Country-wise Listing - Malaysia

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S.NO Title & Authors Name page
Abdallah Abdallah Mahjoub, Syed Azhar Syed Suliman, Amer Hayat Khan, Razak Lajis, Irfhan Ali Bin Hyder Ali
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Plasma concentrations of isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide were measured in 22 diabetic and 22 non-diabetic pulmonary tuberculosis patients by high performance liquid chromatographic methods. From every patient, five blood samples were taken at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after witnessed ingestion of antituberculosis agents. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and the time to reach the Cmax (Tmax) for each drug were determined directly from the concentration-time profile. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated from isoniazid and rifampicin only. The presence of diabetes mellitus did not significantly affect any pharmacokinetic parameters of the three agents. AUC0-24h of isoniazid was significantly higher in female patients. The AUC0-24h of rifampicin was significantly correlated with patients’ age. Weight-adjusted dose of each drug positively and significantly correlated with the corresponding drug Cmax.
Angeline A/P Perumaloo
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It is an overview of adverse drug reaction where its evolution and various classes of adverse drug reaction are being explained. Also, how patient and drugs can be factors contributing to the occurrence of adverse drug reaction are discussed here. Not only that, there are also different pathways in which adverse drug reaction can be monitored and reported to improve pharmaceutical care. The role of healthcare professionals, physicians, pharmacists and patient in averting adverse drug reaction is also being described in brief.
Shobana A/P Segaran, Nesan Kumar A/L Asokumaran
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a type of disease which is characterized by a disorder of the brain in which the memory and thinking skills are slowly destroyed. This makes it difficult for a person to carry out the simplest task. It is also a type of dementia. Until now still there is no perfect cure for Alzheimer's disease. Drugs are available only to reduce or eliminate the symptoms of this disease. In this review article, Alzheimer's disease will be explained briefly along with its symptoms. Most importantly, since the treatment related to this disease is very crucial, plants or plant extracts which can be used to treat Alzheimer's disease will be discussed.
Mohammad Arief, Harika Bheemavarapu, Kiran Nilugul, Gunalaksmi Ramachandran
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The declination of glomerular filtration (e-GFR) rate in CKD patients, eventually leads to renal failure which is the leading source to develop cardiovascular diseases. It is estimated that about 40-50% of all deaths in the end-stage renal disease population are of cardiovascular origin. The association between renal deficiencies and cardiovascular disease were conformed in large scale studies like HOPE and HOT. Even, the US Renal Data System (2013) reveals that about 43% and 15% patients with renal complications are affected with heart failure and myocardial infarction respectively. In the current article we aimed to review the literature on the prevalence rate of various types of cardiovascular complications and non-cardiovascular complications such as hypertension, arterial vascular disease, atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure and diabetes among India community. The study also focuses on the role of novel and traditional risk factors of patients having the chronic kidney diseases. Framingham risk score supports the traditional risk factors whereas the novel risk factors include the level of homocycteine, C-reactive protein and lipoprotein.
Muhammad kifayatullah, Mohd.Shahimi Mustafa, SatheeshbaboNatrajan, Arindam Das, MashoodAhamad Shah
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Medical plants have a wide range of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, immunological, antiviral, hypoglycemic, antifungal, antihepatic, antiphlogistic cardiovascular and central nervous effect especially in developing countries where resources are meager. About 80% of the remote area populations rely on the traditional medicines for their health. In literature approximately 500 plants with medicinal use are mentioned and around 800 plants have been used in indigenous systems of medicine. Because of side effect of synthetic drugs, there is an increasing interest towards natural product remedies with a basic approach towards the nature. The inflammatory drug from plants in present clinical use and their similar mechanism of action of medicinal components are preferred mainly due to low cost and lesser side effects. A number of side effects like gastrointestinal bleeding, mucosal erosion, hepatotoxicity, renal toxicity and nephropathy are associated with the use of Anti-inflammatory drugs. Cycoloxygenase-1 enzyme is present throughout the body and their functions is to maintains the  normal gastric mucosa and influencing renal blood flow and platelet aggregation and Cyclooxygenase-2 mediates inflammatory responses. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit both enzymes; inhibition of Cox2 is directly implicated in ameliorating inflammation, whereas the inhibition of cyclooxygenase - 1 causes adverse effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Meanwhile, in order to avoid from side effect, there are development and introduction of new antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents that compete with Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The use of natural remedies for the treatment of inflammatory and painful condition has long history starting with Ayurvedic treatment, extends to the European and other systems of traditional medicines. The present review focus on the some of the medicinal plants and their medicinal uses which have been shown experimentally. The profiles presented include information about the scientific name, family, methodology used and the degree of anti-inflammatory activity. WHO has pointed out this prevention of inflammatory diseases and its complications is not only a major challenge for the future, but essential if health for all is to attain. Therefore, in recent years, considerable attention has been directed towards identification of plants with anti-inflammatory activity that may be used for human consumption.
