selective COX-2 inhibition. In conclusion, the newly synthesized ibuprofen derivatives can be used in model in vivo studies.

69-76
31
Study on polypharmacy and potential drug – drug interactions in drug therapy of elderly patients at a tertiary care teaching hospital
Binay Gupta, Jitty Jose, Arun Roy, Divya Jyothi, Rajeswari Ramasamy, TV Venkatadri, Shashidhar G
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The administration of many drugs at the same time or the administration of an excessive number of drugs can cause the potentially serious drug-drug interactions and adverse drug events. Adverse drug events and serious harms occurs at all ages, although they are more commoner in older people, who are more vulnerable to drug toxicity because of age related physiologic changes and increased risk of disease associated with aging and because of polypharmacy. The objective of this study was to identify the degree of polypharmacy and the frequency of potential drug- drug interactions in the medication regimen of elderly patients. This is a cross – sectional observational study conducted in the general medicine department of a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of 6 months. Sample size of 150 cases of elderly patients was collected from general medicine ward and was reviewed for polypharmacy and potential drug-drug interactions. From among the 150 cases collected, 65(43%) cases were identified with polypharmacy out of which 23(35%) were male and 42(65%) were female. The average number of drug prescribed per patient was 6.05. Among 150 cases, 71(47%) cases were identified with 152 potential drug-drug interactions out of which 8 cases (11%) were with clinically observed adverse drug reaction due to drug interactions. Majority of the potential drug-drug interactions were pharmacodynamic in nature (67%). It was observed that out of 152 pDDIs identified,17(11%) were major, 110(72%) were moderate and 25(16%) were minor in severity.

60-68
32
Antianaphylactic Activity Polyherbal Formulation on Mast Cells of Rats against Active Anaphylaxis
C.Girish, Y. Narsimha Reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Anaphylaxis is an acute systemic reaction, which is produced by the mast cells due to release of different chemical mediators. Anaphylaxis is the result of alteration in physiology of mast cell and is responsible for the various physiological changes. Objective of the present study was to evaluate the antianaphylactic activity of polyherbal formulation against the active anaphylaxis with the help of mesenteric mast cells of rats. The study was carried out by sheep serum induced active anaphylaxis model, triple antigen induced symptomatic active anaphylaxis model and compound 48/80 induced rat paw edema model. The rats which are pretreated with standard drug prednisolone (10 mg) and polyherbal formulation (250 mg) shows beneficial effect against active anaphylaxis. Antianaphylactic activity of polyherbal formulation against active anaphylaxis may be possibly due to the membrane stabilizing potential.

52-59
33
Tolnaftate loaded sln gel for improved transdermal drug delivery: formulation and evaluation
V.Viswanath, B. Narasimha Rao, K. Gnana prakash, D. Sai Padmini, B. Gowthami
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) were novel colloidal drug carrier systems offering controlled release profiles for many pharmaceutically active agents. The objective of present research work was to develop Tolnaftate-solid lipid nanoparticles using solid lipid as drug carrier. As the drug was inactive orally, it was delivered by topical route. Hot homogenization along with ultrasonication were used for such purpose. Then they were converted to gel. The drug compatibility was checked by using FTIR studies. Seven different formulations were prepared by variable concentrations of lipids and its effect on drug loading was studied. Produced Tolnaftate- SLN gels  were evaluated for the  parameters like Homogenity, Spreadability, Viscosity, pH, Drug content, Entrapment Efficiency, invitro drug release & invitro drug  permeation studies. Antifungal activity of the optimized formulation (F7) was also studied. Tolnaftate -SLNs have good potential in treating topical fungal infections.

43-51
34
An assessment and evaluation of patient compliance in type ii diabetes mellitus in general medicine department of tertiary care hospital
L. Panayappan, Faseela PS, Lincy George, K. Krishnakumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Type 2 Diabetes mellitus or insulin dependent diabetes comprises 90% of the people with diabetic and is a challenging disease to manage successfully. The prevalence is very high in Indians. According to World Health Organization patient compliance towards long term therapy for chronic disease indicates only around 50% in India. A prospective observational survey was carried out for the duration of 8 months among the patients. Medication adherence to diabetes medicine was determined using a modified version of the eight items self-reported Morisky medication Adherence Scale (MMAS).Each item is in a yes/no format, with a maximum possible score of eight equating very poor adherence and zero considered as good adherence. 108 patients were included in the study.54 in the control group and 54 in the intervention group. Intervention group showed more statistical significance (p value< 0.05) for patient compliance as compared with control group. Pharmacist care will significantly improve the therapeutic goal in the achievement of better patient compliance.

38-42
35
Effect of nigella sativa in experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease in rats
Tazneem. B , Abdullah khan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease) is an idiopathic, chronic inflammatory condition, which affects the gastrointestinal tract.The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa in experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in rats. Colitis was induced by a single intra-colonic application of 20 mg 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) dissolved in 35% ethanol into the descending colon. Rats were divided into six groups. Animals were treated with vehicle (ethanol), TNBS dissolved in 35% ethanol, Ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds (ENS) 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight p.o. and sulfasalazine(SSZ) 360 mg/kg body weight p.o. for 14 days. After completion of 14 days of treatment, animals were sacrificed and the following parameters were assessed morphological score, histopathology and biochemical parameters like myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and serum nitrate levels. Nigella sativa provided protection against TNBS-induced colonic damage. There was significant protection with ENS 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight compared to control (P <0.001). Morphological and histological score were significantly reduced in all the treated groups (P<0.001). All parameters were altered in ulcerated rats, and improved in animals receiving ENS, an effect that was comparable to that of the standard sulfasalazine, especially at the highest dose level. Results indicate efficacy of ENS against TNBS induced experimental colitis in rats.
109-115
36
Prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and comparing the efficacy of different proton pump inhibitors for symptomatic relief based on endoscopic findings in a tertiary care hospital
Dr. G. Ramya Bala Prabha, M. Prasamse, S. Mounika, P. Anunay Joseph, B. Chaitanya, Dr. T. Rammohan Reddy, Dr.P. Shravan Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is a condition that occurs when the refluxed stomach contents lead to troublesome symptoms and complications. Prevalence of GERD differs in various geographical regions. Factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, certain medications and foods have a significant effect on the aggravation of the diseaseA prospective observational study was conducted between August 2015 & January 2016 in department of Gastroenterology, Gandhi hospital, Secunderabad after approval from Institutional Ethical Committee, CMRCP. Cases included according to study criteria. A total of 2460 subjects participated, out of which 130 subjects were found to be affected with GERD. Data obtained from cases were analyzed to obtain final outcome by statistical analysis using ANOVA. The prevalence of GERD in males was 58.46%. 70.77% of the patients belonged to the age group of below 50 years. Alcoholism 36.93%, smoking 42.31%, tea consumption twice daily (47.69%), meat consumption 72.31% are the factors that aggravate disease. 99 patients who presented for second endoscopy were compared to know the efficacy of each proton pump inhibitors (Pantoprazole, Rabeprazole and Esomeprazole) considered in this study. Rabeprazole showing 37.81% symptomatic relief followed by esomeprazole 35.37% and pantoprazole 26.82%. several factors such as change in the diet, lifestyle, smoking and alcohol consumption can affect the prevalence of GERD in this rapidly progressing society. The prescribed proton pump inhibitors are well tolerated with Rabeprazole showing better efficacy than Esomeprazole and Pantoprazole for the relief of esophageal lesions and GERD related symptoms.
101-108
37
Formulation and evaluation of Bosentan nanosuspensions by nanoprecipitation method
Nagendra reddy JVV, Jagan mohan reddy NVV, Prasanna ML, Narendra D
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present study, an attempt was made to formulate and evaluate Bosentan Nanosuspension by Nanoprecipitation method and to reduce symptoms in patients suffering with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Nanosuspension containing the drug were prepared by Nanoprecipitation method using combinations of polymers such as Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), TWEEN-80, Poloxamer 188, Urea and methanol. Estimation of Bosentan was carried out spectrophotometrically at 274nm. The Oral Nanosuspension were evaluated for drug content uniformity, particle size analysis, zeta potential, in-vitro drug release, short-term stability, drug- excipient interactions (FTIR). IR spectroscopic studies indicated that there are no drug-excipient interactions. Of all the formulations (PF1 – PF6) PF3 formulation containing SLS 1.25%, Tween-80 0.2% and Poloxamer 1% were found to be promising which showed 99.55±0.84% release at the end of 30min & it follows first order drug release kinetics. For optimized formulation (PF3) particle size, polydispersible index & zeta potential was found to be 38.1nm, 2.88 & -4.49mV respectively. The optimized formulation was stable at 400C/75 % RH for 3 months.
94-100
38
Phytochemical and pharmacological study on argemone mexicana linn (papaveraceae)
Sunita Verma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Argemone mexicana L. belong to family Papaveraceae, commonly known as “Prickly Poppy” and “Satyanashi”. It grow as weed in almost all part of India. The plant have many alkaloid, terpenoids, glycosides and flavanoids which are responsible for many pharmacological activities. This review aims at describing the botanical description, classification, phytochemical profiles of various parts of Argemone mexicana.

90-93
39
Validated Spectrophotometric method for estimation of Paclitaxel in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Formulation
Indrayani D. Raut, Rajendra C. Doijad , Shrinivas K.Mohite
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

A simple, precise, rapid UV method has been developed for the determination of Paclitaxel in bulk and its pharmaceutical dosage form. Paclitaxel is a mitotic inhibitor used in cancer chemotherapy. Paclitaxel is used to treat patients with lung, ovarian, breast, head and neck cancer, and advanced forms of Kaposi's sarcoma.  Various methods for analysis of same are available but are time consuming and expensive. Here we have developed new, precise, simple spectrophotometric method for estimation of Paclitaxel from bulk. Medium prepared were selected phosphate buffer PH 10. It showed absorption maxima at 230 nm.This method were validated according to ICH guidelines. The drug obeyed Beers law and showed good correlation. The linearity was observed between 5-55 µg/mL . There was no significant difference in the intraday and interday analysis of Paclitaxel determined. The results of analysis were validated with respect to recovery, linearity; Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be satisfactory.

68-72
40
Spectrophotometric method for simultaneous estimation of Epalrestat and Methylcobalamin in pharmaceutical dosage form
Madhuri A. Hinge, Niraj K.Patel, Rajvi J. Mahida
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

A simple, accurate, and reproducible UV-spectrophotometric method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of Epalrestat and Methylcobalamin in tablet dosage form.  In Absorbance ratio method  ,two wavelengths 238 nm and 257.80 nm were used  over the concentration range of 50 - 250 µg/ml and 0.5 - 2.5 µg/ml for Epalrestat and Methylcobalamine respectively. Correlation coefficient found to be 0.9995.Accuracy for both the drugs were in the range of 98-101 %. The method was validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines.

62-67
41
A Study on Evaluating Prescriptions in Emergency Unit of Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital Based on Who Prescribing Indicator
M Kumaraswamy, Laxman Wagle, Jeet Bahabhur Moktan, Niraj Shrestha, Treesa Augustine
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Aim of this study was to evaluate the prescribing habits of physician in emergency unit of tertiary care teaching hospital based on World Health Organization prescribing indicators. A prospective observational study for a period of 6 months was conducted after ethical research committee approval. All the patients visiting at emergency unit were enrolled. Data were measured in frequency, mean and percentage using Microsoft excel. Among 600 patients, we found males (68.66%) were more than females (31.33%) and majority (35.83%) under the age group of 21-40 years. Average number of drugs per prescriptions were 4.01±1.68 where 22.28% of drugs were generics, 16.33% of drugs were antibiotics, 83% of drugs were injections, 89.98% of drugs were from Indian essential drug list and 62.30% of drugs were from WHO essential drug list. Based on these results it was possible to promote rational use of drugs by improving physician prescribing habits.

56-61
42
Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Arthritic Activity of Cobalt Derivative of 3-Methoxysalicylaldehyde-2-AminoBenzoylhydrazone in Rats
Imad Uddin MD, Firasat Ali, Parvinder Singh, Chandrashekhar VM, Gudasi KB, Badiger DS
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was piloted to screen anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic effect of Cobalt (Co) derivative of 3-methoxysalicylaldehyde-2-aminobenzoylhydrazone (AQF). Acute oral toxicity study was conducted according to guidelines OECD-425. Widely accepted carrageenan model was adopted in this study to evaluate Anti-inflammatory effect of Co-AQF. Freunds Complete Adjuvant (FCA) was used for screening anti-arthritic effect and was evaluated by paw edema volume, paw width, paw height, Development of Arthritis (DOA), vascular permeability, release of histamine from blood, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), Radiographic Analysis and Histopathological assessment. Reference standard Diclofenac Sodium (DS) and Co-AQF have shown significant decrease in all Arthritis evaluating parameters as compared to control group. Pathological changes and histopathological abnormalities which occurred in control group animals were treated with DS and Co-AQF. Hence, based on the results Co-AQF was recognized as anti-arthritic compound and further it can be elucidated at molecular level to establish its potency.
148-156
43
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE AND EMPAGLIFLOZIN IN BULK AND IN A SYNTHETIC MIXTURE
C. Rupasi Pratyusha, M. Bhagavan Raju
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The purpose of the investigation was to develop a simple, rapid and accurate RP-HPLC method to determine assay of Metformin Hydrochloride And Empagliflozin in Bulk and synthetic mixture. The chromatographic separation was performed on Kromosil 250 x 4.6 mm, 5µm. Eluents were monitored on PDA detector at a wavelength of 233 nm using a Buffer: Acetonitrile (45:55v/v). The column temperature was maintained at 30°C. Validation parameters such as system suitability, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), Stability of sample and standard stock solutions and robustness were studied as reported in the ICH guidelines. The retention time for Metformin Hydrochloride And Empagliflozin was 2.270 min and 3.413 min  respectively. Assay method further evaluated for Metformin Hydrochloride and Empagliflozin   analysis at low concentration of analyte and found limit of detection is 0.48 and 0.016 ppm respectively and limit of Quantitation is 1.49 and 0.049 ppm respectively. The percentage recovery of Metformin Hydrochloride   And Empagliflozin was 99.64% and 99.47% respectively. The %RSD for Metformin Hydrochloride And Empagliflozin was less than 2. Linearity of Metformin Hydrochloride and Empagliflozin performed from 25% to150% and the R2 is 0.999, intercept and slope found to be y = 26850x + 439840 and y = 47664x + 9394.7 respectively. The method was fast, accurate, precise and sensitive hence it can be employed for routine quality control of Metformin Hydrochloride and  Empagliflozin containing drug in quality control laboratories and pharmaceutical industries.

138-147
44
BIOANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF VALSARTAN IN RABBIT PLASMA
Sandhya Pamu, C. V. S. Subrahmanyam and K. S. K. Rao Patnaik
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

To develop a liquid–liquid extraction based reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method for estimation of valsartan in rabbit plasma. Methods: Chromatographic separation was carried out using ODS Thermosil C18 (250mm×4.6mm) 5µm, with mobile phase composed of ammonium acetate buffer (20mM) and acetonitrile in 60:40 v/v ratio, pH 6.5. The analyte was monitored with UV detector at 265nm. The developed method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ and ruggedness. Results: The peak area ratio of valsartan to that of internal standard was used for the quantification of samples. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the eluent was monitored at 265 nm. Calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 10-200 ng/mL. The LOD and LOQ of present method were found to be 1.8 ng/mL and 5.4 ng/mL respectively. Extraction recoveries of drug from rabbit plasma were found to be >90 %.  Conclusion: A simple, specific, reproducible and sensitive RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the estimation of valsartan in rabbit plasma.

1360-1364
45
Calculation of predominant drug release mechanism using Peppas-Sahlin model (substitution method): A linear regression approach
B. Ravindra Babu and K. Naveen Babu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of this study was to develop NCRD controlled release floating tablets using combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers by melt granulation technique. The in vitro drug release characteristics were determined using USP XXII type 2 (paddle type) apparatus, in a medium of 0.1N HCl. The dissolution profile of all the batches were extended up to 24 hrs. To study and model the drug delivery from polymeric floating tablets, the dissolution data was fitted to a pioneered method Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. The results indicate that, all the formulations followed super Case-II release mechanism, except MCS4 which followed non-Fickian or anomalous release mechanism. In order to determine the predominant mechanism (diffusion/ relaxation model), drug release data was incorporated into Peppas-Sahlin model. The results revealed that, Fickian release contribution was preponderance than corresponding Case-II relaxational contribution in all the formulations. In addition to this, the relaxational contribution was observed with negative sign in all the formulations but, only at specific time intervals. Relaxational contribution with negative values indicates the Fickian release mechanism was more pronounced than relaxation i.e. almost the relaxational mechanism was absent.
128-137
46
In vitro α-amylase inhibition effect of ethanol extract of Alpinia nigra (Gaertn.) leaves and molecular docking, ADME/T property studies of some of its isolated compounds.
Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Syed Mohammed Tareq, Mohammad Nazmul Islam, Bishwajit Guha, Rahul Mutsuddy, Md. Mazharul Islam, Mohammad Hossain, Mohammed Shamim hasan, Arkajyoti Paul, Abul Hasanat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study aims to investigate the α-amylase inhibition of ethanol extract of Alpinia nigra (EEAN) (Gaertn.) leaves by modified enzyme inhibitory action and in silico molecular docking used for five phytoconstituents namely α-fenchyl acetate, α-pinene, α-terpineol, camphene, camphor isolated from A. nigra, to identify whether these compounds interact with the responsible protein (α-amylase enzyme). And also ADME/T properties of the phytoconstituents were analyzed using Qikprop 3.2 module. EEAN had good α-amylase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 1.803±0.032 mg/ml) as compared to Acarbose. A wide range of docking score found during molecular docking by Schrodinger. α-fenchyl acetate, α-pinene, α-terpineol, camphene, camphor showed the docking score -3.938, -3.344, -3.291, -3.463, -3.547, respectively. Among all the compounds, α-fenchyl acetate showed highest docking score. So, α-fenchyl acetate is the best compounds for α-amylase inhibition, as it possessed higher value in Molecular docking. From the ADME profiles of all the tested compounds, it cleared that they might safe for human. Further in vivo investigation need to identify whether isolated compounds from A. nigra have α-amylase inhibitory activity or not.

121-127
47
FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF GASTRO RETENTIVE NON EFFERVESCENT TABLETS OF BALOFLOXACIN
Swaroopa Arvapalli*, D. Swapna, MD Faizal, K. Rajashekar, J.V.C. Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The purpose of present investigation was to develop and evaluate gastroretentive drug delivery system of fluoroquinolone antibiotics (Balofloxacin). These floating tablets were prepared with the objective to obtain site-specific drug delivery and to extend its duration of action. More over the non effervescent system of balofloxacin will provide increased local and systemic action in stomach. Floating non-effervescent tablets were formulated by various materials like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose HPMC (K 15M, E50), Xanthum gum, Guar gum, Carbopol 976P, polypropylene foam powder were used. All the formulations were evaluated for floating properties, swelling characteristics and drug release studies.  In  vitro drug release studies were performed and drug release kinetics evaluated using the linear regression method was  found  to  follow  zero order release  and  super case 2 transport diffusion mechanism.  The floating lag time were found to be significantly increased with the increasing concentration of the polymers. After the dissolution study of prepared balofloxacin non-effervescent floating tablet was concluded that the formulation NF9 with HPMC K15 and carbopol 976P show best controlled release effect (98.24%). The release kinetic data implies that the release mechanism of all the formulations was Zero order kinetics and super case 2 transport mechanism. The developed floating tablets of balofloxacin may be used to prolong drug release for at least 12h, thereby improving the bioavaibility and patient compliance.

112-120
48
STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PIOGLITAZONE HYDROCHLORIDE AND ALOGLIPTIN BENZOATE IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION
T. Hemant Kumar and D. Gowri Sankar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

A simple, efficient, sensitive and stability indicating RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Pioglitazone HCl and Alogliptin Benzoate in pharmaceutical formulation using Enable C 18G   column (250 ×4.6 mm, 0.5 µm) with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.01M Ammonium acetate (pH 4.0 adjusted with acetic acid) in the ratio of 60:40 %v/v at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min .UV detection was carried out at 269 nm. The retention time for Pioglitazone HCl and Alogliptin Benzoate were found to be 4.611 and 4.153 min respectively. The proposed method was validated for linearity, range, accuracy, precision, robustness, LOD and LOQ. Linearity was observed over a concentration range 5-220 µg/ml for Pioglitazone HCl and 15-175 µg/ml for Alogliptin Benzoate. Pioglitazone HCl and Alogliptin Benzoate were subjected to stress conditions of degradation including acidic, alkaline, oxidative, thermal and photolysis. The developed method was found to be precise and robust for the simultaneous estimation of Pioglitazone HCl and Alogliptin Benzoate in pharmaceutical formulation.

99-111
49
CONSUMPTION OF ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS: BOON OR BANE
Anusha T, Ashritha D, Kiranmai M, Uma Rajeswari B
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Artificial Sweeteners (AS) having low/non-calorific value are among the most widely used food additives worldwide and also regularly consumed by lean and obese individuals alike. AS consumption is considered safe and beneficial owing to their low caloric content, yet supporting scientific data remains sparse and controversial. The objective of the present study was to review whether consumption of artificial sweetners is boon or bane to human health. It has outlined the health effects of AS with respect to their association with weight gain and other metabolic health effects. Consumption of AS in the form of carbonated beverages may cause excessive weight gain. A case control study reveals the fact that AS can induce glucose intolerance by altering gut microbiota associated with the development of metabolic syndrome such as type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, sugar based sweeteners have long been suspected as the cause of obesity and consequent cardiovascular risk.
 

94-98
50
SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATUION OF SOME NOVEL MERCAPTOBENZIMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES
Pratik P Maske, Sunil Nalavade, Satheesh Patil
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

A new class of potentially biological active mercaptobezimidazole derivatives containing Benzimidazole moiety has been synthesized. New series of acids and aldehyde substituted benzimidazoles A6–10 were synthesized by the Schiff’s Base method. Synthesized compounds A6–10 were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, Mass and elemental analysis and further screened for antimicrobial activity and antiprotozoal activity. The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal potential of the products were also determined using bacterial strains.( E.coli ATCC 25922, S.Aureus ATCC 29213, P.aeruginosa MTCC741, C.albicansATCC 9025, A.nigerATCC 1015) The synthesized compounds exhibited significant antimicrobial & antiprotozoal activities compared to standard compounds.

87-93
51
EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CUSCUTA REFLEXA ROXB.
Deepti Gulati and Abhinav Mishra
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

In the present study antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of stem of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. was evaluated against Gram positive bacteria like Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative bacteria like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extract was poured into the wells of sterile Mueller hinton agar plates and antibacterial activity was determined by agar diffusion assay. The plates were observed for the inhibition of bacterial growth that was indicated by a clear zone around the wells. The size of the zones of inhibition was measured and the antibacterial activity was expressed in terms of average diameter of the zone of inhibition in millimeters. The results showed remarkable inhibition of growth for the tested organisms. More activity was observed against Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) as compared to Gram positive bacteria.
 

83-86
52
UPLC METHOD VALIDATION FOR 3-ACETYLPYRIDINE CONTENT IN RISEDRONIC ACID
Sagar VLN, Sharma GVR, Omprakash G, Bharat KB
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

An Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) impurity profile method for the Risedronic acid monohydrate was validated in the present work. The validation method utilizes an Inertsil C-8 (100X4.6 mm), 5µ column at 50°C temperature, isocratic elution with aqueous sodium phosphate buffer at pH 7.5±0.05 and methanol as the mobile phase. The mobile-phase flow rate was 0.40 mL min–1. The linearity, method precision, method ruggedness, limit of quantitation and limit of detection of the impurity profile UPLC method are found to be satisfactory. This study showed that 3-acetylpyridine peak was well resolved from the other known impurities and Risedronic acid monohydrate, the purity angle of 3-acetylpyridine is less than the purity threshold and there is no blank interference at the retention time of 3-acetylpyridine peak. Therefore the method is determined to be specific, as judged by resolving 3-acetylpyridine content in Risedronic acid monohydrate by UPLC.

75-82
53
ASSESSMENT OF HOMOEOPATHIC PREPARATION OF SULPHUR WITH THE HELP OF U.V SPECTROSCOPY
Dr. Parth Aphale, Dr. Atul Balasaheb Rajgurav
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Spectroscopy is a technique that uses the interaction of energy with a sample to perform an analysis. The data that is obtained from spectroscopy is called as a spectrum. A spectrum is nothing but a plot of the intensity of energy detected versus the wavelength of the energy. Often, spectra are used to identify the components of a sample (Qualitative analysis). Spectra may also be used to measure the amount of material in a sample (Quantitative analysis). The main aim of this study was to judge the efficacy of U.V. Spectroscopy in differentiating different potencies of the same medicine. [1]. 3 centesimal scale of potencies of sulphur were selected namely 30, 200 and 1M/1000. It was observed that the UV trans-mission for homeopathic preparations of Sulphur was significantly different for different potencies of Sulphur that were tested which was evident from  ?max.

68-74
54
RP-HPLC ANALYSIS FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF RABEPRAZOLE SODIUM AND DOMPERIDONE FROM TABLET AND BULK DRUG BY INTERNAL STANDARD METHOD
Seema A. Gosavi, Rasika D Bhalke, Girija B. Bhavar, Atul A. Shirkhedkar, Sanjay J. Surana
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

A specific and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of rabeprazole sodium and domperidone in bulk drug and capsules was developed. Ranitidine hydrochloride was used as an internal standard. Separation of the drugs was carried out on the Luna C18 (5µ, 250 mm X 4.60 mm i.d.) at ambient temperature using a mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate buffer pH 7.4 and acetonitrile (60:40 v/v). Flow rate was 1.0 ml/min with an average operating pressure of 158 kg/cm2. Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 286 nm based on peak area with linear calibration curves at concentration ranges 10-50 µg/ml and 15-75 µg/ml for rabeprazole and domperidone, respectively. The method has been successively applied to pharmaceutical formulation. No chromatographic interference from the capsule excipients was found. The method was validated in terms of precision, robustness, recovery and limit of detection and quantitation.

61-67
55
A PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL
Sindhoosha Malay, Shanmukhi.C, Rashmitha.G, Shravani.V, Venugopal.M
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The aim of the present study was to detect and analyze the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of antibiotics and other drugs in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 61 ADRs were reported during the study period with male predominance (51.85%) and geriatric age group. Number of ADRs was reported more from General Medicine (45.90%) and ICU (21.31%) departments in which the most affected organ systems were the GIT (34.42%), skin (18.03%) and Central Nervous System 7(11.47%). The class of drugs most commonly associated with the reported ADRs was antimicrobials 20(32.75%). The severity assessment revealed that most of them were mild level 1 (32.78%) followed by moderate and severe reactions. Of the reported reactions 57.37% of ADRs were definitely preventable, 29.50% of ADRs were probably preventable and 13.11% were not preventable. The study concluded that ADRs to antibiotics are common and less compared to other studies. Proper monitoring and reporting can ensure drug safety profile of drug.

53-60
56
DEVELOPMENT OF A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR PHARMACOKINETIC STUDIES OF TOLTERODINE TARTRATE ORODISPERSIBLE TABLETS IN RATS
Y Padmavathi, Sumedha Kapre, K Latha, Renuka Menda, Rohini Kagithala
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

A selective and high throughput reverse phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for studying pharmacokinetics of tolterodine tartrate (TT) orodispersible tablets (ODT) in rats. Quantification is achieved by the peak-area ratio method with reference to the internal standard. Metaxalone was used as internal standard. After liquid- liquid extraction the analyte and the internal standard were chromatographed on Enable 18H (5µ, 250×4.6mm) C18 column. Mobile phase used consists of phosphate buffer pH 3 and acetonitrile (55:45 %v/v). The elute was monitored with the UV–VIS detector at 280 nm with a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The peaks of the drug and IS were obtained at retention times of 6.74 min and 10.5 min respectively. The method was validated according to USFDA guidelines. The absolute recovery of analyte was consistent and reproducible. The method was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetics of tolterodine tartrate orodispersible tablets in rats.
 

35-43
57
Evaluation of the Anti-cancer Activity of most potent Ethanolic fraction of Prunus avium on EAC Cells in RPMI 1640
Lopamudra Roy, Mounamukhar Bhattacharjee
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Our present study aims to determine the most potent fraction of ethanolic extract of Prunus aviun as well as to evaluate the anticancer activity of most potent fraction on EAC cells in long time incubation (by using RPMI 1640 media). Ethanolic extract of the fruit was prepared by using maceration (70% C2H5OH + 30% H20) for 10 days followed by solvent evaporation by rotary vacuum evaporator. Most potent fraction was determined by fractionation by using Chloroform, n-butanol and ethyl acetate followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis. Most potent fraction was introduced into fresh collected and sufficiently diluted EAC cells to check the cell viability under microscope by using RPMI 1640 medium. Results of fractionation shows ethyl acetate fraction is probably most potential fraction due to presence highest amount of flavonoid and phenolic compounds than the other fractions. On addition of ethyl acetate fraction to fresh collected and diluted EAC cells, it shows IC50 values 43.03 ± 0.54 µg/ml, 34.62 ± 0.21 µg/ml and 26.94 ± 0.22 µg/ml respectively on 2 hr, 4hr and 8 hrs of incubation by using RPMI 1640 medium. Results indicates that the ethyl acetate fraction of ethanolic extract of Prunus avium is the most potential fraction and it has good anti-cancer activity in long time incubation as well. Still future studies can be performed to isolate the bioactive principles.

20-25
58
ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM STEM BARK ATTENUATES GENTAMICIN-INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN RATS
Karra Geetha , Nadendla Rama rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Objective: To study the nephroprotective, nephrocurative effect of Alangium salvifolium ethanolic stem bark extract in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. Materials and methods: Nephrotoxicity was induced in wistar male rats by intraperitoneal administration of gentamicin at 40mg/kg b.wt /day for 7 days. Alangium salvifolium was selected to check the effect by using ethanolic bark extract with different doses (250,500,750 mg/kg body weight respectively), was given by oral route. Serum parameters (serum creatinine, serum proteins and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)), other parameters like body weight, in vivo antioxidants catalase, Superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and Lipid peroxidase level were determined on 22nd day in wistar male rats. Histopathological study of kidney was studied. Results: The three doses of the extracts produced significant nephroprotective, nephrocurative activities with increased doses. The increased actions of nephroprotective, nephrocurative activity in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity models as evident by decrease in serum creatinine, serum urea, serum proteins, BUN levels and lipid peroxidation (MDA).The increased glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) activities when compared to gentamicin control group which was further confirmed by histopathological study. Conclusion: The study revealed that ethanolic bark extract of Alangium salvifolium (EBAS) recovered the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin experimental animals. 

377-383
59
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF OMEPRAZOLE AND DICYCLOMINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN COMBINED TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Ch.Nikhila, M. Prasadarao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The main objective of the work is to develop a new, simple and economical method for the simultaneous estimation of omeprazole and dicyclomine hcl by using RP-HPLC technique In this method mobile phase of composition Phosphate buffer 0.02M,pH6.5 and acetonitrile in the ratio of 65:35 was pumped with a flow rated of 1ml/min through C18 250mm column which was maintained at 25°C temperature. The wavelength 223nm was optimized as the both drugs have optimum absorbance. Volume of injection was 10µl. The retention time of the omeprazole and dicyclomine hcl was 2.02min and 9.93min respectively with appreciable resolution of 9.15. Using the above method the run was performed and the system suitability parameters were calculated and were within the limits. So the method was set for validation, the method was found to be specific in the determination of drug without any interference. The method was observed to be precisied as the %RSD was 0.59 and 0.63 for omeprazole and dicyclomine hcl respectively. Recovery studies were performed and found to be 99.45% for omeprazole and 100.35% for dicyclomine hcl. Calibration curve was plote and correlation coefficient was 0.999. The method was also found to be robust. The method was valid as all the parameters were passed. This method was precise, accurate and accurate, this method can be used in the regular assay of the formulations.

