Volume 1 - Issue

S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
APPLICATIONS OF PROTEOMICS IN ANIMAL MODEL
Jagatheesh K, Pavankumar P, Elangovan N, Padmavathi P, Swathi D and Mary Tryphena
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Proteomics is a relatively new approach for understanding the pathology and pathogenesis of various diseases. It has also been used for characterizing the modifications in protein expression during the development of diseases. Proteomics is defined as a scientific approach used to elucidate all protein species within a cell or tissue, and many researchers are taking advantage of proteomic technology to elucidate protein changes between healthy and diseased states. Animal model plays an important role in the proteomics technology to find out biomarkers, for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of various diseases. There are several animal models used in proteomic studies they are Caenorhabditis elegans (worm), Drosophila melanogaster (fly), Mus musculus (mouse) and Canine. This review shows several applications of animal models in proteomics

1-14
2
PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILES OF BACOPA MONNIERI: A Review
Sudharani D, Krishna KL, Deval K, Safia AK and Priya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In recent times, the use of herbal products has increased tremendously in the western world as well as in developed countries. One of the important medicinal plants, widely used therapeutically in the orient and becoming increasingly popular in the west is Bacopa monnieri, a well-known nootropic herb. The plant being traditional Ayurvedic medicine used for centuries as a memory enhancing, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, sedative and antiepileptic agent. The present review summarizes current knowledge of pharmacological actions, major bioactive(s), reported mechanisms of actions and the possibility of interactions of the herb with the conventional drugs. Simultaneously, research updates as well as avenues for further research are also mentioned concerning the plant.
15-23
3
TOXICOLOGY STUDIES OF ALCOHOL EXTRACT OF DERRIS BREVIPES VAR BREVIPES
Yuvaraj G, Sreedevi, JSK, Amruth, Raghu PS and Shankar S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Derris brevipes var brevipes, a common medicinal plant, has multiple uses in traditional system of medicine and in particular it is used as a memory-enhancing agent for centuries. The plant and its extracts have been evaluated for a number of activities like anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, sedative and neuron-muscular.  The plant extract was evaluated for the antimutagenicity and mutagenicity studies in order to confirm the safety of its usage. Ethanol extracts of Derris brevipes var brevipes, showed no mutagenicity up to 5 mg/plate when tested with Salmonella typhimurium TA97a, TA98, TA100, TA102 and TA1535 strains with or without metabolic activation. On the other hand ethanol extract of Derris brevipes var brevipes, showed a significant protective effect against the mutagenicity induced by mutagen in S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strain with or without metabolic activation. The results of these studies indicate that Derris brevipes var brevipes, is non-mutagenic in the Ames test, exhibit protection against the mutagenicity induced by 4-nitroquinolene-1-oxide, sodium azide and 2-aminoflourene in TA98 and TA100 strain.
24-28
4
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR ESTIMATION OF NEVIRAPINE FROM TABLETS BY RP-HPLC
Rohini P, Madhusudhanareddy I, Gupta Atyam, Lokeswara babu V and Sudharani G
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for the estimation of nevirapine in tablets. The quantification was carried out on the symmetry C18 column, with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer in the ratio of 65:35 v/v. The mobile phase pumped at a rate of 0.8 mL/min and the detection was carried out at 283 nm. The linearity was found to be in the range of 20-60 µg/mL. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation was found to be 0.027µg/mL and 0.09µg/mL, respectively. The percentage recovery values were found to be in the range of 99.83-100.73%. Statistical analysis proves that the method was found to be simple, precise, accurate and reproducible, and can be used for the routine quality control of nevirapine in formulations.
29-33
5
PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF CONTROLLED RELEASE DILTIAZEM HCl TABLETS BY USING ETHYL CELLULOSE AND ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE POLYMERS AS RETARDANT
*Chowdary KPR, Satyanarayana KV, Siva Santhosh Kumar D and Deepthi Ganga Priya Y
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate controlled release tablets of Diltiazem by a wet granulation method using Ethyl cellulose and Ethylene vinyl acetate as a retardant and chloroform (solvent for the polymer) as granulating fluid. The polymers were used at 2, 5 and 10 % concentrations in the formulae. Diltiazem release from the matrix tablets was slow and spread over a period of 12 h depending on the type of the polymer and its concentration. Based on values of correlation coefficient the drug release was found to be by diffusion mechanism following zero order kinetics. From ‘n’ values, tablets prepared with Ethylene vinyl acetate and ethyl cellulose followed Fickian and non-fickian diffusion mechanisms respectively. Among all the formulations CRF4 exhibited better controlled release for 12 hours, when compared to marketed tablets.
