Country-wise Listing - Saudi Arabia

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S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
Antibiotic susceptibility testing: a review on current practices
Uddhav S Bagul and Sivagurunathan M. Sivakumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
An increasing Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has resulted in morbidity and mortality from treatment failures and increased health care costs. Appropriate antimicrobial drug use has unquestionable benefit, but physicians and the public frequently use these agents inappropriately hence, it became necessary to perform the antimicrobial susceptibility test as a routine. The aim of antimicrobial susceptibility testing is to determine the lowest concentration of existing or even new antimicrobial agents which inhibits the visible growth of the bacterium being investigated, under certain test conditions. The Disk diffusion, well diffusion, stokes and gradient diffusion methods are manual methods that provide flexibility and possible cost savings. The most commonly used testing methods include broth microdilution method using commercially available 96-well micro dilution panel. Broth dilution, tube dilution and E test provide quantitative results (e.g. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration) whereas other methods provide qualitative results which are categorized as susceptible, intermediate or resistant. Although available testing methods provide accurate detection of common antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, emerging newer mechanisms of resistance certainly attracts researcher for the development of advanced, reproducible, automated and reliable antimicrobial testing methods.
11-17
2
BOON OF VIRTUAL REALITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS AS AN EDUCATIONAL TOOL IN DENTISTRY: A REVIEW
Jafar Abdulla Mohamed Usman, Leoney Andonissamy, Asim Elsir
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Various training methods are available in the field of dentistry to obtain psychomotor skills for the dental students, dental assistants and also for dentists themselves. Modern era poses various challenges to the dental schools ranging  from increased cost of advanced equipments to unavailability of challenging cases. Virtual reality is a boon for dental schools, dentists and dental assistants in order to practice as many times they want and improve their skills to the next level. This paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the advanced virtual technologies available for the dental fraternity.
680-684
3
HOW MUCH OUR GERIATRICS KNOW ABOUT THEIR MEDICATIONS
Mekdad, S.S. and AlSayed, A.D.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aging population is increasing worldwide. The decline in cognitive functions, health literacy, visual and hearing limitations add to the challenge of acquiring adequate knowledge. The level of Knowledge has been associated with overall health outcomes. This study aimed to address the Medication Knowledge (MK) in elders. Identify factors associated with knowledge and areas where the knowledge needs to be enhanced. The MK in elders was poor. Illiteracy, Polypharmacy and follow up in multiple clinics compromised knowledge. Knowledge with regards to side effects fared worse. Elders were most knowledgeable on how to store the medications and refills dates. Elders considered knowledge provided by medical staff about their medications as inadequate. The health care providers should be aware that a large gap in MK exists in elders. Multiple factors make MK enhancement in elders very challenging. Knowledge Improvement requires defining evidence based approaches and needs to be individualized. Prospective studies addressing the impact of interventions on improving knowledge and important outcomes like safety, adherence and mortality are needed.
384-388
4
DESIGN AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM MATRIX TABLETS
Riyaz Ahmed Khan, Kamal Ahmad Qureshi, Gamal Osman Elhassan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Diclofenac Sodium is a Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug commonly used for the treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis, Osteoarthritis, Ankylosing Spondylitis and Periarticular disorders. In this work 100 mgs of Diclofenac sodium Tablets were prepared by Direct Compression method. Pre & Post compression studies were carried out followed by In vitro release studies.
98-106
5
DETOXIFIED JATROPHA CURCAS KERNEL MEAL IMPACT AGAINST BENZENE-INDUCED GENETIC TOXICITY IN MALE RATS
Sabah A. A. Linjawi, Wagdy K. B. Khalil, Lamia M. Salem
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pollution by crude oil is wide spread and a common problem, and particularly endemic in countries whose economies are dependent on the oil industry. Such pollution arises either accidentally or operationally wherever oil is produced, transported, stored, processed or used. Benzene contamination of soil may also occur due to oil production facilities and coastal refineries. This problem arises because most of petrochemicals including benzene and its derivatives are carcinogens and mutagens with the capacity to affect both the structural integrity of DNA and the fidelity of its biologic expression. Jatropha curcas (L.) is a multipurpose and drought resistant tree, widespread throughout the tropics and subtropics. Its seeds are rich in oil and protein. J. curcas can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. Therefore, the objective of this work is to evaluate protective effect of detoxified J. curcas kernel meal (DJKM) against benzene-induced clastogenicity in male rats. Eighty adult male rats were allocated in several groups treated with benzene and/or several concentration of DJKM. The results revealed that low, medium and high doses of DJKM did not increase the DNA fragmentation, incidence of MnPCEs and alterations in the stress related genes (Hsp70a, MT and CYP450 genes) compared with benzene induced high levels of these parameters. The protection effects of DJKM on the genetic toxicity were attributed to its imact on the glutathione peroxidase activity which was increased significantly with DJKM treatment compared to benzene exposure.