371-376
60
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ZOLMITRIPTAN FAST DISSOLVING TABLET USING SYNTHETIC SUPERDISINTEGRANTS
Ch. Saidulu, M. Jhansirani, R. Aruna, A.M.S. Sudhakar babu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

In recent decades, a variety of pharmaceutical research has been conducted to develop new dosage forms. Among them, the fast disintegrating tablet (FDTs) is one of the most widely employed commercial products to facilitate ease of medication. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disperse in the mouth in the absence of additional water and the active pharmaceutical ingredients are readily released from the dosage form. In present study Zolmitriptan tablets were formulated by using synthetic superdisintegrant namely Amberlite, Sodium starch glycolate and Indion in different ratio then compared with marketed Zolmitriptan tablets were prepared namely F1 to F10 formulation and these are characterized by hardness, thickness, weight variation, friability, wettability time and dissolution studies. Fast dissolving tablets can be prepared by direct compression method using synthetic superdisintegrant. The values obtained from the evaluation studies indicate that all the parameters within the standard limits. In vitro disintegration studies showed that fast dissolving tablets from F9 (Indion 1:3 ratio) showed the best disintegration time with in 32sec. In vitro dissolution studies showed that the formulation F9 gave the maximum percentage drug release (100%) with in 7min.

365-370
61
RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF BALSALAZIDE IN BULK AND CAPSULE DOSAGE FORM
G. Parimala, D. Narasimharao, M. Prasadarao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

A RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of  Balsalazide in bulk and Capsule dosage form and the method was proposed for the validation for the parameters like accuracy, precision, linearity, range, robustness, ruggedness, % of recovery and limit of detection and limit of quantitation. Still now there were number of analytical methods were developed for the estimation and validation of Balsalazide alone and in combined dosage form like UV-Visible spectroscopy, fluorimetry and RP-HPLC method but compared to those methods the present study was a simple and selective LC method for the quantitative estimation of Balsalazide in capsule dosage form. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a c18 column using Inertsil ODS 3V column, C18 (250x4.6 ID) mobile phase consisting of a mixture of KH2PO4:ACN:MEOH (50:30:20 v/v/v %)PH: 4.5 with detection of 304 nm. The retention time was found to be 2.487 min and linearity was observed in the range 90-210µg /ml for Balsalazide. The method was found to be precise as indicated by the repeatability analysis, showing %RSD less than 2.

359-364
62
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ROSUVASTATIN NANOSUSPENSIONS
S Raja Shekhar and P Vijaya Lakshmi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The objective of the present study was to formulate and evaluate nanosuspensions of rosuvastatin, a poorly soluble drug in order to enhance its solubility and dissolution chatacteristics. Rosuvastatin is a Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) Class II drug having very low solubility therefore low oral bioavailability. In this study rosuvastatin nanosuspensions were prepared by precipitation technique followed by high frequency sonication by using a combination of stabilizers like PVP K90 and LUTROL F127 in different ratios. The formulated nanosuspensions were characterised by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and FTIR. The formulations were evaluated for drug content, entrapment efficacy, Zetapotential and In-Vitro dissolution. SEM results showed the particle size of the formulated nanosuspensions in nanosize. FTIR spectrum revealed that there are no interactions between drug and carriers. The effect of particle size was found to be significant on the saturation solubility of the drug and in-vitro drug release studies showed significant increase in the dissolution rate of nanosuspensions as compared with pure drug.

352-358
63
QUANTIFICATION OF OLMESARTAN AND ROSUVASTATIN BY STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
A.Nagavalli, M. Prasada Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The objective of the study is to develop an economical and simple and validated method for the simultaneous estimation of the olmesartan and rosuvastatin by RP-HPLC technique. In this method the 10µl of standard working solution containing both olmesartan and rosuvastatin was injected in to the mobile phase line composing of 45B and 55A, pumped through the column Altima 150mm length column containing particle of size 5µ with a flow rate of 1ml/min. the temperature of the column was maintained at 30°C. Both the drugs have their optimum absorbance at 241nm wavelength. The method was optimized based on the all system suitable parameters passed their limits as per ICH guidelines. The retention time found was 2.2min of olmesartan and 3.0min of rosuvastatin and the resolution between the peaks was 4.8. This method was set for validation as per ICH guidelines and observed to be very specific without any interference by the constituents of formulations and diluents. The method was precisied and %RSD found to be 0.56 of olmesartan and 0.42 of rosuvastatin. % recover of olmesartan was 100.09% and 99.79% for rosuvastatin. Linearity was performed with six concentrations and response was observed to be linear to the concentration. Correlation coefficient obtained was 0.999. The developed method was robust as the %RSD was within the range and without effecting system suitability parameters. The developed method passed all the parameters of the validation, the run time was decreased effectively so the method was very simple and economical that can be used in the regular analysis of the Olmesartan and rosuvastatin in marketed formulation.       

345-351
64
A REVIEW ON DRIED NANOSUSPENSIONS- A NOVEL FORMULATION TO ENHANCE SOLUBILITY OF POORLY AQUEOUS SOLUBLE DRUGS
S Raja Shekhar and P Vijaya Lakshmi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Solubility is most important and crucial factor for drug effectiveness. Large proportions of newly discovered drugs are water insoluble, and therefore poorly bioavailable. Nanosuspensions are one of the promising drug delivery systems proved to be very effective in eliminating the solubility problems and increasing the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Nanosuspensions are very finely colloid, biphasic, dispersed, solid drug particles in an aqeous vehicle. These are prepared by using wet mill, high pressure homogenizer, emulsion-solvent evaporation, melt emulsification method and super critical fluid techniques. The most recent advancement in Nanosuspensions is Dried Nanosuspension which is prepared by freeze drying or spray drying of the formulated Nanosuspensions. It has higher stability and solubility properties than nanosuspensions. These can be delivered by oral, parenteral, pulmonary and ocular routes. Nanosuspensions can also be used for targeted drug delivery when incorporated in the ocular inserts and mucoadhesive hydrogels.

340-344
65
ENHANCEMENT OF DISSOLUTION OF POORLY SOLUBLE RITONAVIR DRUG USING SYNTHETIC POLYMERS
A. Surendra, M. Jhansirani, R. Aruna, A.M.S. Sudhakar babu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Development of solid dispersions of poorly water soluble drugs is one of the most widely used approaches to enhance the solubility as well as dissolution rate. In the current investigation, Ritonavir is selected as model drug to improve the solubility and dissolution rate by solid dispersion method. Solid dispersions were prepared using fusion method by incorporating carriers like polyethylene glycol 20000, Soluplus and Plasdone. Each carriers in different ratios (1:1, 1:2 and1:3) and evaluated for solubility studies, drug-carrier compatibility studies and in vitro dissolution studies. Based on the solubility and drug release studies, among all 10 formulations F10 formulation showed better drug release of 100% drug release at the end of 150th minute compared to other 8 formulations and plain Ritonavir formulation. So F10 (containing 1:3 ratio of PEG 20000) is the optimized formulation. In each case tablets prepared employing carriers gave higher dissolution rates as compared to the tablets prepared using pure drug. Hence solid dispersion in polymers can be used for enhancing the solubility and dissolution of Ritonavir.

333-339
66
STABILITY INDICATING METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF AZILSARTAN MEDOXOMIL AND CHLORTHALIDONE BY RP-HPLC IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
B. Sahithi Chowdary, M. Prasada Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study aims to develop a simple economical method for estimation of Azilsartan and chlorthalidone combined dosage form by RP-HPLC technique. Buffer used in this method was 0.1% OPA buffer of pH 2.5 used in the ratio of 40B:60A run through C18 BDS 250mm column with a flow rate of 1ml/min for 7min run time. The column was maintained at 30°C temperature and optimized wavelength was 220nm. Azilsartan eluted at 2.5min and Chlorthalidone at 3.5min retention time with 5.2 resolution. System suitability parameters like plate count and tailing factors were passed according to ICH guidelines. Repeatability of Azilsartan and chlorthalidone was found to be 0.4 and 0.34 respectively. Percentage recovery of azilsartan was 99.81% and of chlorthalidone was 99.71%. Linearity performed with range of 40-240µg/ml for azilsartan and 25-150µg/ml for chlorthalidone and correlation coefficient obtained was 0.999. Robustness was found to be within the limits i.e., less than 2. Stability studies were done and degraded was with the limits. A simple method was developed for estimation of Azilsartan and chlorthalidone. All the validation parameters were succeeded and were within the range. This method can be used in the regular analysis of Azilsartan and chlorthalidone combination dosage form.
326-332
67
UPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CEFPIROME SULPHATE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
Satish Pavuluri, Sridhar Siddiraju
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, rapid, and precise UPLC method is developed for the quantitative determination of Cefpirome sulphate in pharmaceutical dosage form. The chromatographic separation of Cefpirome sulphate was achieved with an phenomnex c18 (2.5 X 100 mm, 3.0 µm) analytical column using 0.01M phosphate buffer and acetonitrile taken in 50:50%v/v and the response was detected at 265 nm by using PDA detector. The retention time was found to be 0.652 min. The described method shows excellent linearity over a range of 7.5-75 μg/mL. The correlation coefficient for Cefpirome sulphate was found to be 0.999. The relative standard deviation for six measurements in two sets of Cefpirome sulphate in injection is always less than 2%. The proposed method was found to be suitable and accurate for quantitative determination of Cefpirome sulphate in pharmaceutical preparations.
168-173
68
STABILITY INDICATING METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF OLMESARTAN, CHLORTHALIDONE AND CILNIDIPINE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM BY USING RP-HPLC
Krishna chinthala, M. Krishnamurthy, Dr. Pramod kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of the investigation was to develop a simple, rapid and accurate RP-HPLC method to determine assay of Olmesartan, chlorthalidone And Cilnidipine in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form. The chromatographic separation was performed on Kromosil 250 x 4.6 mm, 5µm. Eluents were monitored on PDA detector at a wavelength of 240 nm using a mixture Buffer: Acetonitrile: methanol (45:50:5v/v). The column temperature was maintained at 30°C. Validation parameters such as system suitability, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), Stability of sample and standard stock solutions and robustness were studied as reported in the ICH guidelines. The retention time for Olmesartan, chlorthalidone And Cilnidipine was 3.357 min, 2.838 min and 3.722min respectively. Assay method further evaluated for Olmesartan, chlorthalidone And Cilnidipine analysis at low concentration of analyte and found limit of detection is 0.03, 0.05 and 0.02 ppm respectively and limit of Quantitation is 0.08, 0.16 and 0.07 ppm respectively. The percentage recovery of Olmesartan, chlorthalidone And Cilnidipine was 100.70%, 100.34% and 100.47% respectively. The %RSD for Olmesartan, chlorthalidone And Cilnidipine was found to be less than 1.08%, 0.9% and 1.3% respectively. Linearity of Olmesartan chlorthalidone, and Cilnidipine performed from 25% to 150% and the R2 is 0.999, intercept and slope found to be y = 43191x + 562.0, y = 65434x + 1255 and y = 76821x + 1619 respectively. The method was fast, accurate, precise and sensitive hence it can be employed for routine quality control of Olmesartan, chlorthalidone And Cilnidipine containing drug in quality control laboratories and pharmaceutical industries.
149-160
69
Formulation and Evaluation of Sildenafil Citrate Nanosuspension
M. Sreenivasulu Reddy, A. Jayaraju, M. Rafiyuddin and J. Sreeramulu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present study, an attempt was made to prepare oral Nanosuspension of Sildenafil citrate is a vasoactive agent used to treat erectile dysfunction and reduce symptoms in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Nano suspension containing the drug were prepared by precipitation method using combinations of polymers (such as PVP K-25, Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), TWEEN-80, poloxamer (188), and methanol). Estimation of Sildenafil citrate was carried out spectrophotometrically at 293nm. The Oral Nanosuspension were evaluated for various physical and biological parameters, drug content uniformity, particle size analysis, zeta potential, in-vitro drug release, short-term stability, drug- excipient interactions (FTIR). IR spectroscopic studies indicated that there are no drug-excipient interactions. The formulations F1 to F9 (containing PVP K-25, TWEEN-80, SLS, Poloxamer (188), and Methanol) used different ratio were found to be promising, of that formulation F3 containing PVP-K25 showed 99.85% release at the end of 20min & it follows zero order drug release kinetics. These formulations have displayed good Nanosuspension strength.
137-142
70
Formulation and evaluation of atorvastatin calcium sustained release tablets
Sandhya Mandadi, Vishwanadham Yerragunta, Umema Naaz Tarkash
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the study was to develop the sustained release matrix tablets of various concentrations of natural and synthetic hydrophilic polymers on in-vitro release rate from the prepared Atorvastatin calcium tablets. The obtained in-vitro dissolution data were fitted in different models and for F2 batch (higher concentration of xanthan gum) the highest correlation was found to korsesmeyer-peppas(R2>0.9022), which indicates the drug diffusion may takes place by erosion mechanism. Formulation F4 and F6 (higher concentration of guar gum and Carrageenan) the data were fitted in to zero order profile where R2 values were found to be 0.9244 and 0.9348 indicates the diffusion mechanism of drug release. Natural polymers were showing good release rate up to 17 h as compared to synthetic polymer in which the xanthan gum at higher concentration can exhibit drug release rate in predictable manner.
124-130
71
Phytochemical analysis and antiproliferative studies of various extracts of mollugo cerviana
Senthilkumar Manoharan and Manivannan Rangasamy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present work, phytochemical analysis and antiproliferative activities of various extracts of Mollugo cerviana were evaluated by trypan blue dye exclusion and MTT assay models. The extracts produce potent cytotoxic effect against Human cancer cell lines viz. Human cervical cancer (HeLa), lung cancer (A549), breast cancer (MCF7) and liver cancer (HepG2) cell lines. Hexane and water extracts showed moderate activity whereas ethanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts showed potent activity against the tested cell lines. At the same time all the tested extracts showed 3-4 fold high IC50 values for the normal human dermal fibroblast cell line. The results revealed that the selective cytotoxicity of the plant extracts towards the cancer cells. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of these extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, polyphenolics and saponins. Antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity of the extracts may be due to the rich amount of these phytochemicals. Hence, the plant could be considered as a very good anticancer drug with renowned therapeutic potential.
111-115
72
Self Micron Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SMEEDS) as a potential drug delivery system - Novel applications and future prespectives - A review
Gritta Sebastain, Rajasree P.H, Jessen George, Gowda D. V
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
SMEDDS are defined as mixtures of oils, co-solvents and surfactants, which is isotropic in nature and which spontaneously emulsify to produce fine oil-in-water emulsions when introduced into aqueous phase under mild agitation. After oral delivery of BCS class-II drugs, over one-half of the drug compounds are diminished in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. BCS class-II drugs having less water solubility and dissolution there by low bioavailability and this is a major issue face by the pharmaceutical industries. For the treatment of chronic diseases, delivery of poorly soluble drugs by SMEDDS as a vehicle via oral route which may enhances the bioavailability. Researchers are focusing on novel formulations of SMEEDS for various diseases having promising in-vitro and in-vivo results. Thus, this current review provides a brief updated collection of information about SMEDDS, its novel applications and future prospective.
105-110
73
Ftir analysis and reverse phase high performance chromatographic determination of phenolic acids of hypnea musciformis (wulfen) j.v.lamouroux.
Sumayya S S, Bosco Lawarence, Dinesh Babu KV, Murugan K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Sea weeds have been one of the promising resources of biologically active metabolites and their extraction has significantly expanded in the last few decades. Hypnea, a proven candidate among the sea weeds for its rich mucopolysaccharides. In this study, Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux. was screened for phenolic acid profile and further subjected to FTIR analysis of the different solvent extracts to know the functional groups.Reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method with gradient elution was adapted to fractionate and quantify free phenolic acids (gallic, vanillic, chlorogenic, sinapic, p-coumaric, ferulic, hydroxybenzoic, phloroglucinol, catechol and cinnamic acid). Chromatographic separation was performed with C18 column and detection was conducted at the wavelengths 254, 278 and 300 nm according to the absorption maxima of the analyzed compounds. Validation procedures were conducted and the method was proven to be precise, accurate and sensitive. The experimental results revealed high concentrations of sinapate, coumarate, phloroglucinol and ferulate, whereas,other phenolic acids were in low concentrations. Sinapate was established as the dominating phenolic acid. Diverse FT-IR peaks for each solvent extract has been determined and identified their specific functional groups. Remarkable correlation was found between the phenolics and FTIR peaks. 1743 cm-1 may be considered as optimal indicator of phenolics concentration. FTIR spectroscopy is recommended as rapid and reliable tools to predict the phytochemical composition of herbals. Further studies are warranted to isolate, purify the lead molecule and to evaluate its biological potentialities.
97-104
74
Review on multiparticulate system
Swapnil Waghmare, R.V. kshirsagar, Prachi patil, Sagar punde
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Novel drug delivery offers new ways to administer the medication Multiparticulate system is one of them. It helps to sustained & controlled the dose of drug. Implementation of Multiparticulate system can be done using oral, mucosal, transdermal & pulsatile type of delivery method. The Pelletization, granulation, microspheres, nanoparticles could be used for formulation of multiparticulates system. Multiparticulate drug delivery systems are the most extensively used dosage than unit dosage forms for their improved bioavailability and reduced chances of dose dumping. It serves many applications over traditional system.
91-96
75
Formulation, optimization and evaluation of Cyclobenzaprine hcl pellets for extended release
Sarada Anepu, Balasubrahmanyam A.V.S, Lohithasu Duppala, Anu Pravallika.J
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study is to formulate and evaluate the cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride extended release pellets by using commercially available sugar pellets by powder layer (using fluidized bed coater) process using different polymers like ethyl cellulose N-50, hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), and eudragit E-100. FTIR studies of the F6 formulation indicating no chemical interaction between cyclobenzaprine HCl and excipients. In order to get the optimized formulation, the various process parameters were adjusted. The various evaluations for formulations were carried out, that to based on the in-vitro drug release studies of F6 formulation shows better drug release profile than other formulations. The results conclude that trial F6 has met the objective of extended release, cost effective as once day of drug.
80-90
76
Antibiotic and Analgesic utilization review in an orthopedics in-patient department of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Hyderabad
Sushanta Kr. Das, Vyshnavi Kurra, Pravalika Guttu, Md. Amer Quadri, Nymisha Chowdary T, B. Valya, T. Rama Mohan Reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Drug utilization review is ‘an authorized, structured, ongoing review of prescription, dispensing and medicine use’ facilitating rational drug use. Antibiotics and analgesics are common and frequently prescribed in orthopedic department. We aimed to evaluate the usage of antibiotics & analgesics in orthopedics department. Six month prospective case observational study was conducted in Orthopedics Department, Gandhi hospital, Secunderabad with approval from Institutional Ethical committee, CMR College of Pharmacy. Final outcome obtained by statistical analysis using ANOVA. In this study, male gender of 20-40 yrs was pre-dominant with common diagnosis; fractures and trauma. Common antibiotic prescribed were; Ceftriaxone, Cephalexin & Amikacin and analgesics; Paracetamol & Diclofenac. A total of 311 times antibiotic and 222 times Analgesic were prescribed in collected cases respectively. 3 antibiotics and 2 analgesics per case were predominant. Antibiotic & analgesic drug switch were also seen in study. Drug utilization review indicates 83% and 88% rationality of antibiotics and analgesics respectively. Slight irrationality was observed, those mainly due to insufficient lab data. Overall utilization of both antibiotic and analgesic was approximately in rational manner in Orthopedics department. Inclusion of regular lab test will make the prescription more appropriate, ultimately leading to better patient care.
71-79
77
Surface modified liposomes for targeted drug delivery
Anupama Puntambekar, Amrita Bajaj, Pranita Savardekar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study was to design and develop a suitable intranasal spray formulation of surface modified liposomes to improve the concentration of anti-psychotic drug into the brain tissue for therapy of schizophrenia. Liposomal spray solution was optimized; particle size, zeta potential and polydispersity index were measured using Malvern Zetasizer. Morphology of liposomal spray droplets was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Drug diffusion studies were performed and drug diffused was estimated using UV spectroscopic analysis. Stable liposomal spray was formulated. The optimized liposomal spray showed uniform vesicles in the size range 155-170 nm and zeta potential of optimized formulation was found to be 29.77. Surface coating was done using chitosan solution in glacial acetic acid and evaluated. Intranasal surface modified liposomal spray exhibited higher deposition in brain tissues compared to conventional solution after intranasal and intramuscular administration indicating potential for nose to brain targeting. Thus nasal drug delivery offers a viable alternative to oral and injectable routes of administration.
64-70
78
Formulation and In Vitro Evaluation of solid dispersions of BCS Class II Drug Febuxostat by employing L-HPC
P.Tripura Sundari and Krutika Lad
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Febuxostat (FBX) is a non purine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase/xanthine reductase. Because of low solubility the bioavailability of the drug is hampered, food also interferes with the absorption of drug and decreases the Cmax by 38-49%. In the category of poorly soluble drugs the change in surface area of the drug will show considerable changes in the solubility and dissolution of the drug. In the present study, the attempts were made to improve the bioavailability of FBX by solid dispersions technique by employing L-HPC as carrier molecules. Different ratios on weight basis were prepared viz 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1. These preparations were characterized in liquid state by phase solubility studies and in solid state by Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Powdered X ray diffraction studies (PXRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The aqueous solubility of FBX is favored by the presence of carrier polymer. Solid state characterization indicated that FBX was present as fine amorphous form in the carrier polymeric molecules. In contrast to the solution rate of pure FBX the dissolution of drug in carrier considerably improved the dissolution rate, this can be attributed to the increased wettability and dispersibility as well as decreased crystallinity and increased amorphous fraction of drug.
57-63
79
Nutritional composition and pharmacological actions of spirulina
Bibekananda Meher, Anupama Roy, Navaneet Verma, Arun Kumar Mishra
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The popular edible algae, Spirulina are use as food worldwide. It is riched with large number of nutrients. C-phycocyanin, a molecule which contains phycocyanobilin, an homolog of biliverdin, is one of the major proteins present in Spirulina, It is also a good source of essential fatty acids like gamma-linolenic, linoleic and oleic acids. Sea algae is riched with exceptionally high content of vitamin B12 and tocopherol. Tocopherol is responsible for antioxidant action. It also contenins high concentration of minerals like Iron. It also posses different therapeutic potentials like: Anti-diabetic, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-anemic, anti-viral, and blood improvement, hepatoprotective, heavy metal detoxification from body. It can be cultivated in both normal and saline sea water. In present scenario to meet the demand of the increasing population it can be utilize as a good source of food supplement.
52-56
80
Interactive educational module: an intervention among nurses on knowledge, attitude and practice towards pharmacovigilance and adr reporting at a tertiary care hospital
Sunita Kumari, Senthilkumar¬ Palaniappan, Poonam Rishishwar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Nurse’s knowledge and expertise is important to the application of drug safety profile. Nurses are more likely to report & detect adverse drug reactions than other healthcare professionals as they are the first point of contact to patients and doctors. The main objective of the study is to find out the effect of educational intervention among the nurses towards the knowledge, attitude & participation in reporting adverse drug reactions at tertiary care hospital in New Delhi. This study was conducted using validated Knowledge Attitude Practice (KAP) questionnaire. A total of 230 nurses responded, from the hospital. In Pre-KAP survey it was observed that hospital nurses lacked awareness about pharmacovigilance and needs to update their knowledge and practice. After intervention, a significant improvement in the knowledge, attitude and practice towards pharmacovigilance was observed among hospital nurses.
44-51
81
Synthesis and biological investigation of some novel sulfonamide derivatives containing benzimidazole moiety
Shipra Bhati and Pratibha Bidawat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new class of potentially biological active sulfonamide derivatives containing Benzimidazole moiety has been synthesized. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods and elemental analysis. Further, the synthesized compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and antioxidant activity. Their antibacterial activity was assigned using the conventional cup plate method and antioxidant activity was assessed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The synthesized compounds exhibited significant antibacterial and antioxidant activities compared to standard compounds.
38-43
82
Anthocyanin diversity in osbeckia l. Species from munnar hills
Bosco Lawarence and K Murugan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Melastomataceae family is known for colours. The members possess diverse polyphenolic compounds. The major constituents of this family belong to terpenoids, simple phenolics, quinones, lignans, glycosides, tannins or hydrolyzable tannin oligomers of molecular weights up to 4600 Da, and flavonoids and anthocyanins. Anthocyanin show many biological potentialities including food colourant. Therefore, the present study aims to unravel diversity of Osbeckia, viz. species along Munnar hills and also to analyze their anthocyanin content. Six species and three varieties of O. aspera were collected i.e., O. gracilis, O. wynadensis, O. leschenaultiana O. aspera var. aspera, O. aspera var. travancorica, Osbseckia aspera (L.) var. wightiana, Osbeckia reticulata, Osbeckia virgata. A taxonomic key was prepared for the identification of these species and the germ plasm was maintained in the garden as part of conservation. Anthocyanin content showed remarkable variations both in leaves and flowers among the species. Highest level was noticed with Osbseckia aspera (L.) var. wightiana and Osbeckia reticulata. Habitat of the plant also influences the production of anthocyanins, red or blue coloured pigments. The abiotic stress induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis has evaluated only on a small number of species. In order to meet the demand for this natural product, it’s essential to evaluate anthocyanin biosynthesis in terms of their habitat. Thus, further studies are planned in terms of in vitro culture, elucidation of anthocyanin and its fractionation from Osbseckia aspera (L.) var. wightiana and Osbeckia reticulata.
33-37
83
Development and Validation of a stability indicating RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of Telmisartan, Chlorthalidone and Cilnidipine in pharmaceutical combined dosage forms
Mathews Bommella, Ramisetti Nageswara Rao, Priyanka Peddi, Mukkanti Khagga, Sarbani pal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The study describes development and subsequent validation of a stability indicating reverse-phase HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of the Telmisartan, Chlorthalidone and Cilnidipine in combined solid dosage forms using RP-HPLC. Separation was accomplished on Kromasil 250 x 4.6 mm, 5mm C18 column using 0.1% OPA buffer and acetonitrile (57:43 v/v) as mobile phase pumped through at a flow rate of 1.2 ml/min at 30°C. Optimized wavelength was 238nm. Retention time of Telmisartan, Chlorthalidone and Cilnidipine were found to be 3.106min, 2.573min and 3.924 min respectively. %RSD of the Telmisartan, Chlorthalidone and Cilnidipine were found to be 0.87, 0.96 and 0.94 respectively. % recovery was obtained as 100.18%, 100.06% and 100.13% for Telmisartan, Chlorthalidone and Cilnidipine respectively. The proposed method also proved to be suitable as a rapid and reliable quality control method.
299-311
84
In vitro and In vivo drug-drug interaction between Sitagliptin phosphate and Atenolol
Md. Mosarraf Hossen, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Atiqur Rahman, Kazi Ashfak Ahmed Chowdhury, Mohammed Emranul Huq, Nirjhar Das, Md. Shalah Uddin Pasha, Mohammed Aktar Sayeed, Abul Hasanat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo complexation nature and strength of complex which may be formed due to interaction between sitagliptin phosphate and atenolol. The interaction of sitagliptin phosphate and atenolol has been studied in aqueous system at a fixed temperature (370C) at both gastric pH (pH 1.2 and pH 3.2) and intestinal pH (pH 6.8) by using Job’s method of continuous variation and Ardon’s method. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used to identify in vivo DDI in mice. From spectrophotometric study, sitagliptin phosphate and atenolol give different spectra when sitagliptin phosphate mixed with atenolol in 1:1 ratio. The intensity of the spectra of sitagliptin phosphate slightly changes due to interaction. The jobs plot was obtained by plotting absorbance difference against the mole fraction of the each drug at pH 1.2, pH 3.2 and pH 6.8. When the spectra of pure sitagliptin phosphate and atenolol were compared with 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 mixture, there was a change observed which indicate the formation of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 complexes of sitagliptin phosphate with atenolol. The values of stability constant is more than one at al pH (1.2, 3.2 and 6.8), which is the indication of strong complex. The stability constant values are 1.2073, 1.1839 and 1.2075 respectively. From the in vivo observation of Oral glucose tolerance test, at 1:1 complex, blood glucose level decrease (13.88%) less compared to Sitagliptin phosphate (22.22%) significantly. Complex (1:1) showed different activity rather than pure sitagliptin phosphate treatment due to complexation. Therefore, it can be concluded that a careful consideration is needed during concurrent administration of Sitagliptin phosphate with Atenolol.
283-291
85
SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ATAZANAVIR AND RITONAVIR IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY HPTLC METHOD
Madhusudhanareddy Induri, Bhagavan Raju Mantripragada and Rajendra Prasad Yejella
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, sensitive and rapid high performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of atazanavir and ritonavir in pharmaceutical formulations. The chromatographic development was carried out on HPTLC plates pre-coated with silica gel 60G F254 using a mixture of toluene: ethyl acetate: 0.1% formic acid in the ratio of 6.0:4.0:1.0 v/v as mobile phase. The calibration curve was found to be linear over the concentration range of 150-900 ng/spot for ATV and 50-300 ng/spot for RTV with a regression coefficient for both analytes were greater than 0.999. The %RSD values for intra-day and inter-day variation were not more than 2.0. The method has demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity. The method is new, simple and economic for routine estimation of atazanavir and ritonavir in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation to help the industries as well as researchers for their sensitive determination of atazanavir and ritonavir rapidly at low cost in routine analysis.
219-224
86
STABILITY INDICATING METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF RESIDUE OF ABIRATERONE BY HPLC
M. Ramesh Babu, V Umamaheswara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of the investigation was to develop a new RP-HPLC Method for estimation of Abiraterone in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Chromatography was carried out on an Symmetry shield RP-18, 250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5µm with a isocratic mobile phase composed of Buffer: mixture of solvent in the ratio of 10:90 % v/v (mixture of solvent of solvents in the ratio of Acetonitrile and Water in the ratio of 90:10 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The column temperature was maintained at 40°C and the detection was carried out using a PDA detector at 252 nm. Validation parameters such as system suitability, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), Stability of sample and standard stock solutions and robustness were studied as reported in the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The retention time for Abiraterone was 7.20 min. The percentage recovery of Abiraterone was 101.65%. The relative standard deviation for assay of tablet was found to be less than 2%. The Method was fast, accurate, precise and sensitive hence it can be employed for routine quality control of tablets containing drugs in quality control laboratories and pharmaceutical industries.
267-276
87
PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF GLORIOSA SUPERBA LINN. IN LEAD INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY IN RATS
V. Uma Rani, M. Sudhakar, A. Ramesh, B.V.S.Lakshmi, Yengala Srinivas
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present study, tubers of Gloriosa superba Linn (Liliaceae) was selected for evaluating the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba linn in lead induced neurotoxicity in rats. Thirty six wistar rats (150-200g) were selected and divided into six groups of six in each. Group I (normal control) received distilled water, group II-lead nitrate (10 mg/kg, p.o.), group III-lead nitrate + vitamin E (10 mg/kg, p.o. + 100 mg/kg, p.o.), group IV-lead nitrate + HEGS (10 mg/kg, p.o. + 50 mg/kg, p.o.), group V-lead nitrate + HEGS (10 mg/kg, p.o. + 100 mg/kg, p.o.), group VI-lead nitrate + HEGS (10 mg/kg, p.o. + 200 mg/kg, p.o.) experiment was carried out for 21 days. At end of the experiment various behavioral, biochemical and histopathological assessments were carried out. The animals showed increase in transfer latencies indicating learning and memory implairment in lead control group, but administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba Linn decreased the transfer latencies, strengthened its memory improvement action in drug treated animals.Hence showed decrease in muscle strength measured by rota-rod test whereas, in hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba linn treated group there was improvement in muscle strength. The locomotor activity assessed by actophotometer and open field test was decreased in lead nitrate group compared with hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba Linn treated group. Biochemical analysis of brain revealed that the chronic administration of lead nitrate significantly increased lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase (GR), an index of oxidative stress process. Administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba Linn attenuated the lipid peroxidation and reversed the decreased brain CAT and GSH levels. Lead exposed rats showed increased levels of various serum parameters like glucose, ALT, ALP, TG and TC. Lead toxicity also leads to alteration in acetylcholinesterase levels, might have caused neurobehavioral changes which was measured by the change in acetylcholinesterase activity but prior administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba Linn ahead of lead nitrate ameliorated the change. There was marked changes at the subcellular level which were observed by histopathology studies in lead treated group and better improvement in these changes was observed in hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba Linn treated group. Therefore hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba Linn helps to combat the oxidative stress produced by the accumulation of lead in the body.
257-266
88
SIMULTANEOUS QUANTIFICATION OF RISPERIDONE AND ESCITALOPRAM IN HUMAN PLASMA BY LC-MS/MS: APPLICATION TO A PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY
Pallavi Alegete, Prasad Kancherla, Saeed S. Albaseer, and Sathyanarayana Boodida
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A solid phase extraction method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of risperidone and escitalopram in human plasma by a suitable ultra-performance liquid chromatographic / tandem mass spectrometric assay (LC-MS/MS) .Resperidone-D4 was used as an internal standard. The method involves simple isocratic chromatographic conditions at a flow rate of 0.400 mL min-1. Samples were separated on X-terra RP8 column (50 mm × 4.6, 5µm) in a shorter run time of only 2.0 min using a mobile phase mixture of 95:5 v/v (acetonitrile : ammonium acetate) buffer 5mM, pH 5.0±0.05). Calibration plots were linear (r2 0.99) over the concentration range of 0.050 to 26 ng mL-1 for risperidone and 0.100 to 51 ng mL-1 for escitalopram. The overall recoveries for risperidone and escitalopram were 76.88% and 81.14%, respectively. Precision was 2.9%, 5.07% (intra-day) and 4.13%, 6.43% (inter-day) for risperidone and escitalopram, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of human plasma.
246-256
89
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME NEW CHALCONES
Padma R, Aruna R, E Mounika, I. Manjusha and B Soniya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In this work, new substituted chalcones (1-6) were prepared by reacting 4-Methoxy acetophenone with the corresponding substituted aromatic aldehydes in the presence of methanolic potassium hydroxide solution at room temperature.Some of the compounds synthesized from methoxy, chloro, Dimethlyamino derivatives showed moderate antibacterial activity at 0.2% concentration. These compounds may show more antibacterial activity at higher concentrations.
241-245
90
ANTIOXIDANT POWER OF PURIFIED PROTEASE INHIBITORS FROM THE FRUITS OF SOLANUM ACULEATISSIMUM JACQ
Meenu Krishnan V. G and Murugan K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Oxidative stress plays significant role in pathophysiologic events of acute and chronic diseases. Intracellular biomolecules such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids are damaged via oxidation by excessive active oxygen species (AOS). Protease inhibitor was isolated and purified from the fruits of Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq. (SAPI) via four sequential step procedure i.e., salt precipitation to Sepharose affinity chromatography. Subsequently, the antioxidant power is analysed using DPPH, H2O2, O2.-, ABTS, OH. radical scavenging activity, reducing power potential, metal chelating ability and FRAP (Ferric reducing antioxidant power) method. SAPI exhibited significant IC50 values for most of the AOX assays. DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating ability, ABTS and OH. radical scavenging activity were comparable with the synthetic antioxidants like ascorbate and BHT. Further studies are warranted to trace the molecular mechanism of AOX activity by SAPI using in vivo animal models.
231-240
91
SOLID-SUPPORTED CATALYSED GREEN SYNTHESIS OF THIAZOLIDINEDIONE DERIVATIVES AND ITS BIOLOGICAL SCREENING
Vidya Desai, Nikita Kesarkar, Swaranjali Bagve
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new green synthesis of thiazolidinedione derivatives have been reported by reacting thiazolidinedione and variety of aldehydes using solid-supported catalyst in good yields. The thiazolidine-2,4-diones synthesized, have been biologically screened for their anti-microbial activities.
203-208
92
DESIGN OF OCULAR CONTROLLED RELEASE OCUSERTS OF BRINZOLAMIDE
Snehaprabha Lad, Amrita Bajaj
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of research was to formulate and evaluate controlled release drug delivery system like ocuserts of Brinzolamide, an anti-glaucoma agent. Ocuserts were formulated using various polymers and plasticizers by film casting technique as drug reservoir membrane and controlled release polymers like Eudragit as the rate limiting membrane. The ocuserts were evaluated for physical characteristics, pH, uniformity in thickness & weight, swelling index, folding endurance, percent moisture loss, uniformity of drug content, in vitro diffusion studies. The ocusert containing HPMC K4M, HPMC E50 (1:1), Eudragit E100 showed controlled release with 82.00% ± 0.594 at the end of 24 hours. Ex-vivo study showed 80.00 ± 1.003% of drug permeation. SEM analysis showed drug was in crystal form in the matrix of Ocusert, the surface had pores. IR and DSC studies confirmed no drug-polymer interaction. The optimized formula was sterilized and subjected to stability studies. No ocular irritation was seen in ocular irritancy study.
191-202
93
FABRY DISEASE AND TREATMENT-AN OVERVIEW
T. Rajeshwari, V. Manjusha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked, hereditary, lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of enzyme a-galactosidase A (a-Gal A), which results in accumulation of neutral glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide(Gb3) in walls of small blood vessels, nerves,dorsal root ganglia, renal glomerular and tubular epithelial cells and cardiomyocytes. Males are mostly affected whereas women mainly act as carriers. Onset of FD symptoms depends upon its clinical type which vary from neuropathic pain, hypohidrosis, gastrointestinal symptoms, and angiokeratomas, chronic kidney disease, cardiomyopathy and cerebral events as seen in adults to severe mental retardation as seen in infantile form which drastically affects the quality of life and reduces life span of affected individuals. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with intravenous infusions of recombinant human a-galactosidase A is approved by FDA for treating FD. Alternative treatments under investigation include substrate reduction therapy (SRT), chaperons, stem cell transplant and gene therapy.The aim of present study is to review pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment of FD.
186-190
94
ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: A REVIEW
Vinay B. C.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Alzheimer’s disease is a brain disorder in which the patient eventually loss the memory and thinking skills. This makes it difficult for a patient to carry out the simple task. This is also one type of dementia with no known cause or cure. In this present review article, Pathology, Pathophysiology, symptoms and stages of the disease, diagnosis and FDA approved drugs for treatment of the disease have been explained neatly and legibly with proper tables which is easy to understand
177-185
95
COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF CYCLODEXTRIN COMPLEXATION IN IMPROVING DISSOLUTION OF RITONAVIR
Bharani S. Sogali, Sushant M. S, Ramana Murthy K. V
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was focused on comparing different methods of preparations and the effect of hydroxy propyl beta cyclodextrin (HPßCD) and randomly methylated beta cyclodextrin (RMßCD) in enhancing dissolution and oral bioavailability of poorly soluble, antiretroviral protease inhibitor, ritonavir. Complexes of ritonavir-CD complexes were prepared at 1:1 ratio using physical mixing, co evaporation, spray drying and freeze drying methods. The prepared complexes were characterized using FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), x-ray diffraction studies (XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and scanning electron microscopy. In vitro dissolution studies were performed in 0.1N HCl and the dissolution data were subjected to one way ANOVA. Phase solubility studies proved complexation of ritonavir and were of AL type. All complexes showed enhanced dissolution rate compared to ritonavir but the complex prepared with RMßCD using freeze drying had shown complete and fast drug release. On the basis of above results, it was concluded that complex prepared with RMßCD by freeze drying was successful in improving solubility, dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of ritonavir.
159-176
96
A REVIEW ON BENZOTHIAZOLE – A VERSATILE SCAFFOLD IN THE FIELD OF PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY
Siddhanadham Arun Satyadev, Yejella Rajendra Prasad, Vasudeva Rao Avupati, Koduru Aparna, Manjula Jyotshana Rudru
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Heterocyclic chemistry is an integral part of synthetic chemistry which finds its use as one of the major parts in pharmaceutical chemistry as useful biological entities and improved pharmacological properties. Benzothiazoles are versatile bicyclic compounds with diversified pharmacological activities and their analogues are known for their incredible structural diversity. There is a wide scope for research in areas of synthetic, pharmaceutical chemistry and medical field. The objectives of the study mainly have a hawk eye over different common routes of synthesis and cyclization procedures followed and to have a light on diversified pharmacological importance of this potent moiety. Benzothiazoles have clinical effectiveness as potential anticancer, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal. analgesic, anti-HIV, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, antitubercular, antidiabetic, and other medicinal agents.
150-158
97
TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NARCOLEPSY: A REVIEW
V. Bindu Praneeta, B. Sukanya Bai, V. Usha Vanya, M. Mahima Swaroopa
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disorder specifying the abnormal sleep manifestations which mainly impact the quality of life of narcolepsy patients. The exact cause is unclear but found significant evidences that orexin/hypocretin deficiency causes narcolepsy which regulates sleep. Treatment focuses on symptomatic relief throughout medication, education, and behavioral therapy. Stimulants are the first line treatment for the excessive daytime sleepiness. Modafinil, sodium oxybate, amphetamine, methylphenidate, and selegiline are effectual treatments for somnolence associated with narcolepsy. Tricyclic antidepressants and SSRIs are one of the best treatments for cataplexy, sleep pa¬ralysis, and hypnagogic hallucinations. Benzodiazepines are the best regimen for disturbed nocturnal sleep.
145-149
98
ISOPRENALINE: A TOOL FOR INDUCING MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS
Mohd Aftab Siddiqui, Usama Ahmad, Ahmed Abdullah Khan, Mohammad Ahmad, Badruddeen, Mohammad Khalid, Juber Akhtar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) remain the principal cause of death in both developed and developing countries, accounting for roughly 20% of all worldwide deaths per year. Due to changing lifestyles in developing countries, such as India and particularly urban areas, Myocardial infarction is making an increasingly important contribution to mortality statistics. Myocardial infarction is defined as an acute condition of necrosis of the myocardium that occurs as a result of imbalance between coronary blood supply and myocardial demand. Isoprenaline/Isoproterenol (ISO) is a synthetic catecholamine and beta adrenergic agonist, which causes severe stress in the myocardium, resulting in an infarct like necrosis of the heart muscle in experimental animal. ISO-induced myocardial infarction serves as a well standardized model because the pathophysiological changes in heart muscle of experimental animal, similar to that observed in human myocardial infarction. The present studies cover the cardioprotective activity of various drugs against Isoprenaline induced Myocardial infarction in animal model.
138-144
99
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF PENTOXIFYLLINE
Jagdish Chandra Rathi, Vaishali Rathi, Sengodan Tamizharasi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A sustained release system for pentoxifylline designed to increase its residence time in the stomach without contact with the mucosa was achieved through the preparation of floating microspheres by the emulsion solvent diffusion technique. Four different ratios of either Eudragit RS 100 (ES) alone or with HPMC were used to prepare the floating microspheres. The drug retained in the floating microspheres decrease with increase in HPMC content. All formulation show good flow properties. The microspheres were found to be regular by SEM. FT-IR study confirmed the drug-polymer compatibility. Although pentoxifylline release rate from Eudragit RS floating microspheres was very slow and incomplete but when HPMC was added, release rate increased, at the same time floating ability was decreasing. Formulation F2 containing ES:HPMC (9:1) which showed appropriate balance between release rate and buoyancy could be advantageous in terms of increased bioavailability of pentoxifylline. Formulation F2 was subjected for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats and showed better efficacy compare to standard preparation.
128-137
100
ESTIMATION AND VALIDATION OF SOFOSBUVIR IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC
Ravikumar Vejendla, C.V.S. Subramanyam, G. Veerabhadram
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, sensitive, precise, and accurate isocratic reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the estimation of sofosbuvir in bulk and tablet dosage form. To optimize, a column Phenomenex prodigy ODS-3V (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm), mobile phase mixture of methanol and (0.1%) tri-fluro acetic acid as buffer having pH of 3.2 in the ratio of (30:70 v/v) found to be an efficient system for elution of drug with good peak shape as well as retention time 2.990 min., flow rate 1.0 ml/min. at UV wavelength of 260nm. Quantitative linearity was obeyed in the concentration range of 100 to 600 µg/ml, the regression equations of concentration over their peak areas were found to be Y = 18864x + 58306 R² = 0.996, where Y is the peak area and X is the concentration of drug. The number of theoretical plates obtained was 2604.352 which indicate the efficient performance of the column. The limit of detection was 0.01 µg/ml and limit of quantification was 0.03 µg/ml, which indicates the sensitivity of the method the high percentage recovery indicates that the proposed method is highly accurate. No interfering peaks were found in the chromatogram indicating that excipients used in tablet formulation did not interfere with the estimation of the drug by the proposed RP-HPLC method.
121-127
101
A STABILITY INDICATING METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF TAPENTADOL IN BULK AND IN FORMULATIONS
Renu Chadha, Alka Bali, Gulshan Bansal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
An isocratic stability-indicating reversed phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC-UV) method for quantitative determination of tapentadol HCl has been developed and validated as per the ICH guidelines. Tapentadol HCl and the tablet formulation were subjected to forced decomposition conditions of hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis and thermal stress, as per ICH guidelines. Thermal, photostability, accelerated and real time stability testing was carried out with the marketed tablet formulation of the drug. An Inertsil ® C-18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5µ) column was used to carry out the chromatographic analysis. The mobile phase composed of methanol-water (pH 2.5 with formic acid of the aqueous part) (35:65 %v/v) (flow rate 1.0 mL/min; Detection wavelength 254 nm). The drug was found to be extremely stable and there was no degradation under various stressor conditions. Excellent linearity was observed in the range of 0.05–5.0 µg/mL (r 2= 0.9998). The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.0008 and 0.0024 µg/mL respectively. The proposed method gave good recovery of the drug in the tablet formulation as well (100.8 % in control and 98.53 - 99.73 % in the various stability samples).
113-120
102
BACTERICIDAL POTENTIALITY OF FLAVONOIDS EXTRACTED FROM CELL SUSPENSION CULTURES OF MARCHANTIA LINEARIS LEHM AND LINDENB.
Remya Krishnan and Murugan K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present investigation was undertaken to isolate and fractionate flavonoids from in vitro cell culture of the liverwort Marchantia linearis Lehm and Lindenb., a poorly documented bryophyte and its mode of bactericidal potentiality. Initially, callus culture was initiated from spores in MS/5 media containing growth regulators. From suspension culture flavonoids were isolated and fractionated by HPLC PAD chromatogram, which revealed the presence of a pool of active compounds. In vitro time-kill assessment data supports the MBC and MKC. Remarkable leakage of reducing sugar and high leakage of nucleic acid and protein were observed at different concentration of flavonoid. Further, respiratory chain enzyme dehydrogenases showed lower profile in the treated bacterial strains. SEM data substantiated the bactericidal potentiality. Thus, the flavonoids of M. linearis may be a potent candidate for the in vivo biological control of pathogenic bacteria. Further studies are warranted to purify the lead molecule and to elucidate the molecular mechanism of bactericidal action.
100-112
103
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF LOPERAMIDE LIQUISOLID COMPACTS
Madhavi Harika Srimathkandala, Sushma M, Madhu Babu Ananthula, Vasudha Bakshi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Loperamide is an anti diarrhoeal drug administered orally. It is a poorly water soluble drug with low oral bioavailability. The present study was aimed at increasing solubility of Loperamide and thus enhance its dissolution rate by a novel technique called liquisolid system. Liquisolid compacts were prepared by propylene glycol, Micro crystalline cellulose and Aerosol as solvent, carrier and coating material respectively in different ratios. By performing FTIR it was confirmed that there was no incompatibility between the drug and other excipients. Flow properties of the drug were measured and found to be within pharmacopoeal limits. Taking in vitro drug release, final formulation weight, drug content and flow properties into consideration, formulation F2 was optimized. XRD patterns show that the drug in the formulation got transformed to amorphous form. The optimized formulation showed good dissolution rate when compared to marketed formulation and pure drug. So the liquisolid technique was proved to be efficient in improving dissolution properties of Loperamide.
93-99
104
DOCKING AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL SIMILARITY STUDIES ON INDOLE BASED ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTICS
Alka Bali and Umesh Sen
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A hypothetical binding model has been proposed based on in silico (docking studies) on a series of indole derivatives with atypical antipsychotic activity in order to investigate their hypothetical binding mode with respect to the dopaminergic D3 receptors. The docking reproduced the established receptor binding profile of the standard drugs ziprasidone, risperidone, ketanserin, clozapine and eticlopride. The test compounds demonstrated a similar binding profile to the standard drugs. Salient interactions noted for the standard drugs as well as the test compounds were the hydrogen bonding interactions with the residues Asp110, Tyr373, Ser182, Ser192, Cys181 and p-p stacking with Phe345, Phe346 and His349. The D3 docking scores of the compounds lacking the atypical profile were seen to be lower compared to those having an atypical profile. Further, the physicochemical similarity of the test compounds was assessed with respect to selected standard drugs and the test compounds were seen to possess very good similarity to ziprasidone.
82-92
105
A NEW VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF RAMIPRIL AND OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL
Deepthi Yada, Divya Yada, T. Rajeshwari, M. Madhavilatha, G. Tulja Rani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present work describes a validated reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous estimation of Ramipril and and Olmesartan medoxomil in tablet formulation. Chromatography was performed on a Hypersil C18 (4.6mmx250mm, 5m) column from inisocratic mode with mobile phase containing acetonitrile: 0.05 M KH2PO4 pH 3.0 (60:40). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the eluent was monitored at 228 nm. The selected chromatographic conditions were found to effectively separate Ramipril (RT- 2.836 min) and Olmesartan (RT- 4.055 min). Linearity for Ramipril and Olmesartan medoxomil were found in the range of 5ppm-25ppm and 20ppm -100ppm respectively. The proposed method was found to be accurate, precise, reproducible and specific. The mean recovery was 99.84 ± 0.20% and 101.7 ± 0.20% for ramipril and olmesartan medoxomil respectively. The methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines.
177-185
106
ANTIEPILEPTIC ACTIVITY OF MURRAYA KOENIGII LEAF AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN PENTYLENETETRAZOLE AND STRYCHNINE INDUCED CONVULSIONS IN RATS AND MICE
Vanna Manjusha, Gella Suneel
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The aim of present study was to investigate antiepileptic activity of aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii (AEMK) on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and strychnine (STR) induced convulsions in mice and rats respectively. 24 male Swiss mice and 24 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six animals each as I, II, III and IV which were treated with 0.9 % saline (10 ml/kg, p.o.), Diazepam (4 mg/kg, i.p.), AEMK (200 mg/kg. p.o), AEMK treated (400 mg/kg. p.o). All mice were treated with PTZ (75 mg/kg, i.p.) and all rats with Strychnine (2 mg/kg, i.p.), 30 min after i.p administration of diazepam and 60 min after oral administration of saline and extract doses. Onset and duration of convulsions, percentage protection, Severity score and mortality rate in rats and mice were recorded. Statistical analysis was carried out by ANOVA followed by Barlett’s test. In present study AEMK decreased severity of convulsions, increased percentage protection, decreased mortality rate and exhibited significant antiepileptic activity.

