Country-wise Listing - Nigeria

To view the articles from different countries, Please click on the country name on left side countries menu.
S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
ASSESSMENT OF DIABETES KNOWLEDGE AMONG PHARMACISTS AND NURSES IN A NIGERIAN TERTIARY HOSPITAL
Sunday Yakubu Sabo, Ishaku Magaji Iliya, Abubakar Sadiq
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Inadequate knowledge of diabetes among health professionals can jeopardise the management of diabetes among patients. A Cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge of Diabetes among Pharmacists and Nurses in a Nigerian tertiary Health care centre. Knowledge of the effects of exercise on blood glucose level had a positive score of 92.3% among Pharmacists. About 100% of Pharmacists had knowledge of Diabetes and its complications. The causes of low blood glucose had a frequency score of about 96.2% among pharmacist. The result in relation to diabetes as a disease and its complications showed that more than 50% of Nurses exhibited sound knowledge. The knowledge of the complications of diabetes had also a good frequency score of about 88.1% and the causes of low blood glucose had the highest   score of about 89.1% among Nurses. Diabetes is a serious and growing health problem in the world and broad diabetes knowledge is necessary to ensure excellent care of this growing population.
361-366
2
PRESCRIBING PATTERN OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVES AT A TERTIARY HEALTHCARE FACILITY IN NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA
N. Y. Ikunaiye, S. J. Madu, S. I. Yakubu and J. Muazu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Appropriate treatment of hypertension using evidence-based guidelines significantly reduces cadiovascular mobidity and mortality. This retrospective survey was aimed at assessing the prescription pattern of antihypertensive medications in order to ascertain the appropriateness and the extent of adherence to the guidelines. Details on demorgraphy, blood pressure, prescription including number of antihypertensives and number of all medications at diagnosis and at last visit as well as documented co-morbidities/compelling indication were captured from the patients folders. The results highlight high prevalence of hypertension in females (65.69%) compared to males (34.31%). At diagnosis, most female patients presented with stage 2 hypertension  while males presented with stage 1 hypertension based on Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of Hypertension  (JNC 7) classification of hypertension. Although monotherapy with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) was considerable at both visits, polytherapy was dorminant. Thus, prescribers in this healthcare facility adhered to drug treatment guidelines for hypertension.
59-64
3
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF N-HEXANE EXTRACT OF GARCINIA KOLA HECKEL [BITTER KOLA] SEED
Uzondu Akueyinwa Lovet Esther, Utoh-Nedosa Uchechukwu Anastasia and Anowi Chinedu Fredrick
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The patented flavonoid extract of Garcinia kola seeds for the treatment of liver disorders has been shown to have anti-oxidant and scavenging properties. This study, therefore, evaluated the phytochemical composition of Garcinia kola seed and antimicrobial activity of the N-hexane extract of Garcinia kola seed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Staphylococcus aureus; Bacillus subtilis; Escherichia coli; Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans. The zones of inhibition of the N-hexane extract concentrations (100mg, 50mg and 25mg) against the growth of the organisms were determined by the cup-plate agar method. A Marcfarland Standard of each of the bacteria was used to seed sterile molten nutrient agar medium maintained at 450 C and Sabourand dextrose agar plate was seeded with Candida albicans. Results of phytochemical screening tests showed that Garcinia kola seed powder contained starch, protein, glycosides, flavonoids, tannin, saponins, sterols and triterpenoids. The antibacterial activity of 100mg extract was highest and was in the order: action on Bacillus subtilis > Pseudomonas aeruginosae >Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae with zones of inhibition of 10.66mm, 9.66mm, 9mm, 9mm, respectively while that of the 50mg concentration was of the order: Bacillus subtilis> Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus >> Krebsiella pneumoniae with zones of inhibition of 8.33mm, 8. 33mm, 8.33mm and 4.66mm, respectively. The 100mg, 50mg and 25mg concentrations of the extract were all poorly inhibitory to Candida albicans and were resisted by Eshcerichia coli. The triterpenoids found in the extract (possibly in conjunction with the glycosides) are suggested to be responsible for the anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity of the N-hexane extract of Garcina kola seed obtained in this study.