Ezlina Usir, Julia Jalaludin
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Pollution by crude oil is wide spread and a common problem, and particularly endemic in countries whose economies are dependent on the oil industry. Such pollution arises either accidentally or operationally wherever oil is produced, transported, stored, processed or used. Benzene contamination of soil may also occur due to oil production facilities and coastal refineries. This problem arises because most of petrochemicals including benzene and its derivatives are carcinogens and mutagens with the capacity to affect both the structural integrity of DNA and the fidelity of its biologic expression. Jatropha curcas (L.) is a multipurpose and drought resistant tree, widespread throughout the tropics and subtropics. Its seeds are rich in oil and protein. J. curcas can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. Therefore, the objective of this work is to evaluate protective effect of detoxified J. curcas kernel meal (DJKM) against benzene-induced clastogenicity in male rats. Eighty adult male rats were allocated in several groups treated with benzene and/or several concentration of DJKM. The results revealed that low, medium and high doses of DJKM did not increase the DNA fragmentation, incidence of MnPCEs and alterations in the stress related genes (Hsp70a, MT and CYP450 genes) compared with benzene induced high levels of these parameters. The protection effects of DJKM on the genetic toxicity were attributed to its imact on the glutathione peroxidase activity which was increased significantly with DJKM treatment compared to benzene exposure.
Saminathan kayarohanam, Bino Kingsley, Sivaramakrishnan and G. Nagarajan
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Esomeprazole is chemically bis (5methoxy-2-[(S)-[(4-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-2-pyridinyl) methyl]sulfinyl]- 1Hbenzimidazole-1-yl). It is a gastric proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) used in treatment of gastric-acid related diseases. A Simple, sensitive, selective and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) methods were developed, estimated and validated for the analysis of Esomeprazole sodium in bulk and injection forms. The chromatographic separation was performed by the using C8, column having 250 x 4.6mm 5μm. Using mobile phase containing Acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (58:42v/v) adjusted to PH 7.6 with phosphoric acid. The analysis was run at a flow rate of 1.5ml/min and injection volume was 20 µL. The detection was monitored at 280nm. The retention time of Esomeprazole was 2.93 min. The developed method was validated for precision, intermediate precision (ruggedness), linearity, specificity, accuracy, and stability. Recovery of Esomeprazole in formulations was found to be in the range of 99.08%, 100.86%, and 101.52% respectively. And the correlation coefficient was 0.999. Hence, it was concluded that the developed method is suitable for routine analysis due to its less analysis time.
Jin Han Chin, Gabriel Akyirem Akowuah, Mandumpal Chacko Sabu, Shaik Ibrahim Khalivulla
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Clinacanthus nutans (Family: Acanthaceae) or locally known as “Sabah snake grass” in Malaysia, is used for the treatment of herpes simplex infection, herpes zoster infection, diabetes mellitus, skin rash, dysuria and cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of methanol leaves extract of C. nutans by sub-acute 28-day (repeated doses) oral administration to male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. First group was orally treated with distilled water and served as control (n=6), whereas the remaining treatment groups (n=6) were orally treated with a single dose daily of 300 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg of C. nutans extract, respectively for 28 days. Cage-side observations were done daily. The animal body weight, food consumption and water intake were recorded weekly. Blood was collected via cardiac puncture on day-29 and used to perform biochemical analyses, i.e. liver function tests, kidney function tests, total protein, glucose, lipid profile and haematology evaluation. The relative organ weights were also measured. All results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analysed using Dunnett’s test. From the results obtained, repeated oral administration of methanol leaves extract of C. nutans (300 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg) for 28 days did not cause mortality or adverse effects in rats. No significant change was observed in the body weight changed, water and food intake between the treatment group and control group. However, significant increase in serum total proteins (p<0.01), albumin/globulins ratio (p<0.01) and relative liver weight (p<0.01) were observed in male rats after 28 days treatment with 900 mg/kg of C. nutans. In conclusion, 28 days oral administration of methanol leaves extract of C. nutans up to 900 mg/kg was safe in male SD rats without causing any adverse effects. The Non-Observable-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) for sub-acute (28 days) effects of methanol leave extract of C. nutans in male SD rats was 900 mg/kg bw.