172-176
107
PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF CATARACT PREVALENCE IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL
Alekhya Pabba, Manjusha Vanna
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Cataract  comprise an important health issue and leading cause of blindness in developing countries. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of cataract by conducting prospective review of patient records in ophthalmology department in Malla reddy hospital, Hyderabad during one year period. Majority of cases were observed in age group between 40 to 60 years (55%). Prevalence of cataract was 62.28 cases per 1225 hospitalizations in ophthalmology department.

169-171
108
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ANALYSIS OF PENCICLOVIR AND RELATED IMPURITY IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS BY RP HPLC
Shiny Ganji and D.Satyavati
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The prime aim of the current work is to develop and validate a novel, specific, sensitive, precise, rapid and faster isocratic elution RP HPLC method for estimation of Penciclovir and its process related impurity in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Hypersil phenyl, 250 mm X4.6 mm, 5 µ with mobile phase composed of 0.1% orthophosphoric acid in 1000 ml of water and acetonitrile in the ratio of 60:40 using an isocratic mode. The temperature is maintained at 30oC, detection was made using UV detector and LC solution software at 254 nm and the flow rate was maintained at 1.0ml/min. The run rate was 20 min. The developed method was validated according to ICH guide lines. The linearity of calibration curve for each analyte in concentration range of 1200 µg/ml – 3600 µg/ml was good. The curve was linear for the impurity in concentration range of 8 - 24 µg/ml. There exists a good correlation between peak area and analyte concentration. Relative standard deviation values for penciclovir is 0.111 and its process related impurity is 0.359. LOD for the active ingredient and its impurity was found to be 0.02 % and 0.5 % respectively. LOQ for active ingredient and its impurity was found to be 0.06 % and 0.15% respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that the proposed method was found to be highly sensitive, precise, accurate, robust and fast. The shorter retention time allows the analysis of large number of samples in short period of time and it is cost effective, so it can be successfully applied for routine analysis of active pharmaceutical ingredients and related impurities in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms.
137-148
109
ACETYLCHOLINESTERSAE INHIBITORY POTENTIAL OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI INHABITING THREE INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS
Varinder Singh, Jyoti Bhagat, Bhupinder Singh Chadha, Rajesh Kumari Manhas and Amarjeet Kaur
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
PVC polymer has been taken the attention of the scientists in early decay as blood containers instead of glass containers. To increase the stability and flexibility of the PVC, several compounds such as Di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and ethylene oxide were applied. Some recent reports recorded the risks of these compounds toward public health. In the present study, Antimicrobial PVC films containing different amounts of eugenol as a plasticizer were prepared using traditional casting method. The physical and mechanical properties of PVC membranes e.g. surface wettability were investigated. The increase of eugenol content demonstrated an increase in surface hydrophilicity and elongation to break the film. Thermal analysis exhibited a decrease of polymer thermal stability by increasing eugenol concentration. However, the antibacterial activities against six different bacterial strains; three Gram positive: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus cereus as well as, three Gram negative: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli were promoted by addition of eugenol. Although the natural source of eugenol, the bio-evaluation of plasticized membranes showed an increase in hemolysis percent (%) and thrombus weight. It can be concluded that the addition of eugenol to PVC needs to further studies for applying in blood bags.
129-136
110
PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILING IN THE LEAVES OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS USING GC-MS
Vinod Kumar, Anket Sharma, Ashwani Kumar Thukral and Renu Bhardwaj
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The study was aimed at screening the phytochemicals present in the leaves of some medicinally important plants. The study revealed 18, 29, 22, 23, 13 and 19 compounds from Sida acuta Burm.f., Cannabis sativa L., Debregeasia longifolia (Burm.f.) Wedd, Ageratum conyzoides L., Parthenium hysterophorus L. and Typha angustata Chamb respectively. The major compound detected from the plants were pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidine (Sida acuta), cannabinol (Cannabis sativa), cis-jasmone (Debregeasia longifolia), 2H-1-benzopyran,6,7-dimethoxy-2,2-dimethyl-ageratochromene (Ageratum conyzoides), stigmasterol (Parthenium hysterophorus) and verrucarol (Typha angustata).
124-128
111
A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY ON EVALUATION OF COMPARATIVE EFFICACY BETWEEN THREE COMBINATIONAL THERAPIES FOR TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS
Malarkodi Velraj, Poripiraddy Satya Prasad, Dr. V. Ravichandiran, Dr.A.PanneerSelvam, Ragesh G
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Diabetes is a condition in which the body either does not produce enough, or does not properly respond to insulin - a hormone produced in the pancreas. Insulin enables cells to absorb glucose in order to turn it into energy. In diabetes, the body either fails to properly respond to its own insulin, does not make enough insulin or both. This causes glucose to accumulate in the blood often leading to various complications. This study mainly focused on Evaluation of efficasy between the combinations therapies for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The aim were achieved through monitoring the blood sugar parameters, to assess the changes in glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus. It’s a retrospective study. Overall the study results conclude that a combination of Metformin with Acarbose, Glimepiride and Sitagliptin therapy have greater impact on control of FBS, PPBS and HbA1c, on the other hand Metformin and sitagliptin combination reveals significant reduction in FBS, PPBS and HbA1c in diabetic patients compare with Metformin + Acarbose and Metformin + Glimepiride therapies. Many research articles also conclude that metformin therapy with sitagliptin have more impression on diabetic control.
116-123
112
EVALUATION OF SOLASODINE FROM THE LEAVES OF SOLANUM MAURITIANUM SCOP. BY HPTLC
Jayakumar K and Murugan K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Solanum mauritianum Scop. is an exotic tree Solanum species of South America. High performance thin layer chromatography method was formulated in S. mauritianum to identify the major alkaloid fractions. Optimal extraction of solasodine includes refluxing with 2.5N methanolic hydrochloric acid, precipitation and extraction using non-polar solvent system. Ideal and prominent bands were obtained on HPTLC silica gel plates using chloroform (9.3): methanol (0.7 v/v) solvent system at 0.32plus or minus0.06 Rf. and visualized with anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid. The resulted and derivatized plates were scanned at 530 nm for densitometric analysis. The method was found linear (r2 equals to 0.9978) in a wide range (20-2000 ng/ spot), accurate (88.2-101.4%), precise (% RSD less than 2.88), robust (% RSD less than 3.48) and specific. The LOD and LOQ of the method was found as 14 and 44 ng/spot, respectively indicating sensitive enough to analyze minute amount of solasodine in multi-component extract. The method was applied for analysis of solasodine content in samples of S. mauritianum.
110-115
113
EVALUATION OF SOLASODINE FROM THE LEAVES OF SOLANUM MAURITIANUM SCOP. BY HPTLC
Jayakumar K and Murugan K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Solanum mauritianum Scop. is an exotic tree Solanum species of South America. High performance thin layer chromatography method was formulated in S. mauritianum to identify the major alkaloid fractions.  Optimal extraction of solasodine includes refluxing with 2.5N methanolic hydrochloric acid, precipitation and extraction using non-polar solvent system. Ideal and prominent bands were obtained on HPTLC silica gel plates using chloroform (9.3): methanol (0.7 v/v) solvent system at 0.32±0.06 Rf. and visualized with anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid. The resulted and derivatized plates were scanned at 530 nm for densitometric analysis. The method was found linear (r2 = 0.9978) in a wide range (20-2000 ng/ spot), accurate (88.2-101.4%), precise (% RSD < 2.88), robust (% RSD < 3.48) and specific. The LOD and LOQ of the method was found as 14 and 44 ng/spot, respectively indicating sensitive enough to analyze minute amount of solasodine in multi-component extract. The method was applied for analysis of solasodine content in samples of S. mauritianum.