57-66
6
PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF FICUS GLOMERATA EXTRACT AGAINST BENZO(A)PYRENE-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION ALTERATIONS AND DNA DAMAGE IN MALE MICE
Saleha Y. M. Alakilli
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ficus glomerata Roxb (Branches) is a rich source of phenolic compounds known to possess potential antioxidant activity offering numerous health benefits. The present study evaluated the protective effects of methanol extract of Ficus glomerata at two doses (FG250; 250 mg kg-1 and FG500; 500 mg kg-1 ) against benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induced gene expression changes and DNA damage in male mice. Fifty adult albino male mice allocated in five groups were used in this study. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) administration resulted in significant increase (P ≤ 0.01) in the gene expression of liver cancer-related genes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2B6, CD59, hTRET and P53) in hepatic tissues of male mice. In addition, (BaP) increased the rate of DNA damage in mice blood cells. Extract pretreatment restored genetic alteration parameters toward normalization. FR250 and FR500 decreased the gene expression alterations and rate of DNA damage induced by BaP in male mice. Extract pretreatment, 500 mg kg-1 , was more effective in reducing the genetic toxicity than the extract, 250 mg kg-1 . BaP exposure resulted in pronounced oxidative stress, and administration of Ficus glomerata extract offers significant liver and blood cells protection by inhibiting the changes of gene expression and damage of the DNA through scavenging free radicals.
22-32
7
KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE TOWARDS DISCARDING UNWANTED HOUSEHOLD MEDICINES AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN WESTERN REGION, KSA
Qasem M. A. Abdallah, Mahmoud S. M. Al-Haddad, Omar H. M. Al-Khathami, Omar H. H. Al-Kherish, Khaled M. T. Al-Marri, Mohammaed F. K. Al-Matani, Amjad M. N. Al-Rashed
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Impropriate disposal of medicines can lead to increase security, health and environmental risks. In this study, we evaluated the awareness and pattern of practice regarding drug disposal among university students in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia. A Cross-sectional research design using convenience sampling technique was used in this study. 1446 respondents successfully responded to this study.More than Three quarter (76.9%) of which have had the experience of discarding drugs. Discarding unwanted medicines via household waste baskets was the most popular method followed by disposing drugs via drainage. Only a quarter of respondents have previously received information about how to dispose medicines. Drug dosage form and amount of drug were important factors.Low awareness level of respondents and the lack of systems instructing the re-collection of unwanted household medicines may be the main reasons linked to theirrational method of drug disposal. Not failing the importance of awareness programs, introducing such drug-disposal systems would improve the outcomes.
14-21
8
Asthma Inhalers Sale without Medical Prescription in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Cross Sectional Study
Azizah M. AL-Mutairi, Dalia H. AL-Enezi, Areej Algdeer, Mustafa M Altannir, Mohammed Al-Sadoon, Mohammad Chaballout, Ahmed S Qannita , Amin Almardini, Mohamad A Al-Tannir
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study aims to quantify the sale of inhalers without a prescription, describe the degree of difficulty for obtaining these inhalers without a prescription and assess if pharmacists educate patients about the correct use of the inhaler. A cross-sectional study of a quasi-random sample of 252 pharmacies stratified by the five regions of Riyadh. Each pharmacy was visited once by two investigators who used simulated patient methodology with governance of good research principles who simulated having a relative with difficulty of breathing due to airborne dust. Asthma inhalers were dispensed without prescription from 181 pharmacies (72%). Of these, 12% prescribed the inhaler after trying thelevel 1 of demand and 68% after the third level. Only 31 pharmacists(17%) explained how to use the inhalers. Asthma inhaler could be obtained in Riyadh without a medical prescription or an evidence-based indication with disobedience of pharmacists to educate on the appropriate use of inhalers.
