Volume 2 - Issue

S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
EXPANDING THE ROLE OF COMMUNITY PHARMACY: AN EVALUATION OF GENERIC DRUG DISCOUNT PROGRAMS, PHARMACY BASED IMMUNIZATION SERVICES AND CONVENIENT CARE CLINICS
*Jeffrey C. Keimer and Shaker A. Mousa
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
We evaluated the clinical and economic impact of generic drug discount programs (GDDPs), pharmacy based immunization services and convenient care clinics (CCCs) based upon existing literature, reviewing original research and case study reports using library databases, primarily MEDLINE and EBSCOHost.  Keywords used included “generic discount list,” “four dollar generic,” “pharmacy immunization,” “flu shot,” “pharmacist immunizer,” “convenient care clinic,” “retail health clinic,” and “minute clinic.”  We then added other terms such as “clinical impact,” “cost-effectiveness,” “outcomes,” and “perceptions.” While all 3 programs have the potential to clinically benefit patients and provide some level of cost-effectiveness, there are also concerns that need to be addressed. Some concerns include: a) GDDPs have the potential to cause fragmentation of care owing to patients going to other pharmacies in search of lower prices and prescription claims data not being captured by patients’ pharmacy benefit managers, b) GDDPs may be less cost effective in pharmacies with less purchasing power compared to larger chains, c) pharmacy based immunization services still face legal and social barriers that prevent pharmacists from being recognized as legitimate vaccine administrators, d) some insurance carriers still don’t pay for pharmacist-administered vaccinations, e) CCCs may not currently be located in areas that could best benefit from their services, f) CCCs may disrupt a patient’s continuity of care with their primary care physicians, and g) CCCs may hinder the efforts of pharmacists to expand their own professional roles by lessening the need for them to do so. Expanding the roles of community pharmacies has the potential to improve patient care by increasing patients' access to healthcare services. While strong evidence exists to support pharmacist-delivered immunizations, less is known regarding GDDPs and CCCs.  More studies are required to assess the clinical and economic questions raised regarding these types of programs.
1-7
2
COMPARISONS OF EFFECTIVENESS, SAFETY, AND PHARMACOKINETIC PARAMETERS BETWEEN LOW AND HIGH DOSES OF PIOGLITAZONE IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS
*Wannakamol Sonsingh, Duangchit Panomvana and Wallaya Jongjaroenprasert
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pioglitazone (PIO) is highly effective in decreasing blood glucose levels for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), but it can induce serious adverse events such as edema and heart failure (HF). Some previous studies showed that the efficacy on glucose control and lipid levels was not related to the difference in doses of PIO in opposite to the incidence of edema which was doses-dependent of PIO. To compare glucose control, lipid control, adverse events, and pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters between low and high doses of PIO in T2D. Medical chart of 139 diabetic patients using PIO at Ramathibodi hospital were reviewed to compare outcomes and adverse effects between low and high doses of PIO. 38 patients who stabilized dose of PIO and agree to participate were recruited to collect 2 blood samples at 2 appropriated times and were analyzed their PIO concentrations, then, PK parameters were determined. The outcomes of glucose control and lipid control were not differences between low and high dose of PIO, but edema and HF events were significantly higher in high dose of PIO (P=0.010 and P=0.014, respectively). For PK parameters of PIO, elimination rate constant (ke) and clearance rate (CL) values of patients who were stabilized on high dose of PIO were significantly higher (P=0.022 and P=0.031, respectively) while elimination half-life (t1/2) was significantly shorter (P=0.007) than those who were stabilized on low dose of PIO. PK monitoring for optimal dose of PIO might possibly provide good controlling of blood glucose and lower adverse events in T2D. <br />
8-14
3
CELL PHONE INDUCED SPERMATIC & BIRTH DEFECTS ON ALBINO RAT
*Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo, Sarda Prasad Sarangi, Viren kumar Patel and Mohanlal kori
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The flooding of cell phone and towers in world market cause hazardous issue from public health to its future generation. This revengeful interaction between cell phone and human being is depends upon the time and frequency of exposure of electromagnetic waves, which emitted from cell phones. This radiation may cause genotoxic on exposed animals and also may affect to its future offspring. Here we give special attention on the defect of sperm cell on parent animal and gives birth defect to their offspring due to exposure of electromagnetic waves. This defect can be observed by using the male albino rats with the exposure of cell phone for a period of three months. The special cage was designed as mobile stand to keep mobile inside the cage. After termination period, the male animals were mated with female animals for observing birth defect. After gestation period, the delivery statuses of female animals were noted.&nbsp; The current result found that some congenital malformations were found in offspring e.g. infertility of parent animal, under weight of Offspring, Delivery of dead offspring, some physically changes in shape and size etc. This congenital character may be cause physically or mentally handicapped e.g. Change in mandible shape, Ear size, Skin pigmentation, Eye color, skeletal abnormalities etc on long term study. After mating period, the male animals were allowed for laperotomy e.g. sperm analysis. The sperm analysis was compared between the cell phone treated group and without cell phone treated group. The present finding concludes that there was significant damage (* P&lt; 0.05) i. e.&nbsp;&nbsp; 67.60 % of sperm cell in cell phone treated group for three month study. <br />
15-20
4
ANTIDIARRHEAL ACTIVITY OF LEAVES EXTRACT OF MICROCOS PANICULATA LINN IN MICE
*Md. Masudur Rahman, Abu Mohammed Taufiqual Islam, Md. Ashraf Uddin Chowdhury, Muhammad Erfan Uddin and Ahsan Jamil
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The experiment of methanolic extract of Microcos paniculata leaves showed significant (p&lt;0.001) inhibitor activity against castor oil induced diarrhea and castor oil induced enteropooling in mice at dose of 400 mg/kg body weight. There was also significant (p&lt;0.01) reduction in gastrointestinal motility in the charcoal meal test. Loperamide (5 mg/kg b. wt) was used as positive control. These results revealed that the leaves extract possess pharmacological activity against diarrhea and may possibly explain the use of the plant in traditional medicine.
21-25
5
ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY OF PLANTS USED AS MEMORY ENHANCER AND ANTIAGING IN ONDO STATE, NIGERIA
*Cyril -Olutayo Christiana Mojisola, Adekunle Tajudeen Oladele and Taiwo Olayemi Elufioye
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In traditional medicine, numerous plants have been used for cognitive disorders, including memory loss and antiaging. We document the medicinal plants used by people in Ondo State of Nigeria to alleviate memory loss and aging. Three hundred and twenty six persons (326) were randomly selected and interviewed on their knowledge of medicinal plants used in treating aging and memory loss. Respondents were recruited across the three vegetation types in the state, Okitipupa in swamp rain forest (113), Akoko in southern guinea savannah (110) and Ifedore in tropical rain forest (103). Occupations of the respondents were 30.4% herbalist, 19.9% herb sellers and others 49.7%. Results obtained from the ethnobotanical survey revealed 14 plants species commonly used as memory enhancer and 20 species as antiaging. Trees (61.8%) are used more than other plant forms, Herbs (17.7%), Shrubs (11.8%) and Climbers (5.9%). Further pharmacological work is recommended for the identified plant species for possible development of affordable anticholinesterate and neuro-protective drugs especially in a depressed economy like Nigeria.
26-32
6
DEVELOPMENT OF VALIDATED HPTLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS QUANTIFICATION OF RUTIN AND QUERCETIN FROM BARK OF ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA
*Pradeep Hulikare Ananth, Saleemulla Khan, Raghu Chandrasekhar and Mohammed Ibrahim
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In traditional medicine, numerous plants have been used for cognitive disorders, including memory loss and antiaging. We document the medicinal plants used by people in Ondo State of Nigeria to alleviate memory loss and aging. Three hundred and twenty six persons (326) were randomly selected and interviewed on their knowledge of medicinal plants used in treating aging and memory loss. Respondents were recruited across the three vegetation types in the state, Okitipupa in swamp rain forest (113), Akoko in southern guinea savannah (110) and Ifedore in tropical rain forest (103). Occupations of the respondents were 30.4% herbalist, 19.9% herb sellers and others 49.7%. Results obtained from the ethnobotanical survey revealed 14 plants species commonly used as memory enhancer and 20 species as antiaging. Trees (61.8%) are used more than other plant forms, Herbs (17.7%), Shrubs (11.8%) and Climbers (5.9%). Further pharmacological work is recommended for the identified plant species for possible development of affordable anticholinesterate and neuro-protective drugs especially in a depressed economy like Nigeria.
33-38
7
UV-SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC AND RP-HPLC METHODS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ACETAMINOPHEN AND CAFFEINE: VALIDATION, COMPARISON AND APPLICATION FOR MARKETED TABLET ANALYSIS
*SM Ashraful Islam, Shamima Shultana, Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed and Irin Dewan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple and fast method was developed for simultaneous quantitative determination of two biologically active flavonoid compounds i.e. quercetin and rutin in bark of Anogeissus latifolia using High-Performance Thin-layer Chromatography. The separation was performed on TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60 F254. Good separation was achieved in the mobile phase of Ethyl acetate: Formic acid: Glacial acetic acid: Water (100:11:11:26, v/v) and densitometric determination of these compounds was carried out at 366 nm in reflection/absorbance mode. The rutin and quercetin content of hydroalcohol bark extract of Anogeissus latifolia were found to be 0.1617% w/w and 1.875%w/w respectively. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed a good linear relationship with r=0.9997 and r= 0.9942 for rutin and quercetin, respectively.  The average recovery of rutin and quercetin was 99.98 % and 100.11%, respectively indicating the excellent reproducibility. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the method is reproducible. The present method is being reported first time and may be used for routine quality control of the bark of Anogeissus latifolia. This HPTLC method was found to be simple and convenient for rapid screening of active compounds and quantification of the investigated flavonoids in Anogeissus latifolia.
39-45
8
PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF MULTIPLE-UNIT GASTRO RETENTIVE FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR ONDANSETRON HYDROCHLORIDE BASED ON GAS FORMATION TECHNIQUE
*Kishore Rapolu, Sathish Dharani and Madhusudan Rao Yamsani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present study UV-spectrophotometric and RP-HPLC methods were validated for the simultaneous analysis of acetaminophen and caffeine in marketed tablets. The methods were validated in terms of linearity, accuracy (% Recovery), precision (inter day, intra day and reproducibility) and robustness. Both the methods were linear (R2 = 0.998-0.999) and accurate (% recovery was 99.29% - 100.19% for UV method and 99.14% - 100.25% for HPLC method). The method was also found precise (% RSD&lt; 2%) and robust. Potency of five marketed brands was determined by both the methods and no statistically significant difference was noticed between the potency obtained from UV-spectrophotometric and RP-HPLC methods by paired t test at 5% significance level. Drug release from the marketed products complied compendia specification that indicates that test products are equivalent. Any one of the validated methods can be used for the analysis of acetaminophen and caffeine tablets.
46-54
9
MICROWAVE SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL CARBOHYDRATE POLYMER AND ITS USE IN PREPARATION OF LIQUID DETERGENTS
*Anand D. Deshpande, BB Gogte and BW Phate
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
During the last decades, a fast growing interest in natural, biodegradable and renewable materials has been noticed. As the current use of non-biodegradable surfactants is a drawback, there is a need to develop new families of &lsquo;green&rsquo; surfactant molecules with starch, sorbitol, sugar maleic anhydride and phthalic anhydride. It can be used as a useful ingredient in preparing liquid detergent by conventional batch heating process and novel microwave synthesis technique. microwave synthesis is very fast gives clean polar and more homogeneous product the conditions of voltage temperature and time of heating have been standardize the product has been successfully used in formulation of liquid detergent.
55-63
10
VALIDATED AND STABILITY INDICATING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY METHOD FOR QUANTIFICATION OF BISOPROLOL FUMARATE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Kishore Rapolu, Sathish Dharani and Madhusudan Rao Yamsani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple and accurate liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the analysis of bisoprolol fumarate in tablets. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column utilizing a mobile phase of buffer/acetonitrile (75:25, v/v, pH 5.6) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The separation was performed at room temperature. Detection was carried out at 226 nm, using a diode array detector. The developed method was statistically validated for the linearity, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, precise and specificity. The specificity of the method was ascertained by forced degradation studies; the degraded products were well separated from the analyte. The mean recovery for bisoprolol fumarate from tablets ranged between 99.87-100.43%. The proposed method is also found to be precise and robust. The method can be used for routine quality control analysis.
64-70
11
THE EFFECT OF MINOCYCLINE ON OXIDATIVE STRESS AND MEMORY DEFICITS IN AGED RATS
*Vivek Sharma, Subrahmanya GS and Ashok Kumar G
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease (AD) is a progressive, neurological and psychiatric age associated disorder. Ageing and age-related neurodegenerative disorders like AD are associated with Oxidative-nitritive stress that may cause impairment of learning and memory in animals and human beings. These losses reflect the failure of cellular processes that encode memory or disturbances in events that retrieve it. The oxidative stress play a major role on the aging process and associated cognitive decline, therefore antioxidant treatment may alleviate age-related impairment in spatial memory. Age-related morphological alterations of hippocampus and other areas associated with memory formation may be a reason for Cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the effects of Minocycline, a tetracycline derivative on spatial memory in aged male rats. In this study 24 months old male rats were used. Rats were divided into control and Minocycline groups and injected intraperitoneally (ip) for 25 days. Learning experiments were performed using Morris water maze. Spatial learning was significantly better in Minocycline treated rats compared to Aged rats. Minocycline treatment elicited a significant decrease of lipid peroxidation and nitrittive stress. A significant increase of glutathione peroxidase, catalase and SOD activity was also observed in Minocycline treated rats compared with aged animals. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Minocycline increases spatial memory performance in aged male rats and this increase may be related to suppression of lipid peroxidation and other oxidative stress parameters.&nbsp; The results of such studies may be useful in pharmacological modification of aging process.
71-79
12
PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF BAUHINIA RACEMOSA LAM CAESALPINACEAE SEED MUCILAGE AS TABLET BINDER
*Gangurde AB and Boraste SS
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of present investigation was to evaluate Bauhinia racemosa Lam. Caesalpinaceae seed mucilage as a binder for pharmaceutical dosage forms. Natural mucilages are economic, easily available and found useful as tablet binder. No work has been reported on it as a tablet binder. Granules were prepared with its varying concentrations and evaluated for tablet characteristics. Wet granulation technique was used for the preparation of amoxicillin trihydrate granules. The binder concentrations used in the formulation were 2, 4, 6 &amp; 8 % w/w. The evaluation of granules showed 0.52 to 0.72 mm granule size, 28 to 31 &ordm; angles of repose and 20.53 to 11.81 % fines. The evaluation of tablets showed 3.52-0.89% w/w friability, 4 to 12 min disintegration time and more than 90% dissolution in 60 min. Tablets at 8% w/w binder concentration showed more optimum results as tablet binder. The mucilage was found to be useful for the preparation of uncoated tablet dosage form.
80-83
13
QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF DNA ISOLATED FROM LEAVES AND STEMS OF COLEUS AROMATICUS
*Soni Himesh , Singhai AK and Sharma Sarvesh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Medicinal plants play a vital role to preserve human health. The genus, Coleus consists of herbs, that are widespread in all over India and represents highly valuable plant species having therapeutic and neutraceutical importance. Genetic variation is essential for long term survival of species and it is a critical feature in conservation. For efficient conservation and management, the genetic composition of the species in different geographic locations needs to be assessed. Plants are attracting more attention among contemporary pharmacy scientists because some human diseases resulting from antibiotic resistance have gained worldwide concern. A number of methods are available and are being developed for the isolation of nucleic acids from plants. The different parts of Coleus aromaticus were studied for their nucleic acid content by using spectrophotometric analysis. In order to measure DNA content of the Leaves and stems of C.aromaticus, Spectrophotometry serves various advantages i.e. non-destructive and allows the sample to be recovered for further analysis or manipulation. Spectrophotometry uses the fact that there is a relationship between the absorption of ultraviolet light by DNA/RNA and its concentration in a sample. This article deals with modern approaches to develop a simple, efficient, reliable and cost-effective method for isolation, separation and estimation of total genomic DNA from various parts of the same species.
84-89
14
ANTI BACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF TAGETES ERECTA LINN
Kiranmai M and Mohammed Ibrahim
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was carried out to investigate the antibacterial effect of different extracts of leaves and flowers of Tagetes erecta Linn. After performing preliminary phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatography, antibacterial study was evaluated according to the agar diffusion method by using gram positive B.cereus, S. aureus and gram negative E.coli, P. aeruginosa. This study was shown that pet ether extract of leaves and ethylacetate extract of flower of Tagetes erecta significantly inhibit the growth of bacteria dose dependently.
90-96
15
FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF DIDANOSINE SUSTAINED- RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS USING HPMC K15
*Gourishyam Pasa, Uma Shankar Mishra, Niraj Kanti Tripathy, Sudhir Kumar Sahoo and Anjan Kumar Mahapatra
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present investigation concerned with formulation design and evaluation of oral sustained release matrix tablets of Didanosine (DDI) prepared by direct compression method using various proportion of release retarding polymer viz; HPMC K15. The prepared tablets were evaluated for weight variation, percentage friability, hardness and in vitro dissolution studies and all the formulations showed compliance with pharmacopeia standards. In vitro release studies were performed using USP type II apparatus (Paddle type) at 50 rpm. Formulation F1 failed to sustain release beyond 10 hours and the cumulative percentage of drug release is not more than 85% at the end of 12 hour in formulation F5. The formulations F2, F3 and F4 sustained release of drug for 12 hrs with 31.32%, 28.27% and 23.34% release of drug after 1hr and more than 90% at the end of 12 hrs. The release kinetics was analyzed using Zero-order model equation, Higuchi’s square root equation and Korsmeyer and Peppas’ empirical equation. The regression coefficient obtained for first order kinetics were found to be higher (R2: 0.985 to 0.991) when compared with those of the zero order kinetics (R2: 0.311 to 0.897), indicating that drug release from all formulations followed first order kinetics. The mechanism of drug release from formulation F1 to F3 showed behavior of Fickian diffusion and remaining all formulations showed non-Fickian diffusion.