110-115
114
COMPARISON OF PATTERN OF ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY AND RECURRENCE OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN WOMEN WITH AND WITHOUT DIABETES MELLITUS
Saurish Hegde, Mukta Chowta, Nithyananda Chowta
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was planned with the objectives of evaluating the pattern of antimicrobials used for UTI and to determine the recurrence rate of UTI in diabetic and nondiabetic women in our settings. New diagnosis of UTI is defined as a patient with no prescription for UTI in the history (for 1 year) and a first prescription for UTI in the study period. A recurrent UTI was defined as a prescription for UTI in the follow-up period (5 days after the first prescription until 30 days after the end of the first prescription) or hospitalization admission with the diagnosis of a UTI. Among 220 patients, 106(48.18%) had recurrence. Out of these patients, 74 were diabetics (74%) and the remaining were nondiabetics (26.67%). Recurrent UTI was more frequent in diabetics of above 50 years group. Duration antimicrobial therapy was significantly longer in diabetics. Most commonly used antibiotic group is cephalosporins in both diabetics as well as non-diabetics.
103-109
115
SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL STUDIES AND ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF 8-SUBSTITUTED-4-(2,4-DIHYDROXYPHENYL)-2-(4-CHLOROPHENYL)-2,5-DIHYDRO-1,5-BENZOTHIAZEPINES
Prerna Jain, B.S. Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new series of 1,5-benzothiazepine compounds have been synthesized by the reaction between equimolar quantities of 5-substituted-2-aminothiophenol and 1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-propenone, in the presence of absolute alcohol saturated with dry HCl gas. The reaction progress is monitored by TLC. Structure of compound is ascertained by Spectral and by elemental analysis.
99-102
116
LAGERSTROEMIA SPECIES: A REVIEW
Munish PAL, Deepika Thareja, Chandana Majee
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Lagerstroemia species family Lytharceae, a popular Indian medicinal plant, has long been used in ayurvedic system of medicine. The plant has been found to possess diverse number of pharmacological activities. The present paper gives an account of pharmacological activities. The review reveals that wide range of phytochemical and pharmacological activities. The review reveals that wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from the plant and it possesses important activities like anti- inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, anti-hyperglycemic, and antioxidant. Various other activities anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiviral, antineoplastic and osteoblastic activities has also been reported. These reports are very encouraging and indicate that herb should be studied more extensively for its therapeutic benefits. Clinical trials using Lagerstroemia (Banaba) for variety of combinations in different formulations should also be conducted.
95-98
117
DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF ATROPINE INDUCED PSYCHOSIS: PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY
Neethu Ros Tom, Greeshma Hanna Varghese, Hanna Alexander, Swethalekshmi. V, Hemalatha S, T.R. Ashok Kumar, Dr. T. Sivakumar.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The administration of atropine to a large population for treatment of intoxication carries the risk of allergic or toxic reactions in a small number of patients. It has been reported rarely in the literatures. Psychotic symptoms such as restlessness and excitement, hallucinations, delirium may occur due to atropine. There were ten patients who manifested slurred speech, flight of ideas, visual hallucinations, emotional lability, and ambivalence after intake of atropine. This was a prospective observational study to assess the incidence and other patterns of atropine-induced psychotic disorder in a substance abused patients. The incidence of ADR amounts to be 31.3 % in medicine wards. Psychosis was occurred on the day of administration of atropine and the mean duration of the ADR was found to be 2.7 days. Mean length of the hospital stay was 6.2 days which shows that ADR causes prolongation of the hospitalisation. The causality assessment of psychosis with atropine using Naranjo causality assessment scale and WHO-Uppsala monitoring is indicated as probable association with atropine and severity as moderate. The preventability was assessed by Schumock thronton scale in which most of them are not preventable. The patient was discontinued with the suspected drug. Physostigmine, scopolamine or glycopyrrolate can be given as replacement of therapy in atropine-induced psychosis. Length of the hospital was increased due to ADR. Patient who is taking higher doses causes more incidences of psychotic symptoms than others. So physician should be vigilant while prescribing the doses.
88-94
118
COMPARISON OF POLYPHARMACY BETWEEN GERIATRIC AND NONGERIATRIC DIABETIC PATIENTS
Rajeshwari Shastry, Prabha Adhikari MR, Ullal Sheetal D, Shashidhar Kotian M
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Geriatric diabetics have comorbidities, requiring multiple drugs. This study was conducted to compare polypharmacy between geriatric and nongeriatric diabetics. Cross sectional study conducted in type 2 diabetics, grouped into geriatric and nongeriatric. Patients’ demographic data, duration of diabetes and drugs prescribed were recorded. Polypharmacy was defined as five drugs or more per prescription. Students’ t test and Chi square test were the statistical tests. A total of 477 diabetics were included (geriatrics n equals to 320, nongeriatrics n equals to 157); mean ages were 68.31plus or minus 6.06 and 49.91plus or minus 6.93 respectively. Comorbidities observed were hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), dyslipidemia, peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy and hypothyroidism. Significantly more geriatrics had hypertension (78.75% versus 53.5%) and CAD (31.25% versus 13.37%; p equals to 0.0001). Polypharmacy was noted in 133 (41.6%) geriatrics and 40 (25.5%) nongeriatrics (p equals to 0.0009). Total number of drugs per prescription among geriatrics and nongeriatrics was 4.32 plus or minus 2.01 vs 3.39 plus or minus 1.92; p less than 0.001. Mean number of drugs for diabetes and hypertension were equal among both groups. However, polypharmacy was more in geriatric diabetics, which is due to high prevalence of CAD.
85-87
119
ANTIOXIDANT AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING PROPERTIES OF PUNICA GRANATUM FRUIT EXTRACT
Keerthana Gnanavel, Elangovan Namasivayam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the oldest known edible fruit tree, originating in central Asia prominent activity of the three different acetone extracts of pomegranate fruit: arils with seeds (R), rind with inner septal FRAP, Nitric oxide radical scavenging assay were the methods adopted to study the antioxidant potential of the fruit (F) has the highest antioxidant capacity when compared to Aril seed Extract (R) and Rind Septum extract(Y). management.
1354-1359
120
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FLOATING CAPSULES OF PROPRANOLOL HCl USING MODIFIED PULSINCAP TECHNIQUE
GSN Koteswara Rao, KV Ramana Murthy, GSV Subrahmanyam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In our present investigation an attempt was made to apply modified pulsincap technique to develop floating capsules of propranolol HCl using PEO WSR 301. The formulation mixture was hand filled into the hardened body (formaldehyde exposed) and covered with unhardened cap. All the formulations with varying ratios of drug:polymer and varying time periods of exposure to formaldehyde vapors were evaluated for residual formaldehyde content, weight variation, drug content, in-vitro buoyancy, drug release pattern, compatibility studies etc. The formulations F2.3 with drug-polymer ratio of 1:0.75 prepared by using 2 h exposed capsule body was found as the optimized formulation as it has satisfied the buoyancy characteristics, shown controlled release of 100% in 12 h as per USP criteria and utilized less polymer concentration among all formulations in addition to all other parameters assessed. Hence modified pulsincap technique can be successfully used for the development of floating capsules of propranolol HCl using PEO WSR 301.
465-472
121
ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC AND AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF TROPAEOLUM MAJUS L
Syed Mujtaba Ahmed, Anil Middha, Mohammed Omer, D. Ramakrishna
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present study ethanolic and aqueous leaf extract of Tropaeolum majus L was investigated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. Analgesic activity was determined by three different methods (tail immersion, hot plate and writhing method), anti-inflammatory activity was determined by three different methods (carrageenan, histamine induced paw edema And cotton pellet granuloma) at dose 200,400mg/kg b.wt in experimental animals using diclofenac sodium, tramadol, Indomethacin as reference drugs. In all the animals models the results obtained were statistically significant (p less than 0.05) in comparison to control. The results obtained indicate that Tropaeloum majus L has significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in those animal models.
1347-1353
122
STEM CELL PRESERVATION FROM UMBILICAL CORD - A LIFESAVER FOR LIFE
Pooja Agarwal, Nafiza Banu, V. Shalini, M. Manasa Padma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the study was to evaluate the importance of umbilical stem cells in present scenario. Stem cells are the very foundation of the human body. Every part of our body including blood, bones, skin and muscles are formed from master cells known as stem cells. Stem cells have three important qualities. They have the capacity to turn into any type of cell in the body such as muscle cell, bone cell, blood cell, tissues and brain cell, can replicate or copy them limitlessly and are responsible for repair and regeneration functions in the body. Owing to these qualities, stem cells are taking center stage in medicine today. Research has proven that stem cells can be used in the treatment of many medical conditions. In the past 50 years, over a million people have benefited from the power of stem cells and are now living a renewed life. The human body has different sources of stem cells such as the bone marrow, tooth, peripheral blood and the umbilical cord. Umbilical cord is a rich source of stem cells that have the potential to treat medical conditions. The umbilical cord that forms the bond between the mother and the baby inside the womb is the richest source of lifesaving stem cells. There is every reason to preserve the umbilical cord blood and the tissue at the time of birth.
1341-1346
123
ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC And AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF AERIAL PART OF THESPESIA LAMPAS (CAV) DALZ AND GIBS ON STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
Syed Mujtaba Ahmed, Anil Middha, Mohammed Omer, D. Ramakrishna
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The study evaluates antidiabetic activity of ethanolic And aqueous extract of aerial part of Thespesia.lampas on streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. Ethanol And Aqueous extract were prepared by soxhlet And maceration process respectively. Antidiabetic activity of the aerial part of the extract at dose 200mg/kg in STZ (i.p 65mg/kg body weight) induced diabetic rats. The study also included the estimation of different biochemical parameters on STZ induced diabetes. The reduced blood glucose levels was statistically significant (Pless than 0.05) in the dose of 200mg/kg of ethanol and aqueous leaf extract when compared with control. The results exhibited potent antihyperglycemic activity in normal and STZ induced diabetic rats so it might be useful in the treatment of diabetes.
1336-1340
124
IN VITRO BIOEVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN HEDYCHIUM CORONARIUM
Prasanthi Donipati, Dr. S. Hara Sreeramulu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Hedychium coronarium Koen. (Family Zingiberaceae), popularly named butterfly ginger, is widely available in tropical and subtropical regions.The present study was undertaken to compare the antioxidant activity of hexane, chloroform and methanolic extract of rhizomes between ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and Diphenyl picrial hydrazyl radical scavenging assay (DPPH). The results showed that, Diphenyl picrial hydrazyl radical scavenging assay (DPPH) has more hexane, chloroform and methanolic concerntrations than FRAP. The objective of the present study was to identify the main constituents of the rhizomes of H. coronarium and to investigate the antioxidant activity.
1333-1335
125
ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIAL STRAIN PRODUCING THERMOSTABLE α- AMYLASE
Deepti Gulati and Mehvish Malik Nisar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The use of thermostable enzymes in industrial applications has been increasing rapidly due to the fact that they are more active and stable at higher temperatures, and have a longer shelf life. The present study was aimed at isolating and identifying thermostable a-amylase producing bacteria. A total of fourteen bacterial strains were isolated, of which three were found to be potent amylase producers and showed maximum enzyme activity. The three isolates were identified as Bacillus species. The cultures were optimized for maximum enzyme activity on different parameters such as pH and temperature. All three isolates showed maximum growth and produced maximum amount of enzyme after 48 hours of incubation at pH 8.0 in a medium containing nutrient agar and 1% starch. Further, it was found that B7 was stable up to temperature of 80C with optimum activity at 60C. B11 and B13 showed maximum activity at 40C but were found to be stable up to 70C.
1318-1326
126
STATISTICAL OPTIMIZATION OF KETOPROFEN TABLETS COMPRESSION COATED WITH ASSAM BORA RICE STARCH/ETHYL CELLULOSE MIXTURE FOR COLONIC DRUG DELIVERY
Nirmala Devi, Manju Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this work was to prepare and optimise the ketoprofen colon targeted compression coated tablet using mixture of Assam bora rice starch and ethyl cellulose as coating agent. 32 factorial designs was used to study the effect of ethyl cellulose content (X1) and coating level (X2) on the release of ketoprofen from colon targeted tablet. Dissolution study was performed in pH1.2 for 2 hr, pH 7.4 for 3 hr and goat caecal medium for 5 hr. Multiple linear regression analysis was used for generation of polynomial equation and optimization of formulation. The optimized formulation consisted of ethyl cellulose (31.39 %) and coating level (416.8 mg) provided a release profile that is closed to estimated values.
1305-1317
127
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ATAZANAVIR SULFATE BY VARIOUS ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES - A REVIEW
C. Divya, A. Ajitha, T. Rama Mohana Reddy, V. Umamaheswara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Atazanavir Sulfate is a sulfate salt form of atazanavir, an aza-dipeptide analogue with a bis-aryl substituent on the (hydroxethyl)hydrazine moiety with activity against both wild type and mutant forms of HIV protease. Atazanavir does not elevate serum lipids, a common problem with other protease inhibitors. In this review, we discussed various analytical methods like UV, HPLC, LC-MS for the estimation of Atazanavir Sulfate in pharmaceutical dosage forms.
1293-1296
128
RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF CANAGLIFLOZIN IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Maddu Suma, K. Manasa, Ch. Rajakumari and B. Lakshmaiah
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In this study, we describe a simple and sensitive reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of Canagliflozin in pharmaceutical dosage form. The chromatographic separation was achieved on ODS column (4.6 x150mm, 5m particle size) column. The mobile phase, water and acetonitrile (55:45v/v), were delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The eluent was monitored using PDA detection at 214 nm. Canagliflozin was detected at 2.8 minutes. Validation parameters such as system suitability, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), Stability of sample and standard stock solutions and robustness were studied as reported in the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. This method can be employed for routine quality control of Canagliflozin tablets in quality control laboratories and pharmaceutical industries.
1288-1292
129
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF NICORANDIL MICROSPHERES
Sigimol Joseph, Dr.Shaji Selvin. C.D.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Present investigation describes preparation of microspheres by solvent evaporation followed by in vitro characterization of microspheres to evaluate the effect of method of preparation on physical properties and drug release profile of microspheres. The microspheres were found to be discrete, spherical with free flowing properties. The particle size distribution, entrapment efficiency and their release profiles were investigated. The yield was found to be maximum in case of solvent evaporation method. The microspheres formulation prepared by solvent evaporation method the drug carrier interactions were investigated in solid state by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy study. In vitro drug release rate for a microsphere was found to be sustained over 24 hours. Hence, it can be concluded that the Formulation prepared by solvent evaporation method, has potential to deliver nicorandil in a controlled manner in a regular fashion over extended period of time in Comparison to all other formulations and can be adopted for a successful oral delivery of nicorandil for safe management of hypertension.
1279-1287
130
DRUG POISONING TREND IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
Mallesh Kariyappa, Anil Kumar Kejjaiah, Rakesh Saraswathipura Ramachandrappa, Asha Benakappa
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Objective: Quantify burden of drug poisoning and it's trend in less than 18 years. Design: Retrospective observation study. Methods:All the children admitted with diagnosis of acute drug poisoning between January 2013 and June 2015 was studied. Results: There were 48 cases of drug poisoning accounting for 14.5% of all poisoning admissions, peaking in rainy season and in adolescence with female: male ratio of 18:1 after 14 years of age. Anti epileptic drugs and benzodiazepines were the most common drugs with 27 out of 48 cases followed by iron poisoning with7 cases. No drug belonging to narcotics and psychodysleptics, drugs acting on central nervous system was observed in our study. Drug poisoning peaked during rainy season. Conclusions: 14.5% of acute poisoning in children and adolescents is due to drug poisoning with peak during adolescence and rainy season. Anti epileptics and benzodiazepines were most commonly used drugs. Adolescent females were involved in drug poisoning in alarming proportions.
1272-1278
131
EFFECT OF COMPETITIVE BINDING OF HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS TO HUMAN SERUM ALBUMIN ON DRUG PHARMACOLOGY
Neelam Seedher and Mamta Kanojia
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
For the highly protein-bound anti-diabetic drugs with a small volume of distribution, competitive binding to human serum albumin can significantly influence the pharmacological activity of drugs resulting in serious fluctuations in the blood glucose levels of diabetic patients. In this paper, competitive binding studies using fluorescence spectroscopic technique have been reported for a wide range of drug combinations involving oral hypoglycemic (anti-diabetic) agents. For the drug combinations used, such studies are not available in the literature. The results indicated that the combination of gliclazide and repaglinide with the studied competing drugs can increase the risk of hypoglycemia in diabetic patients and should be avoided. On the other hand, the corresponding combinations involving glimepiride and glipizide were found safe. The therapeutic efficacy of studied competing drugs, on the other hand decreased in the presence of antidiabetic drugs in most cases. Competitive binding mechanism based on the site-specificity and conformational changes in the human serum albumin molecule has been proposed.
1261-1271
132
PREVALENCE AND PATTERN OF SELF-MEDICATION PRACTICES IN RURAL AREAS OF CENTRAL KASHMIR
Shakeel Ahmad Mir, Shakil U Rehman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Objectives: To assess the prevalence, pattern and other demographic characteristics of Self-medication in rural areas of Central Kashmir. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2015 to July 2015 in the rural areas of two Central Kashmir districts, Budgam and Srinagar. Simple random sampling method was used.Data was analyzed by combination of manual calculators, Vassar stats and also SPSS.Out of 250 participants, 192 returned the completely filled questionnaires. Results:Prevalence of self-medication was found to be as high as 89.58%.(64.58%) of those who practiced self-medication were males. Majority of the participants (30.76%) aged between 26-35 years and only 1.56% aged above 75 years.Most of the participants (88.54%) were literate. Most common illnesses for which self medication was used were: fever, backache, myalgias (32.55%), followed by gastrointestinal symptoms/diseases (23.25 %) and respiratory symptoms/diseases(16.27 %).Some major illnesses like hypertension(6.97%),thyroid disorders(4.65%),diabetes mellitus(2.32%)and surgical illnesses(2.32%) were also treated by self-medication.34.88 % practiced self-medication to save time and 27.90% to save money. 25.58% had previous experience of treating the same illness or symptoms.9.30 % practiced self-medication as they had no trust in prescribing physician due to varied reasons. Most of the respondents (25.58 %) used pain killers, followed by antibiotics by 19.76%,GIT drugs by 17.44% and decongestants, bronchodilators by 11.62%.Other drugs used were anti hypertensives(5.81%), multivitamins(4.65%) and anti allergics(1.16%).Majority (34.88 %) consulted their pharmacists to know about the drug and dosage. 25.58% consulted their friends and co-workers and 16.27% their family members to know about the drug(s) and dosage.16.27% searched internet to know about the drug(s).Most of the respondents (53.48%) stopped the drug after symptoms disappeared.30.23% stopped the drug(s) after a few days despite the outcome. Only 15.11% continued the drug(s) till full recovery.88.37% knew that drug(s )can cause various side effects and 11.62% were ignorant of this fact.40.69% experienced adverse drug effects. Conclusion: Self- medication is an important health issue. It is commonly practiced to get quick relief. It can be hazardous especially to pregnant women and extremes of age. Consequences of such practices should always be emphasized to the community and steps to curb it considered. Prevalence rate of self medication is alarming in rural areas of Central Kashmir. Thus further work should be done on larger scale and strict policies should be formulated to address this problem.
1255-1260
133
RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS OLMESARTAN AND CILNIDIPINE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
P. Harshalatha, K.B.Chandrasekhar M.V.Chandrasekhar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new reversed-phase HPLC method was developed and subsequently validated for simultaneous estimation of antihypertensive drugs Olmesartan and cilnidipine in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Chromatography was carried out on Inertsil C-18 column (4.6 x150mm, 5m particle size) with a mobile phase composed of buffer and acetonitrile in 55:45%v/v and the mobile phase was pumped at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a PDA detector at 225nm. Parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, specificity and ruggedness were studied as reported in the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The retention times for olmesartan and cilnidipine were 2.2 min and 3.7 min respectively. The linearity range for olmesartan and cilnidipine were 10-60 mg/mL and 5-30 mg/mL. The percentage recoveries of olmesartan and cilnidipine were 98.01% and 98.88%, respectively. This method can be employed for routine quality control of olmesartan and cilnidipine tablets in quality control laboratories and pharmaceutical industries.
1248-1254
134
STABILITY STUDY OF LIQUID PARAFFIN ORAL EMULSION (CREMAFFIN)
Yash Rakeshbhai Suthar, Prachi Barbhaiya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Stability studies ensuring the maintenance of product quality, safety and efficacy throughout the shelf life are considered as pre-requisite for the acceptance and approval of any pharmaceutical product. These studies are required to be conducted in a planned way following the guideline issused by ICH, WHO and or other agencies. Importance of various methods followed for stability testing of pharmaceutical products, guideline issued for stability testing and other aspects related to stability of pharmaceutical products have been presented in a present review.
1242-1247
135
BIOAVAILABILITY ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUES OF ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS DRUGS - A REVIEW
Richa Srivastava, Neha Mathur, Nikhat Fatima.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the widespread, fatal diseases caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex affecting human population. However, infection by the organism does not necessarily lead to disease and only 5-10% of these individuals will progress to active disease each year (WHO 2007). 10% people infected with TB bacteria have a lifetime risk of falling ill with TB. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that globally there were 9.4 million cases of active TB leading to 1.3 million deaths. However, lives can also be saved with effective diagnosis and treatment. This review focuses firstly on the occurrence and prevalence of this disease, secondly, on ways of its diagnosis and treatment, thirdly on the new tuberculosis drugs under development and lastly on the various bioavailability enhancement approaches which are under process so that the problem of poor/variable bioavailability of drugs, in particular, in fixed dose combinations (FDC's) or due to their enhanced decomposition in stomach acidic conditions etc can be minimized.
1234-1241
136
ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MAJOR PHYTOCHEMICALS FROM THE LEAVES OF PIPER BETLE. LINN
Srinivasan Srividya, Subramanian Iyyam Pillai and Sorimuthu Pillai Subramanian
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder arises from deficiency (T1DM) and/or efficiency (T2DM) of insulin. T2DM accounts for more than 90% of all diabetics and its prevalence is increasing alarmingly worldwide. It is intimately associated with improper utilization of insulin by target cells and tissues. Insulin, a polypeptide hormone synthesized by the pancreatic beta cells, is responsible for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis in human and other mammals. It is essential for the entry of glucose across the muscle and adipocyte cell membranes for energy production, hepatic glycogen synthesis, protein and nucleic acid synthesis and inhibition of gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis and lipolysis. Thus, T2DM is a multifactorial, multisystemic endocrine disorder for which monotherapy often fails as the disease progress to later stages. Traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment of DM contain various biologically active ingredients which act in a synergistic way in maintaining normal glycemia. However, only few of them have been subjected to scientific validation. One such medicinal plant which lacks scientific scrutiny is Piper betle leaves. Hence, in the present study an attempt has been made to extract and identify the chemical nature of biologically active phytochemicals present in the distinct variety of Piper betle leaves of South India. The leaves cultivated in Kumbakonam are known for their taste, quality and medicinal properties. The data obtained by HPLC analysis and spectral studies such as FTIR, Mass, 1H NMR, 13C NMR evidenced that the ethanolic extract of Piper betle leaves contains Caffeic acid, p-Coumaric acid, Eugenol, Rutin and Hydroxychavicol as major secondary metabolites which are known for their beneficial and pharmacological properties. The results of the present study suggest that the betel leaves are the rich source of pharmacologically important lead molecules and also provide the scientific rationale for the use of Piper betle leaves in the traditional medicine.
1215-1233
137
AN ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY THE TRIBAL AND NON-TRIBAL PEOPLES OF MALDA DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA FOR THE TREATMENT OF SKIN DISEASES
Swapan Kumar Chowdhury
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was aimed at exploring the traditional Ethno medicine knowledge of native tribes on the utilization of wild plant species for local healthcare management in Malda district of West Bengal, India and its present status. With this objective in view, this ethno botanical study among the local tribal and non-tribal people of this district has been carried out during January 2012 to January 2013 in search of traditional healers or practitioners who ceaselessly use their worthy knowledge to treat several skin ailments for human purposes. The information was collected by means of open-ended conversations, semi-structured questionnaire, group discussion, etc. Information obtained from the informants was also cross verified to check the authenticity. This study revealed that a total of 75 medicinal plants under 65 genera of 42 families are frequently used to treat various types of ailments with 10 herbal preparations. of 75 plants, herbs possess the highest growth forms (40%) that were used in making traditional preparation, followed by shrubs (26%), trees (24%) and climbers (9.34%). Leaves comprised the major plant parts used (49.34%), followed by stem (1.34%), Root (8%), seeds (2.6%), bark (5.34%), whole plant (10.67%), fruits (4%), Rhizome (2.67%), Latex (6.67%), Throne (1.34%) ,Resin (1.34%) and oil (1.34) to prepare in the medicinal formulations for skin problems.
1203-1214
138
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE AND CILNIDIPINE IN COMBINED TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Pavan Kumar.V, G. Lokeswara, Dr. V.Haribaskar, Dr. M.Gobinath
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate and precise method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Metoprolol and Cilnidipine in Tablet dosage form. Chromatogram was run through Altima (150 x 4.6 mm, 5m). Mobile phase containing Buffer (0.1%OPA) and Methanol in the ratio of 45:55 v/v was pumped through column at rate of 1ml/min.Temperature was maintained at 30 degree C Optimized wavelength for Metoprolol and Cilnidipine was 225nm. Retention time of Metoprolol and Cilnidipine was found to be 2.249min and 3.062 min. %Assay was obtained as 101.22% and 100.45% for Metoprolol and Cilnidipine respectively. The accuracy and reliability of the method was assessed by evaluation of linearity, precision (intra-day and inter-day % RSD greater than 2), accuracy and specificity for Metoprolol and Cilnidipine in accordance with ICH guidelines.
1196-1202
139
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF SOME DRUGS IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION
Mahesh H. Kolhe; Ujwala K. Waghmare; Ramesh D. Bhusal ; Pranit P. Hajare ; Swapnil R Chavan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate and reproducible RP-HPLC method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of Aspirin and Ticlopidine hydrochloride in tablet dosage form. The RP-HPLC analysis is carried out using Acetonitrile: Ammonium acetate buffer (0.05 M) in the ratio of (68: 32 % v/v) as the mobile phase and MOS Thermosil C8 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.), flow rate 1.0 mL/min, with detection wavelength of 240 nm. Linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 10-50 mg/mL and 20-100 mg/mL for Aspirin and Ticlopidine hydrochloride respectively. The RP-HPLC methods was developed and statistically validated as per ICH guidelines.
1178-1187
140
INSOMNIA AND DRUGS USED: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND DRUG UTILIZATION STUDY IN PSYCHIATRY UNIT OF A TEACHING HOSPITAL
Swati Mishra, Suvendu N.Mishra, Monalisa Jena, S.S.Mishra
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Insomnia, currently the most prevalent sleep disorder characterised by difficulty in initiating and maintaining sleep. Several studies have been carried out in different populations regarding use of medications for its treatment; however there is need for more studies aimed at taking a closer look on the drugs used in our population. Hence, this study was carried out to observe the utilization pattern of drugs for insomnia in our hospital. A prospective observational drug utilization study of 252 patients of both sexes and all ages suffering from insomnia attending the Psychiatry outpatient department was carried out as per WHO - DUS(world health organisation- Drug utilisation study) and DSM-V guidelines. It involved administering a Proforma to consenting subjects whose psychiatric diagnoses were ascertained using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-V. One hundred twenty patients out of two hundred fifty two patients were from age group 25-45 years and thirty seven patients were above 65 years. Average number of drugs for insomnia per prescription was not more than two. Most commonly prescribed drug were Clonazepam 50(13.9%) followed by Lorazepam 39(10.8%). The newer benzodiazepines like Zolpidem, Zaleplon were also commonly used but Eszopiclone 6(1.67%) was the least commonly used drug. The study concludes the prevalence of insomnia in younger age groups and association of it with other disorders. Benzodiazepines and newer non-benzodiazepine hypnotics were the most frequently used drugs for treating insomnia in our population.
1164-1169
141
A STUDY OF PREVAILING SCENARIO OF FIXED-DOSE DRUG COMBINATIONS (FDCs) AVAILABLE IN INDIAN MARKET
Sumit Patel, Rima Shah, Dr.Sagun Desai
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Aim: To study the prevailing scenario of FDCs available in Indian market. Methodology: This was an observational, analytical and cross sectional study. This study involved analysis of currently available FDCs in Indian Drug Review (IDR) for essentiality and rationality. Information about number of drugs per FDC, their dosage form, ingredients, category, essentiality and rationality of FDCs was collected. Results: A total of 16599 drugs and 6485 (39.07%) FDCs were present in IDR. More than four ingredients were found in 102 (1.56%) FDCs. The highest number of drugs and FDCs were found in category of antimicrobial drugs. More than 70% FDCs were found to irrational. Conclusion: In India, irrational FDCs are freely available. There is a concern regarding the production, prescription, and use of irrational FDCs. Considering the enormous use of drugs in Indian population, it is high time that pharmaceutical companies, health care professionals and regulatory authorities join hands and prescribe guidelines for the manufacture and sale of FDCs.
1155-1163
142
SUBLINGUAL SPRAY: A BOOST TO NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Karishma Yogeshkumar Halatwala, Devarshi Shah, R. K. Parikh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Sublingual dosage form is to be placed under the tongue and produce immediate systemic effect by enabling the drug absorbed directly through mucosal lining of the mouth beneath the tongue which is very reach to vascular blood supply. Here the sublingual spray is to be sprayed for faster onset of action. The absorption of drug through sublingual route is 3-10 times greater than that given oral route. Main advantages include elimination of first pass effect, rapid drug absorption, high efficacy, large surface area, drug stability, ease of termination of therapy and many more. Drug directly go to the arterial circulation by sublingual vein and capillaries and then to jugular vein and then to the Superior vena cava. Pharmaceutical preparations for sublingual administration are manufactured in the forms of: tablets, drops, film, and sprays. Therefore current write up is focused on anatomical structure of sublingual route, its blood supply, mechanism of drug absorption, advantages and disadvantages of sublingual spray with their marketed formulation has been discussed.
1144-1148
143
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF AZITHROMYCIN IN FIXED DOSAGE FORM
J. Raghuram, N. Appalaraju, V. Kiran Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, precise, rapid and accurate reverse phase HPLC method was developed for the estimation of Azithromycin in tablet dosage form.Xterra RP 18 (250x4.6mm, 5m particle size), with mobile phase consisting of ortho-phosphori acid:methanol 70:30 V/V was used. The flow rate 1.0 ml/min and the effluents were monitored at 205 nm.The retention time and Recovery time was 12 minutes. The detector response was linear in the concentration of 25-275 mg/mL.The respective linear regression equation being Y= 1228.302 x+5230.5524. The limit of detection and limit of quantification was 12.5mcg and 37.5mcg/ml respectively. The percentage assay of Azithromycin was 98.0%. The method was validated by determining its accuracy, precision and system suitability.The results of the study showed that the proposed RP-HPLC method is simple, rapid, precise and accurate, which is useful for the routine determination of Azithromycin in bulk drug and in its pharmaceutical dosage form.
1139-1143
144
EXTENDED SYNTHESIS OF STORAGE PROTEINS IN SILKWORM BOMBYX MORI IN RESPONSE TO JUVENILE HORMONE ANALOGUE (JHA) TREATMENT