Synthesis and Characterization of Polymeric Conjugated Sirolimus on MCF-7(Estrogen Positive) and MDA MB 231(Estrogen Negative) Breast Cancer Cell Lines
Bontha Venkata Subrahmanya Lokesh and Palanirajan Vijayaraj Kumar
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Sirolimus (SR) is used as an immunosuppressant drug to prevent organ rejection in kidney transplants. It is chemically a macrolide and isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus in a soil sample. Of recent, it has potent antiproliferative properties and useful in the treatment of certain types of cancer. In our objective of the study, SR is chemically conjugated with Methoxy-polyethylene glycolic acid (mPEG COOH) and Poly(lactic-co glycolic acid)[PLGA]. Two polymeric SR conjugates (mPEG-SR and PLGA-SR) were characterized by UV-spectra, infrared (IR) spectra, 1H NMR spectra, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and HPLC analyses. It was found to be structurally correlated among the chemical structures of SR, mPEG COOH-SR conjugate, PLGA-SR conjugate, PLGA and m-PEG COOH polymers. The MTT assay of mPEG-SR, PLGA conjugates were carried out on specific MCF-7(Estrogen positive) and MDA MB231 (Estrogen negative) breast cancer cell lines using tamoxifen as control. All results were showing the positive effects of mPEG-SR with IC50 values of 15 µg/ml and 1.5 µg/ml more active than tamoxifen with IC50 values of 28 µg/ml and 4.9 µg/ml on MDA-MB 231(estrogen negative) and MCF-7(estrogen positive) breast cancer cell lines in vitro, respectively. Whereas PLGA-SR conjugate was shown high activity on MCF-7(estrogen positive) with IC50 value of 1.2 µg/ml and less activity on MDA MB 231(estrogen negative) with IC50 value of more than 100 µg/ml. Both conjugates have not shown any cytotoxicity activity on 3T3 fibroblast normal cell lines. These results indicate that both conjugates may provide highly potent cytotoxicity activity against specific breast cancer types than SR alone. In conclusion, polymeric conjugation is a useful approach in drug delivery systems. These conjugates are basic precursors to formulate into a novel drug delivery system for better release and with increased good bioavailability with fewer side effects.
*Abdullah Khan, SMd Noorulla, Mohammed Muqtader, Roshan S and Sadath Ali
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Conventional dosage forms like gels and eye drops show relatively low bioavailability due to poor precorneal contact time. In situ gelling systems are of great importance in providing prolonged ocular drug delivery due to their elastic properties. It resists ocular drainage leading to longer contact time. In the present study an in situ gelling solution was formulated for gatifloxacin an antibacterial agent, using different ratios of hydroxypropyl cellulose and Sodium alginate with a view to increase gelling strength and bio-adhesion force in order to increase pre-corneal contact time, thereby increasing ocular bioavailability of the drug. The prepared formulations were evaluated for various physical parameters such as, clarity, pH, viscosity, drug content, sterility, and in vitro drug release. The formulated gels were transparent, uniform in consistency and had sufficient spreadability with a pH range of 6.8 to 7.1. It was found that with an increase in the concentration of the bioadhesive polymer sodium alginate the drug release was prolonged for longer period of time. Amongst the different polymer combinations studied the G-7 showed satisfactorily higher gel strength, and sustained drug release for more than twelve hours and was stable throughout the stability studies. Thus it can be concluded that the G-7 was more suitable combination for the formulation of ophthalmic in situ gelling system for sustained ocular drug delivery of gatifloxacin, which improves the bioavailability of the drugs on the precorneal area.