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S.NO Title & Authors Name page
Study on complexation of ascorbic acid derivatives with γ-cyclodextrin
Yutaka Inoue, Misa Horage, Rina Suzuki, Daichi Niiyama, Ryota Urano, Shigeru Ando, Junko Kikuchi, Isamu Murata, Ikuo Kanamoto
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The aim of this study was to assess the physicochemical properties of a solid dispersion of L-ascorbyl 6-palmitate (ASCP) as poorly water soluble and ?-cyclodextrin (?CD) prepared by co-precipitation or co-grinding by using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (solution state 1H-NMR and solid state 13C-NMR), and solubility test. Physical assessments and measurements indicated that a co-precipitate of ASCP and ?CD resulted in inclusion complex formation at a molar ratio of 1:3 and that a ground mixture of ASCP and ?CD resulted in inclusion complex formation at a molar ratio of 1:2. A solubility test revealed that the co-precipitate and ground mixture had improved solubility compared to ASCP alone. The co-precipitate had greater solubility than the ground mixture. This result is presumably due to molecular interaction occurring as result of the differences in the molar ratios and differences in the structure of complexes for ASCP and ?CD in a solid state.

Yutaka Inoue, Hirotaka Onoda, Hiroyasu Sato, Isamu Murata, Ikuo Kanamoto
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Aim of this study, a co-crystal (nicotinamide and urea) was prepared, and it was used to investigate the relevance of single-crystal structure analysis in combination with other measurement techniques. Results of both single-crystal X-ray diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction confirmed that the nicotinamide and urea co-crystals had a molar ratio of 2/1 and comprised a monoclinic system. Results of differential scanning calorimetry showed that the melting point of the co-crystals was different from that of nicotinamide and urea alone. Results of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectrometry showed that the co-crystals interacted between nicotinamide and urea due to amino group. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that the co-crystal and nicotinamide and urea alone have different appearances. Thus, the combination of single-crystal structure analysis with other measurement methods is very useful for analyzing the crystal structure in detail.

Effect of cyclodextrin on postprandial blood glucose and triglycerides
Mitsuki Sugahara, Yutaka Inoue, Isamu Murata, Daisuke Nakata, Keiji Terao, Ikuo Kanamoto
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This study explores pharmacy students’ feedback on teaching–learning methods of pharmacology in faculties of pharmacy in Northern Cyprus universities. 150 students randomly selected and participated by filling self-administered questionnaires. The majority of participants were female and most of them were in the 4th year of their study. The results showed that high percentage of students had good understanding and grasping of pharmacology subjects in class, and the pharmacology is the most favored course in comparison with others. Moreover, participants taught that pharmacology course will have most usage in their future pharmacy practice. It can be concluded that the general attitude of students toward pharmacology were positive; however, some changes in curriculum are still required in order to make the pharmacology courses more interesting.

Yutaka Inoue, Arisa Shimura, Misa Horage, Rikimaru Maeda, Isamu Murata, Masahiro Sugino, Kazuhiko Juni, Ikuo Kanamoto
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The current study conducted human sensory testing and temperature-dependent measurement of the creams to examine their viscosity and viscoelasticity.  A retention on filter paper test and skin penetration test involving Yucatan micropigs (YMPs) were conducted to measure penetration of the skin and transdermal transfer.  The relationship between testing results and physical properties of the creams was then examined.  When viscosity was measured, NDFX-A and NDFX-B displayed similar behavior as gauged by viscosity and shear stress.  NDFX-C produced a large flow curve, with a larger area under the flow curve than NDFX-A or NDFX-B.  Measurement of viscoelasticity indicated that the storage modulus G’ and the loss modulus G” for NDFX-A and NDFX -B increased with a change in temperature (60°C to 10°C) while G’ and G’’ decreased for NDFX-C.  The loss tangent tan d was determined for each cream.  Prior to and after a rise in temperature to 60°C, NDFX-A had a tan d of +0.48 at 20°C, NDFX-B had a tan d of -0.34, and NDFX-C had a tan d of ±0.  In a retention on filter paper test, NDFX-B had the highest level of drug retention, followed by NDFX-C and then NDFX-A.  Water content presumably plays a role in this phenomenon.  Results of a skin penetration test indicated that NDFX-B and NDFX-A had approximately the same amount of skin penetration and the same amount of transdermal transfer after 24 hrs while NDFX-C had less skin penetration and less transdermal transfer.  This is because crystals were noted in NDFX-C.  Microscopy revealed oil droplets in that cream.  Thus, these aspects presumably affected its skin penetration and transdermal transfer.  Skin penetration amount is directly related to efficacy, so physical properties of creams may be an important aspect to consider.