Santhy K Sivanandan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The female silkworm, Bombyx mori, rapidly accumulates two storage proteins in the haemolymph that are synthesized by the fat body during the final stage of the last larval instar. This is then sequestered from the haemolymph in to the fat body during larval -pupal transformation. Application of Methoprene (Manta) at low concentration ranging from 0.1 mg -1 mg on the third day was found to prolong the larval period by two days in a dose dependent manner which resulted in the prolonged synthesis of storage proteins as evidenced by the SDS -PAGE and densitometric scanning of haemolymph proteins. A corresponding decline in the storage protein concentration was observed in the fat body samples in lieu of the late sequestration. The prolonged synthesis of storage protein in the study was found to have an indirect impact on the silk as observed in enhanced silk production.
1126-1131
145
UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF LEVOCETERIZINE IN BULK AND DOSAGE FORMS
B. Koteswara Rao, K.R.Manjula , M. Nageswara Rao, C. Ram Babu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present study, a simple, precise, accurate and low cost U.V. spectrophotometric method is developed for the determination of Levoceterizine in bulk and dosage forms. The absorbance of aqueous Levoceterizine solutions are measured by UV- visible spectrophotometer at a wave length of 230 nm. This method obeys Beer's Law in the concentration range of 5-17.5 mg/mL in aqueous media. As per linearity studies, the correlation coefficient, slope and standard deviations are 0.9998, 0.029 and 0.1772 respectively. The % recovery of the assay of the drug in the sample in this method is 99.2 and the method is sensitive in presence of the excipients in the dosage form. According to ICH guidelines the linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ are studied and the method is validated. Hence, the present method is suitable for the accurate, precise, sensitive and low cost determination of Levoceterizine in pure and formulations.
1121-1125
146
BACTERIAL PROFILE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN GYNAECOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF A PRIVATE HOSPITAL
Aiswarya Purushothaman, Sanjai Krishna S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infection in pregnancy. An untreated Urinary tract infection can lead to increased risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Urinary tract infection in pregnant women, causative organism and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of isolated uropathogens. The study was conducted in the Gynaecology department of a single speciality private hospital for a study period of 6 months and sample size of 160 patients. Urine samples of the sample population were undergone for microscopic and culture and sensitivity tests. Majority of sample population affected Urinary tract infection were between an age group of 20-29 years (58%) and the incidence of infection was common in third (51%) and second (32%) trimesters. Escherichia coli [102(64%)] was the commonest bacterial pathogen isolated and others were Klebsiella pneumonia [29(18%)], Pseudomonas aeruginosa [13(8%)], Staphylococcus aureus [9(6%)] and Proteus mirabilis [7(4%)] . Levofloxacin had the highest overall antibiotic sensitivity of 83% followed by Ofloxacin (80%) ,Ceftriaxone (77%),Ciprofloxacin(74%), Amikacin (67.5%), Gentamycin (46%), Nitrofurantoin (38%), Amoxicillin- clavulanate (26%), Amoxicillin (15%), Doxycyclin (7%), Clotrimoxazole (7%).
1116-1120
147
PREVALENCE OF MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT BACTERIA IN (PIPER BETEL L) LEAF WASHED-WATER OF THE ROAD SIDE PAN STALL IN NORTH BENGAL
Swapan Kumar Chowdhury
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The current study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria in Betel (Piper betel L) leaf washed-water of the road side pan stall in North Bengal. This study deals with the determining of coliform counts through MPN test, total heterotrophic load of bacteria, isolation and identification of the Bacteria through plating on different selective medium and determination of multiple antibiotic resistance Bacteria. MPN test shows that sample -2, sample-5 and sample-6 gives positive results. Total heterotrophic load of sample 1 was 5.85 ? 10 5 colony forming unit per milliliter (cfu/ml), sample 2 was 6.64 ? 10 5 cfu/ml, sample 3 was 27.8 ? 10 5 cfu/ml, sample 4 was 12.1 ? 10 5 cfu/ml, and sample 5 was 23.2 ? 10 5 cfu/ml. Many antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria are found in leaf wash-water. Significance and impact of this study is to create awareness among the common peoples who are chewing pan regularly.
1103-1115
148
COMPARISON OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE TOWARDS PHARMACOVIGILANCE BETWEEN INDUSTRIAL AND HOSPITAL PHARMACISTS
Sunita Kumari, Palaniappan Senthilkumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pharmacist's knowledge and expertise is important to the application of drug safety profile. Pharmacists are more likely to detect adverse drug reactions than other healthcare professionals. The main objective of the study is to assess the knowledge and attitude of industry and hospital pharmacist towards pharmacovigilance and also to find out the effect of educational intervention towards the knowledge, attitude and participation in reporting adverse drug reactions at tertiary care hospital in New Delhi. This study was conducted by using validated KAP questionnaire. Out of 230 pharmacists responded, 115 were from the industry and 115 from the hospital. The overall response shows that industrial pharmacist are better in terms of knowledge, practice and attitude towards pharmacovigilance because of their regular training and updates. Hospital pharmacists lack awareness about pharmacovigilance and needs to update their knowledge and practice. There is a regular need for educational intervention. After intervention, a significant improvement in the knowledge, attitude and practice towards pharmacovigilance was observed among hospital pharmacists.
1091-1102
149
A VALIDATED STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TENOFOVIR DISOPROXIL FUMARATE, COBICISTAT, EMTRICITABINE AND ELVITEGRAVIR IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
N. Khaleel, Sk. Abdul Rahaman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new simple, precise, selective, accurate and rapid RP-HPLC stability indicating method had been developed and validated for simultaneous quantitative determination of Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Cobicistat, Emtricitabine and Elvitegravir in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form using Kromasil C18 (250x4.6 mm, 5um) in isocratic mode. The optimized mobile phase consists of Orthophosphoric acid buffer: Acetonitrile (55:45 %v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and eluents were detected at 240 nm using PDA detector. The method was linear in the range of 20 -120 ug/ml for Emtricitabine, 30-180 ug/ml for Tenofovir, 15-90 ug/ml for Cobicistat and 15-90 ug/ml for Elvitegravir. Degradation studies were studied for Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Cobicistat, Emtricitabine and Elvitegravir under various stress conditions, all the degradation peaks were resolved effectively using developed method with different retention times. The developed method was validated according to ICH guidelines.
991-1002
150
A VALIDATED STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF TOBRAMYCIN AND CEFTAZIDIME IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
N.V.V. Jagan Mohan Reddy and S. Ganapaty
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The proposed study, a new stability- indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed for estimation of Tobramycin and Ceftazidime in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form.The present method was a sensitive, precise, and accurate RP-HPLC method for the analysis of Tobramycin and Ceftazidime. To optimize the mobile phase, various combinations of buffer and organic solvents were used on Hypersil BDS C18 (250mm x 4.6 mm, 5m) column. Then the mobile phase containing a mixture of Phosphate Buffer:Acetonitrile in the ratioof 55:45%v/v was selected at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min for developing the method and the peaks with good shape and resolution were found resulting in short retention time, baseline stability and minimum noise. The retention times of Tobramycin and Ceftazidime were found to be 4.255 and 2.823 min respectively. . Quantitative linearity was obeyed in the concentration range of 7.5-30 and 62.5-375 mg/mL of Tobramycin and Ceftazidime respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.020 mg/mL and 0.061mg/mL (TOBRA);0.246 mg/mL and 0.746 mg/mL (CEFTA) respectively, which indicates the sensitivity of the method. The high percentage recovery indicates that the proposed method is highly accurate. No interfering peaks were found in the chromatogram indicating that excipients used in injection formulations did not interfere with the estimation of the drugs by the proposed HPLC method.
976-984
151
Biological evaluation of some new 1,3-benzothiazole-2-yl derivatives containing pyrazole moiety
Deepa Chauhan, A. A.Siddiqui, Rajkumari Kataria, Dr. Robin Singh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A series of 2-[3-(substituted phenyl)-4-formylpyrazol-1-yl]-6-nitro benzothiazole derivatives (5a-g) have been synthesized through Vilsmeier-Haack reaction on hydrazones (4a-g) of appropriate substituted aromatic ketones with 6-nitro-benzothiazol-2-yl hydrazine under microwave irradiation in fairly good yields. Structural assignments of the synthesized compounds were based on their IR, 1HNMR, mass spectral studies and elemental analysis. Those compounds were also screened for their in vitro antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae and antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. Some of the compounds exhibited promising antibacterial and antifungal activities as compared to reference drugs Norfloxacin and ketoconazole.
970-975
152
IN SILICO ANALYSIS, MODELING, DOCKING AND PHARMACOPHORE STUDIES OF PROTEINS INVOLVED IN AUTO IMMUNE MALADIES (RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS)
G. Prathima, A. Ravindernath, P. Raja Rao, P. Sahithi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cytokine networks participate with paracrine and autocrine loops maintaining cellular activation in the synovial intimal lining. In rheumatoid arthritis inflammatory changes occur throughout the connective tissues of the body. The most useful medications in relieving the pain and disability of rheumatoid arthritis with anti-inflammatory properties are aspirin and ibuprofen. The present project was focused on study of anti-rheumatoid arthritis activity of bioactive compounds.In the present study, homology modeling, mutagenesis, docking studies were carried out with some of the selected bioactive compounds.PDB latest version was used to identify the target protein, obtain sequence from protein sequence data bank and homology modeling for the target protein was done using modeler 9.14 version and MOE 2008. version. Docking studies using molecular operating environment program revealed that Ellagic acid, Curcuminoid and Methyl gallate possess anti rheumatoid arthritis activity. Further, pharmacophore mapping studies were performed using DISCOVERY STUDIO on these compounds in order to identify the pharmacophoric feature responsible for the observed activity of the compounds.
953-960
153
An Ethnicity Based Assessment of Adverse Drug Reactions Due To Antibiotics -Anti microbials Usage in India
Ram Krishna Prasad, D. Satyawati, Fatima Tahniyath, P. Neehar, Narayani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
To assess and evaluate the suspected ADRs reported among two ethnic groups with use of antibiotic (antimicrobials) medications. A prospective observational study was conducted over a period of approximately 2 years on inpatient population involving two ethnic groups ; Santhals and Chaush tribe attending Rajendra Institute of Medical Science (RIMS) situated in Ranchi, Jharkhand state, India and Axon hospital situated in Hyderabad, Telangana state, India. Non-statistical significance in odds for number of suspected ADRs for both ethnic groups (OR 0.99, 95% CI: 0.78 - 1.27). The study found no difference and events were preventable as per Schumocks and Thorontons criteria. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality, susceptibility varies with genetic make-up, age, sex, physiology, exogenous factors, and disease state as ethnic groups are more susceptible during treatment. Here Ethnic group may act as a marker for underlying genetic or environmental differences.
943-952
154
Efficacy of ormeloxifene in dysfunctional uterine bleeding: a boon too many
Thapa Shreya, Agrawal Rani Nisha, Chaubey Lavina
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A prospective study was conducted after ethical clearance to evaluate the efficacy of Ormeloxifene in the medical management of DUB in a Tertiary care hospital. The study included 60 women with DUB who underwent baseline assessment and were then treated with Ormeloxifene 60 mg orally twice a week for 12 weeks, followed by once a week for next 12 weeks. The efficacy of the study drug was analyzed by comparing the baseline and post treatment PABC score, menstrual cycle pattern, haemoglobin level, endometrial thickness and satisfaction with treatment. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. There was statistically significant decrease in median PABC score and endometrial thickness. The mean haemoglobin level difference was not statistically significant. The menstrual pattern regularized in 90.4% patients. There was 100% satisfaction with the treatment. Thus Ormeloxifene, a non-steroidal, non-hormonal agent, with its convenient dose schedule provides effective and favourable medical management option with least side effects, suitable for the treatment of DUB.
936-942
155
GREEN SYNTHESIS OF NICOTINIC ACID HYDRAZIDE SCHIFF BASES AND ITS BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION
Vidya Desai, Rachana Shinde
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A series of biologically active nicotinic acid hydrazide schiff bases have been synthesized from nicotinic acid hydrazide and variety of aldehydes using lemon juice as natural catalyst, in moderate to good yields. The schiff bases synthesized, exhibited excellent anti-tubercular activity in comparison to standard drugs used.
930-935
156
NANOCARRIER FOR INTRANASAL ADMINISTRATION
Pranita Savardekar, Amrita Bajaj, Anupama Puntambekar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the present research work study was to design, optimize and characterize Nanoemulsion for improved brain transport of the drug. Drug nanoemulsion was optimized using Box Behnken Design. Particle size, zeta potential, and Polydispersity index were measured using Malvern Zetasizer. Morphology of nanoemulsion droplets was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Drug diffusion studies were performed and drug diffused was estimated using UV spectroscopic analysis. Stable nanoemulsions were formulated. The optimized nanoemulsion showed a uniform size distribution in the range of 40-100nm with zeta potential in the range of -18mv to -30 mV. The metered dose intranasal nanoemulsion sprays of Drug will prove as an alternative to conventional intranasal delivery for therapy of bipolar disorders and mania.
918-923
157
LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY - MASS SPECTROMETRY AND ITS APPLICATIONS
Renuka Jajikore, G. Ushasree, A. Ajitha, V. Umamaheswararao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Liquid chromatography is a fundamental separation technique in the life sciences and related fields of chemistry. An LC-MS is an HPLC system with a mass spec detector. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry is now a routine technique with the development of electrospray ionisation providing a simple and robust interface. It can be applied to a wide range of biological molecules and the use of tandem MS and stable isotope internal standards allows highly sensitive and accurate assays to be developed although some method optimisation is required to minimise ion suppression effects.
911-917
158
2,6-DISUBSTITUTED-4,5,6,7-TETRAHYDROTHIENO[2,3-C]PYRIDINE-3-CARBOXAMIDE DERIVATIVES AS ANTI-MYCOBACTERIAL AGENTS: A 3D QSAR APPROACH
Ranjithreddy Palreddy, Jaheer Mohmed, Reshma Palreddy, Shravan Kumar Gunda
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
3D-QSAR using CoMFA and CoMSIA were developed for a series of 26 2,6-disubstituted 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno[2,3-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide derivatives for prediction of anti-mycobacterial activity. Both COMFA and COMSIA models were obtained with LOO cross-validation q2 values of 0.825 and 0.503 were obtained respectively. &nbsp;The models were validated by external test set of six compounds with conventional r2 value of 0.971 and 0.920 for CoMFA and CoMSIA analysis respectively. The contour maps from 3D-QSAR CoMFA and CoMSIA models show better interpret the structure activity relationship. Molecular docking studies were also performed to most and least active compounds.&nbsp;
867-874
159
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE AND OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL BY RP-HPLC IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
E. Mamatha rani*, K. Shilpa, A. Ajitha, V. Umamaheswararao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate and precised method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of hydrochlorthiazide and olmesartan medoxomil in formulation by RP-HPLC method. Buffer in this method was 0.01N Na2HPO4 of pH 4 used with the combination of acetonitrile in the ratio of 45:55 as mobile phase. 10µl of sample was injected and the mobile phase was run for 7min with flow rate of 1ml/min through BDS 250mm column maintained at 30°C. Wavelength optimized was 257nm. Hydrochlorthiazide and olmesartan were eluted with good resolution of 7.11. Retention times of hydrochlorthiazide and olmesartan were 2.4min and 3.8min respectively. Other system suitability parameters like tailing factor and plate count were within the limits. According to the ICH guidelines this method was validated. There was no placebo interference observed resulting that this method was specific, %RSD obtained for hydrochlorthiazide and olmesartan were 0.6% and 0.7%. On plotting the linearity graph for hydrochlorthiazide and olmesartan linearity equations obtained were y = 12341x + 864.8 and y = 11251x + 1599 respectively. Correlation coefficient was 0.999. % Average recovery was calculate and fount to be 100.05% for hydrochlorthiazide and 100.02% for olmesartan. % Labled amount of both drugs were found to be 99.77% and 99.96% for hydrochlorthiazide and olmesartan. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines. As run time was decreased this is economical and simple method that can be used in the regular analysis.
320-325
160
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM AND ENALAPRIL MALEATE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC
Sindu Yada, A. Ajitha, V. Uma Maheshwara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Losartan potassium and Enalapril maleate in tablet dosage form.&nbsp; The using Agilent C8 (4.6 x 150mm, 3.5mm) column in Isocratic mode, in mobile phase containing Acetonitrile phosphate buffer (50:50) and adjusted Ph. 6.5with ortho phosphoric acid, the flow rate was 2ml/min. The detection was carried out at wavelength 256nm. The retention times of Losartan potassium and Enalapril maleate were found to be 3.537 and 2.109 min respectively. The linearity for Losartan potassium and Enalapril maleate were in the range of 25-125&micro;g/ml and 5-25&micro;g/ml&nbsp; respectively .The recoveries of Losartan potassium and Enalapril maleate were found to be 99.7%and99.2%,respectively. The LOD values for&nbsp; and LOQ values are found to be within acceptance criteria. The LOD values were found to be 2.97 and 2.95 for Losartan potassium and Enalapril maleate respectively and LOQ values were found to be 9.91 and 9.95 for Losartan potassium and Enalapril maleate respectively.&nbsp; The proposed method was validated and successfully applied for the estimation of Losartan potassium and Enalapril maleate in combined tablet dosage forms.
314-319
161
EVALUATION OF APHRODISIAC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF Cicer arietinum SEEDS IN SEXUALLY SLUGGISH MALE ALBINO RATS
Ravindra Babu Sajja, Venkatesh V, Suneetha B, Srinivas N
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was designed to evaluate the potential aphrodisiac effect of seeds of methanolic extract of Cicer airetinum (MECA) in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Sexual behavioral parameters like mount frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF),ejaculation frequency (EF), ejaculation latency (EL), mount latency(ML) and intromission latencies (IL) were observed in male rats. The male serum cholesterol and testosterone concentrations were also recorded. Oral administration of MECA at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight&nbsp; significantly increased the MF, IF, EF and EL (P &lt; 0.05)in comparison to control groups. ML and IL significantly&nbsp; decreased (p&lt;0.05). The extract also significantly (p&lt;0.05) increased the serum cholesterol and testosterone levels. From these effects the MECA posses significant increase in the sexual activity in male rats.The augmented sexual behavior in male rats might be due to the presence of alkaloids, saponins and flavonoids&nbsp; found in MECA.
309-313
162
BUCCAL PATCHES- A Review
Ramteke K.H, Dighe P.A, Kharat A. R, Patil S.V
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Transmucosal drug delivery is an alternative method of systemic delivery of the drug which offers different advantages over existing methods by enhancing the bioavailability of drug due to rich in blood supply in mucosal surface and prolongs residence time at the site of application to permit once or twice daily dosing. Buccal route is an attractive and easy transmucosal route of administration for systemic drug delivery. Delivery of the drug via buccal route leads direct access to the systemic circulation through the internal jugular vein bypasses drugs from hepatic first pass metabolism leading to higher bioavailability. Buccal bioadhesive patches, releases topical drugs in the oral cavity at a slow and predetermined rate and provides advantages over traditional dosage forms for treatment of many diseases and disorders. The objective of this article is to review buccal patches by discussing their composition, method of preparation and evaluation.</div>
297-308
163
A REVIEW – ORAL DISPERSIBLE TABLETS
Sharda kumari, P.K Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Drug delivery systems are becoming increasingly sophisticated as pharmaceutical scientists acquire a better understanding of the physicochemical and biochemical parameters pertinent to their performance. Over the three decades, orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) have gained considerable attention as a preferred alternative to conventional tablets and capsules due to better patient compliance. ODTs are solid dosage forms containing medicinal substances which disintegrate rapidly, usually in a matter of seconds, when placed on the tongue. Products of ODT technologies entered the market in the 1980s, have grown steadily in demand, and their product pipelines are rapidly expanding. New ODT technologies address many pharmaceutical and patient needs, ranging from enhanced life-cycle management to convenient dosing for paediatric, geriatric, and psychiatric patients with dysphagia. This has encouraged both academia and industry to generate new orally disintegrating formulations and technological approaches in this field. The aim of this article is to review the development of ODTs, challenges in formulation, new ODT technologies and evaluation methodologies, suitability of drug candidates, and future prospects.</div>
290-296
164
USE OF TRADITIONAL PLANTS IN DIABETES MELLITUS: A REVIEW
Sheemah Kazi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder resulting from either insulin insufficiency or deficient. Scientific reports revealed that diabetes cannot be cured completely. The rapid increase in diabetes mellitus is becoming a serious threat to mankind in all parts of the world. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred more due to lesser side effects. Here in this review we discuss the traditional plants which help in lowering the blood sugar level and are effective as anti diabetic agent.</div>
283-289
165
ROLE OF CARISSA CARANDAS IN MEDICINE - A REVIEW
Ambika chauhan and Intelli
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Carissa carandas is one of the most common species of the genus &ldquo;Carissa&rdquo;and used as a traditional medicine which has received scientific awareness for its general ethnomedicinal applications. Present study focused on its &nbsp;nutritional composition, phytochemical compounds, therapeutic action and ethnopharmacological uses (cardioprotective effect, anti- diabetic activity, anti- carcinogenic, anti-pyretic, hepatoprotective activity) .</div>
280-282
166
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SAXAGLIPTIN AND METFORMIN IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Asiya Begum, Shilpa K, A. Ajitha, V. Uma Maheshwar Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">A sensitive selective and precise stability indicating-high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for Saxagliptin and Metformin in Tablet dosage form. An isocratic separation was carried out using Zorbax C18 (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 &micro;m) column and Potassium dihydrogen Phosphate: Methanol (60:40 v/v) as mobile phase.With quantification carried out at a wavelength of 248nm. The stability studies under stress condition of hydrolysis (acid, base), oxidation, photolysis and thermal degradation were also carried out for Saxagliptin and Metformin.The Retention time of Saxagliptin and Metformin were observed to be 3.241and 2.191 minutes, respectively with theoretical plate count and asymmetry as per the ICH limits. The % assay of Saxagliptin and Metformin were 99.640% and 99.021%. The flow rate was found to be 1ml/min .The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed a good linear relationship for Saxagliptin and Metformin over a concentration range of 50-1500 &micro;g/ml with correlation co-efficient of 0.999 for Saxagliptin and 0.999 for Metformin. The limit of detection and Quantitation were found to be &nbsp;2.857,2.918&amp; 9.52,9.72&micro;g/ml, respectively.the method was validated as per ICH guidelines and it was found to be acccurate, precise and selective stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) &nbsp;for the determination of Saxagliptin and Metformin in tablet dosage form.&nbsp;</div>
271-279
167
RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF EMTRICITABINE, RILPIVIRINE AND TENOFOVIR EMPLOYING RESPONSE SURFACE DESIGN
T.Sudha, P.Shanmugasundram
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">A high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and optimized for the simultaneous determination of emtricitabine, rilpivirine and tenofovir in bulk and in tablet dosage form. In this work, multiple response simultaneous optimization using Derringer&rsquo;s desirability function was employed for the development. The ranges of three experimental factors used for the optimization were acetonitrile concentration (50 -60%), buffer pH (2.5-3.5) and flow rate (0.8-1.2ml/min). The influence of these independent variables on the output responses such as capacity factor of the first peak (k1), resolution (Rs 2,3) and retention time (Rt) were evaluated. The experimental responses were fitted into a second order polynomial equation. The optimized assay conditions were acetonitrile: phosphate buffer (69.7: 30.3%v/v) (pH 2.5) as the mobile phase and flow rate at 1.2 ml/min. While using this optimum condition, the total run time was less than 7 min were achieved. The optimized assay condition was validated according to ICH guidelines to confirm specificity, linearity accuracy and precision.</div>
256-264
168
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CONTROLLED POROSITY OSMOTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE
Usha Sri T , Rajesh Vooturi, Vishnu P, Naveen Babu K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Controlled porosity osmotic tablet of Metoprolol succinate prepared and evaluated in this study. Metoprolol succinate is very low soluble drug. So it is difficult to formulate osmotic tablet of Metoprolol succinate which gives drug release up to 24 hr at zero order. To get desired dissolution profile various formulation parameters like osmogen concentration, level of weight gain and level of pore former concentration were studied. Final optimized formulation was studied for effect of pH of dissolution media, agitation. There is no effect of pH of dissolution media and agitation intensity on dissolution. There is significant effect of osmotic pressure on dissolution confirms that prepared metoprolol succinate tablet gives drug release with osmotic mechanism.&nbsp;</div>
246-255
169
NUTRACEUTICALS STRIDE IN MEDICINAL ARENA
Bindiya Patel, Om Bagade, Riddhi Patel, Varsha Awasarkar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Nutraceutical &nbsp;is &nbsp;term coined to describe substances which are not traditionally recognized nutrients but which have positive physiological effects on the human body. The concept of nutraceuticals was started from the survey in U.K., Germany and France which concluded that diet is rated more highly by consumers than exercise or hereditary factors for achieving good health. Nutraceuticals are food product that provides health as well as medical benefits including the prevention and treatment of disease without any risk of toxicity or adverse effects. Such products range from dietary supplements to genetically engineered foods, herbal products and processed foods. The main aim of this article is to explore and discuss the role of nutraceuticalsin the prevention or treatment of &nbsp;underlying causes of disease.</div>
240-245
170
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOME WILD EDIBLE TUBEROUS PLANTS
Swati Deshmukh and Varsha Jadhav (Rathod)
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">The antioxidant properties of three wild edible tuberous plants viz. Brachystelma edulis Coll. and Helmls, Ceropegia bulbosa var. bulbosa Roxb. and Ceropegia hirsuta Weight and Arn. were determined by using polyphenols, ascorbic acid, carotenoid, enzyme peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase assay. The total phenol content varied from 448.1&plusmn;0.81 mg/100g FW (Leaves) to 131.4&plusmn;0.86g/100g FW (Tuber) of C. bulbosa. &nbsp;Among all these tubers, B. edulis showed the highest antioxidant capacity. The result indicates that could be utilized as potential source of natural antioxidant in the food or in pharmaceutical industry.</div>
236-239
171
EVALUATION OF WOUND HEALING POTENTIAL OF AERIAL PARTS OF CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM LINN
P. Udaya Chandrika, A. Srinivas Rao, M. Sri Rama Chandra, NVBLA Baby kambampati
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Cardiospermum halicacabum (Linn) popularly called as balloon wine belongs to Sapindaceae family. Phytochemical constituents such as flavones, apigenin, triterpenoidal glycosides fatty acids and volatile ester have been reported in C. halicacabum. In the present study the aerial parts of C. halicacabum were studied for wound healing activity by incorporating extract in simple ointment base B.P. in concentration of &nbsp;2% (w/w) and 4% (w/w) and studied in three types of model in rats viz. excision, incision and burn wound model. The statistical data indicated that the wound with ointment containing 4% w/w alcoholic extract exhibited significant (P &lt; 0.001) wound contracting ability and period of epithelization. Significant tensile strength was observed with both the ointment formulations 2% w/w and 4% w/w. The experimental data demonstrated that C. halicacabum displayed remarkable wound healing activity.</div>
231-235
172
PREVALENCE OF THYROID DYSFUNCTIONS AND DYSLIPIDEMIA AMONG PATIENTS WITH HIV INFECTION: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY FROM EASTERN INDIA
Dolonchampa Modak, Subhasish Kamal Guha, Bibhuti Saha and Sumi Mukhopadhyay
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions and dyslipidemia among patients living with HIV and to investigate the associated factors. This cross sectional comparative group study was conducted between Feb 2013 to Jan 2014 at a single centre. The enrolled subjects were grouped in three categories, Group A (n= 42) comprising of ART na&iuml;ve HIV patients at baseline, Group B (n= 48) comprising of HIV patients starting ART at baseline, Group C (n= 19) comprising of HIV patients at baseline and after 6 months follow-up. Study population included 109 (59 males, 50 females) HIV patients with a mean age of 35.59 &plusmn; 10.2 years. Taken together, in Group A and B, 20% had hypothyroidism. Further, 1 patient each from both the groups had hyperthyroidism. In the present study, 12 % of HIV patients with CD4&lt;200 Cells/mm3 had thyroid dysfunctions whereas 2% with CD4 200-350 Cells/mm3 and 7 % patients with CD4&gt;350 Cells/mm3 had abnormal thyroid profile. In the follow up Group C, 2 patients developed Thyroid dysfunctions after 6 months on ART. Additionally, hypertriglyceridemia was found prevalent among HIV subjects with hypothyroidism in all the groups. Current National AIDS Control organization (NACO), India guidelines doesn&rsquo;t recommend mandatory monitoring of thyroid function tests (TFT) in asymptomatic HIV patients. Considering the prevalence of Thyroid dysfunctions among HIV patients, TFT along with other blood investigations is suggested. However, larger population based study is required for proper validation.&nbsp;</div>
226-230
173
ION EXCHANGE RESIN AS A POTENTIAL TECHNOLOGY ON FOR TASTE MASKING: A REVIEW
Rupa Gupta, P.K Sharma, Ashish Arora, Rishabha malviya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Taste masking is a gold standard technology &nbsp;to mask the unpleasant taste of bitter active pharmaceutical ingredient. Therefore, it becomes a potential tool to improve the patient compliance &amp; drug bioavailability. Taste masking of bitter drug using Ion exchange resin (IER) is one of the popular approaches. Ion exchange resin are cross-linked synthetic high molecular weight insoluble organic polymer having ionizable functional group. As being high molecular weight, the resin are not absorbed by the body &amp; are therefore inert. In past few years, Ion exchange resin have since been extensively used in the drug delivery technologies included; site specific drug delivery system, Modified release dosage form, Fast dissolving tablet, clinical medicine &amp; Biomedical application etc. The purpose of writing this review to explore the importance &amp; application of Ion exchange resin because of their versatile properties as a taste masking technologies.</div>
220-225
174
PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS: PRESCRIBING PATTERN IN PSYCHIATRY OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT OF A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL
Monalisa Jena, Swati Mishra, Suvendu Narayan Mishra, Sudhanshu Sekhar Mishra
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">The aim of present work is to study the pattern of prescription of psychotropic drugs in psychiatry outpatient department of a tertiary care teaching hospital. This was a cross-sectional observational study of one year in patients diagnosed according to DSM- IV criteria (4800 patients). Psychotic disorders 23.95 % were most common followed by Anxiety disorders. Prevalence of male patients was more than female. Prevalent age group in our study was more than 30 years of age. A total of 8338 drugs prescribed, among which 90.64% drugs were used orally and 9.35%drugs were given as parenteral formulations. &nbsp;Among antipsychotics, Olanzepine (28.98%) was prescribed more commonly followed by Risperidone, among antidepressants; Escitalopram (45.42%) was prescribed more frequently followed by Des &ndash; Venlaflaxine, the anxiolytic group; Clonazepam (39.50%) followed by Nitrazepam, among mood stabilizer;Valproate (55.91%) was used followed by Ox carbazepine, &nbsp;among anticholinergics; frequency of administration of Trihexyphenydyl (66.82%) was more than Procyclidine whereas among anticonvulsant; &nbsp;Sodium valproate(57.30%) followed by Ox carbazepine).</div>
204-208
175
PLASMA PROTEIN BINDING STUDY OF METAXALONE WITH HUMAN PLASMA BY RP-HPLC
Kasture Veena S, Mhaske Sharayu D, Pathan Mallika A, Waman Nitesh, Ajage Rohit K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">The HPLC method was developed and validated to quantify Metaxalone binding with human plasma. Metaxalone was extracted from spiked plasma by simple protein precipitation with methanol. The seperation was performed on RP-C18 column with mobile phase of HPLC grade methanol at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The peak of Metaxalone was monitored at 272 nm with UV-VIS detector. &nbsp;The calibration curve was found to be linear at concentration range of 1-8 &micro;g/ml. Regression was found to be 0.995 . The interday and intraday precisions SD and RSD were 0.576 and 0.515, 1.851% and 1.648%. respectively. The &nbsp;recovery of Metaxalone from formulation was 96.97&plusmn;2.14% and from plasma was found to be 84%. Plasma protein binding was found to be 16.90&plusmn;1.67. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines.The simple, rapid, sensitive and reproducible HPLC method was developed for estimation of Metaxalone plasma protein binding.. The proposed method can be used for the pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies of Metaxalone.</div>
199-203
176
INCLUSION COMPLEXATION BY CYCLODEXTRIN : A NOVEL APPROACH TO IMPROVE SOLUBILITY AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF POORLY WATER SOLUBLE DRUG
Bhopate Sapana B, Dhole Shashikant N