121-127
4
DELIVERY OF WATER-INSOLUBLE DRUGS: CAFFEINE MONOHYDRATE AND SALICYLIC ACID AS MICROCAPSULES USING IRVINGIA GUM AS THE COACERVATING AGENT
Uzondu, Akueyinwa Lovet Esther, Okor, Roland Sydney
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The potential of irvingia gum as a coacervating agent was investigated in the microencapsulation of caffeine and salicylic acid. Irvingia gum was produced according to the methods described by previous workers. Coacervation was achieved by adding ethanolic solution of the drug (6g in 8ml) to the gum mucilage (3g in 100ml of water): i.e, gum: drug ratio 1:2, and allowing to stand for 48h to form a sediment ( coacervate). Also prepared were gum: drug ratios: 1:1 and 2:1. Effects of composition, temperature and pH on coacervate yield and degree of drug entrapment were investigated. Tragacanth gum was used, as reference standard. 1:2 ratio gave the highest yield for both caffeine (78.5±0.02% w/w) and salicylic acid (79±0.00%w/w) coacervates. pH increase of gum mucilage (2.21 to 12.03) increased the yield of irvingia caffeine coacervate but decreased that of irvingia: salicylate coacervates. Raising the temperature (25-600C) decreased both coacervate yields. Both systems (with gum: drug ratio 1:2) gave the highest degree of drug  entrapment. This study, therefore, presents optimal condition for enhancement of yield and degree of drug entrapment in coacervation of poorly-water soluble drugs: caffeine and salicylic acid.
22-33
5
SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF RISPERIDONE IN PHARMACEUTICAL BULK AND DOSAGE FORMS
*Akachukwu I, Nwodo N.J and Mbah C. J
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric method for determination of Risperidone has been developed. The method was based on the charge – transfer complexation reaction of Risperidone with chloranilic acid to form a violet – coloured complex having absorption maximum at 500 nm. Different variables affecting the reaction conditions such as the concentration of chloranilic acid, reaction time, diluting solvents were studied and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, linear relationship with good correlation coefficient (0.9979) was found between absorbance and the concentrations of Risperidone in the range of 2 – 12 µg/ml. The assay limits of detection and quantitation were 0.979 and 2.97 µg/ml respectively. The precision of the method and the values of relative standard deviation never exceeded 1.19%. No interference could be observed from the excipients commonly present in dosage forms. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of Risperidone in pure and pharmaceutical dosage forms with good accuracy and precision; the recovery percentage ranges from 99.02 to 101.88 ± 0.54 to 1.19%. The proposed spectrophotometric method gives accurate and reproducible results besides being much more sensitive than the British Pharmacopoeia method that uses a larger amount of Risperidone.
710-715
6
MALE WISTAR RATS RESPONSE TO KEROSENE EXPOSURE THROUGH DIFFERENT ROUTES: FOCUS ON ANTIOXIDANT INDICES
*Iyanda A. Ayobola
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Due to poverty, kerosene is widely applied for the treatment of a number of ailments in Africa. The impact of kerosene on antioxidant indices is therefore determined in Wistar rats. The experimental animals were divided into four groups (n=6). Trace quantity of kerosene (0.4 ml/kg body weight) was administered through oral, dermal or combined routes. At the end of 3 weeks of daily administration, activities of the antioxidant enzymes, levels of malondialdehyde and reduced and oxidized glutathione were estimated. Levels of oxidized glutathione and malondialdehyde were significantly elevated (p&lt;0.05); while the levels or activities of reduced glutathione and reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio (p&lt;0.05) as well as all the antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased.&nbsp; The results of this suggest that trace administration of kerosene to male Wistar rats is capable of inducing significant oxidative stress and also support the same kind of observation earlier observed in female rats. <br />
465-469
7
BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF THE SPECTRA DOSES OF SPARFLOXACIN ON HEALTHY ALBINO RATS
*Ukpo Grace E, Adevokhai Gladys I, Ehianeta Teddy S, Ebuehi Albert OT
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The fluoroquinolones have become an increasingly popular class of antibiotics for use in a variety of infections. This study investigated the effect of the spectra doses of sparfloxacin on the clinical chemistry parameters of healthy albino rats. The rats were evenly distributed into four groups such that each group had similar mean weights. Group 1 (control group) was administered 2.0 ml of 0.9% normal saline solution throughout the experimental duration. Group 2 (sub therapeutic dose) was administered a loading dose of 0.7 mg/kg body weight by oral route on day 1 and 0.35 mg/kg body weight p.o on days 2 to 7 while Group 3 (therapeutic dose) was administered a loading dose of 0.35mg/kg body weight p.o on day 1 and 0.175 mg/kg body weight p.o on days 2 to 7. Group 4 (toxic dose) was administered a loading dose of 3.5 mg/kg body weight p.o on day 1 and 1.75 mg/kg body weight p.o on days 2 to 7. The elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the sub-therapeutic group are suggestive of liver-related malfunction or injuries to the liver parenchyma.&nbsp; It can also be seen that sub-therapeutic doses of sparfloxacin has some inductive effects on the ALTs but inhibitory effects by the toxic doses. Since no elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were seen in the treated groups, this suggests sparfloxacin is not hepatotoxic. There was no statistical difference in the creatinine levels of the control as well as all the treated groups. Thus it can be concluded that the renal function is not affected as serum creatinine level is a more reliable indicator of renal function