97-100
16
HYPOGLYCEMIC AND ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF TUBEROUS ROOTS OF DECALEPIS HAMILTONII IN NORMAL AND STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
*Venkata Suresh J, Ganapaty S and Venkat Rao N
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Alcoholic and aqueous extract of tuberous roots of Decalepis hamiltonii (DH) were prepared and given individually orally at different doses to different groups of rats fasted for 18 h (both normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic albino rats). The serum glucose levels were measured initially at 0 h (before treatment) and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h after the treatment. The alcoholic extract of tuberous roots of D. hamiltonii (AETRDH) at higher dose (200 mg/kg) produced maximal serum glucose lowering effect in both normal and STZ induced diabetic rats. The aqueous extract of tuberous roots of D. hamiltonii (AQETRDH) produced maximal percent reduction in serum glucose levels with higher dose (400 mg/kg). AETRDH and AQETRDH produced hypoglycemic and antidiabetic activities at 3 h in normal and STZ induced diabetic rats in a dose dependent manner. The effect produced by AETRDH was found better than that of standard gliclazide (2 mg/kg) an oral hypoglycemic agent. The AETRDH has exhibited higher and better hypoglycemic and antidiabetic activity for a prolonged period than that of the AQETRDH.
101-108
17
CYCLODEXTRINS: NANOCARRIERS FOR NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY
*Kishore Rapolu, Vinaydas Aatipamula, Kavitha Jayapala Reddy and Swathi Voruganti
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cyclodextrins are cyclic (&alpha; -1, 4)-linked oligosaccharides of &alpha; -D-glucopyranose containing a relatively hydrophobic central cavity and hydrophilic outer surface. Cyclodextrins, which can&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; serve as solubilising and stabilizing agent of drug, are very significant in improving the bioavailability of drug, increasing the solubility, decreasing the stimulation, and masking the Smell. The objective of this review is to discuss and summarize some of the findings and application of novel cyclodextrin based nanocarriers.&nbsp; The nanoparticles, taking cyclodextrins as the matrix, can enhance the capability of encapsuling the guest molecule; efficiently regulate the drug release rate and targeting of drug. This review also highlights the molecular structure, properties like complexation solubility, etc. of cyclodextrins and focuses on its usage in various nanocarriers like liposomes, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles and nanosponges. Thus cyclodextrins, because of their continuing ability to find several novel applications, are expected to solve many problems associated with the delivery of different novel drugs through different approaches of nanotechnology.
109-116
18
EFFECTS OF BINDERS, LUBRICANTS AND FILLERS ON DRUG RELEASE FROM DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLOIDE BI-LAYERED MATRIX TABLETS OBTAINED BY DIRECT COMPRESSION AND WET GRANULATION TECHNIQUE
*Naga Raju Potnuri, Devala Rao G, Srinivasa Rao A, Gnaneshwar Reddy M and Shashidhar Reddy S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study is aimed to study and investigate the effects of binders, lubricants and fillers influencing the drug release from the Diltiazem hydrochloride bi-layered matrix tablets containing matrix components such as natural polymer (Gum Olibanum) and hydrophilic polymer (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose). The amount of drug loading did not affect the drug release which was influenced by the hydrodynamic force and the matrix composition. An increase in the binder concentration (eg: 10, 20 and 30%) correspondingly increased the release rate of drug from matrices except gelatin as a binder. Moreover, incorporation of soluble diluents in core or barrier could enhance the drug release. The release kinetics and mechanism of drug release by regression coefficient analysis and Higuchi constant and Peppas exponential release model equation were also investigated.&nbsp; It was observed that all the fabricated tablets delivered the drug following Higuchi diffusion mechanism and the release mechanism of DHL from matrix tablets indicated Fickian transport mechanism. The in-situ interactions between the drug, polymers and excipients (binders, lubricants and fillers, etc.,) during wet granulation process are also investigated by DSC examination. Most dissolution profiles of the prepared DHL bi-layered tablets provided a better fit to zero order kinetic than to first order kinetic and Higuchi&rsquo;s equation. All the batches were evaluated by physical parameters like &ldquo;weight uniformity, hardness, friability, drug content uniformity&rdquo; and in vitro drug release characteristics as per USP XXIV monograph. The binder&rsquo;s [starch, gelatin and polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000)] effect on drug release from the dosage form was also investigated.
117-128
19
ENHANCEMENT OF TRANSDERMAL DELIVERY SYSTEM AND ANTIDIABETIC APPROACH: AN OVERVIEW
*Suresh C. Joshi and Nakuleshwar Dut Jasuja
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The&nbsp; modern&nbsp; era&nbsp; has&nbsp; witnessed&nbsp; development&nbsp; of&nbsp; alternate&nbsp; and&nbsp; successful&nbsp; routes&nbsp; of&nbsp; drug delivery system i.e. Transdermal Drug Delivery System (TDDS). In a broad sense, it includes all topically administered drug formulations intended to deliver the active ingredient into the general circulation. Increasing prevalence of diabetes is presently pushing strong demand for novel drug delivery devices. Most of the antidiabetic drugs today are available in injectable form through syringes, pens, pumps and needle-free devices. Today about 74% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. Innovations in drug delivery systems have not only enabled the successful implementation of many of these novel pharmaceuticals, but have also permitted the development of new medical treatments with existing drugs. The creation of TDDS has been one of the most important innovations. This article provides an overview on various techniques and new antidiabetic approaches of TDDS.
129-149
20
ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF ANANAS COMOSUS L. LEAVES IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
*Arun Babu Vuyyuru, Govindarao M, Ravi Chandra Sekhara Reddy D, Harish B, Vishwanath J and Amarnath Reddy G
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was to investigate the presence of Antidiabetic activity on the hydro-alcoholic extract of Ananas comosus L. Leaves. The extracts were obtained using soxhelation method and the Antidiabetic activity tested using streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. After the oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract at doses of 200 mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 600 mg/kg body weight blood glucose levels and body weights were monitored at specific intervals. In chronic model of diabetic, hydro-alcoholic extract of Ananas comosus L.leaves (HEAC) at a dose of 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) were administered for 21 days. In our study, both glibenclamide and HEAC significantly decreases fasting blood glucose and increases the body weight in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats as compared to the animals in the diabetic control group. The antidiabetic activity of HEAC was comparable to that of standard drug glibenclamide at a dose of 5 mg/kg.&nbsp; The present investigation reveals that hydroalcoholic leaves extract of dose 600mg/kg showing good antidiabetic property in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. This investigation concludes Ananas comosus L. Leaves hydroalcholic extract possess Antidiabetic activity against streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. <br />
142-147
21
NEEDLE FREE INJECTION TECHNOLOGY: A REVIEW
*Vishnu P, Sandhya M, Sreesh Kiran R, Vani ChV and Naveen Babu K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Needle-free injection systems are novel ways to introduce various medicines into patients without piercing the skin with a conventional needle. They can take the form of power sprays, edible products, inhalers, and skin patches. Needle-free systems are designed to solve these problems making them safer, less expensive, and more convenient. It is anticipated that these systems will increase the incidence of vaccination and reduce the amount of prescribed antibiotics. Moreover, they should reduce the number of needle stick accidents that have resulted in some health care workers contracting diseases. Today, they are a steadily developing technology that promises to make the administration of medicine more efficient and less painful. Companies are still working on producing devices that are safer and easier to use. They are also working on alternatives which can deliver even more types of medicines.
148-155
22
ESTIMATION OF IBUTILIDE FUMARATE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS BY A SIMPLE AND VALIDATED RP-HPLC
*Venkat Rao S, Chandrasekhar K, Gopalakrishna A and Ameer SK
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A rapid, precise, economical, and accurate HPLC method for estimation of Ibutilide fumarate in bulk and formulations was developed and validated via system suitability method. The chromatographic resolution of Ibutilide was achieved using acetonitrile: 0.1M ammonium dihydrogen phosphate  buffer PH~ 6(Phasphoricacid), (25: 75 V/V) as a mobile phase UV detection at 250 nm and Hypersil thermo C18 column at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min. The calibration curve was linear (r2 = 0.9991) over Ibutilide concentration ranging from 20 to 120 μg/mL. The proposed method is also accurate, precise and robust. The method can be used for routine quality control analysis.
156-158
23
SCREENING OF NOOTROPICS: AN OVERVIEW ON PRECLINICAL EVALUATION TECHNIQUES
*Mali AA, Shenoy PA, Bandawane DD, Nipate SS and Chaudhari PD
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Nootropics are also referred as smart drugs, memory enhancers, and cognitive enhancers. They are reported to improve mental function such as cognition, memory, intelligence, motivation, attention and concentration. They are thought to be work by altering the availability of brains supply of neurochemicals, by improving the brains oxygen supply or by stimulating nerve growth. Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegerative disorder which affects older individuals and is the most common cause of dementia. It may progress to a totally vegetative state. Atrophy of cortical and sub-cortical areas is associated with deposition of &beta;-amyloid protein in the form of senile plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles. There is marked cholinergic deficiency in the brain, though other neurotransmitter systems are also affected. Various measures to augement cholinergic transmitter in the brain have been tried. The relatively cerebroselective anti-ChEs have been approved for clinical use. There are number screening models available for preclinical evaluation of nootropics drugs. Newer models are developed in accordance with limitations of the earlier one. In-vitro methods inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity is measured by determining IC50 with the help of Log probit analysis. In ex-vivo cholinesterase inhibition method the dose response relationship determined for drugs such as physostigmine and tacrine. Studies on molecular form of AchEs are carried in rat frontal cortex and striatum for drug such as donepezil, tacrine. Agents which are H3 receptor agonist are evaluated for [3H] Ach release activity in rat using rat brain slices. The binding affinity of potential nicotinic cholinergic agonist in brain using agonist ligand is determined by [3H]-N- methyl carbamylcholine binding nicotinic cholinergic receptors in rat frontal cortex. In In-vivo methods the inhibitory passive avoidance the test are carried on animals to test the learning and memory capacity of animal by suppressing a particular behavior. It includes step down, step through, two compartment test, up-hill avoidance, scopolamine induced test, and ischemia induced amnesia, memory impairments in basal forebrain. In active avoidance conditioned stimulus is given to the animal, which gives noxious stimulus as a result. It includes runway avoidance, shuttle box avoidance, jumping avoidance. In discrimination learning animals have no choice between the conditioned stimuli. Studies on aged monkeys provides additional advantage for neurobehavioral animal model of aging in that many of behavioral processes thought to be affected by aging.
159-180
24
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL TABLET CONTAINING METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM
*Uma Shankar Mishra, Murthy PN, Sudhir Kumar Sahoo and Kanhu Charana Sahu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present paper deals with formulation and evaluation of herbal tablets prepared from methanol extract of the selected plant. A solid pharmaceutical dosage formulation using a novel dry plant extract (stem barks) using various excipients viz., sprays dried lactose, starch 1500, and Aerosil-200 and magnesium stearate by direct compression method. The absorption curve of Calophyllum inophyllum Methanolic extract showed characteristic absorption maximum at 278 nm in 0.1N HCl. The drug obeyed Beer&rsquo;s law in the concentration range of 10mcg/ml to 180mcg/ml, and it was found to be linear with r2 = 0.999, regression equation Y = 0.013x + 0.005. It was found that the release rate of drug increased as the percentage of starch 1500 was increased from 10 mg to 30mg. As the concentration of starch 1500 increased the release rate increased from 67.49% to 99.35% (CIT4) in 6 hours by increasing the concentration of starch 1500. The optimized formulation CIT4 of the drug was subjected to accelerated stability studies and the results were reproducible, even on tablets that had been stored for about 3 months at 250C/60% RH, 300C/60% RH and 400C/75% RH.&nbsp;&nbsp; <br />
181-186
25
ULTRAFAST SPECTROSCOPY: A REVIEW
*Rajeesha Surapaneni, Rohini P, Santosh Kumar Vobbilireddi and Mounika G
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Spectroscopy is the major tool used for the determination of quantum energy levels in atoms, molecules, semiconductor etc. Ultrafast spectroscopy is a very wide field of research from departments of physics, chemistry, electrical engineering, biology and material science. The field of ultrafast spectroscopy includes the spectroscopic measurements for which electronic detectors are not fast enough to allow direct measurement phenomena. These time scales presently range from about 10 fs to 100 ps. It is based on the use of light pulses that have very short temporal duration to interrogate matter. To illustrate the advantages of ultrafast spectroscopy and explore some of its implications, a quantum- mechanical formalism is required. Collisions in room-temperature liquids occur on a few-fs time scale, so nearly all processes in liquids are ultrafast. An ultrafast spectroscopic method using monolithic column high-performance liquid chromatography was evaluated for the simultaneous determination of a drug discovery. Ultrafast 2D-IRspectroscopy has been applied to study the structure and vibrational dynamics.
187-197
26
WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA LEAVES IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS
*Suresh Babu AR and Karki SS
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Calotropis gigantea Linn. (Asclepiadaceae) a widely growing plant has been reported to possess number of medicinal properties. It has been reported as a traditional folk medicine for a variety of alignments. The plant C. gigantea is also used in some parts of India for wound healing in combination with other plants. However there are no scientific reports on wound healing activity of the plant C.gigantea. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate scientifically the wound healing activity of Petroleum ether, Benzene, Chloroform, Methanol and Aqueous extract of leaves of the plant C.gigantea by excision and incision wound healing models in rats. Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing between 160 and 200 g were topically treated with extracts was applied once daily in excision wound model. C.gigantea leaves extracts were given orally at a dose of 200mg/kg and 180 mg/kg (methanol extract) in incision wound healing model. Rats of standard groups were treated with 5% Povidone iodine ointment topically. The percentage wound closure; epithelization time, hydroxyproline content and scar area on complete epithelization were measured. Topical application of methanolic extract of C.gigantea leaves in excision wound model increased significantly the percentage of wound contraction by 12th day, i.e. 70.11&plusmn;0.54 compared with control 45.09&plusmn;0.53. Scar area and epithelization time were decreased from 21.56 to12.56 days when compared with control. In incision wound model breaking strength of wounds and hydroxyproline was increased significantly from 125.48&plusmn;0.78 in control up to 321&plusmn;0.99 with methanolic extract. Hence, the methanolic extract of C.gigantea leaves accelerated wound healing activity in rats and thus supports its traditional use.
195-199
27
A REVIEW ON HIGHLY SENSITIVE ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES IN BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES
*Sathish Kumar K, Rohini P, Santhosh Kumar N and Hemanth Kumar P
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Highly sensitive analytical techniques have allowed a massive increase in the amount of pharmacokinetic data which is useful to estimate the toxicity of the particular drugs. Generally available analytical techniques may not provide sufficient information to identify the all these toxic substances present in biological fluids at low concentrations. So, modifications to generally available analytical techniques are required. They can provide high sensitivity and selectivity of the analytical method towards the particular type of toxic substances. They provide reliable, robust sensitive, specific, quantitative assay procedures for the determination of drugs and metabolites in body fluids. The sensitivity of these techniques is up to nano-grams and pico-grams. Originally, the most common extraction method was liquid&ndash;liquid extraction (LLE). Solid-phase extraction (SPE) has become an increasingly popular extraction method. <br />
200-204
28
COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON BUCCAL DELIVERY
*Murali krishna K, Nagaraju T, Gowthami R, Rajashekar M, Sandeep S, Himabindu S and Shravan kumar Yamsani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The main aim for the oral delivery of most of the drugs as potential therapeutic agents is their extensive presystemic metabolism, instability in acidic environment resulting into inadequate and erratic oral absorption. Parenteral route of administration is the only established route that overcomes all these drawbacks associated with these orally less/inefficient drugs. But, these formulations are costly, have least patient compliance, require repeated administration, in addition to the other hazardous effects associated with this route. Buccal cavity was found to be the most convenient and easily accessible site for the delivery of therapeutic agents for both local and systemic delivery as retentive dosage forms, because it has expanse of smooth muscle which is relatively immobile, abundant vascularization, rapid recovery time after exposure to stress and the near absence of langerhans cells. Direct access to the systemic circulation through the internal jugular vein bypasses drugs from the hepatic first pass metabolism leading to high bioavailability. <br />
205-217
29
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A NEW STABILITY INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR QUANTIFICATION OF PROCESS RELATED AND DEGRADATION IMPURITIES OF BICALUTAMIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORMS
*Palleshwar Rao G, JVLNS Rao, Lanka A. Rama Prasad and Srinivasu Pamidi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present work aims to develop and validate a stability indicating liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of process related and degradation impurities of Bicalutamide in tablet dosage form. Chromatographic separation was achieved on Waters Symmetry C18, (150 mm x 4.6 mm) 3.5&#61549;m particle size column using 0.1%v/v trifluoro acetic acid and 0.05%w/v sodium-1-octane sulphonic acid in water and 0.1%v/v trifluoroacetic acid in acetonitrile the ratio of 65:35 as mobile phase in isocratic elution mode. The analytes were monitored by a photo diode array (PDA) detector set at 270 nm and the flow rate was kept at 1.2mL/min. The method was validated in terms of Specificity, Precision, Ruggedness, Accuracy, Robustness and Linearity as per ICH guidelines.<br />
218-223
30
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF RANOLAZINE
*M Vanaja kumari, P Venkateswar reddy and M Sudhakar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study was to prepare and characterize the Sustained release matrix tablets of Ranolazine using Kollidon&reg; SR. Kollidon&reg; SR is a polyvinyl acetate based excipient. Three different strengths i.e 375mg, 500mg and 750mg of ranolazine SR tablets were prepared by direct compression method and by using common blend. The influence of compression force was studied on the dissolution release profile of Ranolazine SR tablets. In vitro release studies were performed for all the formulations using USP type II apparatus (paddle method) in 900 ml of 0.1N hydrochloric acid at 50 rpm for 24 hours and analyzed by UV spectrophotometer at 272nm. Further, in-vitro release pattern of drug from the optimized formulation was compared with innovator formulation and it was found to be super imposable with the Innovator product RANEXA based on dissimilarity and similarity factors. <br />
224-229
31
EFFECT OF THE CYP3A5 GENETIC POLYMORPHISM ON BLOOD LEVEL TO DOSE RATIO OF CYCLOSPORINE IN THAI RENAL ALLOGRAFT RECIPIENTS
*Pailin Wannapraphan, Duangchit Panomvana and Viroon Mavichak
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study concentrated on the effect of CYP3A5 polymorphism on cyclosporine (CsA) pharmacokinetics in Thai renal allograft recipients. A prospective descriptive study design was used. Thirty-four renal transplant outpatients who were on microemulsion CsA (Neoral&reg;) and have had stable renal allograft function for at least 3 months were recruited. CsA dose and general demographic data of the patients were recorded. The CsA concentrations at C0 and C2 were determined in whole blood using the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). CYP3A5 genotyping was determined by real-time PCR technique. The results obtained indicated that CYP3A5 polymorphism was correlated with CsA dosage requirement in Thai renal transplant patients. The weight-adjusted dose was significantly higher in the CYP3A5*1/*1 group as compare to CYP3A5*1/*3 and CYP3A5*3/*3 group (2.66&plusmn;0.49 vs 2.07&plusmn;0.53 mg/kg/day, p=0.028) while the dose-adjusted C0 and C2 showed tendency to be lower in the CYP3A5*1/*1 group as compare to the other group.