34-39
6
EVALUATION OF CARALLUMA FIMBRITA FOR ANALGESIC, ANTI INFLAMMATORY AND ANXIOLYTIC ACTIVITIES
*Saivasanthi V, Gowthamigoud, Swathi K, Aakruthi, Sowmya rani, Gupta A and Rao AS
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the Analgesic, anti inflammatory & anxiolytic activities of the Caralluma fimbriata extract. In the evaluation of analgesic activity the model used was Eddy’s hot plate method in which the animals treated with Caralluma fimbriata and standard Pentazocin has significantly increased the latency period of jumping & paw licking when compared with control group animals. The anti – inflammatory activity was screened by Carageenan induced paw edema model in which the animals treated with testing drug and standard indomethacin has significantly reduced the inflammation when compared with carageenan induced inflammatory positive control  group animals. In the evaluation of anxiolytic activity the animals treated with the testing drug and standard diazepam has significantly raised the time spent in open arm and a number of entries when compared with control group animals in elevated plus maze model. Since all the animal models used in this study were well established models and used by many authors, so we can conclude that the extract of Caralluma fimbriata has the analgesic, anti inflammatory and anxiolytic activities.
40-45
7
HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MIMOSA PUDICA ROOTS AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS
*Suneetha B, Pavan Kumar P, Prasad KVSRG, Vidyadhara S and Sambasiva Rao KRS
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present study, methanolic root extract of Mimosa pudica (M. pudica) (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) was used to screen the hepatoprotective activity. Biochemical parameters like serum glutamate Oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT) and serum bilirubin were measured. The activity of tissue antioxidant enzymes namely lipid peroxidation, catalase, reduced glutathione and histopathological evaluation of liver sections were also done. Carbon tetrachloride administration in rats elevated the levels of SGPT, SGOT, cholesterol and bilirubin. Administration of the methanolic root extract of the Mimosa pedicure at a dose (400mg/kg) significantly (P<0.01) prevented this increase. The activity of anti-oxidant enzymes like catalase and reduced gltathione was decreased and malondialdehyde content was increased in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated group. The enzyme levels of catalase and reduced GSH were significantly (P<0.01) increased and malondialdehyde content significantly ( p < 0.001 ) decreased in the group treated with M. pudica at a dose of 400mg/kg. Histopathological studies revealed that the concurrent administration of carbon tetrachloride with the M. pudica extract exhibited protection of the liver tissue. The study has confirmed the hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of M. pudica, which may be attributed to its antioxidant property.
46-53
8
FORMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF VERAPAMIL HYDROCHLORIDE MICROCAPSULES
*Vishnu P, Ravindrababu B, Sudheer B, Shireesh Kiran R and Naveen babu K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Verapamil hydrochloride microcapsules prepared with sodium alginate, carbopol and magnesium start in different ratios of polymers with the drug by the iconic Gelation Technique and the prepared microcapsules were evaluated for size range, drug content, drug release profiles, and kinetics of drug release. All the microcapsules were discrete, free flowing, and reproducible with respect to size distribution and drug content. The maximum percentage of the microcapsules belonged to the size range of 500m. Drug release from the microcapsules (MC1 andMC2) was 94-97 % in first 6 hours, with the initial burst of nearly 50% within one hour. Drug release from microcapsules (MC3 and MC4) was 90-95% and sustained up to 8 h with initial burst of 50-54 % in first 6 h, resulted with increase in cross-linking time for 5-6 hours, Drug release from microcapsules (MC5 and MC6) sustained the drug release up-to 12 hours, with an initial burst release of 35-37 % within first one hour with increase in cross-linking time for 5-6 hours and addition of magnesium stearate (2-4 %w/w) and cumulative release of over 90-93% and indicated that the drug release from the microcapsules was found to be slow and spread over an extended drug release. Based on r2 values the drug release followed first order kinetics and diffusion mechanism. Drug release from the microcapsules depends on the composition of the coat, cross linking time and also influenced by magnesium stearate.
54-58
9
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF PARKINSONIA ACULEATA LINN AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS
*Shah VN and Deval K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Free radicals are generated during the metabolism of synthetic chemical substances per drugs by liver can cause hepatotoxicity. Supplementation with exogenous antioxidants, including alkaloid compounds from plant sources, may useful for protecting liver against free radical induced hepatotoxicity. P. aculeata has been reported to have potent anti oxidant activity. With this background the present study has been undertaken to explore the in vivo hepatoprotective action of P. aculeata leaves.In the present work leaf extracts of P. aculeata (Fabaceae) was selected to determine its in vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective activity, where hrpatotoxicity was induced by CCl4 (20 mM) for in vitro study and by oral administration of Paracetamol (2 gm per kg) for in vivo study. Extract was administered orally at a daily dose of 200 mg per kg and 300 mg per kg, for 7 days (in vivo). In vitro hepatoprotective activity was assessed by checking the viability of the cells by using Trypan blue dye and by measuring release of cytosolic enzymes in the medium and In vivo hepatoprotective activity was assessed by measuring serum biochemical parameters and endogenous anti oxidant enzymes. The levels of cytosolic enzymes, serum enzymes and endogenous antioxidant enzymes, used as a marker of oxidative damage to hepatocytes, was reversed to the same level as in Normal group in does dependent manner. No obvious signs of toxicity were observed 300 mg per kg treatment dose.