24-27
9
IMPACT OF CYP3A5 AND P-gp POLYMORPHISMS ON THE PHARMACOKINETIC INTER-INDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY OF A SINGLE-DOSE OF A QUETIAPINE IMMEDIATE-RELEASE TABLET: A RANDOMIZED, OPEN-LABEL, TWO-PERIOD CROSSOVER STUDY IN HEALTHY JORDANIAN VOLUNTEERS
*Sireen Abdul Rahim Shilbayeh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study aimed to investigate the impact of the CYP3A5 and ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1) C3435T polymorphisms on the inter-individual variability of quetiapine pharmacokinetics in a Jordanian population. Quetiapine plasma concentrations were measured in 34 healthy Jordanian Arabic volunteers. Twenty blood samples were collected over a 24-hour period following the administration of a 25 mg immediate release tablet. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from the plasma concentration-time profiles using the WinNonlin® software. The CYP3A5 and ABCB1 C3435T genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction. With regard to the CYP3A5 polymorphism, the *3*3 genotype carriers showed consistently higher exposure index values in comparison to the non-carriers, with differences ranging from 1.34- to 1.6-fold. While, the TT genotype subjects displayed a trend toward lower exposure and higher disposition (up to 2.2-fold) indexes when compared to the CC genotype carriers. These results may provide useful data that clinicians can utilize to optimize the quetiapine dose administered to psychotic patients.
415-425
10
MOBILE PHONE TEXT MESSAGING FOR PHARMACEUTICAL CARE IN SAUDI ARABIA: A PILOT STUDY
*Abdlatif A. Al-Dhawailie, Ahmad N. Al-Enezi, Bandar F. Al-Qhtani, Khaled T. Al-Enezi, Naif M. Al-Harbi, Nasser S. Al-Tulaian, Fowad Khurshid, and Mohammad S. AlSultan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
So far, there has been no published study assessing mobile phone text messaging for pharmaceutical care in the Saudi Arabia. Therefore, we designed and conducted a pilot study to measure the patient acceptance rate of using their personal mobile phone to receive pharmaceutical care in the country. This 6-week pilot study was conducted at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A short pilot study questionnaire in Arabic language was structured to gather information about benefiting patients. This questionnaire consisted of several items including demographic information. Among the 250 participants 40.8% were males and 59.2% were females. Arabic (87.2 %) was the preferred language of the text messages for the participants. The majority (74%) of participants had never used a mobile phone in healthcare previously. Agreement with the sharing of mobile number (72%) to the pharmaceutical service department and using the service (91.2%) and acceptance of idea of messaging system (97.2%) remained high throughout the study. Among the expected information, we have found that the most of the participants (98.7%) are looking for the information about the medicine, such as proper dose, the treatment duration, the proper way to use the medicine, and the possible side effect. This study illustrates that the participants were happy with the idea of using their mobiles in the pharmaceutical care. The acceptability of a text messaging system would be worth exploring in future research especially with the chronic diseases intervention, primary care services, medication dispensing and refill, patient education, smoking cessation program and in the elderly population.
312-315
11
SYNTHYSES, REACTIONAND CHARACTRIZATION OF QUINOLINE DERIVATIVES
*O.A. Fathalla, M.E.A. Zaki, Eman A. ElHefny and S.A. Swelam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Starting with 4, 7-dichloroquinoline and on treatment with hydrazine hydrate we obtained the hydrazine derivative 1. Compound 1 reacted with dithioacetal to give compounds 2a, b, respectively. Compound 2a reacted  with formamide and formic acid to give compounds 3 and 4. The imidoformate derivative 5 obtained through the reaction of compound 2a with trimethyl orthoformate in presence of acetic anhydride. The imino derivatives 6a-c was obtained upon reacting of 5 with hydrazine hydrate and appropriate primary amines. The chloroquinoline derivative 7 was subjected to react with glycine, anthranilic acid, hydrazine hydrate and appropriate primary amines affording compounds 8, 9, 10a-d, respectively Also compound 10a was allowed to react sodium azide and acetohydrazid affording fused quinolone derivatives 11and 12. Compounds 2a and 2b were allowed to react with aryl sulfonylchloride, namely benzene sulfonylchloride, p-toluene sulfonylchloride p-chlorosulfonylchloride and p-bromo benzene sulfonylchloride to give the corresponding 13a-d, 14a-d derivatives,   respectively. All structures of the newly synthesized compounds were elucidated by their correct values in elemental analysis and spectral data.
299-305