230-236
32
IMPACT OF CLINICAL PHARMACIST INTERVENTION ON DECREASING INCIDENCE OF PREVENTABLE ADVERSE DRUG EVENTS AFTER HOSPITAL DISCHARGE
*Osama H. Mohamed Ibrahim
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Most of the time discharge from the hospital after hospitalization involves disturbance of care, multiple changes in medications and medication regimens, and insufficient patient education, which can cause several adverse drug events (ADEs) and unnecessary health care utilization that can be avoided. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of clinical pharmacist intervention on decreasing the incidence of preventable ADEs after patient discharge. A randomized trial was conducted involving 250 patients being discharged from the general medicine service at a large teaching hospital in Cairo (Egypt). Patients in the intervention group received pharmacist counseling at discharge and a follow-up telephone call 3 to 4 days later. Intervention group counseling concentrates on reviewing indications, clarifying medication regimens; explaining directions of use, explaining potential side effects of medications; screening for barriers to adherence; and providing patient counseling. Patients in the control group received the standard dispensing and counseling with no follow-up telephone call. The primary outcome was the rate of preventable ADEs. All patients in the trial were contacted 30 days after discharge to assess adherence and the occurrence of ADE. Clinical pharmacists observed that medication non-adherence happened in about 13%.of the intervention group versus 24% in the control group (P-value &lt; 0.05). Comparing study outcomes 30 days after discharge, preventable ADEs were detected in 14% of patients in control group and 3% of patients in intervention group (P-value&lt;0.05). Clinical pharmacists&rsquo; interventions such as medication review, patient counseling, and telephone follow-up were associated with a statistically significant lower rate of preventable ADEs 30 days after hospital discharge (P-value &lt;0.05) through reduction in medication discrepancies and improvement of adherence to medication regimen. Greater roles for clinical pharmacists in hospital care should be considered, especially in case of patient at high risk to ADE and poor compliance.
237-243
33
EVALUATION OF PHARMACOKINETICS AND LIVER FUNCTION EVALUATED IN RATS FOLLOWING THE CO-ADMINISTRATION OF CAPTOPRIL AND CIPROFLOXACIN
*Essam Ezzeldin and Hebatalla Ibrahim Ahmed
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Simultaneous co-administration of multiple drugs is highly probable to allow effective treatment of a disease or multiple disease symptoms. Ciprofloxacin antibiotic is in use worldwide and it is possible to be used in cardiovascular patient&rsquo;s treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the biochemical and pharmacokinetic interactions between ciprofloxacin and captopril in rats. The study was conducted in six groups of rats that received captopril 7.5 mg/kg, ciprofloxacin 50 and 100 mg/kg alone or co-administered with captopril 7.5 mg/kg for 28 days. Captopril and Ciprofloxacin plasma levels were determined by validated HPLC methods. Liver function biomarkers were also assessed. Ciprofloxacin significantly increased the Cmax AUC0-12 and AUC0-inf and prolonged t1/2 and MRT of captopril. Conversely, captopril had no significance effect on the ciprofloxacin.&nbsp; Ciprofloxacin elevated the liver function biomarkers. Therefore the clinical significant of this work should be taken into consideration when these two agents are concomitantly administered. <br />
244-251
34
MEDICINE STOCK OUT AND INVENTORY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS IN PUBLIC HOSPITALS IN TANZANIA: A CASE OF DAR ES SALAAM REGION HOSPITALS
*Godeliver A.B. Kagashe and Terevael Massawe
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The supply of medicines needs to be managed efficiently in order to prevent all types of wastage including overstocking, pilferage and expiry. This wastage may influence the quality of health care provided to patients. Problems of stock outs or overstocking and expiry of medicines in public hospitals in Tanzania have been reported. Factors contributing to these stock outs on one hand and over stocking on the other are not very clear. This descriptive cross sectional study therefore assessed the logistic skill levels of personnel involved in medicines supply as well as inventory management of medicines in public hospitals in Dar es Salaam region. Data was obtained using questionnaires as well as record review of tracer medicines. Results show that logistic skill level was poor and inventories were not well managed. Lack of funds and poor logistic skills contributed to stock outs. It is recommended that personnel dealing with medicines supply be trained in procurement and inventory management. <br />
252-259
35
SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF LOSARTAN AND ATORVASTATIN IN RAT PLASMA AND ITS APPLICATION TO PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY
*Shankar Ganesh G, Madhusudana K, Sai Shalini N and Ramakrishna Sistla
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, rapid, economic and precise RP-HPLC method for simultaneous analysis of Losartan (LOS) and Atorvastatin (ATR) in rat plasma has been developed and validated. Valsartan (VAL) was used as an internal standard. Extraction of the drug from the plasma was carried out by precipitation method. Analysis was performed using Kromasil C18 column (250 &#61620; 4.6 mm; 5&micro;) with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.02 M sodium dihydrogen phosphate (containing 0.1% heptanesulphonic acid, pH adjusted to 3.0 with ortho phosphoric acid) in the ratio of 55:45 (v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL min-1. Chromatographic separation was monitored at 235 nm. The method was linear over a range of 10-1000 ng mL&minus;1 for both the drugs. Limits of detection and Limits of quantification were 2.9 ng mL&minus;1 and 8.8 ng mL&minus;1 for LOS and 3.2 ng mL&minus;1 and 9.8 ng mL&minus;1&nbsp;&nbsp; ATR respectively. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity, recovery and stability. The applicability of this method in pharmacokinetic studies was demonstrated.
260-271
36
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY, TOTAL FLAVONOIDS AND TANNINS CONTENT FROM THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SPILANTHES PANICULATA LEAF GROWING IN BANGLADESH
*Hemayet Hossain, A.F.M Shahid-Ud-Daula, Kamrul Hasan, Abdullah-Al-Mansur and Muhammad Mahbubul Haq
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The crude ethanolic extract of the leaves of Spilanthes paniculata Wall.ex DC (Family: Asteraceae) was evaluated for its possible anti-inflammatory activity as well as total flavonoids and tannins content growing in northeast part of Bangladesh. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied using carrageenan and histamine-induced rat paw edema test at different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) of the ethanol extract. At the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight, the extract showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity both in the carrageenan and histamine-induced oedema test models in rats showing 55.63% and 56.52% reduction in the paw volume (P&lt;0.01) comparable to that produced by the standard drug indomethacin (61.27% and 63.35%) at 4h respectively. The percentage inhibition of the oedema paw volume by the 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract was also statistically significant (P&lt;0.05; P&lt;0.01) compared favorably with the indomethacin treated animals at 1, 2 and 3 h in both models. The total flavonoids and tannins content were calculated as quite high in ethanolic extract (112.98 mg/g of quercetin equivalent and 187.27 mg of gallic acid equivalent respectively). Acute toxicity test showed that the plant might be safe for pharmacological uses. Therefore, the obtained results tend to suggest the acute anti-inflammatory activity as well as total flavonoids and tannins content from the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Spilanthes paniculata and thus provide the scientific basis for the traditional uses of this plant as a remedy for toothache, pain and inflammations.
271-277
37
ESTIMATION OF SERUM ACTIVITIES OF ANTI-OXIDANT ENZYMES AND LEVELS OF INDICES OF RENAL DAMAGE IN FEMALE WISTAR RATS DOSED WITH ACETAMINOPHEN/METHIONINE
*Iyanda Ayobola Abolape and Adeniyi Francis
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Acetaminophen abuse is common in many parts of the world. At overdose levels it causes hepatic and renal damage and because its treatment is expensive and prognosis is poor in some cases, calls for inclusion of an antidote have been made. Results of a past study showed that inclusion of methionine with acetaminophen in the ratio of 1: 9 did not confer protection on the renal cells at very high level of exposure; 40% and 100% mortality occurred at 3000 &amp; 5000 mg/kg (BW) levels of exposure respectively. The aim of this study is to exclude insufficient methionine in that combination as cause of death in those animals, by using a higher combination ratio of 1: 5 (methionine: acetaminophen). Female Wistar rats were divided into 17 groups (n = 8), 16 groups were administered with different doses of acetaminophen or acetaminophen/methionine ranging from 350 &ndash; 5000 mg/kg. The 17th group which served as the control received physiologic saline. Route of administration was by gastric gavage. Whole blood was obtained by retro-orbital bleeding; serum samples were utilized for the estimation of renal indices, using assay kits. Kidney sections were stained with hematoxylin &amp; eosin.&nbsp; The combination ratio of 1: 5 (methionine: acetaminophen) conferred protection on renal cells even at doses as high as 3000 &amp; 5000 mg/kg using biochemical and histological markers as indices of study. Urea, creatinine and uric acid were not significantly different in acetaminophen/methionine groups compared with controls while histology result showed non-visible lesion at all levels of exposure. The results suggested that the effectiveness of methionine as an antidote in preventing renal damage after exposure to toxic doses depends on the use of right combination ratio which in the case of Wistar rats was found to be 1: 5 (methionine: acetaminophen).
278-286
38
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF RITCHIEA LONGIPEDICELLATA FAM. CAPPARIDACEAE
*Anowi CF, Utoh-Nedosa UA, Onyegbule AF and Oche G
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ritchiea longipedicellata Gilg had been reported in traditional medicine, to exhibit antimicrobial properties. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the antibacterial and antifungal activities of Ritchiea longipedicellata Gilg leaves against pathogenic microorganisms by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration and to serve as criteria to recommend the ethno pharmacological uses of the plant. Plant leaves were dried, powdered and extracted by cold maceration with methanol for 24hours. Phytochemical screening was done for alkaloids, saponin, essential oil, phenolic group, steroidal nucleus, simple sugar, starch, cyanogenic glycoside, proteins and flavonoids using standard procedures. Antimicrobial and minimal inhibitory concentration screenings were done using agar diffusion technique. Antibacterial activity test was conducted by screening against seven pathogens comprising both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria obtained from Pharmaceutical Microbiology laboratory stock. The extracts were screened against 24hour broth culture of bacteria seeded in the nutrient agar at concentrations 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg/ml in DMSO and incubated at 370C, for 24 hours and measuring the inhibition zone diameter - IZD. The same was done for antifungal screening, however, fungi were seeded into a sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated for 72 hours at 250C (.Aspergillus niger and Candida albican were used). The positive controls were ampicillin 20&micro;g/ml and clotrimazole cream 1mg/ml for bacteria and fungi respectively.&nbsp; DMSO was used as negative control. The results of phytochemical screening showed moderate availability of alkaloid, simple sugar and abundance of flavonoids, steroidal nucleus, essential oil, phenolic group, cyanogenic glycoside; absence of starch and protein and doubtful quantity of saponin. Methanolic extract inhibited with minimal inhibitory concentration of 200, 6.25, 200, 12.5, and 12.5 mg/ml against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, E. coli, B. subtilis, and Sarcinae lutea respectively. The extract demonstrated activities against certain bacteria confirming the use of the plant in ethno pharmacology and since the root extract are more often used, it is yet to be confirmed if it has more activity than the leaves against the test organisms. Taking the least IZD of the standard (Ampicillin) as the breaking point, most of the extracts passed the breaking point. <br />
287-293
39
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF DOXORUBICIN LIPOSOMES
*Prasanth VV, Maharshi S, Sam T. Mathew, Abin Abraham, Kiran Jadhav
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Doxorubicin is an effective anticancer drug used in the treatment of several cancers such as osteosarcoma, kaposis sarcoma. The usage of the drug is limited because of its adverse effects on the heart. To reduce the adverse effects and to increase the release rate doxorubicin is formulated into liposomal dosage form. The liposomes are prepared by the thin film hydration method.Using soyalecithin as the phospholipid. This study mainly explains about the effect of concentration of soyalecithin, cholesterol and DSPE-MPEG2000 on the particle size of formulated liposomes which ranges in between 0.766 &plusmn; 0.03&micro;m to 13.56 &plusmn;&nbsp; 0.10 &micro;m , drug entrappment efficiency of different formulations in which maximum entrapment efficiency was determined as 96.45 &plusmn; 0.95 % and minimum was 24.89 &plusmn; 1.18 % , zeta potential which is determainedd as -0.271 mV, in vitro drug release in which the the maximum sustain release was found as 41.45 &plusmn; 1.06 %&nbsp; and stability studies at different temperatures and maximum drug retention was found in refrigerated temperature 2-8 oC. <br />
294-298
40
SYNTHYSES, REACTIONAND CHARACTRIZATION OF QUINOLINE DERIVATIVES
*O.A. Fathalla, M.E.A. Zaki, Eman A. ElHefny and S.A. Swelam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Starting with 4, 7-dichloroquinoline and on treatment with hydrazine hydrate we obtained the hydrazine derivative 1. Compound 1 reacted with dithioacetal to give compounds 2a, b, respectively. Compound 2a reacted&nbsp; with formamide and formic acid to give compounds 3 and 4. The imidoformate derivative 5 obtained through the reaction of compound 2a with trimethyl orthoformate in presence of acetic anhydride. The imino derivatives 6a-c was obtained upon reacting of 5 with hydrazine hydrate and appropriate primary amines. The chloroquinoline derivative 7 was subjected to react with glycine, anthranilic acid, hydrazine hydrate and appropriate primary amines affording compounds 8, 9, 10a-d, respectively Also compound 10a was allowed to react sodium azide and acetohydrazid affording fused quinolone derivatives 11and 12. Compounds 2a and 2b were allowed to react with aryl sulfonylchloride, namely benzene sulfonylchloride, p-toluene sulfonylchloride p-chlorosulfonylchloride and p-bromo benzene sulfonylchloride to give the corresponding 13a-d, 14a-d derivatives,&nbsp;&nbsp; respectively. All structures of the newly synthesized compounds were elucidated by their correct values in elemental analysis and spectral data.
299-305
41
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ROOTS OF LAWSONIA INERMIS AGAINST PARACETAMOL AND ANTI-TUBERCULAR DRUGS INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS
*Ravishah S, Manjula SN, Mruthunjaya K, Krishnanand P, Pramod Chakravarthy KN, Madhu Raghav M, Javia Sweety and Mina Basirian
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of roots of Lawsonia inermis (LI)&nbsp;&nbsp; ethanolic&nbsp;&nbsp; extract in paracetamol and anti tubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity in&nbsp;&nbsp; Wistar rats. Roots of LI were extracted with alcohol and water which has given ethanolic extract of LI &amp; aqueous extract of LI. Preliminary phytochemical tests were done. The in vitro hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of lawsonia inermis (LIALC) and aqueous extract of lawsonia inermis (LIAQ) were assessed. The in vivo hepatoprotective activity of LIALC was investigated against Paracetamol and Anti-TB drugs induced hepatotoxicity in Rats. Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of lactones, &#64258;avonoids, sterols, terpenes, carbohydrates, tannins compounds, which have been known for their hepatoprotective activities. In both in vivo and in vitro hepatoprotective models, the levels of cytosolic enzymes, a marker of oxidative damage to hepatocytes, were significantly reversed to almost to normal in dose dependent manner.&nbsp; Both the extracts significantly increased the levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione (GSH) as compared to control. LI possesses marked hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol and anti tubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity in rats as evidenced by both in vivo and in vitro results. The activity may be attributed to the individual or combined action of phytoconstituents present in it.<br />
306-316
42
A VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF GUAIFENESIN AND PSEUDOEPHEDRINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
*Rahul Sahu, NPS Sengar, Parul D. Mehta and NS Lodhi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate, rapid, precise, specific and cost effective reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method have been developed and subsequently validated for simultaneous estimation of Guaifenesin (GUA) and Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PSE) in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Chromatography is carried out isocratically at 25&deg;C &plusmn; 0.5&deg;C on an Prontosil C-18 column (4.6 x 250mm, 5&mu; particle size) with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile-methanol-phosphate buffer (pH-5.0) (72:8:20, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a PDA detector at 218 nm. Parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, specificity and ruggedness are studied as reported in the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The retention times for GUA and PSE are 2.99 &plusmn; 0.5 min and 5.04 &plusmn; 0.5 min respectively. The linearity range for GUA and PSE are 15-75 &micro;gml-1 and 6-30 &micro;gml-1 respectively. The percentage recoveries of GUA and PSE are 98.72 and 98.35% respectively. The correlation coefficients for both components are close to 1. The relative standard deviations for three replicate measurements in three concentrations of samples in tablets are always less than 2%. <br /><br />
317-321
43
ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC BARK EXTRACT OF VITEX NEGUNDO Linn
*Sampath kumar Ch, Rajender Arutla and Sunil Kumar M
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was undertaken to assess the analgesic effect of methanolic extract of Vitex negundo bark in albino rats. The analgesic action in acute pain models was studied by tail flick method and hot plate method. The methanolic extract of Vitex negundo bark was screened for phytochemical analysis and it&rsquo;s revealed the presence of all components. The adult Sprague- Dawley rats were divided into four groups of six each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac sodium (9mg/kg), the methanolic extract of Vitex negundo bark 200mg/kg and 300mg/kg were fed to group III, IV. It is observed that the both Vitex negundo bark shows considerable analgesic effect in acute pain models which is less than the effect of Diclofenac group. The higher dose groups of Vitex negundo bark extract (300mg/kg) was revealed more activity than their corresponding lower dose. <br />
322-326
44
PHARMA @ 2020 - (THE NEXT CENTURY PHARMA TREND)
*Shashank Tiwari, Navneet Batra and Mohd. Sohrab
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Well said that research is a never ending field but still is always motivates to one &amp; all for thinking beyond in order to create miracles. And the 2020 will be miracles world for pharma sector. At that time the time will be OTC medicines. The Indian pharmaceutical sector is the highly organized sector; it ranks very high amongst all the thirds world countries in the term of technology, quality and the vast range of medicines that are manufactured.