59-66
10
ASSESSMENT OF COMMUNITY PHARMACIST'S KNOWLEDGE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CONSTIPATION IN ADULT
*Moorthi C, Rachel Paul and Thaha Hussain KP
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was aimed to evaluate the knowledge of community pharmacists in the management of constipation in adult. The study included 103 community pharmacists, who met the inclusion criteria. The study result revealed (a) Constipation was more prevalent in older adult with the age group of 50 - 60 years; (b) Deficiencies in obtaining basis information such as medication history, medical history, food and fluid intake, pregnancy and lactation, associated symptoms and previous treatment attempts; (c) Lack of knowledge in red flag symptoms which require expert medical intervention; (d) Lack of knowledge in non-pharmacological treatment such as  increase fiber in diet, adequate fluid intake and exercise; (e) Lack of knowledge in counseling the patient about diet related modification, physical exercise and to seek medical expert in case of failure of OTC drug treatment. Regular refresher courses have to be conducted by pharmacy colleges to educate community pharmacists to upgrade the knowledge in the disease management.
67-72
11
FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF ETODOLAC ENTRAPPED IN MICROSPONGE BASED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
*Swetha A, Gopal Rao M, Venkata Ramana K, Niyaz Basha B and Koti Reddy V
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
spherical particles that consist of a myriad of inter connecting voids within non-collapsible structures with a large porous surface. Microsponges containing Ethyl cellulose and Eudragit RS 100 were prepared by Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method using Etodolac as a model drug. The effects of different drug to polymer ratios on physical characteristics of the microsponges were investigated. Thermal behavior, surface morphology, particle size and pore structure of the microsponges were examined. In-vitro drug release rate from the microsponges was also investigated. In-vitro dissolution study showed that the release rate of the dug has been modified. This study presents a new approach based on microsponges for colon specific drug delivery.
73-80
12
FORMULATION AND INVITRO EVALUATION OF HYDROGEL MATRICES OF GLICLAZIDE MODIFIED RELEASE TABLETS
*Raja Rajeswari K, Abbulu K, Sudhakar M and Ravi Naik
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The work aimed at developing a modified release hydrogel formulation of poorly soluble drug, Gliclazide using a retardant hydrophilic polymer HPMC in two grades i.e., HPMC 15 cps and Methocel K4M.  All six formulations were developed and evaluated for the in-vitro drug release up to 16hrs and compared with that of the marketed formulation. GMF VI was found to have similar release pattern proving to show controlled release following zero order release by anomalous diffusion. The similarity and Dissimilarity factors were found to be 1.12 and 93.99 respectively.  Thus the formulation was found to be advantageous in reducing the dosing intervals and enhancing the patient compliance.
81-87
13
A VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF VENLAFAXINE FROM TABLETS
*Chatanyaprasad MK, Vidyasagar G, Sambasiva Rao KRS and Ramanjeneyulu S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
An accurate, precise and simple rapid reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for estimation of venlafaxine in tablet dosage forms. The mobile phase consisted of buffer (pH 3.9; adjusted with ortho phosphoric acid) and acetonitrile at a ratio of 35:65 v/v and mobile phase pumped at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min with PDA detection at 227nm. The linearity range was found to be 20-60 μg/mL. The method was successfully validated and it was concluded that the developed method was accurate, sensitive, precise, robust and useful for the routine quality control of venlafaxine in pharmaceutical dosage forms.
88-91
14
SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 1-SUBSTITUTED IMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES
*Prasanthy G, Venkata Ramana K, Koti Reddy V, Nirmala K and Ramesh Kumar N
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present study, a new series of 1-substituted imidazole derivatives were synthesized taking different anilines and sulfonamides as substitutions. The chemical structures were confirmed by means of IR, 1H-NMR and Mass spectral data. The compounds were screened for their anticancer and antimicrobial activities. N-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzamide exhibited highest activity against cervical cancer. 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(4-(N-(5-methylisoxazol-4-yl) sulfamoyl) phenyl) benzamide showed good antifungal activity. 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(4-(N-thiazol-4-ylsulfamoyl) phenyl) benzamide showed good antibacterial activity.