431-435
8
PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THREE WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS, CORAL MUSHROOM, AGARICUS BISPORUS AND LENTINUS SAJOR, COMMON IN OHAUKWU AREA OF EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA
*Afiukwa CA, Ugwu Okechukwu PC, Ebenyi LN, Ossai Emmanuel C, Nwaka Andrew C
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The concentrations of some phytochemicals in three species of edible mushrooms (Coral mushroom, Agaricus bisporus and Lentinus sajor) that are common in Ohaukwu area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria were determined using standard methods. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, oxalates, phytates, HCN and phenols in significant amounts with tannins being the highest, followed by flavonoids and phenols, while HCN was the least in concentration. There was a significant variation among the mushrooms in their composition of the phytochemicals (p&lt;0.05). The obtained values of the phytochemicals in all the mushrooms were interestingly found to be significantly lower (p&lt;0.05) than their toxicity levels according to World Health Organization (WHO) safe limits. The results of this study suggest that these mushrooms may be very safe for consumption in terms of phytochemical toxicity and at the same time have some medicinal properties. <br />
410-414
9
ANTIMALARIAL DRUGS: A REVIEW
*Modupe Iretiola Builders
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Malaria causes about 400-900 million cases of fever and approximately 1-3 million deaths annually; this represents at least one death every 30 seconds. The vast majority of cases occur in children under the age of 5 years, pregnant women are also especially vulnerable. Resistance to antimalarial drugs as well as resistance of vectors to insecticides is proving to be a challenging problem in malaria control in most parts of the world. Furthermore, the difficulty of creating efficient vaccines and also adverse side-effects of the existing anti-malarial drugs highlight the urgent need for novel, well-tolerated antimalarial drugs for both prophylaxis and treatment of malaria, therefore researchers had discovered other antimalarial agents, mainly from plant sources. In this article, we would like to address current status of recent advances in malaria chemotherapy.
40-46
10
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF RITCHIEA LONGIPEDICELLATA FAM. CAPPARIDACEAE
*C.F. Anowi, M. N. Ikegbunam, C.O. Ezugwu, G. Oche
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ritchiea longipedicellata had been reported to exhibit antimicrobial properties. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the antimicrobial activities of Ritchiea longipedicellata; family caparidaceae leaves against microorganisms and to serve as criteria to recommend the Ethnopharmacological uses of the plant. The plant leaves were dried, powdered and extracted by cold maceration with Ethylacetate for 24h. Phytochemical screening was done for alkaloids, saponin, essential oil, phenolic group, steroidal nucleus, simple sugar, starch, cyanogenic glycoside, proteins and flavonoid using standard procedures. Antimicrobial screenings were done using agar diffusion technique. Antibacterial activity test was conducted by screening against seven pathogens comprising both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria obtained from pharmaceutical Microbiology laboratory stock. The extract was screened against 24h broth culture of bacteria seeded in the nutrient agar at concentrations 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg/ml in DMSO and incubated at 37&#267;, for 24 h and measuring the inhibition zone diameter - IZD. The same was done for antifungal however; fungi were seeded into a sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated for 72 h at 25oC. Aspergillus niger and Candida albican were used. The positive control was ampicillin 20&micro;g/ml and clotrimazole cream 1mg/ml for bacteria and fungi respectively.&nbsp; DMSO was used as negative control. The results of phytochemical screening showed moderate availability of alkaloid, simple sugar and abundance of flavonoid, steroidal nucleus, essential oil, phenolic group, cyanogenic glycoside; absence of starch and protein and doubtful quantity of saponin. The extract displayed various activities against bacteria inhibiting it at various concentrations ranging from 200 to 6.25 mg/mL. Ethylacetate extract inhibited all the bacteria in a most appreciable extent. The extract demonstrated activities against certain bacteria and fungi (to some extent) confirming the use of the plant in ethno pharmacology. Taking the least IZD of the standard (Ampicillin) as the breaking point, the extract passed the breaking point. <br />
700-705
11
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF RITCHIEA LONGIPEDICELLATA FAM. CAPPARIDACEAE
*Anowi CF, Utoh-Nedosa UA, Onyegbule AF and Oche G