327-329
45
ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF THE PLUMERIA RUBRA LEAVES EXTRACT
*Vimlesh Misra, Sheikh Mubeen Uddin, Vivek Srivastava and Umashankar Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Antipyretic effect of ethanolic extract of the leaf of plumeria rubra was investigated. Intraperitoneal administration of boiled milk at a dose 0.5 ml/kg body weight in albino rabbit leads to pyrexia. Intraperitoneal (i. p. route) administration of ethanolic extract of the leaf of plumeria rubra at a dose 200mg/kg body weight were shown significantly reduce the elevated body temperature of rabbit which was compared with&nbsp; aspirin (Standard Drug) and solvent used.
330-332
46
COMPARISON STUDIES OF UNCOATED & ENTERIC COATED ASPIRIN FORMULATIONS
*K. Gouthami, M. Raghavendra Praneeth, Ch. Madhu Sudan, C. Vandhit Reddy, Roopa Patel, Sarojini N, AS Rao and V. Lokeswara Babu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Aspirin is belonging to the class of NSAID having analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet activity at regular normal doses. At higher doses it causes gastrointestinal ulcers, stomach bleeding etc. This effect of aspirin can be minimized by preventing the drug exposure to the gastric region which is achieved by using enteric coating of the aspirin tablet. The present study involves comparison of physical evaluation of uncoated tablets with that of enteric coated tablets of Aspirin.
333-336
47
OCCURRENCE OF CHLORIDE ENRICHED CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTAL IN CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS LINN
*Rupali Taur, Shantanu Chavan and Narayan Pandhure
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cissus quadrangularis Linn. is known for its ability to accelerate the healing process of bone fracture in Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant. It is a rich source of vitamin C, &beta; carotene and calcium. The plant part used in this study is stem of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. The fleshy stem are ground in a heavy duty blender and sieved through a 0.20mm sieve. The suspension obtained is suspended in distilled water. The crystals are concentrated at the bottom of a test tube. The supernatant must be washed until it is free of plant pigment and other organic substances. The calcium crystals have well defined and sharp peaks, indicating very high crystallinity. Secondly the profile shows highest peak of calcium for the first time. Peaks for chloride are the indicators of enrichment of chloride in Calcium oxalate crystals. The objective of this study is to extract, to study crystal morphology and chemical constituents of crystals.
337-340
48
TOXICOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION IN LEGAL CONTEXT FOR VETERINARIANS
*Modi CM, Dudhatra GB, Avinash Kumar, Chukewar AB, Awale MM, Patel HB and Mody SK
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Due to rapid industrial expansion and change in socio-economic dynamics of human population, the death and also cruelty to animals due to toxicant, poisons or industrial or agricultural chemicals is very common social phenomenon now a days. The prevention of such incidences depends on investigation of incidence, finalizing causes of death and cruelty to animals and formulating policy based on findings and experiences. Under such toxicological investigation, Veterinarian plays key role by offering his services to law enforcing agency for performing the post-mortem, collection of samples, submitting the samples to forensic laboratory and interpretation of results hereby obtained. All these functions become very crucial when there is involvement of legal disputes or conflicts. Under such condition, Veterinarian is authorized sources of expert evidence and opinions as per Expert Witness Act of India. Veterinarian has to present his findings and related opinions in the presence of court jury. Admissibility of expert evidences and opinions depends on accuracy of Veterinarian&rsquo;s professional functions performed during investigation of cases. It is a challenging job for Veterinarian to investigate veterolegal cases in field condition in order to protect the interest of animal or owner or society or government. So the intersection of knowledge of toxicological and legal matters is of vital for Veterinarians to understand and to conduct such investigation in most correct ways. The present review is focused on blending of technicality of toxicological investigation and its legality for the use of court and jury. <br />
341-347
49
EFFECT OF OFLOXACIN ON TIZANIDINE PHARMACOKINETICS IN RATS
*Dipika S. Sherkar, Vaibhav G. Bhamre, Deelip V. Derle, Minal R. Narkhede, Jitesh H. Shet and Amit Tiwari
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Objective of this work was to study the effect of ofloxacin on bioavailability and other pharmacokinetic parameters of tizanidine in rats. A single dose parallel design was used with 36 animals randomly divided in reference group and test group.&nbsp; All the rats received 7 mg tizanidine orally and in test group 200 mg ofloxacin was co-administered with tizanidine. Nine blood samples were collected from each animal over a 24-hour period. Plasma tizanidine concentrations were determined by HPTLC using UV detection, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by non-compartmental method. The mean value of the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of tizanidine decreased significantly (8.47%, P value &lt;0.001; 90% CI, 91.32% -91.72%) in animals who had given the drug with ofloxacin (Cmax , 31.54 &plusmn; 0.16 &micro;g/mL) than those who had given the drug with water (Cmax, 34.46 &plusmn; 0.07 &micro;g/mL). The area under the plasma concentration time curve from t=0 to time of the last measureable concentration (AUC0-t) was also increased significantly (17.17%, P value &lt;0.001; 90% CI, 116.99% -117.34%). Similarly, the value of area under the concentration-time curve from t=0 to in&#64257;nity (AUC0-&infin;) value was increased significantly (5.24% %, P value &lt;0.001; 90% CI, 103.77% -104.83%); these changes were not within the 90% CI range of 80.000 - 125.000 % which is the acceptable range of bioequivalence. Tmax, T1/2, terminal elimination rate constant (&lambda;z), CL/F value, Vd/F value, AUMC0-t and AUMC0-&infin; values, MRT0-t and MRT0-&infin; values and % relative bioavailability (Fr) value for test group were also determined and compared with reference group. Form results the values of Cmax and AUC0-&infin; were not within the bioequivalence acceptable range and from statistical analysis the reference and test samples were found to be bio-in-equivalent, suggesting the improved tizanidine oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy due to co-administration of ofloxacin.
348-352
50
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACT OF ROOTS OF EUGENIA JAMBOLANA
*S.M. Patil and R. Saini
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the ethyl acetate extract of roots of Eugenia jambolana. The ethyl acetate extract of Eugenia jambolana in gum acacia was administered orally at 150 and 300mg/kg. The results of the present study revealed that the treatment groups showed a significant reduction in paw volume in a dose dependent manner indicating their anti-inflammatory action, which had provided a proof for the scientific validation of their ethno pharmacological property.
353-355
51
COMPARATIVE PET STUDY BETWEEN TWO PROSTAGLANDIN DERIVATIVES OPHTHALMIC SOLUTIONS
*Kashyap Nagariya, Piyush Sharma, Anil Bhandari, Sarangdevot YS and Chouhan CS
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Although in vitro and in vivo laboratory studies have suggested that benzalkonium chloride (BKC) in ophthalmic solutions may be detrimental to corneal epithelial cells, multiple short- and long-term clinical studies have provided evidence supporting the safety of BKC. Despite the conflicting evidence, BKC is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmic products largely due to its proven antimicrobial efficacy. This study was designed to characterize the preservative efficacy performance of two commonly used ocular hypotensive agents that employ BKC as preservative: latanoprost with 0.01% BKC and travoprost 0.02% BKC, in an isotonic buffer solution.
356-361
52
CHALLENGES IN TRANSDERMAL FORMULATION: IN VITRO EVALUATION
*Mudasir Mohamad and Roheena Jan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:SnapToGridInCell/> <w:WrapTextWithPunct/> <w:UseAsianBreakRules/> <w:DontGrowAutofit/> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--> <p style="text-align: justify" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size: 10pt">One of the most vital challenges for Transdermal Therapy is the skin, itself acting as a barrier. Hence, in this study, an attempt was made to elucidate the transdermal permeation potential of Surfactant (Brij-58 &amp; Brij-30)in comparison to terpene (clove oil) using Aceclofenac as a model drug. The <em>in vitro</em> skin permeation studies for aceclofenac in various drug solutions revealed that the drug in isotonic phosphate buffer was able to permeate skin with a flux which is not significant for transdermal permeation from any formulation. Addition of co- solvent (ethanol 95%) resulted in an increase in the flux. Different skin permeation enhancers were tried in an attempt to increase permeation of the drug in order to achieve the desired plasma concentration of aceclofenac. Enhancers tried included, Brij-58, Brij-30 and Clove oil. All skin permeation enhancers increased the flux of drug with respect to their respective controls. An increase in both the flux as well as permeability coefficient of the drug was seen when the concentration of enhancers was increased from 1% to 2% in case of Brij-58 and Brij-30 and from 1-10% in case of Clove oil. On the basis of these studies 2% Brij-58 which showed highest permeation potential was selected as permeation enhancer for the design of Transdermal Therapeutic System.</span></p> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style> <![endif]-->
362-365
53
TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS INFLUENCING FACTORS, STUDY METHODS AND THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS
*Ravi Theaj Prakash U and Padma Thiagarajan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Drug delivery across the skin offers several advantages, which includes bypassing of gastrointestinal tract and deviation from liver metabolism. Several drugs have been successfully assimilated through this route, which is in turn controlled by the drug lipophilicities and molecular weights along with their partition coefficients. The age and condition of the skin are also determining factors. However, an obvious barrier to this process is the stratum corneum which restricts efficient penetration of drugs. This drawback has been partially overcome by the use of permeation enhancers, and also by coercive techniques, which promote easy drug uptake, as proved by various in vitro and in vivo assays. Consequently, several transdermal delivery based therapeutic systems have been developed to treat various specific pathological conditions. The factors controlling drug uptake and penetration enhancers have been discussed in this review, along with some important therapeutic applications.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <br />
366-374
54
OPTIMIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS FOR MAXIMUM TANNASE PRODUCTION FROM CASHEW HUSK
*Lokeswari N
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Tannase production under solid-state fermentation was investigated using isolated Aspergillus oryzae. Among all agro-industrial waste material evaluated, cashew husk supported maximum tannase production. The metabolic processes of microorganisms are influenced by changes in parameters like Temperature, pH, incubation time, humidity etc., which are very specific for a particular organism. Microbial synthesis of enzymes in a SSF process are also affected by factors like particle size of substrate, water content, relative humidity, type and size of inoculum, control of temperature, period of cultivation, etc. Biotransformation of cashew husk tannin to gallic acid by SSF is also influenced by all the factors affecting tannase production, since the synthesized enzyme causes the breakdown of tannin to gallic acid and glucose.
375-379
55
DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF PRESS COATED TABLET BY USING RUPTURABLE MATERIAL (EC) COMBINED WITH ERODIBLE MATERIAL (KLUCEL EXF) OF ACECLOFENAC
*Mayee RV and Shinde PV
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a press-coated pulsatile drug delivery system intended for treatment of early morning stiffness and symptomatic relief from pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with a distinct predetermined lag time of 6 h .Aceclofenac as a model drug by using various proportion of polymers such as rupturable material (EC) combined with erodible material (klucel EXF). Seven formulations were prepared and formulation F2 possessed good lag time time 6 hr and showed pulsatile drug delivery pattern the tablets were also evaluated for its hardness, friability and other In- vitro evaluation tests. All parameters complied with IP limits. Results of this study indicated that the combinations of rupturable material (EC) combined with erodible material (klucel EXF) are suitable to optimize pulsatile drug release formulation of aceclofenac. The formulation involved press coating of a rupturable coat around a rapidly disintegrating core tablet of aceclofenac.
380-385
56
ADVANCES IN CHIRAL SEPARATIONS: A REVIEW
*Bhawani S, Nagalakshmi Ch and Rohini P
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Chiral separation in forensic science is chemical separations of optically active isomers of drugs and metabolites. Specific functions of D-amino acids in humans are bound to lead to the revelation of D-amino acid abnormalities in human disorders. Therefore, high-throughput analysis techniques are warranted to determine D-amino acids in biological fluids. Two chromatographic techniques, a nonchiral derivatization with chiral (chirasil-L-val column) separation in a GC-MS system and a chiral derivatization with Marfey&rsquo;s reagent and LC- MS analysis were developed. The techniques for D-serine, L-serine, and glycine determination in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were validated. Toluene monooxygenases (TMOs) have been shown previously to catalyze region selective hydroxylation of substituted benzenes and phenols. TMOs are also capable of performing enantio selective oxidation reactions of aromatic sulfides. <br />
386-391
57
DIRECT ROOT REGENERATION AND INDIRECT ORGANOGENESIS IN SILYBUM MARIANUM AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL, ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES OF ITS CALLUS
*S. Ahmed John and M. Koperuncholan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The morphogenic potential and free-radical scavenging activity of the medicinal plant, Silybum marianum L. (milk thistle) were investigated. Direct root regeneration and indirect organogenesis and preliminary phytochemical, antibacterial studies of its callus. From leaf explants the highly significance result was found on the NAA at 2 mg/l and KIN at 0.2 mg/l for the direct root induction and indirect organogenesis the 100% callus induction was obtained from leaf explants on 2, 4-D at 2.5 mg/l),and The 100% shoot initiation was obtained from NAA at 2 mg/l and the BAP at 1.5 mg/l and then it was transferred to the shoot elongation medium bearing the hormone concentration of GA3 at 2 mg/l. Finally, it was transferred to root induction medium bearing the hormone concentration of NAA at 2mg/l. the Preliminary Phytochemical showed the Sugar, Saponins, Amino acids, Tannins were occur in the chloroform and ethanol extracts of leaf and hypocotyl callus. More antimicrobial inhibitory activity was recorded for the gram-positive than the gram negative in all extract. <br />
392-400
58
ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY STUDY OF LEAVES AND BARK OF CASSIA FISTULA
*Dinanath D. Patil, Dnyandeo K. Mhaske and Machindra Patare Gurumeet C. Wadhawa
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ethanol, methanol, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride, and hexane extracts from Cassia fistula were investigated for their in vitro antimicrobial properties, along with anti-inflammatory activity.&nbsp; All three extract of Cassia fistula were different in terms of their antibacterial activities. The Ethanol extract showed a stronger and broader spectrum of antibacterial activity. study was also carried out to evaluate the in-vitro antioxidant activities of ethanol, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride extract of Cassia fistula s .This was achieved by screening the two plant extracts at varying concentrations (10-50g/ml)using DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity. The results were analyzed statistically which showed that ethanol extract Cassia fistula had more antioxidant activity than standard antioxidant.Al extract was also studied for their anti-inflametry activity.<br /><br />
401-405
59
TOXICITY, STERILITY AND BIOCHEMICAL TESTING OF NOVEL DTP GROUP OF VACCINES
*Monika Sharma, Hemant Brahmne and Pallavi Bafna
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Conventionally, toxicogenic strains of C. diphtheria, C. tetani and B. pertussis are grown on a media of animal origin for production of DTP group of vaccines. This media poses various risks such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), microbial contamination and allergic reactions. To avoid such risks, media containing nutrients of vegetative origin are substituted. The present study involves the toxicity, biochemical and sterility testing of DTP group of vaccines produced on such vegetative media to determine their quality and safety. Toxicity tests are based on the observation that there are body weight changes characteristic to each vaccine and such standardized changes can be used as references for evaluating test vaccines. Sterility test was performed on the final bulk and lot to confirm that the product is free of bacterial and mycotic contamination. Biochemical tests were also carried out to determine the content of aluminium, thiomersal and formalin. The results confirmed that the DTP vaccine samples met the criteria set by I.P., 2007 for toxicity, sterility and safety. <br />
406-415
60
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ASTRAGALUS MEMBRANACEUS AGAINST DIARRHEAL BACTERIAL PATHOGENS
*Balachandar S, Jagadeeswari M, Dhanabalan R and Meenachi M
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Astragalus membranaceus (Fabaceae) is commonly used in medicine to treat a wide variety of infections. However, there is a lack of information on the effectiveness of A. membranaceus against microorganisms. The purpose of this study is to determine whether A. membranaceus inhibits bacterial growth in vitro. Methanolic and Ethanolic extracts of Astragalus membranaceus were prepared using dried root and were screened for phytochemical constituents. Tests for alkaloids, Saponins, Terpenoids, Flavonoids and cardiac glycosides were positive in both methanolic and ethanolic extracts. The evaluation of Antimicrobial activity of both the extracts was also carried out. The extracts were tested in disc diffusion assays against Diarrheal bacterial pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella, and Campylobacter. The results of antibacterial activity revealed that all the extract showed good inhibitory activity against all the tested pathogens. The activity of the extract was compared with standard antibiotics. <br />
416-418
61
MULTIPLE UNIT PELLET SYSTEMS: A REVIEW
*VR Sirisha K, K Vijaya sri, K Suresh and G Kamalakar Reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Compressed multiple unit pellet tablets/multiple unit particulate or pellet system commonly called MUPS are composed of polymer coated subunits namely pellets; which are embedded in an inert excipients matrix designed to overcome the difficulties in administering capsules and improved physico-chemical stability compared to suspensions. The functional coating like drug coating, barrier coating, enteric polymer coating is usually applied in a fluid bed coating processor provides each subunit with the characteristic desired drug release properties. The size, shape and surface morphology of the pellets to be coated are the prerequisites for coating of pellets. Design of MUPS involves formulating pellets by different techniques and further compression of these pellets into rapidly disintegrating tablets; disintegrate rapidly in the oral cavity for the delivery of coated pellets into the gastrointestinal tract or the site of release of the drug. Inspite of the challenges like content uniformity of the compressed tablets, ability of the film to withstand compression force; MUPS occupy a prominent role in formulating drugs due to their greater patient compliance; process, formulation and therapeutic advantages.