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides which have recently been recognized as useful pharmaceutical excipients. The outer surface of these doughnut-shaped molecules is hydrophilic, but they possess an axial open cavity, which is of hydrophobic character and capable of including other apolar molecules in case of geometric compatibility. This is the essence of molecular encapsulation by inclusion complex formation. Low solubility compounds show dissolution rate limited absorption and hence poor absorption, distribution and target organ delivery. Improvement of aqueous solubility in such a case is valuable goal to improve therapeutic efficacy. Complexation with CDs by different methods like physical mixing, kneading, spray drying, freeze drying, etc., has been reported to enhance the solubility, dissolution rate and bioavability of poorly water soluble drugs. This review aims to assess the use of cyclodextrins as complexing agents to enhance the solubility of poorly soluble drugs and hence to resolve the many issues associated with developing and commercializing poorly water soluble drugs.&nbsp;</div>
175-188
177
DRUG UTILIZATION PATTERN IN PREGNANCY- A SCOPE FOR IMPROVEMENT IN THE CURRENT PRESCRIBING PRACTICES
Md.Ilyaz, Dr.RoyaRozati, Fatima Hafeez, Fatima Tahniyath, Hasbeen Sultana, Md. Ashfaq Hussain
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">The purpose of this study is to evaluate the pattern of drug (prescription, OTC) utilization in pregnant women attending the Antenatal OPD at a Tertiary care hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 400 pregnant women attending Antenatal Out Patient Department. Out of 400 women majority (40%) were in the third trimester. The average drugs prescribed were 6.25 per prescription. Iron, Folic acid and Calcium were the main drug of choice during pregnancy, either alone or in combination with other drugs. Mostly, the drugs were of US FDA risk category B and none of the category X drugs was prescribed. Self medication was more in higher socio economic population. The study revealed prescribing behaviour to pregnant women under Antenatal care and determines the extent of prescription of drugs to provide optimum health care to improve the overall health of the mother and baby in community.</div>
156-167
178
Formulation and evaluation of fairness serum using polyherbal extracts
Shan Sasidharan, Pyarry Joseph, Junise
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cosmetic Serum is a highly concentrated product based on water or oil. When using concentrates we get not only a quick cosmetic effect, but also psychological satisfaction after the treatment because the result will be seen practically immediately. Serum has a property of rapid absorption and ability to penetrate into the deeper layers of the skin, together with its non-greasy finish and intensive formula with a very high concentration of active substances. Based on these properties, the aim of this work was to formulate a fairness serum using poly herbal extracts. The objective was to carry out extraction, and to study the phyto-constituents responsible for the fairness action in the poly herbal extract and to evaluate various physicochemical and biological properties of the formulation. The fairness Serum has a super-special blend of active natural ingredients to penetrate skin‟s epidermis and color cells, resulting in fair complexion and skin tone in addition. It has skin smoothing ingredients to improve skin texture and leaves skin soft, fair and silky smooth. It is made of extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Crocus sativus, Rice branand olive oil in addition. The variousphysical, chemical and biological evaluations were done. The formulationwas found to be of good spreadability and was free from heavy metals. Skin irritation studies proved that it was non-sensitizing and free to use. It is intended to provide fairness action within a week.
105-112
179
Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of naproxen sodium and esomeprazole magnesium in pharmaceutical tablet dosage form
Srinivas Ampati, SunithaLagishetti, Agaiah Goud Bairi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
An isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the Simultaneous estimation of Naproxen sodium and Esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate in Pharmaceutical tablet dosage form. The separation was achieved by using a reversed-phase C18column(Thermo eletrole, ODS, 250mm × 4.6 mm i.d, 5μm) at ambient temperature with mobile phase consisting of Phosphate buffer (pH adjust to 3.8using OPA): Acetonitrile : Methanol (30:50:20v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min. Detection was carried out at a wavelength of 220 nm. Retention time of Naproxen sodium and Esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate were found tobe2.417 and 3.903min respectively. The proposed method was validated for selectivity, precision, linearity and accuracy. The assay method was found to be linear from 75-175µg/ml and 3-7µg/ml for Naproxen sodium and Esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate respectively. All validation parameters were within the acceptable range. The developed method was successfully applied to estimate the amount of Naproxen sodium and Esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate in Pharmaceutical tablet dosage form.
95-104
180
Stability indicating HPLC method for the determination of Dacarbazine in pharmaceutical dosage form
M.L. Lal Prasanth, Sridhar Siddiraju
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, rapid, and precise stability indicating HPLC method is developed for the quantitative determination of dacarbazine in pharmaceutical dosage form. The chromatographic separation of dacarbazine was achieved with an agilent eclipse XDB C18, 150 x 4.6 mm, 5m particle size analytical column using buffer and acetonitrile taken in 96:4%v/v and the response was detected at 323nm by using PDA detector. The retention time was found to be 4.333. Dacarbazine drug substance was exposed to thermal, photolytic, hydrolytic, and oxidative stress conditions, and the stressed samples were analyzed by the proposed method. Peak homogeneity data of dacarbazine is obtained by photodiode array detector in the stressed sample chromatograms, demonstrating the specificity of the method for its estimation in presence of degradation product. The described method shows excellent linearity over a range of 25–150 μg/mL. The correlation coefficient for dacarbazine was found to be 0.9999. The relative standard deviation for six measurements in two sets of dacarbazine in injection is always less than 2%. The proposed method was found to be suitable and accurate for quantitative determination and stability study of dacarbazine in pharmaceutical preparations.
5-12
181
A VALIDATED STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF ALOGLIPTINE AND PIOGLITAZONE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
B. Neelima, P. Ravi Kumar, V. Hima Bindu and Y. Rajendra Prasad
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The proposed study, a new stability- indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed for estimation of Alogliptin and Pioglitazone in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. The present method was a sensitive, precise, and accurate RP-HPLC method for the analysis of Alogliptin and Pioglitazone. To optimize the mobile phase, various combinations of buffer and organic solvents were used on Hypersil BDS C18 column. Then the mobile phase containing a mixture of Phosphate Buffer: Acetonitrile in the ratio of 45:55 % v/v was selected at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min for developing the method and the peaks with good shape and resolution were found resulting in short retention time, baseline stability and minimum noise. The retention times of Alogliptine and Pioglitazone were found to be 3.42 and 5.24 min respectively. Quantitative linearity was obeyed in the concentration range of 31-187 and 75-450 µg/mL of Alogliptin and Pioglitazone respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.399 µg/mL and 1.21µg/mL (ALO); 0.516 µg/ mL and 1.565 µg/mL (PIO) respectively, which indicates the sensitivity of the method. The high percentage recovery indicates that the proposed method is highly accurate. No interfering peaks were found in the chromatogram indicating that excipients used in tablet formulations did not interfere with the estimation of the drugs by the proposed HPLC method.
458-464
182
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A STABILITY-INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PAROXETINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND CLONAZEPAM IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
Geetharam Yanamadala, Praveen Srikumar.P
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The study describes development and subsequent validation of a stability indicating reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous estimation of Paroxetine hydrochloride and clonazepam in tablet dosage forms. A reversed-phase Kromasil ,C18, (150mm x 4.6 mm, particle size) column with mobile phase consisting of Acetonitrile and 0.1 % Orthophosphoric acid buffer 60:40 (v/v) was used. The flow rate was 1.2 mL min-1 and effluents were monitored at 260 nm. The retention times (tR) of Paroxetine and clonazepam were found to be 3.46 min and 4.55 min, respectively. The method was validated in terms of linearity, range, specificity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ). The linearity for both the drugs was found in the range of 125-750 µg/ml and 2.5-15 µg/ml for Paroxetine and clonazepam. The % recoveries of Paroxetine hydrochloride and clonazepam were found to be 99.4 -100.6 and 98.1-101.0 respectively. The utility of the procedure is verified by its application to marketed formulations that were subjected to accelerated degradation studies. The method distinctly separated the drug and degradation products even in actual samples. The products formed in marketed tablet dosage forms are similar to those formed during stress studies.
448-457
183
A RAPID LC–MS/MS ASSAY FOR PITAVASTATIN IN HUMAN PLASMA BY USING SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE AND ITS APPLICATION TO A PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY
Boligarla Gopi Kalyan Kumar, Nageswara Rao Pilli, Babu Rao Bhukya and N. Y. Sreedhar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric (LC–MS/MS) assay method has been developed and fully validated for the quantitative determination of pitavastatin in human plasma. A pitavastatin stable labeled isotope (pitavastatin d4) was used as an internal standard. Analyte and the internal standard were extracted from human plasma via solid phase extraction technique. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column by using a mixture of acetonitrile–0.1% formic acid (90:10, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.85 mL/min. The calibration curve obtained was linear (r 2 0.99) over the concentration range of 0.05–160 ng/mL. Method validation was performed as per FDA guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. A run time of 1.5 min for each sample made it possible to analyze more than 450 plasma samples per day. The proposed method was found to be applicable to clinical studies.
95-105
184
DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF VALSARTAN GASTRORETENTIVE SUSTAINED RELEASED TABLETS
Vishnu P, K. Naveen Babu, M. Sunitha Reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Valsartan, an angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB) widely prescribed in variety of cardiac conditions like hypertension, diabetic nephropathy and heart failure. The biological half-life is 3-6 hours and the maximum absorption is at initial part of gastro intestinal tract. In the present study Valsartan floating tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using non effervescence technique. The tablets were formulated using IPA as granulating fluid with binder PVP-k30 and employing polymers like HPMC K15M, HPMC K100M and EC. The prepared floating tablets were evaluated for various physicochemical parameters. The in-vitro drug release pattern of Valsartan floating tablets was fitted to different kinetic models which showed highest regression for zero order kinetics with Higuchi mechanism. Out of all formulations the one prepared with EC in granulation fluid and combination of different grades of HPMC was optimized (VF11) based on desired sustained release time (12hrs) followed by acceptable swelling and floating properties. The effect of PH on swelling index and floating properties of optimized formulation (VF11) were also investigated, and the study revealed that there are no significant changes on swelling index and floating properties.
442-447
185
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF NOVEL ISATIN SUBSTITUTED IMIDAZOLINE DERIVATIVES
T. Maneshwar, N. Vijetha, V. Balakrishna, Ch. Vijay Kumar, M. Suresh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Novel Isatin substituted Imidazole derivatives have been synthesized and screened for anthelmintic activity. Literature revealed that vast majority of Isatin and imidazole compounds are known to possess pharmacologically proven therapeutic potentials.  Isatine substituted 5-Oxo-imidazoline derivatives were synthesized from 1,3-oxazole-5-ones which were synthesized from the  benzoyl glycine by Erlynmayer synthesis. These 5-oxazoline compounds upon condensation with isatine semicarbazide, it formed isatine substituted 5-oxo-imidazoline derivatives (3a-3j). All compounds have been characterised using IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectral data and have been evaluated for their antmelmintic activity and Albendazole was used as a standard drug.
437-441
186
HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF AREAL PARTS (EXCEPT FRUITS) OF CICER ARIETINUM AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS
M. Sri Ramachandra, A. Srinivasa Rao, S. Shobha Rani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of pet ether, methanol and aqueous extracts of aerial parts (except fruites) of Cicer arietinum L against ccl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The phytochemical investigations of these extracts showed presence of carbohydrates, proteins, phenols and flavanoids. LD50 values of all extracts were determined. The extracts did not produce any mortality even at 2000 mg/kg. Hepatotoxicity was induced in wister rats weighing 120-150 gm by oral administration of carbon tetra chloride (CCL4 1ml/kg/day 20days) in 1ml olive oil per day. The plant extracts were administered to the experimental rats (200 and 400 mg/kg/d p.o for 20days). The Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of these extracts was evaluated by liver function biochemical parameters (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione) and histopathological studies of liver. Pre-treatment of the rats with petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous extract prior to CCL4 administration caused a significant reduction in the values of &nbsp;SGOT, SGPT, SALP, LPO, total bilirubin and significant increase in &nbsp; SOD, CAT, GSH (P&lt;0.01) almost comparable to the silymarin. The hepatoprotective activity was confirmed by histopathological examination of the liver tissue of control and treated animals. Histology of liver sections of the animals treated with the extracts showed the presence of normal hepatic cords, absence of necrosis and fatty infiltration which further evidence the hepatoprotective activity.
431-436
187
IRON OVER LOAD INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF CARICA PAPAYA IN RATS
Balakrishna V, Srikanth G, Ajay kumar Sarabu, Thippani Maneshwar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The leaf extract of Carica papaya have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common disorders like neurodegenerative diseases, cardio vascular diseases, cancer. In the present investigation, the aqueous leaf extract of C.papaya was evaluated for antioxidant activity in iron over load induced liver toxicity. For the evaluation of iron over load liver toxicity method was daily treatment of C.papaya extract on the 5th day iron load was induced. The animals were sacrificed by light ether anesthesia and it was dissected .Tissue homogenate and blood samples were assess the SGOT, ALP, and LPO, Reduced glutathione, Protein & Catalase in normal and iron over load groups. The daily administration of aqueous leaf extract of C.papaya at doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight to iron over load liver toxicity methods were significantly reduced in a dose dependent manner. However, no change observed in the normal animals at all the doses studied. The extract also produced significant reduction of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. The result have shown that the aqueous extract of the Leaf of Carica papaya  possesses antioxidant properties, supported by the decrease in lipid peroxidation and increase in the reduced glutathione and catalase activity in in-vivo method. Such antioxidant activity of Carica papaya might be responsible for its importance in traditional medicine for the treatment of various disorders.
425-430
188
IMPROVED RELEASE ORAL DRUG DELIVERY OF METAXALONE
N. Waman, R. Ajage, P. N. Kendre, S.B.Kasture, Veena Kasture
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Metaxalone is BCS class II drug having low solubility and high permeability. The solubility and bioavailability of poorly soluble drug was increased by designing microemulsion based drug delivery system of Metaxalone for oral drug administration. The microemulsion was prepared using Tween 80, PEG-400 as surfactant and cosurfactant, sesame and castor oil and water .The formulation was evaluated for globule size, viscosity, RI, pH, conductance, % transmittance and % drug content. The in-vitro intestinal drug diffusion was carried using Frantz diffusion cell and in-vivo drug activity was measured by using animal model. The microemulsions were transparent; particle size was in the range of 45.39 - 271 nm. The viscosity lies between 88 and 95.5cps, pH was found to be 8.12 - 8.17. The Formulated microemulsion had better drug permeation as compared to the pure drug and its marketed dosage form, had good muscle relaxant activity in mice. Study concluded that Metaxalone in microemulsion form exhibited increased solubility and improved drug release.
417-424
189
EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ARISTOLOCHIA KRYSAGATHRA (ARISTOLOCHIACEAE)- AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL HERB
Jegadeeswari P, Nishanthini A, Muthukumarasamy S, Mohan VR
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Antioxidant activity of petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol extracts of the whole plant of Aristolochia krysagathra have been tested using various antioxidant model systems viz, DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, ABTS and reducing power. Methanol extract of Aristolochia krysagathra is found to possess higher DPPH hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Methanol and ethanol extracts of Aristolochia krysagathra exhibited highest ABTS radical cation scavenging activity. Methanol extract of whole plant of Aristolochia krysagathra showed the highest reducing ability. This study indicates significant free radical scavenging potential of Aristolochia krysagathra whole plant which can be exploited for the treatment of various free radical mediated ailments.
410-416
190
FREE RADICAL SCAVANGING ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA
Sharma Ankita, Sati Sushil Chandra, Rawat Suman, Preeti
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study is done on leaves extract of Cinnamomum Camphora. Extraction of leaves of Cinnamomum Camphora yielded 10.12% of Pet.Ether extract, 13.60% of Chloroform extract, 10.59% of Acetone extract and 17.02% of methanol extract. Methanol extract of Cinnamomum camphora leaves showed maximum antioxidant activity in comparison to all extracts using DPPH method. The concentration of 600 &micro;g/ml of methanol extract showed 91.92% anti-oxidant activity in comparison to all extracts. Acetone showed 84.76% . Both Pet.Ether and Chloroform extracts showed weak anti-oxidant activity. Ascorbic acid was used as a standard &nbsp;for comparison to extracts which showed 96% activity.
407-409
191
EVALUATION OF ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PLANT SESBANIA SESBAN
Kumar Sandeep, Bajwa Baljinder Singh and Kumar Narinder
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The genus Sesbania sesban contains about 50 spieces, the majority of which are annuals. The greatest spieces diversity occurs in Africa with 33 spieces. The spieces Sesbania sesban belongs to sub-family Papilionoidea of the family Leguminosae. It is a small perennial tree with woody stems, yellow flowers and linear pods . Sesbania sesban is very common throughout Africa and in asian countries like India, Malaysia, Indonesia and Phillipines. Campesterol, &szlig;-sitosterol, Cyanidine, Delphinidin glycosides, a-Keto glutaric, Oxaloacetic and &nbsp; &nbsp; pyruvic acids, Oleanolic acid, saponins, Palmitic acid, Stearic acid, Oleic acid, Linoleic acid and Linolenic acid are reported in Whole plant. Cyanidin and Delphinidin glycosides, Flavonols are reported in flowers. The plant has been reported to possess various activities such as anti-inflammatory activity, antinociceptive activity, antidiabetic activity, antifertility activity and antioxidant activity. The present study was designed to study the anti-bacterial activity of Sesbania sesban. The extracts of Sesbania sesban stem were prepared. Soxhlet extraction was carried out by petroleum ether (60-80&deg;C), chloroform, hexane, methanol, ethanol and then distilled water. Plant is subjected to antimicrobial study. Chloroform and methanol extracts of stem of Sesbania sesban at a concentration of 25 mg/ml were equally inhibit P. aeruginosa after 48 hrs. Both chloroform and methanol extracts at a concentration of 100 mg/ml were more effective against B. subtilis than other two bacterial strains after 48 hrs. No antibacterial activity was observed for pet ether ethanol and water extracts in a range from 25 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml.
386-396
192
POTENTIAL HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT AND ANTIOXIDANT ROLE OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF MORINDA TINCTORIA IN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS
Isha I. Sait, Jyoti Harindran, A. Abdul Vahab, Jeena J. L, Nasli S. Jolly John
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present work examines the protective mechanisms of methanol extract of Morinda tinctoria in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats. Rats are treated with carbon tetrachloride at the dose of 1 ml/kg body weight intraperitonially once every 72 hrs for 14 days. The hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of Morinda tinctoria was evaluated by measuring levels of serum marker enzymes like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The serum levels of total protein and bilirubin were also estimated. The histological studies were also carried out to support the above parameters. Administration of extract (400and 800 mg/kg) significantly (p&lt; 0.05) prevented CCl4-induced elevation of levels of serum GPT, GOT, ALP, and bilirubin. The results are comparable with standard drug silymarin. A comparative histopathological study of liver exhibited almost normal architecture, as compared to CCl4 treated control group. These data suggest that the methanol extract of Morinda tinctoria may act as a hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent.
363-368
193
EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF INDIAN HERBS
Kulkarni Chitrarekha Girish, Lohar Bhagwan Namdev, Jadhav Shital Tanaji, Salunkhe Satyajeet Sunil
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Helminthic infections are major cause of chronic ill health among tropical people. Traditional medicines contain several plant products for eliminating helminthic worms. However, standardization of individual ingredients is lacking in many cases. Present investigations are undertaken to ascertain anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Terminalia belerica fruit, Boerrhavia diffusa leaf and Saxifraga granulata root against Pheretima posthuma and Eisenia foetida. Albendazole 20mg/ml is used as a reference standard drug and normal saline as control. The result is expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death. The study indicated significant anthelmintic activity of aqueous as well as ethanolic extracts of Terminalia belerica and Boerrhavia diffusa. &nbsp;Ethanolic extract of Saxifraga granulata &nbsp;at concentration of 50mg/ml showed comparable anthelmintic activity with reference standard against Pheretima posthuma.
357-362
194
COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF FILM FORMING PROPERTIES OF SOME NATURAL POLYMERS
Abhishek Rathi, Anil Pethe
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present work was to formulate and evaluate transdermal films using natural polymers and to check its effectiveness for control of drug release using Ibuprofen as model drug. Study was undertaken to report the film forming properties of the natural polymers and their physicochemical data. Various drug free films with varying quantities of polymers i.e. Pectin (4, 6, 8 %), Locust bean gum (1, 2, 3 %), Chitosan (0.5, 1, 2 %), Shellac (2.5, 5, 7.5 %) and plasticizer i.e. Poly ethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400) in 10, 20, 30 % were formulated using solvent casting method using mercury as a substrate. Initially, the drug free films were formulated and were evaluated for various parameters like folding endurance, uniformity of thickness, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), tensile strength, break force, % elongation. The FTIR study revealed that the drug &amp; polymers were compatible with each other. The film composition which showed significant results were selected and drug loaded films with same composition incorporating 200mg of drug and varying quantity of permeation enhancer i.e. Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) in 5, 10, 15 % were formulated and in-vitro diffusion study using Franz diffusion cell was carried out.&nbsp;
347-356
195
FORMULATION AND COMPARITIVE OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPLE LIPID DRUG CARRIERS OF VALSARTAN FOR ORAL CONTROLLED RELEASE
T. L. Vaishnavi, Sowjanya Battu, V. Uma Maheshwara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present study, an attempt was made to formulate, comparatively evaluate and optimize multiple lipid drug carriers of valsartan for oral controlled release. Two lipid drug delivery systems i.e. Niosomes and Liposomes were studied for the delivery of the anti-hypertensive drug valsartan. They were formulated as suspensions.Ether injection and rotary evaporator method were chosen for the formulation of physically and chemically stable niosomes and liposomes of valsartan.In-vitro evaluation studies for the prepared multiple drug delivery carriers of valsartan were performed. The in-vitro evaluation studies performed were evaluation for physical appearance, particle size by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), drug content , entrapment efficiency and in-vitro drug release. Optimization of the best lipid drug delivery system and the best method of preparation was done based on the results of <em>In-Vitro</em> drug release and entrapment efficiency values. Finally, an attempt was made to improve the bioavailabilty of the administered drug, reduce side effects and improve patient compliance by optimizing the best formulation through lipid drug delivery technology.
289-297
196
REVIEW ON USE OF PLASMAPHERESIS IN FOGOSELVAGEM
Kiron S.S, Arun Shirwaikar, Yogala C.K, Saritha M
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Fogoselvagem (pemphigus foliaceus) is an endemic form of pemphigus foliaceus and was formerly known as Brazilian pemphigus foliaceus because it was originally observed in specific river valleys of rural Brazil. Plasmapheresis is a therapeutic option in patients with recalcitrant disease. It may decrease autoantibody titers in some patients and favourably influence the clinical outcome, especially in patients with otherwise therapy-resistant pemphigus foliaceus.<br />
286-288
197
SCREENING OF SKELETAL MUSCLE RELAXANT ACTIVITY OF PLANT VICIA FABA
Kalakonda Rajesh, Kadiri Sunil Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The study was designed to investigate the skeletal muscle relaxant activity of vicia faba (400mg/kg, p.o) by using rota rod apparatus. Experiments were carried out on albino mice and the animals were randomly allotted to the different control, test and standard (diazepam 4mg/kg, p.o) groups. The methanolic extract significantly reduced the fall off time (4.33sec) in comparision with the fall off time of control treated animals (11.6 sec). This reduction in fall off time observed in test extract animals placed on rotarod apparatus indicates motor incoordination. As it is evident from phytochemical studies that vicia faba leaf extract possess tannins and hence the observed skeletal muscle relaxant activity may be attributed to tannins.
237-240
198
PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF ETHYL CELLULOSE MICROSPHERES OF PIOGLITAZONE HCl FOR SUSTAINED DRUG DELIVERY
Vankayalu Devendiran Sundar, Nandhakumar Sathyamoorthy, Manam Madhuri, Magharla Dasaratha Dhanaraju
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of this study is to formulate and evaluate ethyl cellulose microspheres of pioglitazone hydrochloride for sustained/controlled drug release. Ethyl cellulose microspheres loaded with pioglitazone hydrochloride were prepared using emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The prepared microspheres were characterized for their average particle size, drug entrapment efficiency, scanning electron microscopy, DSC studies, in-vitro drug release behavior and in-vitro release mechanism. The microspheres were spherical with average particle size of 19 to 31 &mu;m. The microspheres were free flowing smooth and spherical in shape with ideal surface morphology. The DSC endotherm proves the compatibility of drug and polymer. In-vitro release studies reveals that the microspheres formulation prepared with an increasing concentration of polymer exhibits more control release than the formulation prepared with lower concentration. Among all the batches, formulation with higher concentration of polymer shows an extended release and is suitable for formulate as sustained/controlled delivery system.
189-193
199
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF FOSINOPRIL SODIUM, HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC
K. Priyanka, A. Ajitha, M. Sandhya Mamindla, V. Uma Maheswara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, precise, rapid, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for simultaneous estimation of Fosinopril Sodium (FOS) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation was performed on X-terra(C8) (4.6mm x 150mm, 3.5m) column, with mobile phase comprising of mixture of buffer (pH 6.0, adjusted with ortho phosphoric acid), acetonitrile and methanol&nbsp; in the ratio of 80:10:10v/v, at the flow rate 0.8 ml/min. The detection was carried out at 226 nm. The retention times of FOS and HCTZ were found to be 2.1 and 3.3 mins respectively with a run time of 6 mins, theoretical levels for FOS and HCTZ were 2015 and 4034 respectively, with a resolution of 5.42. As per ICH guidelines the method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantitation, robustness and ruggedness. Linearity of FOS was found in the range of 10-50 &micro;g/mL and that for HCTZ was found to be 6.25-31.35 &micro;g/mL. The correlation coefficient for FOS and HCTZ were 0.9992 and 0.9991 respectively. The LOD values for FOS and HCTZ were 0.88 and 1.11 &micro;g/mL respectively. The LOQ values for FOS and HCTZ were and 2.96 and 3.7 &micro;g/mL respectively. This demonstrates that the developed method is simple, precise, rapid, selective, accurate and reproducible for simultaneous estimation of FOS and HCTZ tablet dosage form.<br />
183-188
200
PRODUCTION, OPTIMIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL COMPOUND FROM ASPERGILLUS SP
Daljit Singh Arora, Harpreet kaur , Jemimah Gesare Onsare and Vishal Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Fungi have been reported to be active producers of secondary metabolites. In this study, a fungal isolate (Aspergillus sp) isolated from soil has been evaluated for its antimicrobial activity. The activity was studied under various physio-chemical parameters, such as pH, temperature, incubation period, carbon and nitrogen sources. The best antimicrobial activity was observed in the production medium having pH 5-7, on fifth day of incubation at 25 ºC when grown as static culture. Starch was the most promising carbon source, while yeast extract and soyabean meal acted as best nitrogen sources. Butanolic extract was comparable to standard antibiotics in contrast to aqueous extract. Response surface analysis showed that the antimicrobial activity was enhanced by 1.25 folds in S.aureus, 1.28 folds (S.epidermidis), 1.6 folds (K.pneumoniae 1), 1.37 folds (C.albicans), 1.38 folds (MRSA). Characterization of the purified compound responsible for antimicrobial activity was carried out by various analytical procedures i.e. TLC, HPLC, NMR and IR. MIC of the butanolic extract ranged from (0.016mg/ml-18mg/ml) while purified compound exhibited lower MIC value of 6µg/ml, 20 µg/ml and 20 µg/ml respectively for S.epidermidis, C.albicans and MRSA. VCC (Viable cell count) studies revealed E.coli to be the most sensitive and demonstrated 100% killing at 0 hr. Butanolic extract (crude) and the purified compound were found to be neither cytotoxic nor mutagenic.
157-171
201
ENHANCEMENT OF SOLUBILITY AND DISSOLUTION RATE OF EFAVIRENZ USING LIQUI SOLID COMPACT TECHNIQUE
Jagan Mohan Vatyam, Ch. S. Vijaya Vani, V. Umamaheshwara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the present investigation is to formulate Liqui-Solid tablets of Efavirenz. In the present study Efavirenz immediate release tablets were prepared by using aid of non-volatile solvents like polyethylene glycol (PEG) and propylene glycol (PG), in which the poorly soluble drug is dissolved and thereby increasing its solubility and in turn dissolution rate. The tablets were formulated using direct compression technology by employing super disintegrants like cross povidone and sodium starch glycolate. The prepared liquid-solid compact tablets were evaluated for pre compression, post compression and in-vitro drug release. The in-vitro drug release pattern of liquisolid tablets of Efavirenz was fitted in kinetic model which showed highest regression i.e. for zero order kinetics. Among all the formulations, LS-12 which is a combination of Propylene glycol, Ratio (R) =2 and cross povidone- 4% was optimized based on desired immediate release time (10mins) followed by acceptable disintegration and drug release properties.
150-156
202
EVALUATION OF DIURETIC AND ANTIUROLITHIATIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF BASELLA ALBA
K. Sridevi, K. Ravishankar and G.V.N Kiranmayi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic and antiurolithiatic activities of ethanolic leaf extract of Basella alba in Albino rats. Ethanolic leaf extract was administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg (each p.o). Furosemide (5mg/kg) was used as a standard. The diuretic effect of the extract was evaluated by measuring the urine volume and determining sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate contents. Urolithiasis was induced in male rats by administering ethylene glycol (0.75%) in drinking water to groups II-V except normal control (Group I) for 28 days. Groups I, II and III served as normal control, positive control (hyperurolithiatic), and standard (cystone 750mg/kg), respectively, Groups IV and V served as curative regimen. Oxalate, calcium, phosphate were monitored in urine. Serum calcium, creatinine and uric acid were also recorded. The extract of Basella alba was safe and exhibited no gross behavioral changes in the rats. A significant diuretic effect was observed from the experimental animals treated with extract of Basella alba individually compared to the control. The results obtained suggest potential usefulness of extract of Basella alba leaf as an antiurolithiatic agent.
145-149
203
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF METFORMIN AND PIOGLITAZONE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Swathi Malichetti, Sujitha Hazari and Akki Srivani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new precise, accurate, reliable validated method for the determination of Metformin and Pioglitazone has been developed by using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) in pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation was carried out by using mobile phase 0.02M Potassium dihydrogen ortho phosphate: acetonitrile (55:45v/v, PH-5.64 adjusted with Orthophosphoric acid) on Agilent Thermo Scientific Hypersil, C18 (250 x 4.6 mm, 5m at a flow rate 1.0ml/min with UV detection at 228nm.The retention times for Metformin and Pioglitazone were 2.579 and 5.633 min respectively and both drugs showed good linearity in the range of 500-2000 µg/ml and 30-120 µg/ml. The proposed method has been successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulation and was validated according to ICH guidelines and method showed good precision with percentage relative standard deviation less than 2%. The percentage recovery for Metformin and Pioglitazone was found between 99.48-100.85% and 99.48-100.89% respectively indicating the proposed method was accurate and precise.
140-144
204
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLET OF TINIDAZOLE
Dwivedi Rohit, Mahajan Ritu Priya, Mahajan SC
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Tinidazole mouth dissolving tablet were prepared to achieve quick onset of action and for maximum bioavalability. The purpose of the present research work was to compare the efeect of different superdisintegrants on the mouth dissolving property of tinidazole tablets. Mouth dissolving tablet of tinidazole were prepared using crospovidone, crosscarmellose, and sodium starch glycolate as superdisintegrants by direct compression technique. Prepared tablet were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, content uniformity, wetting time, in vitro dispersion time, in vitro disintegration time and dissolution studies. Disintegration time of all prepared formulation was found to be in order: M9
133-139
205
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED HERBAL EXTRACTS AGAINST MULTI DRUG RESISTANT ORAL PATHOGENS ISOLATED FROM LEPROSY PATIENTS
Divya VV and Umamaheswari S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Many systemic diseases reflect the poor oral health of an individual. Leprosy patients are functionally dependent and present enormous oral malformation which helps the colonization of pathogens. Oral health of leprosy patients were assessed based on the prevalence of the load of oral isolates from fifty volunteer patients. Pseudomonas sp. was found to be more prevalent in all patients which expressed a higher rate of co aggregation with other isolates (Neisseria sp., Pseudomonas sp., Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp., Candida albicans and C. tropicalis). All bacterial and fungal isolates were subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity test using antibiotics and antifungal drugs recommended for oral infection (Amoxicillin, Clindamycin, Erythromycin, Penicillin G, Amphotericin B and Fluconazole) and aqueous extracts of five different herbs(Berberis aristata, Cyminum cuminum, Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Zingiber officinale). Berberis aristata exhibited highest antifungal activity and Syzygium aromaticum exerted highest anti bacterial activity. Hence we&nbsp; recommend the use of herbs for the preparation of choorna or oral rinse which can effectively control the colonization of multi drug resistant pathogens in the oral cavity.<br />
128-132
206
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LISINOPRIL AND AMLODIPINE BESYLATE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
B. Prathap, Akalanka Dey, G.H. Srinivasa Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, specific, precise, and accurate reversed-phase HPLC method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of lisinopril and amlodipine besylate in tablet dosage forms. The separation was achieved by Hypersil ODS-BP C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5.0 µm) using methanol: phosphate buffer at pH 6 adjusted with orthophosphoric acid (30: 70, v/v) as eluent, at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Detection was carried out at wavelength 212 nm. The retention times of lisinopril and amlodipine besylate were 3.88 min and 2.716 min, respectively. The linearity was established over the concentration ranges of 20–80 µg/mL and 20–80 µg/mL with correlation coefficients (r2) 0.9999 and 0.9993 for lisinopril and amlodipine besylate respectively. The mean recoveries were found to be in the ranges of 98.33–101.37% and 98.90–100.70% for lisinopril and amlodipine besylate respectively. The proposed method has been validated as per ICH guidelines and successfully applied to the estimation of lisinopril and amlodipine besylate in their combined tablet dosage form.
121-127
207
PREPARATION AND COMPARITIVE EVAULATION OF NIZATIDINE LOADED SUPER POROUS FLOATING HYDROGELS
K.B.V. Yasaswi, Sowjanya Battu, V. Umamaheswara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the present investigation is to formulate Nizatidine loaded superporous floating hydrogel tablets. In the present study Nizatidine floating tablets were prepared by effervescence method using sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent. The tablets were formulated using direct compression technology by employing polymers like chitosan, carbopol 934p and ethyl cellulose. The prepared superporous floating hydrogel tablets were evaluated for pre compression, post compression and in-vitro drug release. The in-vitro drug release pattern of Nizatidine loaded superporus floating hydrogel tablets was fitted in different kinetic models which showed highest regression for zero order kinetics with higuchi’s type of drug release mechanism. Among all the formulations, F18 which is acombination of chitosan,carbopol 934p and ethyl cellulose was optimized based on desired sustained release time (18hrs) followed by acceptable swelling and floating properties.
113-120
208
QUALITATIVE SCREENINGS OF PHYTOCHEMICAL AND GC-MS ANALYSIS OF CEROPEGIA BULBOSA- AN ENDANGERED TUBEROUS PLANT
Riddhu Palawat and Payal Lodha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ceropegia bulbosa is a medicinal herb, this is useful in curing many disease like kidney stone and deafness. Ethno botanical study showed that the plant has good medicinal value for tribe of Rajasthan The preliminary phytochemical studies of Ceropegia bulbosa tuber and leaf extracts revealed the presence of&nbsp; steroids, glycosides, flavonoids alkaloids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids and potassium salt. Gas chromatography mass spectroscopic investigation of methanolic extract of Ceropegia bulbosa &ndash; a annual land plant is investigated by GCMS technique while the mass spectra of the compounds found in the extract are matched with the standard library of NIST. Maximum % area are found for 2H-Azepin-2-one, 3-(dimethylamino) hexahydro is present in maximum amount (9.09.%) with RT=8.913min, followed by 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z) (8.16% )with RT=16.165min in the methanolic extract of leaves of C.bulbosa. 2H-Azepin-2-one, 3-(dimethylamino)hexahydro is present in maximum amount (43.58%) with RT=8.955min, followed by 2-Amino-9-(3,4-Dihydroxy-5-Hydroxymethyl-(16.08%) with RT=9.543min in the methanolic extract of tuber of C.bulbosa.
100-107
209
PREPARATION OF NANOPARTICLES OF CANDESARTAN CILEXETIL BY IONOTROPIC GELATION TECHNIQUE AND THEIR EVALUATION
Shilpa Bhilegaonkar, Ram Gaud
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Candesartan cilexetil is a poorly soluble antihypertensive agent with low bioavailability. It is a prodrug which converts into active drug candesartan with hydrolysis in GIT.Ion gelation technique is utilized for delivery of protein and peptide drug and involves formation of nanoparticles by means of electrostatic interactions between the positively charged chitosan chains and polyanions employed as cross linkers. The most extensively used polyanion is the tripolyphosphate (TPP). As chitosan is soluble in acidic pH and reduction in particle size was required to enhance solubility and dissolution of candesartan cilexetil, nanoparticles of candesartan cilexetil were prepared by ionotropic gelation technique and evaluated for particle size , surface morphology, saturation solubility and multimedia dissolution. The technique was found to be effective for candesartan cilexetil with particle size in the range of 324 nm with a smooth surface. Percentage entrapment efficiency was in between 45-54%. Rise in solubility and dissolution as compared to pure drug was seen with little slow release in acidic and buffer media.
93-99
210
ISOLATION, QUANTIFICATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF PHYTOSTEROLS FROM DIFFERENT PARTS OF CASSIA PUMILA LAMK
Ankita Yadav, Richa Bhardwaj and R. A. Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cassia species have been of keen interest in phytochemical and pharmacological research due to their excellent medicinal values. Aim of this study is to identify and characterize the bioactive principles from the different parts of Cassia pumila. Four compounds were isolated and purified and the structures were determined as β-sitosterol, lanosterol, campersterol, stigmasterol by analysis of physical, chemical and spectral characterstics (IR,NMR). Present study shows the presence of various concentrations of phytosterols in different plant parts of C. pumila. The higher level of total phytosterols was measured in pods of C. pumila (1.15 mg/g dw) and lowest in flowers (0.38mg/gdw).The highest level of β-sitosterol and lanosterol, was found highest in pods(0.23mg/gdw) and 0.24mg/gdw) respectively, whereas highest level of campersterol was found in leaves(0.24mg/gdw). The isolated phytosterols were effective against all test bacteria and fungi. β-sitosterol was more active against fungi and bacteria and their MIC value was recorded 2 X 103 mg/disc while the MIC value of 3X 103 mg/disc was recorded for lanosterol, Campersterol and Stigmasterol.
86-92
211
A SENSITIVE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY–TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRIC ASSAY FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ARTEMETHER AND ITS ACTIVE METABOLITE DIHYDROARTEMISININ IN HUMAN PLASMA
Bhanu Prakash Tummuru, Nageswara Rao Pilli, Babu Rao Bhukya and Gowri Shankar D
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This paper describes a simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography / tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) assay method for the simultaneous quantification of artemether and its active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin in human plasma samples. Nevirapine was used as an internal standard. Analytes and the internal standard were extracted from 200 µL of human plasma via liquid-liquid extraction technique using tert-butyl methyl ether. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column by using a mixture of methanol and 5mM ammonium acetate buffer (90:10, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.85 mL/min. The calibration curve obtained were linear (r 2 >= 0.99) over the concentration range of 1.00-204.50 ng/mL for artemether and 0.51-161.52 ng/mL for dihydroartemisinin. Method validation was performed as per US FDA guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. A run time of 3.5 min for each sample made it possible to analyze more number of plasma samples per day. The proposed method can be applicable to clinical studies in humans.
77-85
212
ROLE OF SHORT TERM CAMPAIGNS IN BOOSTING UP SALES, WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON INDIAN PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET
Aravinda Pai, G.K.Sudhakar, Venkatesh Kamath, Vasudev Pai
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In recent years, strategic marketing has played an important role in the process of pharmaceutical marketing. Due to increase in the number of pharmaceutical companies as well as rapidly growing product portfolio, it is essential to look for innovative strategies periodically to ensure competitiveness in the market place. Strategies may look different for different segments of markets because some segments may depend only on concept selling. Nowadays, particularly in the Indian pharmaceutical market, we see more than 100 brands competing for a single drug and price also playing an important role. Since patient is an indirect customer for a pharmaceutical company, it is the discretion of a physician to select particular brand for a drug (1). In this scenario, short term campaigns can be effective in brand conversions and to boost up sales. In the present article a brief overview will be given on short term campaigns conducted by different pharmaceutical companies and the output in the form of incremental sales.
74-76
213
DOCKING STUDIES OF SWINE FLU NEURAMINIDASE WITH HERBAL COMPOUNDS
Jayasree Ganugapati , Archana Battu, Aishwarya Aare
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Swine Flu is a seasonal viral infectious disease caused due to H1N1. The aim of the present study is to identify natural compounds found in dietary resources that can inhibit neuraminidase, a protein that plays a crucial role in the H1N1 infection and invasion into the human host tissues. The X-Ray Crystallographic structure of the protein Neuraminidase was retrieved from RCSB -PDB and 3D structures of the selected ligands were obtained from NCBI PubChem in SDF format. Lipinski Rule was analyzed using Mol inspiration. Docking studies were performed using ARGUSLAB, AUTODOCK 4.0 and AUTODOCK VINA to study the interactions of the protein with the ligands. The compounds having affinity towards the protein’s active site region were identified. Docking results indicate that all the six compounds interact with neuraminidase with varied binding energies. From our observations It can be concluded that the six compounds selected for analysis bind with neuraminidase and our further studies suggest that the activity of neuraminidase can be inhibited by Curcumin and Gingerol since they have a better binding energy and interact with active site residues.
69-73
214
FORMULATION AND INVITRO EVALLUATION OF NANOSUSPENSION OF GLIMEPIRIDE
*Ethiraj T, Sujitha R, Ganesan V
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present research work is an attempt to develop and evaluate Nanosuspension of Glimepiride in order to improve the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. Nanosuspensions of Glimepiride were developed with different ratios of Urea and PVP combinations by nanoprecipitation technique. Nanoprecipitation method being simple and less sophisticated was optimized for the preparation of nanosuspension. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to confirm compatibility and to rule out any possible interactions between drug and carriers. Four formulations (F1, F2, F3 and F4) consisting PVP and urea in the ratios of 1:3 and 1:6 respectively were prepared. All formulations were prepared using poloxamer as stabilizer, mixture of drug and acetone as organic phase and distilled water containing carriers as aqueous phase. . Physicochemical characteristics of nanosuspension in terms of size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency (% EE) and in vitro drug release were found within their acceptable ranges. Differential scanning calorimetry studies provided evidence that enhancement in solubility of drug resulted due to change in crystallinity of drug within the formulation. Data of in vitro release from nanosuspensions were fit in to different equations and kinetic models to explain release kinetics. <br />
875-882
215
FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF GASTRORETENTIVE BILAYER FLOATING TABLETS OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM
*Sruthi Buddharaju
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of present study was to formulate and evaluate Gastroretentive bilayer floating tablets of Losartan potassium using direct compression technology. Bilayer floating tablets comprised two layers, i.e. immediate release and controlled release layers. The immediate release layer comprised Crospovidone as a super disintegrant and floating layer comprised Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (SCMC), Metolose SR and Sodium alginate as the release retarding polymers. Sodium bicarbonate was used as a gas generating agent. The powder blends were evaluated for pre-compression parameters. Compressed tablets were further evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, dimensions, Drug Content Uniformity, In-vitro buoyancy and dissolution studies. All the formulations showed good results which were compliance with pharmacopoeial standards. In-vitro dissolution studies were performed in USP-XXIII dissolution test apparatus, type II (paddle method) in 1.2pH buffer. More than 99% Losartan potassium of was released from the immediate release layer within 30 min. The results of dissolution studies indicated that formulation BFT8 (drug to polymer[SCMC] 1:0.25), the most successful of the study, exhibited drug release of approximately 98% at 12th hour with more than 12h buoyancy with floating lag time of 93seconds. An increase in drug release was observed on decreasing polymer ratio. The drug release mechanism of all the formulations was found to be Fickian diffusion-controlled drug release.
867-874
216
Dissolution enhancement of Meloxicam Using Liquisolid Technique
*Nishtha Shrivastava, Ritu Priya Mahajan, Alok Sharma, Suresh Chandra Mahajan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The limited solubility of drugs has always been a challenging task for pharmaceutical industries engaged in manufacturing and development of solid dosage forms. To overcome this problem, Liquisolid technique has gained immense popularity as a novel approach in the last decade. The present study deals with the dissolution enhancement of Meloxicam by Liquisolid Technique. An attempt has been made to formulate fast dissolving tablets of Meloxicam, a poorly water soluble drug. The dissolution rate of Meloxicam was compared with the marketed tablet. The results indicated that formulation (F11) containing microcrystalline cellulose as the carrier and aerosil as the coating material in the 20:1 ratio, displayed higher dissolution profile compared to other formulations. The prepared tablets showed good wettability, rapid disintegration, and acceptable dissolution rate compared to the marketed product. It has been observed that liquisolid technique is the most promising way for solubility and dissolution enhancement of Meloxicam. It can be concluded that liquisolid technique resulted in improved dissolution of Meloxicam.
859-866
217
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LAMIVUDINE AND ZIDOVUDINE IN API AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM USING RP-HPLC
*J. Priyanka and P. Anil Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A rapid, sensitive and specific RP-HPLC [1-5] method involving UV detection was developed and validated for determination and quantification of Lamivudine and Zidovudine.&nbsp; Chromatography&nbsp;&nbsp; was&nbsp; carried out on Thermo Hypersil BDS, C18,(150 x 4..6 mm,5&#61549;) column&nbsp;&nbsp; using&nbsp; filtered&nbsp; and&nbsp; degassed&nbsp;&nbsp; mixture of&nbsp; Buffer : Methanol : Acetonitrile (70:5:25) as mobile&nbsp; phase&nbsp; at&nbsp; a&nbsp; flow&nbsp; rate&nbsp; of&nbsp; 0.8ml/min and effluent was monitored at 267nm. The method was&nbsp; validated&nbsp; in&nbsp; terms&nbsp; of&nbsp; linearity,&nbsp; precision,&nbsp; accuracy,&nbsp; robustness&nbsp; and&nbsp; specificity,&nbsp; limit of&nbsp; quantification and limit of&nbsp; detection.&nbsp; The&nbsp; assay&nbsp; was&nbsp; linear&nbsp; over&nbsp; the&nbsp; concentration&nbsp; range&nbsp; of&nbsp;&nbsp; Lamivudine&nbsp; and&nbsp; Zidovudine&nbsp;&nbsp; was&nbsp;&nbsp; 37.5&micro;g - 225&micro;g/ml&nbsp; and&nbsp; 75&micro;g&nbsp; to 450&micro;g/ml&nbsp; respectively.&nbsp; Accuracy&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; method was determined through recovery studies by adding&nbsp; known&nbsp; quantities&nbsp; of standard&nbsp; drug&nbsp; to&nbsp; the&nbsp; pre&nbsp; analyzed&nbsp; test solution&nbsp; and&nbsp; was&nbsp; found&nbsp; to be 99.50%-100.7% and 99.9%-100.7%&nbsp;&nbsp; within&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; precision&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; RSD&nbsp; of&nbsp; 1.30&nbsp;&nbsp; and&nbsp;&nbsp; 0.61&nbsp; for&nbsp;&nbsp; Lamivudine and Zidovudine&nbsp; respectively.&nbsp; The method does require only 10 minutes as run time for analysis which prove the adoptability of the method for the routine quality control of the drug. <br />
853-858
218
DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACTANT FREE NANOPARTICLES BY A SINGLE EMULSION HIGH PRESSURE HOMOGENIZATION TECHNIQUE AND EFFECT OF FORMULATION PARAMETERS ON THE DRUG ENTRAPMENT AND RELEASE
*Jayesh Shivaji Patil, Sunil kumar Yadav, Vinod Jagganathrao mokale, Jitendra Baliram Naik
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study was to prepare surfactant free Diclofenac sodium loaded ethyl cellulose nanoparticles by O/W single emulsion solvent evaporation high pressure homogenization technique.In the preparation of O/W single emulsion sodium alginate used as an emulsifying/stabilizing agent. Microparticles of nine different batches at different condition were prepared after that optimized batch was subjected to the high pressure Homogenizer for 3 cycles at 300 bar for the preparation of nanoparticles. The size of the nanoparticles was obtained in the range of 147.7nm to 256.6 nm .The maximum drugs loading of nanoparticles found about 90% and it showed about 66% of drug release in 12 hours. Physicochemical properties of these nanoparticles such as particle size, FESEM, X-RD and FTIR analysis were investigated. No drug-polymer interaction was observed in FTIR. FE-SEM images show that the particles are spherical and nanosized.
843-852
219
RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CEFEPIME AND TAZOBACTAM IN MARKETED FORMULATION
*M. Bhavana, T. RamamohanaReddy, M. Sandhya, V. Uma Maheswara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new precise, accurate, reliable validated method for the determination of Cefepime and Tazobactam has been developed by using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) in pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation was carried out by using mobile phase 0.02M Potassium dihydrogen phosphate: Acetonitrile (95:5v/v, pH-3.0 adjusted with Orthophosphoric acid) on Sunfire C18 (50 x 4.6 mm, 5 &micro;) at a flow rate 0.8ml/min with UV detection at 220nm.The retention times for Cefepime and Tazobactam were 2.243 and 4.910 min respectively and both drugs showed good linearity in the range of 250-750 &micro;g/ml and 31.25-93.75 &micro;g/ml. The proposed method has been successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulation and was validated according to ICH guidelines and method showed good precision with percentage relative standard deviation less than 2%. The percentage recovery for Cefepime and Tazobactam was found between 99.80-101.11% and 100.43-101.14% respectively indicating the proposed method was accurate and precise.
837-842
220
LEGAL PROTECTION OF INTELECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
*R. Suthakaran
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The legal protection of intellectual property has always played an important part in managing intellectual property which is crucial to the industry. The Intellectual Property Protection Act of 2006 is bolstering and increases the government&rsquo;s ability to fight against IP violations as well as to help reduce terror tolerated and criminal enterprises that are proposed as being supposedly funded by piracy. There are several important cases in the country on intellectual property legislation, pertaining to these aspects of the legal scrutiny that are worth noticing. Overall, the purpose of the legislation is to protect any form of intellectual property and original innovation in order to sustain a sense of copyright for original works and creation. <br />
835-836
221
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME NEW 4-SUBSTITUTED-6-(p-AMINOPHENYL)-2-AMINOPYRIDINE-3-CARBONITRILE DERIVATIVES
*K. Srikanth Kumar, B. Jagadeeswara Rao and A. Lakshmana Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
4-Substituted-6-(p-aminophenyl)-2-aminopyridine-3-carbonitrile derivatives were prepared by using 4-amino acetophenone as starting material, which is treated with malononitrile, ammonium acetate and various types of benzaldehyde consists of electron releasing and electron withdrawing groups on it via one-pot reaction by using benzene as solvent. This method provides an envirofriendly, easy workup and gives compounds in high yield. The synthesized 4-substituted-6-(p-aminophenyl)-2-aminopyridine-3-carbonitrile derivatives were characterized by physical properties and spectral studies (IR, 1H NMR &amp; Mass).
830-834
222
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTI OXIDANT POTENTIAL AND ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF LEUCAS DIFFUSA PLANT EXTRACT
*Ramachandran Somasundaram, Priyanka Vaddadi, Dhanaraju Magharla Dasaratha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The plants of the genus &lsquo;Leucas&rsquo; have been found to be useful in various diseases. Leucas diffusa (LD) widely distributed throughout India as a weed in cultivated fields, wastelands &amp; roadsides. There is no scientific report published indicating utility of this plant. The present study was performed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities by using hydroxyl radical, reducing power &amp; hydrogen peroxide scavenging abilities and through acetic acid induced vascular permeability model in mice &amp; acetic acid induced colitis in rats significantly. LD (1000 mg/kg, p.o.) presented a significant anti-inflammatory activity towards acetic acid induced vascular permeability model in mice in comparison to Diclofenac sodium(10 mg/kg, s.c.) and acetic acid induced colitis in rats in comparison to 5-ASA. Our findings suggest that, LD contains potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds which will aid us to conduct bioactivity guided isolation &amp; characterization of leading compounds in due course. <br />
819-829
223
FTIR spectroscopic studies and antimicrobial activity in populations of Eryngium foetidum L.
*Chandrika R, Komal Kumar J, Thara Saraswathi K. J, Deviprasad A. G
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopic studies have been used to investigate the variations in the phytochemical constituents of two diverse populations of Eryngium foetidum L. from India. Based on the FTIR analysis and preliminary phytochemical investigations it was possible to understand the various functional groups and bioactive components present in the methanolic extracts of both populations. The FTIR pattern highlighted sharp peaks for OH, aldehydes and aminoacids in the extracts. Characteristic strong peaks were observed in the fingerprint region confirming the presence of aromatic compounds, alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aliphatic primary amines, phenols, carbohydrates and halogenated compounds. The extracts were also tested for their antimicrobial efficacy against E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and A. faecalis using Disc diffusion assay at various concentrations .It was observed that the extracts showed significant activity against S. aureus and moderate activity for E. coli and P. aeruginosa. <br />
813-818
224
THE BENEFICIAL ROLE OF NATURAL POLYPHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AS ANTIOXIDANTS IN ALZHEIMER DISEASE: BIOLOGICAL ACTIONS AND MECHANISMS UNDERPINNING THEIR BENEFICIAL EFFECTS
*Bisht Neha, Kumar Arun, Kothiyal Preeti
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Oxidative stress has been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease (AD). Mitochondrion is a key player that produces reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondrial dysfunction found in AD patients may amplify the generation of ROS and oxidative stress. Increased ROS can cause damage to protein, lipid and nucleic acids. In recent years, antioxidants- especially those of dietary origin have been suggested as possible agents useful for the prevention and treatment of AD. Continuing research highlights the dynamic capacity of natural polyphenolic compounds to exhibit their antioxidant effect by a number of potential mechanisms. The free radical scavenging, in which the polyphenols can break the free radical chain reaction, as well as suppression of the free radical formation by regulation of enzyme activity or chelating metal ions involved in free radical production. Thus, the antioxidant properties certainly contribute to their neuroprotective effect. This article reviews the role of oxidative stress and the contribution of free radicals in the development of AD, and also discusses antioxidant effects of natural polyphenolic compounds such as green tea catechins, curcumin, resveratrol and their intracellular targets focusing on neuroprotective strategies for AD. <br />
796-806
225
ERYTHROPOIETIN (EPO): ROLE IN NEUROPROTECTION/ NEUROREGENRATION AND COGNITION
*Rajwar Navneet, Kothiyal Preeti
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:SnapToGridInCell/> <w:WrapTextWithPunct/> <w:UseAsianBreakRules/> <w:DontGrowAutofit/> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--> <p style="text-align: justify" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black">The discovery of the broad neuroprotective<span>&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>potential of erythropoietin (EPO), an endogenous hematopoietic growth factor, leaded to the new therapeutic avenues in the treatment of brain diseases. EPO has direct effects on cells of the nervous system that make it a highly attractive candidate drug for neuroprotection/neuroregeneration. EPO expression in the brain is induced by hypoxia. Practically all brain cells are capable of production and release of EPO and expression of its receptor. EPO exerts multifarious protective effects on brain cells. It protects neuronal cells from noxious stimuli such as hypoxia, excess glutamate, serum deprivation or kainic acid exposure in vitro by targeting a variety of mechanisms and involves neuronal, glial and endothelial cell functions. In rodent models of ischemic stroke, EPO reduces infarct volume and improves functional outcome, but beneficial effects have also been observed in animal models of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. EPO has a convenient therapeutic window upon ischemic stroke and favorable pharmacokinetics. EPO has been found by many investigators to be protective or regenerative and to improve cognitive performance in various rodent models of neurological and psychiatric disease.<span>&nbsp; </span>Results from first therapeutic trials in humans are promising, but will need to be validated in larger trials. This article reviews on the preclinical and clinical work on EPO for the indications neuroprotection/neuroregeneration and cognition.</span></p> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style> <![endif]-->
785-795
226
THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY AND NUTRITIONAL POTENTIALITY OF INDIAN BAY LEAF (CINNAMOMUM TAMALA BUCH. - HEM.)
*Sukumar Dandapat, Manoj Kumar, Amit Kumar, M. P. Sinha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
C. tamala leaves are mainly used for flavouring food and spice due to clove like taste and pepper like odour. The plant leaves are widely used in pharmaceutical preparation because of therapeutic efficacy against various diseases and disorders due to presence of different phytochemicals. The leaves were analysed for ash content, moisture, crude fat, crude fibre, crude carbohydrate, crude protein and different phytochemical content. The results for percentage of ash content, moisture content, crude fibre, carbohydrate, crude fat and protein were 9.6 &plusmn; 1.12, 50.50 &plusmn; 1.0, 30.5 &plusmn; 0.6, 9.5 &plusmn; 0.5, 6.0 &plusmn; 0.5 and&nbsp; 8.5 &plusmn; 0.18 % respectively. The nutritive value was 143.5 &plusmn; 0.53 Kcal/ 100g. The leaf sample was assessed for quantitative and qualitative phytochemical composition. Among the phytochemicals poly phenols was highest (16.7 &plusmn; 0.7 g/100g) and flavonoid content was lowest (1.0 &plusmn; 0.31 g/100g).
779-785
227
EVALUATION OF ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF PLANT CHROZOPHORA PLICATA
*Kadiri Sunil kumar, Avanapu Srinivasa Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The herbal medicines derived from various plants extracts are being increasingly utilized to treat a wide variety of clinical diseases1. Besides their action as gastroprotectives, flavonoids also act in healing of gastric ulcers2. The study was designed to investigate the anti-ulcer effect of chloroform extract of Chrozophora plicata leaves (600mg/kg) against experimentally induced ulcer models in albino rats. In the present study, anti-ulcer activity was assessed by using pylorus ligation induced and indomethacin (40mg/kg) induced Ulcer 3models in albino rats. The antiulcer activity was assessed by determining and comparing gastric volume, acidity, ulcer score and ulcer index in control, test extract and standard (ranitidine 10mg/kg) treated rats by using both pylorus ligation and indomethacin induced ulcer models. Pre-treatment of animals with the Chloroform extract of Chrozophora plicata (600mg/kg)) orally significantly reduced formation of ulcers induced by pylorus ligation and indomethacin models. The percentage inhibitions of ulcer with test extract being 60 &plusmn;1.12 % and 57.18 &plusmn; 1.32 % respectively whereas standard ranitidine has shown percentage inhibitions of ulcer to an extent of 100&plusmn; 0.42% and 68.52&plusmn;1.07% in both ulcer models. It is evident from literature that Chrozophora plicata leaves possess flavonoids4. The results obtained indicate that Chrozophora plicata possesses antiulcer principles.
774-778
228
MUCOADHESIVE MICROSPHERES- A VIRTOUS BIOAVAILABILITY EMBELISHING TOOL
*R. Gowri, N. Narayanan, A. Maheswaran, S. Janarthanan, S. Paulraj, P. Lavanya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Mucoadhesive drug delivery has versatile potential for efficient drug release because of the properties provided by their small particle size for various diseases. Ex., Helicobacter pylori infection is currently the cause of 75% peptic ulcers. In an effort to augment the anti Helicobacter pylori effect, microspheres reside in the gastrointestinal tract with mucoadhesion mechanism and exhibits sustained release effect over a period of time. Microspheres are the carrier linked drug delivery system in which particle size ranges from 1-1000 &mu;m&nbsp; in diameter having a core of drug and entirely outer layers of polymer as coating material. Due to their short residence time, bioadhesive characteristics can be coupled to microspheres to develop mucoadhesive microspheres. The polymers with excellent mucoadhesive properties and good entrapment efficiency. This review article focusses various aspects of mucoadhesion, theories of mucoadhesion&nbsp;&nbsp; preparation methods and applications along with its future trends. <br />
763-773
229
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF PARACETAMOL AND TAPENTADOL HYDROCHLORIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
*Iffath Rizwana, K. Vanitha Prakash, G. Krishna Mohan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination Paracetamol and Tapentadol HCl in pharmaceutical dosage form. The column used was Symmetry C18 (4.6 x 150mm, 5&#61549;m) in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (50:50 v/v) adjusted to pH 3.6 with ortho phosphoric acid. The flow rate was 0.8 mL/ min and effluents were monitored at 243 nm. The retention times of Paracetamol and Tapentadol HCl were found to be 2.206 min and 3.807 min, respectively. The linearity for Paracetamol and Tapentadol HCl were in the range of 100-200 mcg/mL and 15-30 mcg/mL respectively. The recoveries of Paracetamol and Tapentadol Hcl were found to be 98.5% and 98.5%, respectively. The proposed method was validated and successfully applied to the estimation of Paracetamol and Tapentadol Hcl in combined tablet dosage forms.
759-762
230
NOVEL PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATION OF MIXED SOLVENCY IN THE FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF SYRUPS (LIQUID ORAL SOLUTIONS) OF POORLY WATER-SOLUBLE DRUGS
*Yash Maheshwari, D.K Mishra, S.C Mahajan, Prachi Maheshwari, R.K Maheshwari, V. Jain
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Solubilization of poorly water soluble drugs has been a very important issue in screening studies of new chemical entities as well as in formulation research. In the present investigation, mixed-solvency approach has been utilized for solubility enhancement of poorly water-soluble drug, Naproxen and Furosemide (as model drugs). Sixteen blends (having total 40% w/v strength) containing various solubilizers among the commonly used hydrotropes (urea, sodium benzoate and sodium citrate), cosolvents (glycerin, ethanol, propylene glycol, PEG 600 and PEG 400) and water-soluble solids (PEG 4000 and PEG 6000) were made to study the influence on solubility of Naproxen and Furosemide individually. Most of the blends were found to increase the solubility of both drugs. This approach shall prove a boon in pharmaceutical field to develop various formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs by combining various water-soluble excipients in safe concentrations to produce a desirable aqueous solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. <br />
753-758
231
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ETRAVIRINE IN PURE AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
*G. Raveendra Babu, A. Lakshmana Rao and J. Venkateswara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A validated simple, sensitive, specific and precise RP-HPLC method was developed for the determination of Etravirine in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. Method was carried on Hypersil BDS C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 &mu; particle size) using phosphate buffer:acetontrile (35:65 v/v) as mobile phase. Detection was carried out by UV at 322 nm. The proposed method obeyed linearity in the range of 20-150 &mu;g/mL and met all specifications as per ICH guidelines. Statistical analysis revealed that this method can be used in routine quality control studies of Etravirine in pure and its pharmaceutical formulations.
747-752
232
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF COLORIMETRY METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF OXCARBAZEPINE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
*A. S. Shete, P. D. Lade, Snehal S. Kumbhar, A. P. Mhadeshwar, S. J. Inamdar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A colorimetric method has been developed and validated for estimation of Oxcarbazepinein its tablet form. Ferric chloride and potassium ferricyanide were used as the coloring agents, and a yellow green color solution was formed after reaction of the drug with ferric chloride and potassium ferricyanide. The solution absorbance was measured at 735 nm. The linearity range was in the range of 1-6&mu;g/ml. The validation of the new proposed method was carried out on various parameters like linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity, specificity, robustness, ruggedness, LOD and LOQ.
741-746
233
SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF DULOXETINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND METHYLCOBALAMIN BY UV SPECTROSCOPIC METHOD
*A. S. Shete, P. D. Lade, Sumaiyya J. Inamdar, S. S. Kumbhar, A. P. Mhadeshwar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate and precise UV Spectroscopic method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Duloxetine Hydrochloride and Methylcoblamin. The overlay spectra of Duloxetine hydrochloride and Methylcoblamin exhibit &lambda; max of 291 nm and 350 nm for Duloxetine hydrochloride and Methylcoblamin in Double distilled water respectively. The drugs obeyed the Beer&rsquo;s law in the range of 8-28&mu;g/ml and 0.6-15&mu;g/ml for Duloxetine hydrochloride and Methylcoblamin with correlation coefficients of 0.998 and 0.999 respectively and it has showed good linearity. The results of analysis were validated by recovery studies. The % recovery was found to be 99.99-100.96 % for Duloxetine hydrochloride and 100.55-101.02 % for Methylcoblamin. LOD and LOQ were found to be 1.278&mu;g/ml, 2.330&mu;g/ml for Duloxetine hydrochloride and 0.949&mu;g/ml, 2.857&mu;g/ml for Methylcoblamin respectively. The %RSD values were less than 2. The method was found to be simple, accurate, precise, economical and reproducible.