92-99
15
AZADIRACHTA INDICA (NEEM): IT’S ECONOMIC UTILITY AND CHANCES FOR COMMERCIAL PLANNED PLANTATION IN NANDED DISTRICT
*Brototi Biswas and Kaplay RD
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Neem is the most versatile, multifarious tree with immense potential. However in the study area there is no utilization of Neem in medicinal, industrial or agricultural industry, although there is wild growth of Neem tree in the study area. The study finds out the multifarious uses of Neem along with the potential areas for commercial Neem plantation. Exact demarcation of land pertaining to possible sites of Neem commercial cultivation has been done keeping in view the already existence of wild growing Neem in those areas. The study also finds out the possible reasons for known development of Neem based industry in the study area, though this kind of industry is quite developed in India and at the same time money churning.
100-104
16
SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TELMISARTAN AND AMLODIPINE BESYLATE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM BY RP - HPLC
*Paul Richards M, Bharat Kumar D, Mohammad Y, Karunakar Reddy and Siddhartha B
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The chromatographic analysis was performed on ODS symmetry C18 column (150 &times; 4.6 mm, 5 &micro; particle size) with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (pH 4.0) in the ratio of 60:40 v/v, at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min and eluents monitored at 237 nm. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness and application for assay as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The retention times of amlodipine besylate and telmisartan were 2.633 and 5.600 min, respectively. The calibration curves of peak area versus concentration, which was linear from 2.5-15 &micro;g/mL for amlodipine besylate and 20-120 &micro;g/mL for telmisartan, had regression coefficient (r2) greater than 0.999. The method had the requisite accuracy, precision, and robustness for simultaneous determination of amlodipine besylate and telmisartan in tablets. The proposed method is simple, economical, accurate and precise, and could be successfully employed in routine quality control for the simultaneous analysis of amlodipine besylate and telmisartan in tablets. <br /><br />
105-109
17
EXPLORING SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES FOR INTRANASAL ADMINISTRATION OF STREPTOMYCIN
*Indu Pal Kaur and Manoj Kumar Verma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Streptomycin, the foremost class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered is the only antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis. Streptomycin cannot be given orally, but must be administered by regular intramuscular injections as it is reported to have unreliable absorption throughout the GIT. Further to this, its use in cerebral tuberculosis is minimal as it does not cross the blood brain barrier and drug induced irreversible ototoxicity (Type B toxicity) additionally limits its use. Furthermore, streptomycin is majorly excreted unchanged in urine, as a result of which it is accumulated in kidneys, leading to nephrotoxicity when given continuously for more than 2-3 months. Hence the treatment with streptomycin cannot exceed beyond this period. In the present work we propose the newer drug delivery concepts for effective delivery of streptomycin in a bioavailable form with minimal side effects. Further, a nasal route of administration is also proposed to accomplish its rapid delivery to the brain and diminish the side effects associated with its use considering a controlled slow release from the developed system. Enhancing bioavailability and minimizing serious side effects with suggestion of a noninvasive nasal route would help successfully alleviate systemic and cerebral tubercular infections.
110-117
18
EFFECT OF BACOPA ON MEMORY DEFICIT PRODUCED BY CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF TOPIRAMATE IN RATS
*Deval K, Vaibhav S and Krishna KL
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Epilepsy is a most common disease mainly occurring in children and elderly patients. Cognitive disorders are common in patients, who are under the treatment of epilepsy. Topiramate is, one of the widely used anticonvulsants, is known to adversely affect cognitive function. In this context we have studied the memory deficit function of Topiramate on chronic administration in albino rats. Topiramate was administered for successive 14 days in rats. Bacoppa monniera extract powder (BM) 20% was co-administered along with topiramate from 8th day of treatment. Morris water maze was employed to evaluate learning and memory using parameter like Escape Latency Time (ELT), Time Spent in Target quadrant (TSTQ) and estimation of brain Acetyl cholinesterase level. Anticonvulsant activity of Topiramate was evaluated in presence of BM on PTZ induced convulsion and MES induced convulsion in rat model. Topiramate has significantly produced memory deficit in rats as it increases ELT, decreases TSTQ and increases AchE levels. When BM was given along with Topiramate from the 8th day of treatment, significantly reversed Topiramate induced impairment as it decreases ELT, increases TSTQ and decreases AChE levels. Even when BM co-administered with Topiramate, it did not interact with Topiramate and Topiramate retain its anticonvulsant activity. The results provide evidence for potential corrective effect of BM in cognitive deficit associated with TP.
118-124