419-425
62
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL EVALUATION OF ROOT OF ALPINIA GALANGA WILLD
*Prasad V. Kadam, Kavita N. Yadav, Ramesh S. Deoda, Vidya S. Navasare, Rakesh S. Shivatare and Manohar J. Patil
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pharmacognostic studies of crude drug plays a very important role in identification the purity and quality of crude drugs. Medicinal plants which are found on earth have renowned medicinal significance and their usage is increasing day by day in our daily life. Different investigations are in continuously progressing towards exploring the pharmacological and therapeutical properties of herbal drugs. The present work embodies the investigations carried out to establish methods for quality control of drugs as per WHO guidelines for pharmacognostically untapped drugs. The root of Alpinia galanga, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is one of the same. Complete botanical evaluations which comprise macroscopic, microscopy, physicochemical parameters and phytochemical screening were carried out for the quality control of the drug. Thus it was thought worthwhile to explore this most functional plant on the basis of this standardization parameter. The study will provide referential information for the correct identification of the crude drug. <br />
426-431
63
REVERSAL OF MULTI-DRUG RESISTANCE IN MDR CANCER CELL BY 3113, A NEW DIPEPTIDOMIMETIC OF P-AMINOBENZOIC ACID
*Haiyan Wei , Jufang Yan , Wentao Liu and Chunyuan Fan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In this study, we reported for the first time that a new compound named 3113, which is the dipeptidomimetic of p-aminobenzoic acid showed multi-drug resistance (MDR) reversal activity. In MDR cancer cells, no matter acquired or inherent, combination with 3113 enhanced doxorubicin (DXR) cytotoxicity by 8 to 10 folds, which was slightly higher than the effect of verapamil (VPL). 3113 was indicated to enhance the cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs through increasing its intracellular accumulation in a time-dependent manner. According to the result of FCM (flow cytometry), the intracellular fluorescence representing the concentration of intracellular DXR was improved by 10 folds as compared with the MDR cells without 3113. Western blotting analysis of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) confirmed that 3113 can alter P-gp expression in a time-dependent way. In conclusion, MDR reversal activity of 3113 depends on, at least in part, the inhibition of P-gp expression.
432-438
64
MEDICINES PRESCRIBING PATTERNS FOR THE TREATMENT OF COMMON DISEASES AT COMMUNITY HEALTH CENTRES IN 3 DISTRICTS OF TIMOR-LESTE
*Stanley Chindove , Antonio Ximenes and Nelson Martins
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Problems with inappropriate use of medicines leading to antimicrobial resistance and increased healthcare costs are a major global concern. In Timor-Leste, concerns of inappropriate use of medicines at public health facilities are current among stakeholders in the health community. Therefore this descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective study investigated the pattern of medicine use at community health centres in 3 districts of Timor-Leste.&nbsp; 100 case records of outpatients with acute respiratory infections, diarrhoea and malaria during a one year period (July 2010 to July 2011) were randomly sampled at 8 community health centres. Our findings show that the average number of medicines per encounter was slightly higher compared to a previous study at community health centres in Timor-Leste. However, extremely low usage of injections for outpatients was observed.&nbsp; Use of antibiotics among patients with upper respiratory infections and diarrhoea was considerably high. Antibiotics, analgesics, vitamins and antihistamines were commonly prescribed medicine categories. There was moderate availability of key medicines. <br />
439-444
65
ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF ANCHUSA STRIGOSA LAB IN STREPTOZOTOCIN DIABETIC RATS
*Ahmed Muhammed and Nuray Arı
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Flowers of Anchusa strigosa Lab. (Boraginaceae) used traditionally in Iraq for curing many kinds of diseases including diabetes. The present study was carried out to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of flowers of A. strigosa in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. The aqueous extract of A. strigosa flowers was administered orally (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) to diabetic rats for 30 days. A. strigosa caused a dose-dependent fall in blood glucose. Also there was an improvement in serum insulin levels. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels showed significant reduction in comparison with diabetic control group. The extract treatment also showed significant increase in hepatic glycogen levels. The results suggest that A. strigosa possesses antidiabetic effects in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
445-449
66
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF FIVE DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF WITHANIA SOMNIFERA ROOT
*Mohammad Shahriar, Abu Nizam Md Bahar, Md. Ismail Hossain, Sadika Akhter, Md. Aminul Haque and Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Current investigation aimed to assess the phytochemical screening, free radical scavenging potential and cytotoxic activity of the root extracts of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha). Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenol, flavonoid, tannin, saponin, alkaloid, glycoside and carbohydrate. In evaluation, methanol, ethanol, chloroform, pet-ether and n-hexane extract of the root powder was prepared and screened for in-vitro antioxidant activities by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity where chloroform, pet-ether and methanol extract of Withania somnifera showed noticeable effect in the DPPH scavenging assay. All five extracts were subjected to brine shrimp lethality bioassay for possible cytotoxicity. Concentration dependent increment in percent mortality of Brine Shrimp nauplii produced by the ethanol extract of Withania somnifera indicates the presence of cytotoxic principles in these extractives.
450-453
67
DRUG INTERACTION IN POLY PRESCRIPTIONS; EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT
*Hina Rehman, Ammar Hussain and Javeid Iqbal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Drug Interaction is increasing day by day leading to the major manifestations of Health care issues. According to &ldquo;WHO&rdquo; Drug Interaction was estimated to be from 6.2 % to 6.7 % per year. According to the &ldquo;Journal of the American Medical Association&rdquo; (JAMA 1996) reported that 108,000 American died in hospital and 2.2 million American had reaction to &ldquo;FDA&rdquo; permitted medication. To overcome for this scenario there are numerous sources of in sequence which accessible to Prescriber, Pharmacist and User about the Drug Interaction. In 2009, in the UK, drugs are gradually more obtainable over the counter and on-line devoid of prescription. Additionally, close at hand is widespread use of numerous herbal medicines from relatively under-regulated suppliers and the constituents of such products are often not known. This clinical reality of the widespread use of potent medicines &ndash; be they allopathic or traditional showed us the need for a practical hands-on guide that aims to be a compact, succinct and accessible source of Information for practitioners, prescribers and the public about adverse drug-Interactions. In this Cross Sectional Study total 300 Prescriptions were collected after analysis 250 informed consent have filled. Rest in 50 prescriptions the prescribing pattern errors have found including consent displeasure. In 250 prescriptions 70 is interacted and 180 is non-interacted or safe, without any significance level. The statically data have given below and graph demonstrates the interaction in all clinic, Government and private sectors hospitals. In this study poly prescription evaluation in primary, secondary and tertiary care hospitals. The percentage of interacted and non-interacted prescription is 28% in the city of Karachi, Pakistan. Female genders were more susceptible for interaction due to various causes about 17.6% and Male about 10.4% out of 28%.The major significance level is about 4% in Major Interaction, Moderate is about 13.6% and Minor is about 14.8%. Most Interaction Found in Cardiovascular is about 11.6% along with it 2.0 % interaction in Angina and 1.2% in Arrthymias.
454-465
68
A STUDY ON UTILIZATION PATTERN OF HIGHER GENERATION ANTIBIOTICS AMONG PATIENTS VISITING COMMUNITY PHARMACIES IN CHIDAMBARAM, TAMIL NADU AT SOUTH INDIA
*Akram Ahmad, S. Parimalakrishnan, Guru Prasad Mohanta, Isha Patel and PK Manna
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Infectious diseases are a prominent cause of death in developing countries. The antibiotic resistance caused by emergence of antibiotic resistant microorganisms, is a health problem leading to poor treatment outcomes and increased cost, increased mortality, morbidity and adverse drug reactions. The government of India proposed to introduce the New Drug Policy in 2011which calls for the making of a new schedule, Schedule HX, under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act. A cross-sectional and observational study was conducted in a private community pharmacy situated in Chidambaram, a city in rural South India to determine the appropriateness of the higher generation antibiotics (cephalosporin, flouroquinolone and coamoxiclav groups) in the out-patient department. The prescriptions were collected from the patients after they purchased the medicine from the pharmacy. All prescriptions containing higher generation antibiotics were assessed for the inappropriateness using a modified Medication Appropriateness Index. 300prescriptions containing higher generation antibiotics were analyzed. Out of the 77.66% of the prescriptions containing, 69.95% of prescriptions contained higher generation antibiotics. When assessed for the appropriateness of the prescription, 51%of the prescriptions containing higher generation antibiotics were prescribed inappropriately. <br />
466-471
69
COMPLEXATION, OPTIMIZATION, FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CLINDAMYCIN PHOSPHATE GEL USING ZINC ACETATE DIHYDRATE
*Manoj Kumar Mishra and Pramod Kumar Biswal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A stable zinc-clindamycin complex gel was formed by optimizing concentration of clindamycin phosphate (1.188gm) and zinc acetate dehydrate (500 mg), determining optimum pH condition (pH 7.5) and stabilizing (pH 5-8) the complex using various gelling agents. Drug identification was carried out by FTIR and DSC study. Related substances analysis and quantitative determination of drug were carried out on HPLC. Physical parameters like color, smoothness/ grittiness, ease of application, oiliness/greasiness, skin irritation, pH and viscosity of gel were conducted from time to time. Antimicrobial effectiveness test were screened against five selected pathogens. A Franz diffusion cells system was used to determine the release rate profile of the formulation which produces better result comparable to the marketed product (Dalacin&reg; lotion) concludes the topical application of gel useful in acne vulgaris is capable of storage during shelf life for longer period of time without losing its therapeutic effectiveness and maintaining the uniformity.<br /><br />
472-483
70
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF SOLANUM PUBESCENS WILD EXTRACTS GEL ON ALBINO WISTAR RATS
*P. Niyogi, N.J. Raju, P.G. Reddy, B.G. Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was aimed to prepared and characterize gel formulations of ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Solanum pubescens (Solanaceae) leaves using different polymers as gelling agents in various concentrations and also to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of gel. For the study, polymers such as Carbopol 940 (0.5%w/v), Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose K4M (2.5%w/v), Sodium Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (3.5%w/v) were selected for preparation of different gel formulations. The prepared gels were evaluated for physical appearance, pH, viscosity, extrudability, spreadability, anti inflammatory activity and also skin irritation to observe toxicity or side effects. At last the stability study performed to confirm the stability of final formulation. It was inferred from the results that gel formulation prepared by HPMC K4M found to be best formulations among the prepared batches.&nbsp; The prepared gels were evaluated for anti inflammatory activity by carrageenan induced paw odema method in wistar rat model using Diclofenac Sodium as the reference anti-inflammatory drug. And HPMC K4M formulation having 7.5%w/v ethyl acetate extract of Solanum pubescens (Solanaceae) leaves in gel shown significant inhibition in carrageenan induced paw odema.
484-490
71
HYPOGLYCEMIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF GLINUS OPPOSITIFOLIUS
*Ghanshyam Panigrahi, Uma Shankar Mishra, Sujata Mahapatra, Chhayakanta Panda, Gourishyam Pasa and Deepak Ku Hati
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study has been to investigate the possible hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of methanolic extract of the plant Glinus oppositifolius. The methanolic extract of Glinus oppositifolius was tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose overloaded hyperglycemic rats and hypoglycemic activity in overnight fasted normal rats. The extract was also evaluated for antihyperlipidemic activity in triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats. All the methods were carried out at three dose levels, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively. The results of the study were expressed as mean &plusmn; SEM, n=6 and data was analyzed by using one way analysis of variance test (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni&#39;s Multiple Comparison Test with 5% level of significance (P&lt;0.05). The methanolic extract of Glinus oppositifolius exhibited significant antihyperglycemic activity (P&lt;0.05) at 200 and 400 mg/ kg but did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats. It also exhibited a significant reduction (P&lt;0.05) in serum lipid profile like total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipopreotein (VLDL) and increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) in hyperlipidemic rats as compared to hyperlipidemic control statistically. All the activities were found dose dependent. This study supports the traditional claim and the methanolic extract of this plant possessed significant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect could be added in traditional preparations for the ailment of complications associated with hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic conditions or as an adjuvant with existing therapy.<br /><br />
491-497
72
INFLUENCE OF NATURAL GUMS FOR EFFECTIVE COLON TARGETING OF METHOTREXATE FOR THE TREATMENT OF COLORECTAL CANCER
*Bharani S. Sogali, Mohammed Yousuff and Shashank Nayak
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Colon-specific drug delivery systems (CDDS) are developed to reduce side effects and to achieve high local drug concentration at the affected site in the colon, hence optimal therapeutic effectiveness and good patient compliance. The aim of the present investigation was to develop colon targeted drug delivery system for methotrexate using guar gum and pectin as a carriers in the treatment of crohn&rsquo;s disease, ulcerative colitis, colorectal cancer, etc. Fast-disintegrating methotrexate core tablets were compression-coated with different ratios of guar gum and pectin. All the formulations were evaluated for the hardness, drug content uniformity, and subjected to in vitro drug release studies with and without rat caecal contents. The in vitro studies concluded that, amongst the different formulations, the F10 containing polymers 50%(guar gum and pectin) in the ratio 1:1 showed better drug release and satisfactory results&nbsp; showing a release of 83.4&plusmn;0.98% of methotrexate after degradation by colonic bacteria at the end of 24 hrs of the dissolution study and 49.4&plusmn;0.9% in simulated colonic fluids. The statistical significance was tested by using Student&rsquo;s t-test and found statistically significant. Optimised F10 formulation was subjected to stability studies at 40&ordm;C&plusmn;2&ordm;C/75%&plusmn;5% RH for 3 months and observed no significant change either in physical appearance, drug content or dissolution pattern. The DSC study showed that methotrexate did not react with polymers (guar gum &amp; pectin) or other excipients used in the study.
498-506
73
THE SCENARIO OF PHARMACY JOURNALS WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON IMPACT FACTOR
*Nimbekar TP, Wanjari BE, Bais YG and Nema
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The Impact Factor of a journal reflects the frequency with which the journal&#39;s articles are cited in the scientific literature. It provides a quantitative tool for ranking, evaluating, categorizing and comparing journals worldwide. Along with the impact factor, another term citation index rates the journal articles. It counts for an individual article, an author and a journal altogether. In our country, ranking, rating of pharmacy and scientific journals is lagging far behind as compared to international journals. The main reasons are comparatively low content value and low economic status in our country. Therefore, we need to increase the research work and publicity of our journals and make them available online which reduces the cost as well.
502-517
74
ANTI-PSYCHOTIC EFFECT OF AQUEOUS LEAVES EXTRACT OF MORUS ALBA IN ANIMAL MODELS
*Girish P. Laddha and G. Vidyasagar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
There are number of patients suffering from of psychiatric condition such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, migraine, anti-impulsivity, cognition. Serotonin is the most important neurotransmitters that have been implicated in etiology of number of these psychiatric conditions. Ethyl acetate soluble fraction and insoluble of leaves extracts of morus Alba was carried out on different in-vitro methods.&nbsp; Laboratory animals were given lithium sulphate to causes serotonin blockage from serotonergic neurons. They were treated with different higher concentration clozapine (active comparator) and EASF and EAISF then the psychotic symptoms were monitored to see which group exhibited the best response. The highest dose extract (100mg/kg) was comparable to clozapine in lowering psychotic behavior characterized by head twitches, stereotypy and 5-hydroxytryptophan potention hence both morus Alba and clozapine can be used to treat psychosis induced by amphetamine. The anti-psychotic effect of morus alba leaves may be in dose graded fashion. <br /><br />
513-519
75
EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC POTENTIAL OF SIDA CORDIFOLIA LINN. IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS
*Mehul V. Makwana, Nilesh M. Pandya, Bhavik D. Doshi, Dharmesh N. Darji, Sarav A. Desai and Bhaskar VH
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was aimed to evaluate antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity of an aqueous extract of root of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCAE) against Triton WR-1339 and High fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia in experimental animal. Effect of simultaneous administration of SCAE in different doses (200 &amp; 400 mg/kg) by oral route was estimated in Triton WR-1339 and HFD induced hyperlipidemic animals by estimating serum lipid levels of cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), Low density lipoproteins (LDL), High density lipoprotein (HDL) and Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and atherogenic index. Whereas antioxidant activity was carried out by estimating serum levels oxidative marker Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT). From the study, it was revealed that the aqueous extract of Sida cordifolia possesses significant hyperlipidemic activity in acute as well as chronic hyperlipidemic models in the company of promising antioxidant activity. So, it was concluded that aqueous extract of Sida cordifolia possesses potential antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity in experimental animals.
520-525
76
FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CEFUROXIME AXETIL FLOATING MICROSPHERES
*Marimuthu S, Nantheeswaran S, Shanmugarathinam A and Purachikody A
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of this research work was to increase the residence time of drug Cefuroxime axetil by formulating as floating microspheres and to study the effect of formulation variables on microsphere characteristics. Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation method in which ethyl cellulose used as a release retardant polymer. Nine different formulations were prepared by changing drug to polymer ratio, volume of internal phase, volume of external phase and stirring time. The prepared microspheres were characterized for drug - polymer compatibility by IR, percentage yield, particle size analysis, drug entrapment efficiency, surface morphology by SEM, bulk density, percentage buoyancy, in-vitro release and release kinetic studies. Results of these evaluations showed that particle size in the range of 58.52 to 77.36&micro;m, encapsulation efficiency was found to be 60.7 to 75.7%, Percentage buoyancy of all formulations were in the range of 62.12 to 81.23%.&nbsp; Fourier-Transform Infra Red (FT-IR) studies ensured that no drug - polymer interaction in the formulated microspheres and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) photograph revealed that microspheres were spherical in nature with rough surface. In- vitro release profile of microspheres were in the range of 73.47 % to 89.78%, at the end of 12 hrs.&nbsp; In release kinetic studies, most of the formulation followed hiquchi release kinetics and follows anomalous transport (non- fickian) mechanism. This entire evaluation confirmed that drug: polymer ratio has significant effect on microsphere characteristics than the other variables used, and also the in-vivo bioavailability of the drug will increase because the buoyancy of microspheres in simulated gastric fluid was satisfactory.