734-740
234
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF SOME NEWLY SYNTHESIZED CHALCONES
*Jahirul Islam Talukdar, Monica Kachroo and Rema Razdan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new series of chalcones have been synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation of appropriate acetophenones like N-(4-acetyl-phenyl)-4-methoxy-benzamide [which is synthesized by reacting 4-methoxy-benzoyl chloride with 4-amino acetophenone] and N-(4-acetyl-phenyl)-4-chloro-benzamide, [which is synthesized by reacting 4-chloro-benzoyl chloride with 4-amino acetophenone]&nbsp; with various aldehydes&nbsp; in ethanolic KOH solution. The synthesized compounds were characterized using melting point, TLC, UV, IR, 1HNMR, 13C-NMR and CHN analysis. The compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity by bovin serum albumin assay method ( in vitro ) and carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method ( in vivo ). Among the compounds synthesized, 2, 4-dimethoxy phenyl and 4-ethoxy phenyl derivative exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity.<br /><br />
728-733
235
FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY AND PHENOLIC CONTENT ESTIMATION OF GLINUS OPPOSITIFOLIUS AND SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA
*Chhayakanta Panda, Uma Shankar Mishra, Sujata Mahapatra, Ghanshyam Panigrahi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present research work was carried out to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of the whole plant of Glinus oppositifolius (MEGO) and leaves of Sesbania grandiflora (MESG). The therapeutic effects of tannins and flavonoids can be largely attributed to their antioxidant properties. The quantitative estimation of phenolic content was measured by using UV-spectrophotometric method. The total phenolic content value of MEGO was 12.2&plusmn;0.12w/w and of MESG was 8.34&plusmn;0.08 % w/w, respectively, and total flavonoid estimation of MEGO and MESG&nbsp; showed the content values of 4.9&plusmn;0.02 % w/w and 1.2&plusmn;0.13 %w/w, respectively, for quercetin and 3.6&plusmn;0.18 % w/w and 1.56&plusmn;0.09 % w/w, respectively, for rutin. The results revealed that these plants have antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of MEGO was found to be more potent than MESG. So finally it indicates that both the plants contains antioxidant substances which can be used for the treatment of oxidative stress related diseases.
722-727
236
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MOUTH DISSOLVING FILMS OF ZOLPIDEM TARTRATE BY EXPLORATION OF POLYMERS COMBINATION
*M.K. Patidar, F.A. Karjikar, F.A. Patel, S.S. Rathi, S.B. Thokal, C.L. Bhingare
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Fast dissolving drug delivery is the new approach to administer drugs; mouth dissolving film is one of them. The object of the present research work was to formulate a mouth dissolving film of Zolpidem tartrate from polymers Hydroxypropyl cellulose (EF-P) with a combination of Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose K-15 by solvent casting method for enhancing the drug release rate and absorption to incessant increase drug bioavailability. Hydroxypropyl cellulose is a synthetic water soluble polymer, form a brittle film with high elastic modulus, thus to improve film forming properties, Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose used in a ration of (1:1 and 2:1) with it. Compatibility of drug and polymers were studied by the IR spectrophotometer, any kind of interaction was not found. All the formulations were evaluated by different evaluation parameters and showed satisfactory results. Batches have uniformity in weight with a thickness of (0.930 mm), (98.3%) drug content and 100% drug release within 6 mins and films pH was reassembled with the pH of saliva. <br />
716-721
237
A VALIDATED STABILITY-INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF TICAGRELOR IN BULK AND ITS FORMULATION
*L. Kalyani, A. Lakshmana Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, rapid, accurate and precise stability-indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of Ticagrelor in bulk and its tablet dosage forms. Separation of the drug was achieved on Hypersil BDS C18 column (100 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 &micro;) as stationary phase with mobile phase consisting of phosphate buffer pH 3.0 and acetonitrile in the ratio of 70: 30 V/V. The method showed a good linear response in the concentration range of 22.5-135 &micro;g/mL with correlation coefficient of 0.999. The flow rate was maintained at 1.0 mL/min and effluents were monitored at 254 nm. The retention time was 3.215 min. The percentage assay of Ticagrelor was 99.9%. The method was statistically validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, ruggedness, robustness, solution stability, selectivity and forced degradation studies. The results obtained in the study were within the limits of ICH guidelines and hence this method can be used for the determination of Ticagrelor in pharmaceutical dosage forms.
634-642
238
INVITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SACCHARUM SPONTANEUM
*M. Sai Krishna, K. Naga Sravanthi, G. Sreenika, S. Chaithanya, M. Sudhakar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Biomolecules can be oxidized by free radicals which results in oxidative stress. This oxidative damage has an important etiological role in aging and development of diseases like cancer, atherosclerosis, and other inflammatory disorders. Synthetic antioxidants, like Butylated hydroxyl anisole, Butylated hydroxyl toluene are good free radical scavengers. However, synthetic antioxidants can be carcinogenic. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in searching for antioxidants of natural origin. We report here the in vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of S. spontaneum. The activity of S.spontaneum has been tested using various antioxidant models viz., total phenolic and flavonoid content, estimation of DPPH, nitric oxide,&nbsp; superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity at different concentrations. This study indicates significant free radical scavenging potential of S.spontaneum which may be due to the presence of high Phenolic and Flavonoid content.<br />
628-633
239
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF NOVEL HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CEFIXIME AND MOXIFLOXACIN IN COMBINED TABLET DOSAGE FORM
*B. Raja, A. Lakshmana Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, rapid, accurate and precise RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of Cefixime and Moxifloxacin in combined tablet dosage form. The chromatographic separation was carried out on Hypersil BDS C18 column (100 x 4.6 mm; 3 &micro;) with a mixture of phosphate buffer pH 6.0: acetonitrile (75: 25 V/V) as a mobile phase; at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. UV detection was performed at 293 nm. The retention times were 2.374 min and 5.776 min for Cefixime and Moxifloxacin respectively. Calibration plots were linear (r2=0.999) over the concentration range of 5-30 &micro;g/mL for both Cefixime and Moxifloxacin. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity and sensitivity. The proposed method was successfully used for quantitative analysis of Cefixime and Moxifloxacin tablets. No interference from any component of pharmaceutical dosage form was observed. Validation studies revealed that the method is specific, rapid, reliable and reproducible. The high recovery and low relative standard deviation confirm the suitability of the proposed method for routine estimation of Cefixime and Moxifloxacin in pure sample and tablet dosage forms.
621-627
240
MICROANATOMICAL DEFORMATION AFTER PTZ INDUCED SEIZURE IN MICE BRAIN
*Pankaj Kalita, Manash Barthakur
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Seizure is an abnormal state of brain electrical activity. The causes of seizure are different but seizure can be induced artificially also. Present experiment was conducted on albino mice and seizure was induced by Pentamethyline tetrazole (PTZ). Duration of seizure was maintained more than half an hour. Mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and brain was removed. Brain was fixed in Carnoy&rsquo;s fixatives and sectioned at 5 micron thickness. Histological slide was stained in H&amp;E stain. Micro-anatomical deformation of brain was observed in treated animals. Simultaneously control group of mice was maintained in same laboratory conditioned. Loss of cellular architecture in the neocortex I remarkably observed.&nbsp; Excitatory neurotransmitter overloaded in axon terminal may be responsible for neuronal degeneration.
618-620
241
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF LAMIVUDINE AND TENOFOVIR DISPROXIL FUMARATE IR TABLETS
*Patil Sagar Nanaji, Swati Shailendra Rawat, D. Yashwanth Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The main objective of the present study is to formulate and evaluate an immediate release tablet of Lamivudine and Tenofovir Disproxil Fumarate using different disintegrants. Lamivudine and Tenofovir Disproxil Fumarate belong to class of anti-retroviral drugs known as nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Pre formulation studies were performed prior to compression. The tablets were compressed using microcrystalline cellulose, crospovidone, crosscarmallosesodium, magnesium stearate and Aerosil. The fabricated tablets were evaluated for various micrometric properties like bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index, Hausner&rsquo;s ratio, angle of repose and post compression characteristics like thickness, hardness, friability, disintegration time and drug release. Crospovidone is found to be the better disintegrant when compared to crosscarmallosesodium in the formulation of immediate release tablets of Lamivudine and Tenofovir Disproxil Fumarate. The absorbance of Lamivudine and Tenofovir Disproxil Fumarate were screened in the UV region and the maximum absorbance was found to be 271 nm and 260nm respectively and this was used for UV analysis. Among the six different formulations developed F6 was found to be the best one with a drug release of 99.96% at the end of 30min. <br />
613-617
242
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ROSUVASTATIN AND FENOFIBRATE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
*S. Thukabai, V. Uma Maheshwara Rao and Muhammad Rafi Shaik
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new precise, accurate, reliable validated method for the determination of Rosuvastatin and Fenofibrate has been developed by using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) in pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation was carried out by using mobile phase 0.01M Potassium dihydrogen phosphate: methanol (55:45v/v, PH-2.6 adjusted with Orthophosphoric acid) on Agilent XDB C18 (150 x 4.6 mm, 5&#61549;) at a flow rate 1ml/min with UV detection at 220nm.The retention times for Rosuvastatin and Fenofibrate were 2.36 and 5.80 min respectively and both drugs showed good linearity in the range of 5-20 &micro;g/ml and 80-320 &micro;g/ml. The proposed method has been successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulation and was validated according to ICH guidelines and method showed good precision with percentage relative standard deviation less than 2%. The percentage recovery for Rosuvastatin and Fenofibrate was found between 99.06-100.94% and 99.12-100.95% respectively indicating the proposed method was accurate and precise.
607-612
243
A VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF ALISKIRIN AND AMLODIPINE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
*Venkata Raveendra Babu Vemula, Pankaj Kumar Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate, rapid, precise, specific and cost effective reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method have been developed and subsequently validated for simultaneous estimation of Aliskiren and Amlodipine in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Chromatography is carried out isocratically at 30&deg;C &plusmn; 0.5&deg;C on an Water&rsquo;s X-bridge C-18 column (4.6 x 150mm, 5&mu; particle size) with a mobile phase composed&nbsp; of&nbsp; acetonitrile -phosphate&nbsp; buffer&nbsp; (pH-2.5)&nbsp; (40:60, v/v)&nbsp; at&nbsp; a&nbsp; flow rate&nbsp; of&nbsp; 1.0&nbsp; mL/min. Detection&nbsp; was carried out using a PDA detector at 230 nm. Parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, specificity and ruggedness are studied as reported in the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The retention times for Aliskiren and Amlodipine are 3.8 min and 5.1 min respectively. The linearity range for Aliskiren and Amlodipine are 18.75-187.5&micro;g/ml and 1.25-12.5 &micro;g/ml respectively. The correlation coefficients for both components are close to 1. The relative standard deviations for six replicate measurements of samples in tablets are always less than 2%.
601-606
244
Analytical Method development and Method validation for the simultaneous estimation of Metformin HCL and Linagliptin in Bulk and tablet Dosage Form by RP-HPLC Method
*A. Janardhan Swamy, K. Harinadha Baba
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A rapid, highly sensitive, economical and accurate RP-HPLC method was developed for simultaneous estimation of Metformin HCL and Linagliptin in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage form. The separation was achieved by Hypersil C18 column (250 &times; 4.6 mm, 5 &mu; particle size) with mobile phase consisting of phosphate buffer (pH 5.6, diluted with orthophosphoric acid), methanol and acetonitrile in the ratio of 40:5:55 v/v, using flow rate 1.0 mL/min and eluents monitored at 233nm .The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines for specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The retention times of Linagliptin and Metformin were 5.4 and 6.6 min respectively. The linearity was found to be in the range of 125-750 &mu;g/mL and 0.625-3.75 &mu;g/mL for Metformin and Linagliptin respectively, had regression coefficients (R2) 0.999. The proposed method was successfully applied for simultaneous estimation of both drugs in Pharmaceutical formulation.
594-600
245
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLETS OF VILDAGLIPTIN
*Vishnu P, Shireesh kiran R, Chaitanya B, Naveenbabu K, Vijayavani Ch. S.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of this research work was to establish Vildagliptin sustained release matrix tablets of&nbsp; 50mg. Vildagliptin is an anti diabetic drug of the new dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor class of drug. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique using different grades of Hydroxy Propyl Methyl cellulose (HPMC K 100 LV, HPMC K15M and HPMC K4M) as extended release polymer. Tablets were evaluated for different parameters such as thickness, hardness, friability, weight variation, in vitro dissolution studies and FT-IR studies. The physico-chemical property of the finished product compiles with the internal specification limits. In vitro release from the formulation was studied as per the USP and IP dissolution procedure. The formulation gave a release of 98.5 % for 24 hr and the data best fitted into Higuchi model.&nbsp; From the present study it was concluded that the vildagliptin sustained release tablets can extend drug release and improve the bioavailability of vildagliptin. <br />
587-593
246
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS OF LORNOXICAM
*Jyothi Rani L, K. Abbulu, Nagabushan Rao T, A Akhila
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Mouth dissolving tablets are also known as fast disintegrating, fast dissolving, fast melt, quick melt tablets. Lornoxicam is an NSAID with 100% bioavailability having a bitter taste. So by formulating it as an ODT the absorption and the bioavailability of the drug will fasten and hence the action of the drug will be faster .The mode of action of Lornoxicam is mainly by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis (inhibition of cyclooxygeanase enzyme). So the purpose of the present work is to formulate a taste masked mouth dissolving tablet of Lornoxicam. Taste masking was done by using Eudragit (EPO 100) in different ratios. Three superdisintegrants were used namely sodium starch glycolate, crospovidone, crosscarmellose sodium. The tablets were evaluated for various parameters like hardness, friability, drug content, disintegration and in vivo dissolution. Among all the formulations F5 showed 98% drug release with in 15 min. So it was considered as best formulation.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <br />
579-586
247
NOVEL SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR THE ASSAY OF NATEGLINIDE IN PURE AND DOSAGE FORMS
*Ch. Sudheer, T.Tirumaleswara Rao, B.V.Sreenivasulu, C. Ramababu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Two simple, sensitive and selective methods for the determination of Nateglinide in bulk and in pharmaceutical formulations were described. These methods are based on extraction of this drug into chloroform as ion-pair with basic dyes, Safranin O (SFNO) and Methylene blue (MB). The optimum conditions of the reactions of the developed methods were studied and optimized. The absorbance of the colored products was measured at 515nm for nateglinide-SFNO and 620nm for nateglinide-MB. The calibration curves obeyed the beer&#39;s law over the concentration range of 2.5-12.5&mu;g/mL for nateglinide-SFNO and nateglinide-MB with correlation (r2=0.9997 &amp; 0.9992) respectively. The results of analysis for the two methods have been validated statistically and by the recovery studies. The proposed methods were simple, sensitive and economical for the quantitative determination of nateglinide and were successfully employed for the assay in bulk and in formulations.
574-578
248
FORMULATION AND CHARECTERIZATION OF IN SITU IMPALNT OF OCTREOTIDE ACETATE
*Prashanth P, Sumit Shah, Arvind G, Naveen Konda
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Octreotide is the acetate salt of a cyclic octapeptide. It is a long-acting octapeptide with pharmacologic properties mimicking those of the natural hormone somatostatin. The peptide drugs after oral and parental administration the poor bioavailability in the blood due to their short biological half &ndash;lives caused by their metabolic instability. so that these peptide drugs are formulated by polymeric drug delivery systems such as micro particles or implants, has been proposed enabling their sustained&nbsp; release after a residence time in the polymer which protects the peptide against enzymatic and hydrolytic influences of biological media. In the present study, In situ implants of Octreotide acetate were prepared by polymer precipitation method. PLGA is dissolved in hydrophilic solvents such as Dimethyl sulphoxide, N-Methyl 2-pyrrolidone, PEG-200 and Triacetin until the formation of a clear solution. Different formulations were prepared using different concentration of polymer i.e. 5to35 % w/w. The characterization of implant was carried out by Determination of PLGA 5050 polymer ratio by NMR, Determination of molecular weight of polymer by GPC, Viscosity of polymer solution, Sterility test, In-vitro drug release, Release kinetics and Scanning electron microscopy. The Maximum percent of drug release with minimum Initial Burst release was found in formulation (F3) with NMP as solvent. Effect of gamma irradiation on molecular weight of polymer, viscosity of polymer solution, monomer ratio of lactide and glycolide and in-vitro release after gamma radiation was studied with F3 formulation.
565-573
249
FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF LEVOFLOXACIN
*Satyabrata Bhanja, Parthasarathi Mishra, Sudhakar Muvvala, Arun Kumar Das
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study aimed to formulate and evaluate sustained release matrix tablets of levofloxacin to achieve sustained drug release with reduced side effects and improved patient compliance. Different batches of sustained release matrix tablets of levofloxacin were prepared by direct compression method using HPMC, sodium CMC and sodium alginate as polymers, Avicel PH 102 (MCC) as filler and starch as binder. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, weight variation, friability, drug content uniformity, in vitro drug release, in vitro drug release kinetics and Acceralerated stability studies. It was found average hardness of the tablets to be in range 6.7&plusmn; 0.04 to 7.7 &plusmn; 0.35 kg/cm2. The friability of the prepared tablets was found in the range of 0.005&plusmn;0.034 to 0.6&plusmn;0.035 %. The uniformity of drug levofloxacin present in tablets formulation ranged from 96.84 &plusmn; 0.16 to 98.87 &plusmn; 0.34%. The in vitro drug release was studied by using pH 1.2 acidic buffer for 24 hours. Among all twelve formulations F1 to F12, the best formulation F4 was found to be 99.5% drug release in 24 hours which showed the sustained action drug release. The formulations F1 to F12 followed first order release kinetics with non fickian diffusion mechanism. <br />
556-564
250
FORMULATION AND IN VITRO - IN VIVO EVALUATION OF BILAYER FLOATING-BIOADHESIVE FAMOTIDINE TABLETS
*Prabha A. Singh, Amrita Narayan Bajaj, Anjali Harikrishna Singh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Bilayer floating-bioadhesive drug delivery systems exhibiting a unique combination of floatation and bioadhesion to prolong gastric residence time were developed. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and sodium bicarbonate were added such that when immersed in 0.1N HCl, the tablet expands and rises to the surface and famotidine is gradually released without interference from gas bubbles. Effect of different ratios of drug: polymer on in vitro release profile was investigated. Developed tablets were evaluated for uniformity of weight, hardness, friability, drug content, buoyancy and floating lag time. Time buoyancy curve, detachment force and swelling index were evaluated. Antiulcer activity of famotidine tablets was assessed by inducing ulcers in fasted rats by ethanol and indomethacin. Measurement of gastric contents was carried out by ulcer induced pylorus liagated rats. Prepared tablets exhibited satisfactory physico-chemical characteristics. The tablet swelled radially and axially during in vitro buoyancy studies. From the buoyancy kinetic curve it was observed that bilayer tablet started floating in less than 10 minutes and remained buoyant for 12h. In vivo antiulcer studies exhibited that developed formulation showed comparable percent inhibition of ulcers to standard in both gastric ulcer models. Gastric pH was significantly reduced showing decreased acid output. Thus floating-bioadhesive systems exhibited independent regulation of buoyancy and drug release and in vivo studies showed good antiulcer efficacy confirming potential of floating-bioadhesive tablets as drug delivery system for prolonging gastric residence and enhancing local effect of famotidine.
548-555
251
FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AMPHOTERICIN B LIPOSOMES PREPARED BY THIN FILM HYDRATION METHOD
*Arvind G, Sumit Shah, Shanmukha Mule, Prashanth P, Noveen Konda
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Amphotericin B is a polyene antifungal drug used intravenously for systemic fungal infections. Simple solution of amphotericin B is having many side effects while liposomal amphotericin B preparations exhibit fewer side-effects having similar efficacy. Various preparations of liposomal amphotericin B have recently been introduced and all of these are more expensive than plain amphotericin B. Fungisome and Abelcet are liposomal complex formulation of amphotericin B and being the latest and cheapest addition to the lipid formulations of amphotericin B. AmBisome is a liposomal formulation of amphotericin B for injection which is having less side effects as compared to all other formulations of Amphotericin B. Liposomal formulation of amphotericin B for injection, prepared by thin film hydration technique was selected in the present study. Different formulations variables (solvents ratio and pH of complex formation) and process variable (numbers of homogenization cycles) were carried out to control the impurities levels and particle size of liposomes. Formulation prepared at pH 3.0 with 1:2 solvent ratio (Methanol: Chloroform) was given least impurities. Formulation prepared at 1400 bar pressure with 15 homogenization cycles was shown desire particle size.&nbsp; The optimized formulation was exhibited more than 90% release of drug for a period of 7 days. The stability study (40&plusmn;2&deg;C/ 75&plusmn;5% RH) of the Amphotericin B liposomes was evaluated for 3 months and it was found to be stable.<br /><br />
540-547
252
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ROSUVASTATIN AND OLMESARTAN IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC
*Elijabeth.Y, Ramesh.B, K.Dhanalaxmi, Nagarjuna reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, precise, accurate and rapid reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic new method had been developed for simultaneous estimation of Rosuvastatin and Olmesartan in bulk and tablet dosage form. An Agilent XDB, C18 column having I&rsquo;d of 150&times;4.6 mm and 5&micro;m particle size was used. The new method was carried out in gradient program using mobile phase, 0.01M Potassium Dehydrogenate orthophosphate: acetonitrile (55:45 v/v) adjusted to pH-3.2 using dilute ortho phosphoric acid. Flow rate was adjusted to 1.0ml/min and effluents were monitored at 240nm. The retention time obtained for Rosuvastatin and Olmesartan was 2.61 and 5.13min respectively. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 10-30&micro;g/ml for Rosuvastatin and 50-150&micro;g/ml for Olmesartan. The developed method was validated in accordance to ICH guidelines.
534-539
253
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF LORNOXICAM AS MUCOADHESIVE MICROCAPSULES
*Varun Sharma, Bharat Parashar, Abhisekh Chandel and Ajay Chandel
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The microencapsulation has a major role in solving the problems regarding targeting of drug to a specific organ tissue and controlling the rate of drug delivery to the target site. Microencapsulated drug delivery system plays a major role in developing oral controlled release systems. The objective of this work was to discuss how the efficiency of drug delivery can be increased and also how the release of drug and drug targeting can be improved. This work provides the thorough literature review of different techniques involved in microencapsulation and evaluation parameters of microencapsulation process. Various formulations were developed by using release rate controlling and gel forming polymers like HPMC-5 and HPMC-15. From among all the developed formulations, F3 formulation with HPMC-5 sustained the drug release for longer period of time as compared to other formulations. So, F3 formulation with HPMC-5 was selected as the best formulation. It was concluded that the release followed Zero order kinetics. Thus, best formulation satisfied physicochemical parameters and in vitro drug release profile requirements for a sustained drug delivery system.
527-533
254
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF IRBESARTAN AND HYDROCHLORTHIAZIDE BY RP-HPLC IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
*Ramesh Bhukya, Elizabeth Y, Dhanalaxmi K, D. Nagarjuna Reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, precise, accurate and rapid reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method had been developed for simultaneous estimation of Irbesartan (IRBE) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in bulk and Pharmaceutical dosage form. A Phenomex Luna C-18 column having I&rsquo;d of 150&times;4.6 mm and 5&micro;m particle size was used. The method was carried out in gradient program using mobile phase, 0.02M Potassium dehydrogenate orthophosphate: acetonitrile (60:40 v/v) adjusted to pH-3.4 using dilute ortho phosphoric acid. Flow rate was adjusted to 1.0ml/min and effluents were monitored at 224nm. The retention time obtained for Irbesartan and HCTZ was 2.59 &amp; 8.13min respectively. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 100-300&micro;g/ml for Irbesartan and 50-150&micro;g/ml for HCTZ. The developed method was validated in accordance to ICH guidelines.
521-526
255
PHARMACOGNOSTIC, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF CURCUMA LONGA LINN. RHIZOME
*P.V. Kadam, K.N. Yadav, F.A. Patel, F.A. Karjikar, M. K. Patidar, M.J. Patil
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In recent year there has been rapid increase in the standardization of selected medicinal plant of potential therapeutic significance. Despite the morden techniques, identification of plant drug by Pharmacognostic study is more reliable. The rhizomes of Curcuma longa reported to have good medicinal values in traditional system of medicines. The present study deals with pharmacognostic parameters for the rhizomes of Curcuma longa which mainly consist of Macromorphology, Cytomorphology, Physico-chemical constants and Phytochemical screening. This information will be of used for further pharmacological and instrumental evaluation of the species and will assist in standardization for quality, purity and sample identification.
514-520
256
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF CYCAS CIRCINALIS (L.) AND IONIDIUM SUFFRUTICOSUM (GING.)
*Senthil Kumar Babu, Vijaya kumar Jagadesan, Selvaraj Ramasamy, Panneer Selvi Gopalsamy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
India is one of the countries richly endowed with vast species of medicinal plants. The various bioactive phytoconstituents of the medicinal plants were identified and used for many chronic ailments. Cycas circinalis L. and Ionidium suffruticosum Ging. are the two herbs which were used in Indian medicine (Siddha) for improving the fertility of male. The present study involves the preliminary physicochemical, phytochemical analysis of the above said herbs. Physicochemical analysis involving ash values such as total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash for Cycas (8.12, 0.64, and 5.2 respectively) and for Ionidium (9.76, 0.94, and 5.6 respectively). The heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic were found to be within permissible limits in both the herbs. The powdered plant material of Cycas showed presence of alkaloid, flavonoids, amino acids and triterpenoids with percent yield of 40% in ethanolic solvent whereas Ionidium showed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, amino acids and triterpenoids with percent yield of 32% in ethanolic solvent.
510-513
257
ASSESSMENT OF PATIENT SATISFACTION ON THE SERVICES PROVIDED BY COMMUNITY PHARMACIES IN AND AROUND PULIKKAL, KERALA
*Linu Mohan P, Shamna M, Dilip C, Abin C, Sajeev V Kumar, Sheron Joseph
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was planned to assess the patient satisfaction on the services provided by the community pharmacies at Pulikkal Panchayath &ndash; Kerala. A questionnaire was prepared with 10 questions which is helpful to measure the patient satisfaction level on the services like, availability of drugs, time taken for billing and dispensing, approach of pharmacist, advices on current health problem / general advices on medicine, location and layout of the pharmacy refund system, counselling service on side effects. A total of hundred filled questionnaire were collected back and the analysis of answers were done. Patients expressed that they were satisfied with the availability of the medicine in most of the pharmacies, and also the time taken for billing and dispensing of medicine. 38% of respondents were satisfactory in approach of the pharmacist. The locations of all pharmacies were very much convenient to the patient. Anyway most of the patients (37%) were not satisfied on services like advices on current health problem, general advices on medicine and the counselling service on side effects of drugs. Considering all the factors overall rating of the pharmacy was good (40%).
501-509
258
ANTIAMNESIC ACTIVITY OF GUGGUL EXTRACT ON SCOPOLAMINE INDUCED AMNESIA IN MICE
*Ajay J Parikh, Krishna KL
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Objective of this study was to evaluate Guggul extract for the treatment of Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease using scopolamine induced amnesia in mice on Morris water maze. Guggul extract (50mg/kg) was administered orally for fifteen successive days followed by Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p.) from 15th to 18th day in mice. Morris water maze was employed to evaluate learning and memory using parameter like Escape Latency Time (ELT), Time Spent in Target Quadrant (TSTQ) and determination of brain Acetylcholinesterase level. Scopolamine was used to induce amnesia in mice and the activity was compared with standard drug Piracetam.&nbsp;&nbsp; Guggul extract significantly improved learning and memory in mice and reversed the scopolamine induced amnesia. Guggul extract when co administered with Piracetam (200mg/kg) has shown synergistic activity. Guggul extract is a known hypolipidemic agent and has shown excellent activity in scopolamine induced amnesia when given orally for 15 successive days in mice. It has shown synergistic effect with Piracetam and further detailed studies are required to exploit Guggul extract as new therapeutic agents for antialzheimer&rsquo;s disease. <br />
403-409
259
A CRITICAL REVIEW ON FUNDAMENTAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS OF FT-IR SPECTROSCOPY
*G. Murali Krishna, M. Muthukumaran, B. Krishnamoorthy, Ameren Nishat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a technique which is used to obtain an infrared spectrum of absorption, emission, photoconductivity or ramanscattering of&nbsp; solid,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; liquid or gas. An FTIR spectrometer simultaneously collects spectral data in a wide spectral range. An FT-IR Spectrometer is an instrument which acquires broadband NIR to FIR spectra. Unlike a dispersive instrument, i.e. grating monochromator or spectrograph, FT-IR Spectrometers collect all wavelengths simultaneously. FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infra Red) is a method of obtaining infrared spectra by first collecting an interferogram of a sample signal using an interferometer, and then performing a Fourier Transform (FT) on the interferogram to obtain the spectrum. The main goal of FTIR spectroscopic analysis is to determine the chemical functional groups in the sample. Using various sampling accessories, FTIR spectrometers can accept a wide range of sample types such as gases, liquids, and solids. Thus, FTIR spectroscopy is an important and popular tool for structural elucidation and compound identification.
396-402
260
THE WORLD OF BREAST CANCER - A REVIEW
*Venu T, Vamshi N and Anil A
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cancer is a generic term for a large group of diseases that can occur in any part of the body. It is caused by abnormal changes in the &lsquo;DNA&rsquo; of the cell. Of all the types of cancers, &lsquo;Breast cancer&rsquo; is most dangerous. It occurs mostly in women. Nearly 4,60,000 deaths per year are caused only by the breast cancer1. Though there are many different types of cancer treatments like chemotherapy (chemotherapy medicines prevent cancer cells from growing and spreading by destroying the cells or stopping them from dividing.), surgery (removing the part of the breast which underwent the cancer.), hormonal therapy (hormonal therapy medicines treat the hormone receptor-positive breast cancers.) etc. but till now there is no successful method of treatment to cure the cancer completely. So always we need a new technology to treat the cancer. Thus nano technology, microwave technology, targeted therapy were introduced to detect and treat the cancer.&nbsp; Along with those technologies we can boost the immune system to fight against the cancer, drugs to silence the activity of &lsquo;hedgehog molecule&rsquo; to prevent the metastasis of cancer and using &lsquo;blue berries&rsquo; to prevent aggressive form of breast cancer. The research on mouse models that have contributed to our understanding of the molecular processes underlying breast cancer metastasis and how such experimentation can open new avenues to the development of innovative cancer therapy.
386-395
261
SUPERDISINTEGRANTS IN FAST DISINTEGRATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A BRIEF REVIEW
*Vimal VV, Aarathi TS, Anuja, Soumya Baby John
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Disintegration plays a major role in facilitating drug action in oral solid dosage forms. Disintegrants (substances or mixture of substances) when added to the drug formulation facilitates the breakup or disintegration of tablet or capsule content into smaller particles that dissolve more rapidly. The inclusion of right disintegrant is a prerequisite requirement to get an optimum bioavailability in tablets and capsules which need rapid disintegration. Super-disintegrants are used to improve the efficacy of solid dosage forms. This is achieved by decreasing the disintegration time which in turn enhances drug dissolution rate. Super-disintegrants are generally effective in a low concentration, and generally at higher concentrations they hinder disintegration. Examples of Super-disintegrants are crosscarmelose, crosspovidone, sodium starch glycolate which represents crosslinked cellulose, crosslinked polymer and a crosslinked starch, respectively. The development of fast dissolving or disintegrating tablets provides an opportunity to take an account of tablet disintegrants. The disintegrants have the major function to act against the efficiency of the tablet binder and the physical forces that act under compression to form the tablet. The stronger the binder, the more effective must be the disintegrating agents in order for the tablet to release its medication. . The present review describes super-disintegrants, their types, selection criteria and various methods of incorporating disintegrants and mechanism of tablet disintegration.