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S.NO Title & Authors Name page
Formulation, Characterization, and Optimization of Snakehead Fish (Ophiocephalus Striatus) Powder Nanoemulgel
Robert Tungadi, Prisca Wicita
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Snakehead fish powder was formulated into nanoemulgel utilizing the best comparison of surfactant, co-surfactant and oil. The aims of this study was to determine physical stability and characterization of snakehead fish powder nanoemulgel by spontaneous emulsification method. PEG 400 was added into Tween 80 and olive oil then water, containing 0.1% of snakehead fish powder, was added drop by drop until becoming a transparent solution by sonication. Nanoemulsion was added with 1.5% HPMC gel and mixed until nanoemulgel form. It was characterized by UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and DLS. The results of this research showed that snakehead fish nanoemulgel produced clear, stable, and transparent formula having the transmittance value of 98.825%. The characterization results described nanoemulgel had the average of particle size, PDI, and zeta potential were around 2.9 nm, 0.589 and -60.72 mV respectively. This means that nanoemulgel was stable having a uniform particle size, pH 5, and the viscosity value of 210 cP. The results of the evaluation of stability test showed a good level of stability with the viscosity and pH by one way ANOVA analysis which did not change significantly. 

The effectiveness of leaf extract cherry (Muntingia calabura l.) as lowering cholesterol levels in white rats with simvastatin comparison
Cut Fatimah
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The flab in the body partly will form the excessive cholesterol, which can thicken the blood and the formation of thrombus in the blood can cause coronary heart disease, and even death are currently on the market have been widely circulated synthetic chemical drugs to lower blood cholesterol levels, but often cause various side effects, so it is necessary to find an alternative drugs from natural materials rational lowering cholesterol levels with relatively minor side effects. One plant has been used traditionally community to reduce body fat (obesity) is a cherry leaf. In addition cherry leaves have also been used to treat gout, diabetes, and high blood pressure, so that the possibility can be used as an alternative to cholesterol-lowering drugs. Extraction is done by percolation using 80% ethanol. Phytochemical screening performed on fresh leaves, botanicals, and cherry leaf ethanol extract. Decreased effectiveness of cholesterol using cholesterol level gauges Nesco®multicheck, the male rats induced by high cholesterol feed is duck eggs yolk mixture to 80% and 0.125% propylthiouracil orally by 4 ml, for 10 days to an increase in levels of blood cholesterol. Measurements were made once every 24 hours after the suspension of the ethanol extract of leaves of cherry with three doses of 2%, 4%, 6%, respectively 2 ml, as a blank CMC suspension 0.5%, and the comparison simvastatin dose of 0.025% respectively 4 ml. The data obtained were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by analysis of Least Significant Difference Test (BNT) using the least squares difference (Least Square Difference) with a 99% confidence level. Phytochemical screening result looks the same class of chemical compounds on fresh leaves, botanicals, and cherry leaf ethanol extract, namely alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids / steroids; and essential oils. The result of a decrease in blood cholesterol seen rats started on the third day after the administration of test materials, and showed a significant decrease in cholesterol on the seventh day, did not differ between the test material 4% and 6%. As for the test material 2%, is showing a decline on the ninth day. Of the three doses given cherry leaf extract noticeable decrease in blood cholesterol levels the most excellent rats at concentrations of 4% for the seventh day was not significantly different from the concentration of 6%.

LizaPristianty, Fasich, Arief Wibowo, Mufarrihah
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Currently self medication NSAIDs getting much done in the community. Efforts are made by using drugs on their own without any guidance from health professionals. The fact that there is a lot done despite such action, but not many people who know choose and rational use of NSAIDs. NSAIDs are widely used in self-medication as an analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory. The main side effects are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach bleeding, and dyspepsia. NSAIDs area class of drugs can be delivered directly to the client by the pharmacist at the pharmacy. A pharmacist as professionals in the pharmacy has a major contribution to the client's decision to self-medication NSAIDs. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the practice of pharmaceutical care by pharmacists during a service clients NSAIDs by self medication to increase knowledge and change attitudes of clients, thus expected to achieve an optimal therapeutic effect.This study was an experimental study that conducted 7 training to pharmacists in pharmacy practice in Surabaya with a guide booklet, the pharmacist then implement pharmaceutical care in the service of self-medication NSAIDs to their clients follow the guidelines in the booklet. Monitoring results of interventions by pharmacists in selected pharmacies were evaluated using pre Experimental Design type-One Group Pre Test Post Test Design. The results showed pharmaceutical care by pharmacists in the service of self medication with NSAIDs guide booklet significant effect on attitude change in the use of NSAIDs clients with Sig. (2-tailed) 0.03=0.05andsignificant effect on the improvement of the client's knowledge of the NSAIDs with the Sig. (2-tailed) 0.00 =0.05.
Liza Pristianty, Fasich, Soemiati
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Pharmaceutical care is a practice-oriented pharmacy services to clients, in self medication expected to provide appropriate solutions to the problems faced by clients in order to achieve a therapeutic effect optimal.Now self medication more done by individuals to relieve health problem. There are many actions self medication done in the community , but not many people are aware the rational treatment. Self medication behavior is determined by intention to perform self medication behave determined by attitude, subjective norms and perceived control. The drugs widely used in self medication is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This study wanted to build a mathematics model of pharmaceutical care that may be achieved rational self medication. Research will be conducted on clients who come to the pharmacy by self medication in Surabaya. Research methods are observational, data collection through surveys from 455 pharmacy clients through 89 pharmacies, prospective cross sectional study. The data were analysis by structured equation model. The results showed that pharmaceutical care is to build the attitude, subjective norm and perceived control by estimated value of 0.251; 0.530; and 0.493. behavior in self medication NSAIDs rational is not significantly influenced by client intence the estimated value of -0.03 , but can be formed through pharmaceutical care by pharmacist and client’s attitude with estimated value 0.280 and 0,211. The conclusion of this study is pharmaceutical care should be carried out intensively in the service of NSAIDs self-medication by a pharmacist in pharmacy.
Widyati, Soediatmoko, Dian Maria, Zullies Ikawati, Lukman Hakim
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Study aims were (1) to document adherence measurement using 3 different methods. (2) to determine the relationship between each methods. The study wasconducted using cross sectional design. Patients were followed-up for 6 months and adherences weremeasured after 1 and 6 months therapy. The methods used to measure the adherenceswere 1) Patient/parent-self reported ( MMAS-8 questionnaires); 2) Drug level assay and 3) seizure frequency observation. Participants enrolled were 50 patients with new-onset general epilepsy (Mage = 7.2 ± 2.0; 54 % male; 46% female Indonesian). Patient/parent-self reported methods resulted mean overall adherence scores across patients during this 6-months period was 4.07 ± 1.15 (81.4%). Meanwhile phenytoin assay indicated only 18% patients reached therapeutics concentration. Seizure frequency observation revealed 81% improvement in seizure frequency (t= 7.63, P=0.000) after 6 months therapy. Negative correlations were found between Parents/patients-self reporting with drug levels(rho=-0.082, P=0.59); Parents/patients-self reporting with seizure frequency(rho=-0.17, P=0.24). Correlation between seizure frequency with phenytoin level was also proved by Spearman test as no significant (rho=0.12, P=0.42). 7 patients (14%) remain had seizure after 6 months but only 2 patients were having miss dose. There were lack of correlation between the various methods of adherence measurement but it does not necessarily reflect a minimum in adherence.