526-533
77
INCIDENCES OF CHEMOTHERAPY-INDUCED NEUTROPENIA AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH TREATMENT OUTCOMES
*Bhavik D. Doshi , Nilesh M. Pandya, Chirag A. Shah, Mehul V. Makwana
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was aimed to evaluate the incidences of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in patients with solid tumors in India. The patients with carcinomas of breast, lung, ovary, colon, head and neck, and liver were divided in two groups. Group 1 was for the patients who experienced grade 0-2 neutropenia and Group 2 was for patients with grade 3-4 neutropenia. Different types of chemotherapeutic agents were administered to the patients according to the routine practice of the physicians. The study revealed that the incidences of grade 3-4 neutropenia were observed in the patients with the first time exposure of the chemotherapeutic agents as well as the age factor also played an important role in the occurrence of neutropenia and febrile neutropenia. The results of this observational study indicate that the proportion of grade 0-2 neutropenia does not significantly (P-value &gt; 0.05) differ from the hypotheses value (i.e. 50%). Thus, we observed that the proportion of incidence of grade 3-4 neutropenia is less as compare to proportion of grade 0-2 neutropenia. Significant no. of patients received pegylated GCSF while a small proportion of patients received non-pegylated GCSF. A few patients were hospitalized due to neutropenia wherein age was observed as an important factor. Due to neutropenia, age of patients, and other comorbidities, chemotherapy dose was delayed and/or reduced.
534-541
78
PHYTOCHEMISTY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF BRYONIA LACINOSA: A REVIEW
*Rasagna Yadavalli, Venu Gopal Y and S.A. Sreenivas
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Many herbal remidies have been employed in various medical systems for treatment and management of different diseases. The plant Bryonia lacinosa has been used in different system of traditional medication for the treatment of diseases and ailments of human beings. Goniothalamin, punicic acid and lipids were previously isolated from the whole plant of Bryonia laciniosa. From leaves a bitter principle, bryonin, has been reported. Arabinoglucomannan, a polysaccharide is present in the fruit which is mainly used for anti-microbial activity. It has been reported that the plant contains anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticonvulsant, anti microbial and cytotoxic properties. The current study is therefore reviewed to provide requisite phytochemical and pharmacological detail about the plant. <br />
542-547
79
INTRANASAL THERMOREVERSIBLE MUCOADHESIVE GELS: A Review
*Shailja singh, Kanupriya and S.L. Hari kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Almost 40% of active Pharmaceutical ingredients have low oral bioavailability, high hepatic first-pass metabolism and also less efficient in crossing the blood brain barrier for brain targeting through oral delivery. To overcome this problem the various system such as: nasal spray, gels, emulsions, droplets, suspensions, powders and thermoreversible mucoadhesive gels etc have been studied for nasal delivery. Thermoreversible mucoadhesive gels have promising results in nasal drug delivery. Thermoreversible mucoadhesive gels are those which convert into gel in nasal cavity after administration at body temperature with suitable gel strength, results in enhancement of the residence time in the nasal cavity. These formulations contain thermoreversible polymers (Pluronic F127 or Poloxamer) and mucoadhesive polymers. Thermoreversible polymers are a novel state of matter having both solid and liquid like properties which can be delivered as a fluid and solidifies within the body&rsquo;s microenvironment where the temperature is higher than the sol-gel transition temperature. The formulation has the advantage to prevent the anterior leakage of dosage form, reduce the taste impact, and enhance the nasal bioavailability. Thermoreversible gels are formulated by two methods: simple stirriring and cold method. This abstract gives an overview of Thermoreversible mucoadhesive gels as a promising approach to effectively tackle the problem of low oral bioavailability of drugs.
548-556
80
SCREENING FOR FOLKLORE FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY
*Ekta Menghani and Sita kumari sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Methanolic extracts of two Indian medicinal plants Citrullus colocynthis, and Citrus medica, were examined for their antimicrobial potential against selected bacteria and fungi. The purpose of screening is to justify and authenticate the use of Indian medicinal plants in ethno medicinal or folklore as traditional treasure to cure various ailments. In present investigations attempts were made to screen the Indian medicinal plants as antimicrobial agent. The extracts were tested against selected test bacteria and fungi through disc diffusion assay where Tetracycline and Mycostatin were used as standard. Indian medicinal plants have a traditional background that they have potentials to use as antimicrobial agents. The results showed that alcoholic extract possess good antimicrobial activity against selected test bacteria and fungi. The present results therefore offer a scientific basis for traditional use of the various extract of Citrullus colocynthis, and Citrus medica.
557-560
81
SPL: KEY REQUIREMENT FOR REGULATORY
*Pawbake Ganesh R, Dhut Mayur O, Sayyed Sadik F and Chaudahari Sanjay R
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the world of globalization people gets each &amp; every information on internet by the utilization of different website, with the use of daily med website peoples were aware about all information of particular drug product &amp; it is possible with the concept of structure product labelling (SPL). SPL is the key requirement for the regulated market. By keeping in mind the awareness of people in the medicines or drugs, health level seven (HL7) members approved or introduced the concept of SPL that has been adopted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a mechanism for exchanging medication information. SPL is also used by the FDA for the submission of other regulatory information supporting product labeling, specifically for establishment registration and labeler information.<br /><br />
561-563
82
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL CHARACTERISATION OF DELONIX REGIA - A NOVEL MATRIX FORMING NATURAL POYMER
*Sarojini Sarangapani and Manavalan Rajappan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Herbal medicinal plants are said to be the nature&lsquo;s gift to mankind, since they have been of long age remedies for human diseases. The present study was undertaken to isolate&nbsp;&nbsp; gum&nbsp;&nbsp; from the seeds of Delonix regia linn, to explore its use as a Pharmaceutical exicipient. The isolated gum was evaluated for various Pharmacognostical parameters and physico-chemical characterization. The loss on drying, ash value and microbial load were well within the official limits. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of these extracts revealed the presence of flavonoid, saponins, carbohydrates and tannins in some extracts, The explored result suggest that various bioactive compounds of seed can be used for curing various diseases .This study elucidated the physical, thermal, sorption and functional properties of a gum obtained from the seed of Delonix regia . Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Particle size analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XPRD), Differential scanning colorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transmittance infra red (FTIR), were used to characterize the gum sample which can be used further for the formulation development.<br />
564-573
83
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF MONTELUKAST SODIUM
*Mohd Abdul Hadi, V. Lokeswara Babu, Narottam Pal, and A. Srinivasa Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of this study was to develop sustained release tablets of Montelukast sodium by direct compression method using various polymers. The drug excipient mixtures were subjected to pre-formulation studies. The tablets were subjected to physicochemical studies, in- vitro drug release, kinetic studies and stability studies. FTIR and DSC studies shown there was no interaction between drug and polymers. The physicochemical properties of tablets were found within the limits. Montelukast sodium is a leukotriene receptor antagonist used for the maintenance treatment of asthma. The drug release from formulations was extended for a period of 12 hrs. The kinetic treatment showed that the release of drug follows first order models. The optimized formulations were subjected to stability studies and shown there were no significant changes in drug content, physicochemical parameters and release pattern. Results of the present study indicated the suitability of the above mentioned polymers in the preparation of sustained release formulation of Montelukast sodium.<br />
574-582
84
PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOME THERAPEUTIC MEDICINAL FLOWERS
*U. Thiripura Sundari, S. Rekha and A. Parvathi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study was to analyse the phytochemical constituents of the flowers that have tremendous therapeutic potential which could be explored to provide affordable medicines to masses.&nbsp; In this paper,&nbsp; an attempt&nbsp; was made&nbsp; to survey the phytochemicals of the&nbsp; flowers of&nbsp; ten taxa&nbsp; namely&nbsp; Cassia auriculata, L.,&nbsp; Catharanthus roseus,(L.)Don., Hibiscus rosa sinensis, L., Lawsonia inermis, L., Michelia champaca, L.,&nbsp; Mangifera indica, L., Mimusops&nbsp; elengi, L., Moringa oleifera, Lamk., Nelumbo nucifera, Gaertn. and Rosa indica, L. belonging to ten different angiospermic families to know their therapeutically important secondary metabolites. The scope of the floral remedies to cure various human diseases has been discussed. <br />
583-585
85
LIQUISOLID COMPCT: A NOVEL APPROCH TO ENHANCE BIOAVAILABILITY OF POORLY SOLUBLE DRUG
*Sandip Vajir
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Liquisolid technique is a new and promising method that can change the dissolution rate of water insoluble drugs. According to the new formulation method of liquisolid compacts, liquid medications such as solutions or suspensions of water insoluble drugs in suitable non-volatile liquid vehicles can be converted into acceptably flowing and compressible powders by blending with selected powder excipients. It has been speculated that such systems exhibit enhanced release profiles. In this case, even though the drug is in a solid dosage form, it is held within the powder substratein solution or, in a solubilized, almost molecularly dispersed state, which contributes to the enhanced drug dissolution properties. Large scale production of fabricated drug on commercial level.succesful liquisolid tablet is a determination of optimal flowable liquid retention.
586-590
86
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC AND STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
*Sohan S. Chitlange, Ramesh D. Bhusal, Monesh B. Nikumbh and Ritesh P. Bhole
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate and reproducible UV-Spectrophotometric and Stability indicating RP-HPLC methods have been developed for simultaneous estimation of Metoprolol Succinate and Hydrochlorothiazide in tablet dosage form. The first UV method was a determination using Absorption corrected for interference method and the second UV method was a determination using Multi-Component mode method at 276 nm and 316.5 nm over the concentration range 20-120 &mu;g/mL and 10-60 &mu;g/mL for Metoprolol Succinate and Hydrochlorothiazide respectively. The RP-HPLC analysis is carried out using 0.05M potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer (pH adjusted to 3 with orthophosphoric acid) and acetonitrile in the ratio of (80:20 % v/v) as the mobile phase and Thermo C18 column (4.6 mm i.d. &times; 250 mm), flow rate 1.1 mL/min, with detection wavelength of 222 nm. Linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 20-120 &mu;g/mL and 10-60 &mu;g/mL for Metoprolol Succinate and Hydrochlorothiazide respectively. Both UV-spectrophotometric and stability indicating RP-HPLC methods were developed and statistically validated as per ICH guidelines.
591-597
87
IN-VITRO AND IN-VIVO CORRELATION OF IMMEDIATE RELEASE ACYCLOVIR TABLET USING WAGNER NELSON METHOD
*Somnath Sakore and Bhaswat Chakraborthy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of this study was to establish In-Vitro and In-Vivo correlation of immediate release Acyclovir tablets of 800 mg. In vitro and in vivo studies are done on the test product as Acyclovir Tablet USP 800 mg (containing Acyclovir 800 mg) of Cadila Pharmaceuticals Ltd., India versus Zovirax&reg; Tablet 800 mg (containing Acyclovir 800 mg) of GlaxoSmithKline, USA. In vivo studies are done in 36 healthy, adult, human subjects under fasting condition.In vitro dissolution study was done using USP apparatus II at 50 rpm in 0.1N HCL for 45 minutes. The in vitro&ndash;in vivo correlation of Acyclovir shows R-squared value 0.9794 in excel work sheet, which depicts a successful correlation between in vitro and in vivo Characteristic of the drug. In addition, %PE AUC and %PE Cmax was found to be &ndash;4.604 and -11.19 respectively for each formulation. The present study shows a good correlation between in vivo and in vitro PK profiles of the formulation used as the test drug in the study. <br />
598-604
88
EFFECTIVE PATIENT COUNSELING ON DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS
*B. Akshaya Srikanth, G. Praveen Kumar and S. K. Jain
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The role of the healthcare provider should consist of educating patients and their relatives about the drugs and supplements and ensuring the patients without harming themselves by self medications. Pharmacists can assist them in this by playing a role although some dietary supplements are used while in treating diseases and have some scientific research to support their use. There are many dietary supplements like velarian, melatonin used for the treatment of mild to moderate insomnia, omega-3-fatty acid, niacin in reducing the triglycerides levels and lycopene in reducing the HMG-CoA reductase by enhancing the LDL reductase which are safe and more effective. Current supplements and how they should be effectively useful in different condition and counseling to the patient. Information to assist the healthcare providers about the dietary supplements use in different conditions and counseling the patients is also provided.
605-608
89
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE AND SIMVASTATIN IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
*Ankur Kothari and Sheetal Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple and accurate method of analysis to determine Sitagliptin Phosphate (STG) and Simvastatin(SMV) in combined dosage forms was developed using simultaneous equation method at 267.0nm&nbsp; for Simvastatin and 238.0 nm for Simvastatin in spectra of their solutions in methanol: water(90:10). The calibration curves were linear [correlation coefficient (r) = 0.986 for STG and 0.998 for SMV] in concentration range of 10-50 &mu;g/ml for STG and 5-25 &mu;g/ml for SMV. The method was validated and found to be accurate, precise, and specific. The method was successfully applied to the estimation of STG and SMV in combined dosage tablet formulations.
609-612
90
ANTIMICROBIAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES ON MALLOTUS PHILIPPENSIS, (KAMALA POWDER)
*Dilnawaz Shaikh, Jahanzeb Shaikh, Asif Bin Rehman and Sumaira Shafi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Methanolic extract of Hairs and Glands covering fruits of Mallotus philippinensis (kamala powder) were subjected to Antimicrobial and toxicological screening. Antimicrobial profile indicated that extract was effective against all Gram positive cocci and bacilli used in the study. Among Gram negative bacilli, three important pathogenic species i.e. Salmonella typhi, Salmonella para typhiA and Pseudomonas aeroginosa showed sensitivity to the plant extract. Among Fungi tested, Candida albicans was sensitive whereas penicillium and Aspergillus species were non-sensitive to the extract. Acute toxicity studies in mice indicated that kamala powder is feebly toxic. No mortality is observed even at a high dose of 1000&micro;m/kg B.W. However male mice exhibited significant decrease in body weight. Results of autopsy also showed significant decrease in weight of Liver and spleen at P&lt;0.05 Histopathological studies indicated minor pathological changes in kidneys and liver of the test animals.<br /><br />
613-618
91
SCREENING OF PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIPROLIFARATION OF CELL GROWTH LAGENARIA SICERARIA STAND. FRUIT BY PHYTOTOXIC BIOASSAY MODELS
*Sarang Sunil Mahamuni, Suresh Ganpati Killedar and Harinath Nivrutti More
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Many of the Cucurbitaceae plants possess antitumor activity on the traditional use. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer activity of extracts Lagenaria siceraria Standley Fruit. This fruit has the antioxidant activity so the plant may have anticancer activity. Preliminary phytochemical tests of successive extraction of Lagenaria siceraria Standely Fruit powder had performed to find out the different chemical moieties. Preliminary anticancer screening by exposure of different extracts Phytotoxic Bioassay model was carried out to find out the lead extract which shows the promising cell growth inhibitory activity. Cereals Moth seeds&nbsp;&nbsp; were selected for the Phytotoxic Bioassay which shows the phytotoxicity that compared with standard antimitotic drug (colchicine). n-Butanol extract of Lagenaria siceraria Standley Fruit powder shows the promising anticancer activity or cytotoxicity, so that it is selected as a lead extract. Further isolation of active moiety from n-Butanol extract for anticancer activity by chromatographic techniques is completed. <br />
619-624
92
ASSESSMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF TYPHONIUM TRILOBATUM PLANT
*Sourav Kanti Roy, Pratyush Kumar Mishra, Subhangkar Nandy and Viren kumar Patel
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Typhonium trilobatum is a genus in the Araceae family endemic to tropical Asia, the South Pacific, and Australia. Most of the plant parts of Typhonium trilobatum are used in traditional systems of medicine in India. According to Ayurveda, the rhizome is used with effect for treating vomiting, cough, asthma, excessive expectoration, pyogenic sore throat, headache, gastric ulcer, abcess and snake bite. The present work objectives focus on scientific exploration of anti microbial activity of whole plant of Typhonium trilobatum. The test all extracts exhibited prominent antimicrobial activity against all tested organism, where chloroform extract shown the maximum zone of inhibition. The order of antimicrobial activity of all extract are, chloroform &gt; Methanolic &gt;Ethyl acetate against bacteria i.e. Escherichia Coli, P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and S. Epidermidis and fungi i.e. Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger.
625-630
93
SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ATORVASTATIN AND TELMISARTAN IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY
*Vineetha Vykuntum, Gajja Vijaykumar and Kudipudi Harinadhbabu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, rapid and accurate reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of Atorvastatin and Telmisartan in tablet dosage form is developed and validated. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a kromasil C18 column (150&times;4.6 mm, 3.5 &micro;m) in isocratic mode, the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (adjusted to pH 3.8 with ortho-phosphoric acid) at a ratio of 70:30 v/v, and a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The eluents were monitored at 278 nm. The retention time of Atorvastatin and Telmisartan were found to be 2.804 min and 3.875 min, respectively. The linear ranges were found to be 50-90 &micro;g/mL (r2=0.9992) for Atorvastatin and 12.5-22.5 &micro;g/mL (r2=0.999) for Telmisartan. The proposed method is also found to be accurate, precise and robust. The method could be applied to routine quality control of pharmaceutical formulations containing Atorvastatin and Telmisartan.