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ritchiea longipedicellata Gilg had been reported in traditional medicine, to exhibit antimicrobial properties. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the antibacterial and antifungal activities of Ritchiea longipedicellata Gilg leaves against pathogenic microorganisms by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration and to serve as criteria to recommend the ethno pharmacological uses of the plant. Plant leaves were dried, powdered and extracted by cold maceration with methanol for 24hours. Phytochemical screening was done for alkaloids, saponin, essential oil, phenolic group, steroidal nucleus, simple sugar, starch, cyanogenic glycoside, proteins and flavonoids using standard procedures. Antimicrobial and minimal inhibitory concentration screenings were done using agar diffusion technique. Antibacterial activity test was conducted by screening against seven pathogens comprising both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria obtained from Pharmaceutical Microbiology laboratory stock. The extracts were screened against 24hour broth culture of bacteria seeded in the nutrient agar at concentrations 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg/ml in DMSO and incubated at 370C, for 24 hours and measuring the inhibition zone diameter - IZD. The same was done for antifungal screening, however, fungi were seeded into a sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated for 72 hours at 250C (.Aspergillus niger and Candida albican were used). The positive controls were ampicillin 20&micro;g/ml and clotrimazole cream 1mg/ml for bacteria and fungi respectively.&nbsp; DMSO was used as negative control. The results of phytochemical screening showed moderate availability of alkaloid, simple sugar and abundance of flavonoids, steroidal nucleus, essential oil, phenolic group, cyanogenic glycoside; absence of starch and protein and doubtful quantity of saponin. Methanolic extract inhibited with minimal inhibitory concentration of 200, 6.25, 200, 12.5, and 12.5 mg/ml against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, E. coli, B. subtilis, and Sarcinae lutea respectively. The extract demonstrated activities against certain bacteria confirming the use of the plant in ethno pharmacology and since the root extract are more often used, it is yet to be confirmed if it has more activity than the leaves against the test organisms. Taking the least IZD of the standard (Ampicillin) as the breaking point, most of the extracts passed the breaking point. <br />
287-293
12
ESTIMATION OF SERUM ACTIVITIES OF ANTI-OXIDANT ENZYMES AND LEVELS OF INDICES OF RENAL DAMAGE IN FEMALE WISTAR RATS DOSED WITH ACETAMINOPHEN/METHIONINE
*Iyanda Ayobola Abolape and Adeniyi Francis
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Acetaminophen abuse is common in many parts of the world. At overdose levels it causes hepatic and renal damage and because its treatment is expensive and prognosis is poor in some cases, calls for inclusion of an antidote have been made. Results of a past study showed that inclusion of methionine with acetaminophen in the ratio of 1: 9 did not confer protection on the renal cells at very high level of exposure; 40% and 100% mortality occurred at 3000 &amp; 5000 mg/kg (BW) levels of exposure respectively. The aim of this study is to exclude insufficient methionine in that combination as cause of death in those animals, by using a higher combination ratio of 1: 5 (methionine: acetaminophen). Female Wistar rats were divided into 17 groups (n = 8), 16 groups were administered with different doses of acetaminophen or acetaminophen/methionine ranging from 350 &ndash; 5000 mg/kg. The 17th group which served as the control received physiologic saline. Route of administration was by gastric gavage. Whole blood was obtained by retro-orbital bleeding; serum samples were utilized for the estimation of renal indices, using assay kits. Kidney sections were stained with hematoxylin &amp; eosin.&nbsp; The combination ratio of 1: 5 (methionine: acetaminophen) conferred protection on renal cells even at doses as high as 3000 &amp; 5000 mg/kg using biochemical and histological markers as indices of study. Urea, creatinine and uric acid were not significantly different in acetaminophen/methionine groups compared with controls while histology result showed non-visible lesion at all levels of exposure. The results suggested that the effectiveness of methionine as an antidote in preventing renal damage after exposure to toxic doses depends on the use of right combination ratio which in the case of Wistar rats was found to be 1: 5 (methionine: acetaminophen).
278-286
13
ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY OF PLANTS USED AS MEMORY ENHANCER AND ANTIAGING IN ONDO STATE, NIGERIA
*Cyril -Olutayo Christiana Mojisola, Adekunle Tajudeen Oladele and Taiwo Olayemi Elufioye
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In traditional medicine, numerous plants have been used for cognitive disorders, including memory loss and antiaging. We document the medicinal plants used by people in Ondo State of Nigeria to alleviate memory loss and aging. Three hundred and twenty six persons (326) were randomly selected and interviewed on their knowledge of medicinal plants used in treating aging and memory loss. Respondents were recruited across the three vegetation types in the state, Okitipupa in swamp rain forest (113), Akoko in southern guinea savannah (110) and Ifedore in tropical rain forest (103). Occupations of the respondents were 30.4% herbalist, 19.9% herb sellers and others 49.7%. Results obtained from the ethnobotanical survey revealed 14 plants species commonly used as memory enhancer and 20 species as antiaging. Trees (61.8%) are used more than other plant forms, Herbs (17.7%), Shrubs (11.8%) and Climbers (5.9%). Further pharmacological work is recommended for the identified plant species for possible development of affordable anticholinesterate and neuro-protective drugs especially in a depressed economy like Nigeria.
26-32