631-635
94
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF LORNOXICAM USING RP-HPLC IN BULK DRUG AND FORMULATION
Kukalakunta Kavya, Gajja Vijaykumar and Kudipudi Harinadhbabu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt; text-align: justify" class="abst"><font size="2">A simple, specific and sensitive reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of esomeprazole and domperidone from pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method uses ODS C18 column and isocratic elution. The mobile phase composed of methanol: phosphate buffer (pH 4.0) in the ratio of 65:35 v/v was used at a flow rate of 1.0 ml /min. DAD detector was programmed at 230 nm for run time 7 min. All the validation parameters were in acceptable range. The developed method was effectively applied to quantitate amount of esomeprazole and domperidone from tablets. The method was also applied suitably for determining the degradation products of esomeprazole and domperidone.</font></p>
636-639
95
RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF DOMPERIDONE AND ESOMEPRAZOLE IN COMBINED DOSAGE FORM
M. Akiful Haque*, S. Hasan Amrohi, A. Manikanta Kumar, Dibyalochan Mohanty and Prakash V Diwan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">A simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative determination of </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">Lornoxicam</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif; letter-spacing: -0.05pt"> </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">in bulk drug and formulation. </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">T<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">h</span>e<span style="letter-spacing: 0.25pt"> </span>d<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">e</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.1pt">v</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.1pt">e</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">l</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">p</span>ed<span style="letter-spacing: 1.1pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">m</span>ethod<span style="letter-spacing: 0.7pt"> </span>co<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">n</span>s<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">i</span>s<span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">ts</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt"> of</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt"> m</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">bil</span>e p<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">h</span>ase, </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">ammonium dihydrogen phosphate Buffer: acetonitrile (50:50) with isocratic </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">pr<span style="letter-spacing: -0.1pt">o</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.1pt">g</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">a</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">mm</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">i</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">n</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.1pt">g</span>, </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">Hypersil BDS C<sub>18</sub>, 250&times;4.6mm, 5&micro;m</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif"> co<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">l</span>umn<span style="letter-spacing: 1.45pt"> </span>as<span style="letter-spacing: 0.8pt"> </span>s<span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span>ati<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">o</span>n<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">a</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span>y<span style="letter-spacing: 1.7pt"> </span>p<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">h</span>ase<span style="letter-spacing: 1.35pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">wi</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span>h<span style="letter-spacing: 1.05pt"> </span>a<span style="letter-spacing: 0.65pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.15pt">f</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">l</span>ow <span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span>ate<span style="letter-spacing: 0.9pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">o</span>f<span style="letter-spacing: 0.8pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">1</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">.</span>0<span style="letter-spacing: 0.9pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">m</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">L/</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">m</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">i</span>n.<span style="letter-spacing: 1.85pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">Pr</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">p</span>os<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">e</span>d<span style="letter-spacing: 1.7pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">m</span>ethod<span style="letter-spacing: 1.35pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">w</span>as <span style="letter-spacing: 0.9pt">&nbsp;</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.15pt">f</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.1pt">o</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">u</span>nd<span style="letter-spacing: 1.15pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: 0.65pt"> </span>be<span style="letter-spacing: 0.7pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">li</span>n<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">e</span>ar<span style="letter-spacing: 1.15pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">i</span>n<span style="letter-spacing: 0.6pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span>he<span style="letter-spacing: 0.8pt"> </span>co<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">n</span>ce<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">n</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">tr</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">a</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">i</span>on<span style="letter-spacing: 2.2pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span>a<span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">n</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.1pt">g</span>e<span style="letter-spacing: 1.1pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">o</span>f </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">5 &ndash; 30 </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif; letter-spacing: -0.1pt">&micro;g/mL</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">, <span style="letter-spacing: 0.45pt">the</span> cor<span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span>e<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">l</span>ati<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">o</span>n coefficient <span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">was</span><span style="letter-spacing: 1.75pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.15pt">f</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">u</span>nd<span style="letter-spacing: 2.1pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: 1.65pt"> </span>be<span style="letter-spacing: 1.55pt"> </span>0.99<span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">9</span>.<span style="letter-spacing: 2.25pt"> </span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">System suitability parameters were studied by injecting the standard solution five times and results were well under the acceptance criteria</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">,<span style="letter-spacing: 0.85pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.1pt">the</span><span style="letter-spacing: 2.35pt"> </span>propos<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">e</span>d&nbsp; <span style="letter-spacing: 0.15pt">&nbsp;</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">m</span>e<span style="letter-spacing: -0.1pt">t</span>h<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">o</span>d is<span style="letter-spacing: 2.05pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.15pt">f</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">u</span>nd<span style="letter-spacing: 2.55pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: 2.05pt"> </span>be se<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">n</span>s<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">i</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">i</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.1pt">v</span>e,<span style="letter-spacing: 1.15pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span>a<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">pi</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">d</span>,<span style="letter-spacing: 0.9pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span>e<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">p</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">d</span>uc<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">i</span>b<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">l</span>e,<span style="letter-spacing: 1.85pt"> </span>a<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">n</span>d<span style="letter-spacing: 1.95pt"> </span>acc<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">u</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">a</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span>e<span style="letter-spacing: 0.5pt">.</span></span>
640-644
96
IN-VITRO AND IN-VIVO EVALUATION TESTS FOR FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A REVIEW
*V. Bhavani Prasad, G.S.N. Koteswara Rao, B. Roja Rani, B. Raj Kumar, B. Sudhakar, P. Uma Devi and K.V. Ramana Murthy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of writing this review on evaluation tests that can be done for floating drug delivery systems (FDDS) was to amass the literature presenting the evaluation tests of various dosage forms that comes under FDDS. With advancements in the technology various dosage forms were designed in such a way that they reside in the stomach for a prolonged period of time releasing the drug at predetermined levels. Evaluation tests are of prime concern in evaluating the success of dosage form. This article gives a glance of all evaluation tests that can be done for various FDDS.
645-655
97
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LAMIVUDINE, TENOFOVIR AND EFAVIRENZ BY UPLC
*Sk. Madeesh, Y. Ismail and V. Gunasekaran
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate, rapid and precise isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of lamivudine, tenofovir and efavirenz in tablets. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a BEH symmetry C18 (50&times;4.6mm, 1.7 &micro;m) column with a mixture of methanol: phosphate buffer pH 3.0 adjusted with o-phosphoric acid (65:35, v/v) as mobile phase; at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The retention times for LAM, TEN and EFA were observed to be 0.432, 0.657, 2.281 min, respectively. Calibration plots were linear (r 2 &gt;0.999) over the concentration range of 10-50 &mu;g/mL for LAM and TEN; and 20-100 &mu;g/mL for EFA. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity, and sensitivity. The proposed method was successfully used for quantitative analysis of tablets. No interference from any component of pharmaceutical dosage form was observed. Validation studies revealed that method is specific, rapid, reliable, and reproducible. The high recovery and low relative standard deviation confirm the suitability of the method for routine determination of lamivudine, tenofovir and efavirenz in tablets. <br />
656-660
98
A VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF PIOGLITAZONE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
*A. Chandan Reddy, V. Vijayakumar, R. Sandeep Teja, P. Snehith, R. Karthik and G. N. V. Chandra Sekhar Reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple and rapid RP-HPLC method was developed for quantification of pioglitazone in tablet dosage form. The chromatography system used a reversed phase C8 column with dual wavelength absorbance detection at 267 nm. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (pH adjusted to 4.5 using ortho phosphoric acid) in the ratio of 60:40 % v/v at flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The linearity range was found to be 20-60 &micro;g/mL. The method was validated and it was concluded that the developed method was accurate, sensitive, precise, robust and useful for the quality control of pioglitazone in pharmaceutical preparations.
661-665
99
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL AND METOPROLOL SUCCINATE IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS
*Sohan S. Chitlange*, Reshma A. Talole, Ramesh D. Bhusal and Monesh B. Nikumbh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Simple, accurate, and reproducible two UV-spectrophotometric methods have been developed for simultaneous estimation of Olmesartan Medoxomil (OLME) and Metoprolol Succinate (METO) in tablet dosage form. The first UV- Spectrophotometric method was a determination using the Area Under Curve method and the second UV method was a determination using the Multi-Component mode method at 256.5 nm and 222.0 nm over the concentration range 5-30 &mu;g/mL and 5-30 &mu;g/mL for OLME and METO respectively. Both UV-spectrophotometric methods were statistically validated and can be used for analysis of combined dose tablet formulation containing OLME and METO.
666-669
100
A VALIDATED HPLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ANAGRELIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS
*S. Ramanjaneyulu, A. Durga Vyshnavi and M. K. Ch. Prasad
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method is developed for the determination of anagrelide in pharmaceutical preparations. Anagrelide was analysed on a reversed-phase column (XTerra symmetry C18, 150&times;4.6 mm, 5&micro;m) with a mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water (pH 3.0, pH adjusted with ortho phosphoric acid) in a ratio of 40:60 v/v at a flow-rate of 1.2 mL/min and PDA detection was performed at 250 nm. The retention time anagrelide was 2.349 min. The linearity range was found to be 5-30 &micro;g/mL. The method was validated and it was concluded that the developed method was accurate, sensitive, precise, rugged and useful for the quality control of anagrelide in pharmaceutical preparations. <br />
670-674
101
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF LEVOCETIRIZINE AND MONTELUKAST IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
*Ch. Harika, Gajja Vijaykumar and Kudipudi Harinadhbabu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination levocetirizine and montelukast in pharmaceutical dosage form. The column used was Thermosil C18 (150&times;4.6 mm, 3.5&micro;m) in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (30:70) adjusted to pH 3.6 using ortho phosphoric acid was used. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/ min and effluents were monitored at 232 nm. The retention times of levocetirizine and montelukast were 2.213 min and 5.674 min, respectively. The linearity for levocetirizine and montelukast were in the range of 50-90 mg/mL and 100-140 mg/mL respectively. The recoveries of levocetirizine and montelukast were found to be 100.31% and 100.37%, respectively. The proposed method was validated and successfully applied to the estimation of levocetirizine and montelukast in combined tablet dosage forms.
675-678
102
AN IMPORTANT APPROACH IN
*Shailendra Shekhar Jadiya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Now it&rsquo;s proved- Monoclonal antibodies are very important therapeutic tools for cancer. Today, more than 314 Mabs products are in clinical study worldwide. The recent clinical success of anticancer Monoclonal antibodies like Catumaxomab, Brentuximab, Denosumab, Ipilimumab, Tocilizumab are widely used and these are proving of success rate about Monoclonal antibodies for different cancer treatment. Monoclonal antibody therapy has emerged as an important therapeutic modality for cancer. In 1975, Kohler and Milstein discovered how to prepare hybridomas: a new cell type, resulting from the fusion of B-lymphocytes (immune cells of mouse) with a myeloma (cancer) cell. Hybridomas are cells that have been engineered to produce a desired monoclonal antibody in large amounts. Monoclonal antibodies are targeted at specific receptors on cancer cells. Currently, there are more than 20 new monoclonal antibodies- including murine, chimeric, humanized and human that have won FDA approval, including those aimed at transplant rejection, auto-immune disorders, leukemia, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, certain viral infections, and macular degeneration. Past, present &amp; future planning about Mabs are discussed. <br />
679-686
103
SIMULTANEOUS HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF OXICAMS IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
*Wael Abu Dayyih, Ahmad Abu Hamaid, Kamal Swiedan, Khalid Matalka, Eyad Abu Nameh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A highly sensitive, accurate and rapid HPLC analytical method for the determination of Tenoxicam (TEN), Piroxicam (PIR) and Meloxicam (MEL) in a finished dosage form was developed and validated. C18 reversed phase column was used. The mobile phase was composed of methanol and aqueous buffer solution (disodium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate mixed with citric acid) (60:40),at pH of 5.8. The flow rate was 1.2 ml/min and the applied analytical wavelength was 360 nm. The calibration curve was linear over the range 1.010- 3.030, 1.513-4.538 and 1.765-5.295 mg/L for TEN, PIR and MEL, respectively. The lower limit of detection and the lower limit of quantification for TEN were 0.06 and 0.18 mg/L, while they were 0.09 and 0.28 mg/L, for PIR, and 0.12 and 0.38 mg/L, respectively for MEL. The peaks resolution was tested under several conditions and found that 5% increase of organic mixture or a 0.5 increase in the pH buffer would decrease the peak resolution between PIR and MEL.&nbsp; In conclusion, such method may successfully replace the classical analytical methods of Oxicams.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <br />
687-695
104
MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION AND MINIMUM BACTERICIDAL CONCENTRATION OF AZITHROMYCIN TABLET IN BANGLADESH
*Suharto Chakma and M. Amirul Islam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The azithromycin tablet in Bangladesh maintains standard MIC and MBC. But how much is this assumption is true; this will be evaluated through this research work. This is a cross sectional study to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of selected azithromycin tablet. The collected samples were analyzed according to USP specification. The MICs of azithromycin were determined by broth dilution method. MBCs were determined by the drop plate method from the tubes, where apparently no visible growth found. This study showed that MIC &amp; MBC values of azithromycin tablet found highest against Pseudomonas spp., Shigella spp. and E. coli were &gt; 64.0 mg/ml (micro gram per milliliter) and lowest against B. pumillus was 1.0/2.0 mg/ml. MIC and MBC values higher than that of the peak serum concentration of azithromycin must have chance of therapeutic failure and development of azithromycin tolerance and resistance to the bacteria tested. To evaluate the efficiency of antibiotic there are two factors2. Which influence potential utility of a antibiotics in a specific clinical situation. The first is the measure of potency of the antibiotic for the pathogen in question minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). The second is relationship between the concentration time profile and potency of the antibiotics. This research work will play an important role to determine the MIC and MBC of selected azithromycin tablet in Bangladesh. <br />
696-699
105
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF RITCHIEA LONGIPEDICELLATA FAM. CAPPARIDACEAE
*C.F. Anowi, M. N. Ikegbunam, C.O. Ezugwu, G. Oche
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ritchiea longipedicellata had been reported to exhibit antimicrobial properties. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the antimicrobial activities of Ritchiea longipedicellata; family caparidaceae leaves against microorganisms and to serve as criteria to recommend the Ethnopharmacological uses of the plant. The plant leaves were dried, powdered and extracted by cold maceration with Ethylacetate for 24h. Phytochemical screening was done for alkaloids, saponin, essential oil, phenolic group, steroidal nucleus, simple sugar, starch, cyanogenic glycoside, proteins and flavonoid using standard procedures. Antimicrobial screenings were done using agar diffusion technique. Antibacterial activity test was conducted by screening against seven pathogens comprising both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria obtained from pharmaceutical Microbiology laboratory stock. The extract was screened against 24h broth culture of bacteria seeded in the nutrient agar at concentrations 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg/ml in DMSO and incubated at 37&#267;, for 24 h and measuring the inhibition zone diameter - IZD. The same was done for antifungal however; fungi were seeded into a sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated for 72 h at 25oC. Aspergillus niger and Candida albican were used. The positive control was ampicillin 20&micro;g/ml and clotrimazole cream 1mg/ml for bacteria and fungi respectively.&nbsp; DMSO was used as negative control. The results of phytochemical screening showed moderate availability of alkaloid, simple sugar and abundance of flavonoid, steroidal nucleus, essential oil, phenolic group, cyanogenic glycoside; absence of starch and protein and doubtful quantity of saponin. The extract displayed various activities against bacteria inhibiting it at various concentrations ranging from 200 to 6.25 mg/mL. Ethylacetate extract inhibited all the bacteria in a most appreciable extent. The extract demonstrated activities against certain bacteria and fungi (to some extent) confirming the use of the plant in ethno pharmacology. Taking the least IZD of the standard (Ampicillin) as the breaking point, the extract passed the breaking point. <br />
700-705
106
CAUSES OF MIGRAINE IN KARACHIITES AND ITS TREATMENT FROM MUSHROOMS
*Fakhsheena Anjum, Nighat Razvi, Hina Yasin, Arije Ahmad, Marvi Khan Sherwani, Nimra Rahim Khan and Sidra Arshad
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was conducted to find the causes of migraine in Karachi, Pakistan and also to assess the efficacy of mushrooms (GANODERMA LUCIDUM therapy) in treatment of migraine. Migraine is an episodic headache that affects the general population. There are lots of factors that cause migraine and may include stress, exposure to light and sounds, anxiety, caffeine reduction etc. Many medicines are used for treating migraine and Ganoderma lucidum, a medicinal fungus belonging to the Polyporaceae family, (known in Japan as REISHI), is now being used in Pakistan for this purpose. It has proved to completely eradicate migraine without side effects. The study was conducted by researchers using a specially designed questionnaire developed from different sources to find the major factors contributing to the occurrence of migraine. About 220 questionnaires were filled by the subjects from March to May 2012. Regarding the treatment using mushrooms (ganotherapy), about 66 cases of migrainuers were studied by the researchers who were treated at DXN International Clinic, Karachi, Pakistan. Results recorded were calculated statistically. People having migraine may experience different types of symptoms and they may belong to different age groups. The most fre&not;quent aggravating factors reported by migrainuers were stress 50.90% (n=112), sunlight 48.18% (n=106) and loud noise 45.5% (n=100). The relieving factors for migraine reported by most of the migrainuers were rest/sleep 61.8% (n=136), dark/quiet environment 39.54% (n=87) and various medications used 24.09% (n=53). Ganotherapy (treatment with Ganoderma lucidum) can prove to be very helpful in treating migraines with almost no side effects. According to the cases studied after ganotherapy, 93.99 % persons (n=62) had relief after taking the product among which 83.18% (n=54) of the people experienced no side effects and 25.8% persons (n=17) used G. lucidum powder for the treatment of conditions other than migraine as well. Migraine is a common cause of severe, recurring headache; however, it can be effectively treated and sometimes even prevented. A good trigger-management strategy can be a very powerful tool to help manage migraine better. After the survey, it was found that the most common causes of migraine in Karachi were stress, exposure to light, sound, and empty stomach. It was also found that the treatment for migraine through Ganoderma lucidum is very effective and may completely eradicate this condition with almost no side effects in majority of patients who used it.
709-711
107
EVALUATION OF ANTINOCICEPTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SIDA CORDIFOLIA ROOT FROM BANGLADESH
*Md. Hemayet Hossain, Md. Sariful Islam Howlader, Shubhra Kanti Dey, Arpona Hira, Arif Ahmed
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The crude ethanolic extract of the roots of Sida cordifolia Linn. (Family: Malvaceae) was evaluated for its possible antinociceptive and antioxidant properties growing in southeast part of Bangladesh. The ethanolic extract of roots of Sida cordifolia exhibited statistically significant (p&gt;0.001) writhing inhibition in acetic acid induced writhing model in white albino mice (Swiss-webstar strain). The crude extract produced 25.77% inhibition of writhing at the dose of 250 mg/kg body weight &amp; 44.11 % inhibition of writhing at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight while the standard drug diclofenac inhibition was found to 51.97 % at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight. The antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia was assessed by DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value was found to be (65 &micro;g/ml) which was comparable to the standard ascorbic acid (16 &micro;g/ml). Phytochemical nature (group determination of plant constituent) and selected phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of the roots of Sida cordifolia indicated the presence of steroid, reducing sugars, tannin &amp; saponin types of compounds. The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine and its further investigation.
712-716
108
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ORAL DISINTEGRATING RELEASE DOSAGE FORM CONTAINING MECLIZINE HCL
*Ramanjaneyulu M, M Shubash Kumar, Ravindar Bairam and P Mahesh Babu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Orally&nbsp; Disintegrating&nbsp; Tablet&nbsp; ( ODT )&nbsp; is&nbsp; a&nbsp; solid&nbsp; unit&nbsp; dosage&nbsp; form&nbsp; containing&nbsp; drugs&nbsp; that disintegrates&nbsp; rapidly&nbsp; and&nbsp; dissolves&nbsp; in&nbsp; the&nbsp; mouth&nbsp; without&nbsp; taking&nbsp; water&nbsp; within&nbsp; 60seconds&nbsp;&nbsp; or&nbsp; less. Hence ,&nbsp; in&nbsp; the&nbsp; present&nbsp; study&nbsp; an&nbsp; attempt&nbsp; made&nbsp; to&nbsp; formulate&nbsp; and evaluate the oral dissolving&nbsp;&nbsp; tablets&nbsp;&nbsp; of&nbsp;&nbsp; Meclizine&nbsp;&nbsp; Hydrochloride&nbsp; of&nbsp; ( 25 mg )&nbsp;&nbsp; oral&nbsp;&nbsp; disintegrating&nbsp; tablets containing&nbsp; different&nbsp; concentration&nbsp; of&nbsp; excipients&nbsp; used&nbsp; for&nbsp; anti vertigo and&nbsp; motion sickness. Microcrystalline&nbsp; cellulose&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; selected&nbsp;&nbsp; as&nbsp; diluents ,&nbsp; crosscarmellose&nbsp; sodium ,&nbsp; crosspovidone were&nbsp; selected&nbsp; as&nbsp; super&nbsp; disintetegrants. Magnesium stearate was used as a lubricant. Direct compression method was used to formulate the tablets.&nbsp; All&nbsp; the&nbsp; formulations&nbsp; shown&nbsp; the acceptable&nbsp; flow&nbsp; properties&nbsp; &amp;&nbsp; pre-compression&nbsp; parameters&nbsp; like&nbsp;&nbsp; bulk&nbsp; density,&nbsp; tap&nbsp; density, angle&nbsp; of&nbsp; repose. The&nbsp; post&nbsp; compression&nbsp; parameters&nbsp; like&nbsp; hardness,&nbsp; friability,&nbsp; disintegration time,&nbsp; wetting&nbsp; time,&nbsp; values&nbsp; found&nbsp; to&nbsp; be&nbsp; within&nbsp;&nbsp; I.P. limits.&nbsp; The&nbsp; percentage content&nbsp; of&nbsp;&nbsp; all&nbsp; tablets found&nbsp; to&nbsp; be&nbsp; between&nbsp; 97.6&nbsp; to&nbsp; 99.8&nbsp; of&nbsp; meclizine&nbsp; hydrochloride&nbsp; which&nbsp; is within&nbsp; the&nbsp; limit.
717-726
109
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ENICOSTEMMA AXILLARE (LAM) Raynal IN LANTANA CAMARA LINN
*M. Surendra Kumar, Lalitha M, Astalakshmi N and G BABU
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Hepatotoxicity is a common condition of liver damage due to chemical entities or any other substances. The present study aims to explore the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Enicostemma axillare (Lam.) Raynal against Lantana camara Linn induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Silymarin (100mg/kg) is used as a reference standard. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Enicostemma axillare at about the doses of 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg are used for the study. Both aqueous and alcoholic extracts have shown very significant hepatoprotection against Lantana camara induced hepatotoxicity in male wistar rats by reducing Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT) levels and increasing the serum total albumin and protein levels. However the alcoholic extract is found to be more potent than aqueous extract at about the dose of 400 mg/kg. Thus we can claim that, the drug Enicostemma axillare is a hepatoprotective agent suitable for veterinary category, since Lantana camara is a common hepatotoxic agent among the veterinary categories.
727-730
110
Evaluation of Antidiarrhoeal, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic activities of Cinnamomum tamala Leaves from Bangladesh
*Md. Hemayet Hossain, Md. Sariful Islam Howlader, Shubhra Kanti Dey, Arpona Hira, Arif Ahmed, Ferdoushi Jahan and Ram Proshad Sarkar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The crude ethanolic extract of the leaves of Cinnamomum tamala (family: Lauraceae) was evaluated for its possible phytochemical nature (group determination of plant constituent) and selected pharmacological activities (Antidiarrhoeal, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic activity) growing in Bangladesh. Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of C. tamala indicated the presence of reducing sugar, glycoside, tannins, steroid, amino acid &amp; alkaloid types of compounds. The ethanolic extract of leaves of C. tamala on Castor oil induced diarrheal method in mice. The result showed that extract inhibited the mean number of defecation which were 24.49 % (P&lt;0.01) and 40.82 % (P&lt;0.001) at the doses of 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg respectively. The latent period for the extract treated group was (p&lt;0.01 &amp; P&lt;0.001) increased as compared to control group. The extract of C. tamala (500 &micro;g/disc) showed moderate anti-microbial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis(10), Vibrio cologet (Zone of inhibition 11mm), Streptococcus agalactiae (9mm), Shigella sonnei (9 mm), Streptococcus pyogenes (9mm), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (11mm), Staphylococcus aureus ( 8 mm). The extract of leaves of C. tamala showed significant (p&lt;0.001) toxicity to the brine shrimp nauplii. The concentrations of crude extract for 50% mortality (LC50) and 90% mortality (LC90) were 32 &mu;g/mL and 74.29 &mu;g/mL respectively. Therefore, the obtained results tend to suggest the antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of C. tamala (Buch.-Ham.)&nbsp; leaves from Bangladesh and justify its use in folkloric remedies.<br />
731-736
111
INTERESTING CASE STUDY OF INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGE IN AN INFANT
*Himani Asani, S. Parimalakrishnan, Guru Prasad Mohanta, S.Ramesh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Intracranial hemorrhage is bleeding within the skull cavity (cranium) that usually progresses rapidly and often results in permanent brain damage and death. The incidence of intra cranial hemorrhage in infants is rare. Here we are presenting a rare case of intracranial hemorrhage in which infant developed fever, seizures, vomiting after 45 days of immunization. A 2 months old male infant was brought to the pediatric casualty with chief complaints of 6 episodes of seizures for one night, fever for last 4 days and vomiting immediately after breast feeding since 2 days. Baby was apparently normal before the baby was brought for immunization (DT, OPV), the baby developed the above complaints after the immunization. In the past there were also similar complaints at time of birth. Baby was on anticonvulsant drug, phenobarbital, since seizure occurrence was found with the help of electroencephalogram. The CT scan report have showed, left front to back subdural hygroma with left frontal, temporal, parietal intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). There was a shift in the midline, which was toward right side of the brain with the association of inter hemispherical bleed along hygroma. Treatment was initiated with anticonvulsant, phenobarbital, antibiotics cefotaxime and amikacin and antipyretic paracetamol and loop diuretic, furosemide, was also administered with peripheral vasodilator and cerebral activator, nimodipine. We conclude that (1) In all difficult deliveries, the baby should be screened for intracranial hemorrhage by doing neurosonogram (2) early recognition of intra cranial hemorrhage is of paramount importance for initiating appropriate management to prevent complications and (3) early diagnosis and prompt therapy will lead to complete recovery. <br />
737-739
112
ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC OF RUELLIA TUBEROSA LINN IN TRITON INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIC RATS
*Krishna Chaitanya B, Ravindra Babu S, Jayasree Vardhan, Alekhya Ravella, Diana Vivian Atigari, Jaji Sree
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Hyperlipidemia is the greatest risk factor of coronary heart disease. The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperlipidemic activity of Ruellia tuberosa ethanolic extract (RTEE 2012) in Triton X-100 induced Hyperlipidemic rats. RTEE 2012 was administered at a dose of 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg, (p.o) to Triton induced Hyperlipidemic rats. Atorvastatin is used as reference standard. The statistical analyses were carried out using one way ANOVA. RTEE 2012 show a significant decrease in the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL and significant increase in the level of serum HDL with increase in dose of RTEE 2012 against Triton induced hyperlipidemic rats. Therefore it effectively suppressed the Triton induced hyperlipidemia in rats, suggesting the potential protective role in Coronary heart disease.&nbsp; <br />
740-745
113
AN OVERVIEW ON: BIOREMEDEATION
*N. T. Rangari, T. M. Kalyankar, P. K. Puranik, S. M. Kalmegh and S. R. Chaudhari
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Bioremediation is the transformation or degradation of contaminants into non-hazardous or less hazardous chemicals. This technology includes biostimulation (stimulating viable native microbial population), bioaugmentation (artificial introduction of viable population), bioaccumulation (live cells), biosorption (dead microbial biomass), phytoremediation (plants) and rhizoremediation (plant and microbe interaction). Bioremediation is an option that offers the possibility to destroy or render harmless various contaminants using natural biological activity. As such, it uses relatively low-cost, low-technology techniques, which generally have a high public acceptance and can often be carried out on site.
746-757
114
Study of in Vitro Anticataract Activity of Tamarindus indica Linn on Isolated Goat Lenses
*Srikanth Merugu, Veeresh B, Deepa Rekulapally and Swetha T
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The antioxidant such as Tamarindus indica Linn. was subjected to prevent cataract formation in vitro on galactose induced cataract model. Goat lenses were incubated in artificial aqueous humor containing 55mM galactose (cataractogenesis) and Tamarindus indica Linn. extract in different concentrations kept at room temperature for 72 h. Biochemical parameters were studied in the lens homogenate, which are malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid peroxidase and proteins. Galactose-induced opacification of goat lens began 8-10 hrs after incubation and was complete in 72-80 h. Cataractous lenses showed higher MDA (P&lt;0.001), and water-soluble protein content. Lenses treated with Tamarindus indica Linn.extract in concentrations of 50, 75&micro;g/ml showed higher protein (total proteins) content and prevented formation and progress of cataract by galactose, as evidenced by biochemical parameters.
758-763
115
QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF FLURBIPROFEN IN BOTH BULK AND FORMULATIONS USING ACID-BASE TITRATION
*Kiran Aarelly, Shilpa Allabotharam, Manish Kumar Thimmaraju and Raghunandan Nerella
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Flurbiprofen, a propionic acid derivative, is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAIA) with antipyretic and analgesic activity. Oral formulations of flurbiprofen may be used for the symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and anklylosing spondylitis. Flurbiprofen may also be used topically prior to ocular surgery to prevent or reduce intra-operative miosis. In the present study, simple titrimetric method was developed. Respective quantities of Flurbiprofen were taken in aqueous methanol titrated against 0.1N sodium hydroxide acid using phenolphthalein as an indicators for acid-base titration. This method were found to be sensitive and inexpensive, do not require any sample processing steps and can be utilized for estimation of flurbiprofen in bulk and formulations. <br />
764-767
116
VESOSOMAL DRUG DELIVERY IN LIPOSOMES: A REVIEW
*Bhawna Khurana, Ritesh Bajaj, Lohit Girotra
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Liposomal drug delivery can be put forth as the cynosure for the release kinetics of lipophillic drugs that require compartmental models in its therapeutics and triggers. The localization of the drug at the site of action, rate of achieving the therapeutic index and Circulation lifetime are the key parameters for a liposome. Lately, their arises a need for a multi-compartment structure consisting of drug-loaded liposomes encapsulated within another bilayer, is a promising drug carrier with better retention and stability. A vesosome contemplates a large lipid bilayer enclosing many smaller liposomes, serving as a support for the customization of separate environments for multiple therapeutics and release triggers, highlighting the vesosomes potential as a single site, single dose, and multiple component drug treatment. The permeation rate, membrane charge, specific recognition particles, steric stabilizers, membrane rigidity, and phase transition temperatures all play a role in optimization of vesicles for particular delivery applications. The vesosomes are optimized on the basis of phase behavior exhibited by homogeneous lipid mixtures. A variety of microscopy techniques, including freeze-fracture and cryo-transmission electron microscopy as well as fluorescence and confocal microscopy are used for characterization of these lipophillic, eukaryotic cell like species. The present paper tries to tap another vesicular drug delivery comport such that release and bioavailability of liposomes is taken to another level.&nbsp; <br />
768-776
117
PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF SOLID DISPERSIONS OF NIMESULIDE
*Swathi Gunturu and Divya Amaravadi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Nimesulide is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Here, the present study was planned to prepare and evaluate the solid dispersions of Nimesulide. Solid dispersions of Nimesulide were prepared by using various hydrophilic carriers like PVP K-40, PEG 4000, PEG-6000 in various ratios by solvent evaporation method. The solubility of Nimesulide in different solvents; water, acetone and ethanol was enhanced in the form of solid dispersions. The prepared solid dispersions were subjected to solubility studies (in water, 0.1 N HCL and phosphate buffer pH 7.4. Stability studies were carried out at 40&plusmn;2&deg; C and at 75&plusmn;5 % RH. The phosphate buffer pH 7 Showed highest solubility for the drug. The cumulative amount of drug release of Nimesulide: PVP K-40 was 97.06 %; Nimesulide: PEG-4000 was 97.42%; Nimesulide: PEG -6000 was 97.46% respectively. Therefore it can be concluded that dissolution rate of poorly soluble drug (Nimesulide) can be significantly enhanced by formulating them into solid dispersions
777-785
118
TRADITIONAL UNDERUTILIZED GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES AND ITS CURATIVE PROPERTIES
*Sudha K and S.K. Mathanghi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Any discussion on health and wellness is not complete without a discussion on the uses of greens food in our daily diet plan. Studies have shown that a fiber rich diet ensures our overall health. Nutritional value of greens (Keerai) is twenty times more than in other vegetables. Dark green leafy vegetables are calorie for calorie, probably the most concentrated source of nutrition of any food. They are a rich source of minerals (including iron, calcium, potassium, and magnesium) and vitamins, including K, C, E, and many of the B complex vitamins. They also provide a variety of phytonutrients including beta-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin, which protect our cells from damage also helps in alleviating the age-related problems. The range of health benefits of the greens is so vast that it is not easy to consolidate them in a single article like the present one. However, we can cite here a few varieties of greens and their respective health benefits.
786-793
119
THERAPEUTIC APPROACHES FOR THE TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS
*Radhika Bhaskar, Rahul Bhaskar, Mahendra K. Sagar and Vipin Saini
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Diabetes, an epidemic, has become a point of concern as far as healthcare crisis are concerned in developing and developed countries. The therapy against type 2 diabetes is aimed to get control over metabolism of glucose with due consideration on safety point also. The target of therapy is to maintain the HbA1c value &lt; 6.5% at the early stages of the disease and &lt; 7.5% at advanced stages or when patient is at a risk of hypoglycemia. The treatment is categorized in three steps. The first step starts at early stages of the disease, when hyperglycemia is not too high and value of HbA1c lies between 6.5%-8.5%. Though several oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA) are available, metformin is considered as drug of choice. Other alternatives are recommended only if patient is not able to tolerate metformin or it is contraindicated with other components. However if metformin fails to control the situation and level of hyperglycemia reaches as high as HbA1c &gt; 8.5%, one should move to second step which includes addition of a second drug with a synergistic action. Out of various available options of OHA, the dose and combination individualization are supposed to be carried out. The condition, if not under control, even after step 2, this is a call for the third step, which incorporates either oral triple therapy or introduction of basal insulin (condition apply that patient is not insulin- resistant).
794-800
120
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF MILNACIPRAN HCL IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
*Mubarakunnisa Md, Prameela Rani A and Seelam Harika
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new simple isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed for the determination of milnacipran in bulk drug and in its capsules formulations. The mobile phase selected was methanol: acetonitrile:0.1% O-phosphoric acid in the ratio of 55:35:10%(v/v) and Zodiac C18 column with dimensions (250X4.6mm, 5&micro;)was used as stationary phase column temperature is ambient throughout the method. The flow rate and wave length observed were 1.0 mL/min and 220nm, respectively. The method was validated and it was concluded that the developed method was accurate, sensitive, precise, robust, and useful for the quality control of milnacipran in bulk drug and pharmaceutical preparations (capsules).
801-805
121
ISOLATION OF β-SITOSTEROL FROM ETHANOL EXTRACT OF AERIAL PARTS OF BAUHINIA PURPUREA AND EVALUATION FOR ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY
*N. Neelima and M. Sudhakar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Bauhinia purpurea is a flowering plant. General phytochemical screening of the aerial parts of Bauhinia purpurea revealed the presence of steroids, terpenes, phenolic compounds, saponins, fatty acids, alkaloids. The aim of this study is to identify and characterize the bioactive principle from the aerial parts of the plant. It has wide folk medicinal use. For isolation of the compound, the dried aerial parts powder of Bauhinia purpurea was subjected to hot extraction with ethanol; this extract was subjected to chromatography. Isolated compound were purified by chloroform. The isolation and purification afforded white crystalline powder which was subjected to physical, chemical and spectral identification by IR, 1H&#8208;NMR, 13C&#8208;NMR and GC&#8208;MS. The compound was concluded as &beta;&#8208;sitosterol. In the present study after the isolation, the ethanol extract of unripe pods and leaves of Bauhinia purpurea was evaluated for antihyperlipidemic activity in cholesterol high fat diet (CHFD) induced hyperlipidemia. Hyperlipidemia was induced by giving high cholesterol diet in standard rat chow diet for thirty days. The groups of rats selected for the study were treated with atorvastatin, ethanol extract of unripe pods and ethanol extract of leaves daily for the whole period. Changes in body weight and the analysis of serum lipids were carried out at the end of the study. There was a marked decrease in body weight, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels. Also there was a significant increase in high density lipoprotein levels after the treatment with Bauhinia purpurea extracts. Ethanol extract of leaves showed a marked effect over body weight reduction and also had a significant effect on the lipoprotein profile. There is a lowered atherogenic index, TC: HDL-c and LDL: HDL-c ratios in the extract treated groups. The present work indicated that Bauhinia purpurea extracts significantly suppressed the CHFD induced hyperlipidemia in rats, suggesting the antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic potential of the extracts. Further studies are needed to characterize the phytoconstituents responsible for the study.
806-811
122
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF TABERNAEMONTANA DIVARICATA LINN. AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS
*V. Umarani and V. Chitra
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata Linn.against paracetamol induced liver damage in rats. The hydroalcoholic extract of Tabernamontana divaricata Linn. (600mg/kg) was administered orally to the animals with hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (3gm/kg). Silymarin (25mg/kg) was given as reference standard. All the test drugs were administered orally by suspending in 0.5% Carboxy methyl cellulose solution. The plant extract was effective in protecting the liver against the injury induced by paracetamol in rats. This was evident from significant reduction in serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin. It was concluded from the result that the hydroalcoholic extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata possesses hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
812-814
123
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML