Volume 2 - Issue 1

S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
EXPANDING THE ROLE OF COMMUNITY PHARMACY: AN EVALUATION OF GENERIC DRUG DISCOUNT PROGRAMS, PHARMACY BASED IMMUNIZATION SERVICES AND CONVENIENT CARE CLINICS
*Jeffrey C. Keimer and Shaker A. Mousa
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
We evaluated the clinical and economic impact of generic drug discount programs (GDDPs), pharmacy based immunization services and convenient care clinics (CCCs) based upon existing literature, reviewing original research and case study reports using library databases, primarily MEDLINE and EBSCOHost.  Keywords used included “generic discount list,” “four dollar generic,” “pharmacy immunization,” “flu shot,” “pharmacist immunizer,” “convenient care clinic,” “retail health clinic,” and “minute clinic.”  We then added other terms such as “clinical impact,” “cost-effectiveness,” “outcomes,” and “perceptions.” While all 3 programs have the potential to clinically benefit patients and provide some level of cost-effectiveness, there are also concerns that need to be addressed. Some concerns include: a) GDDPs have the potential to cause fragmentation of care owing to patients going to other pharmacies in search of lower prices and prescription claims data not being captured by patients’ pharmacy benefit managers, b) GDDPs may be less cost effective in pharmacies with less purchasing power compared to larger chains, c) pharmacy based immunization services still face legal and social barriers that prevent pharmacists from being recognized as legitimate vaccine administrators, d) some insurance carriers still don’t pay for pharmacist-administered vaccinations, e) CCCs may not currently be located in areas that could best benefit from their services, f) CCCs may disrupt a patient’s continuity of care with their primary care physicians, and g) CCCs may hinder the efforts of pharmacists to expand their own professional roles by lessening the need for them to do so. Expanding the roles of community pharmacies has the potential to improve patient care by increasing patients' access to healthcare services. While strong evidence exists to support pharmacist-delivered immunizations, less is known regarding GDDPs and CCCs.  More studies are required to assess the clinical and economic questions raised regarding these types of programs.
1-7
2
COMPARISONS OF EFFECTIVENESS, SAFETY, AND PHARMACOKINETIC PARAMETERS BETWEEN LOW AND HIGH DOSES OF PIOGLITAZONE IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS
*Wannakamol Sonsingh, Duangchit Panomvana and Wallaya Jongjaroenprasert
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pioglitazone (PIO) is highly effective in decreasing blood glucose levels for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), but it can induce serious adverse events such as edema and heart failure (HF). Some previous studies showed that the efficacy on glucose control and lipid levels was not related to the difference in doses of PIO in opposite to the incidence of edema which was doses-dependent of PIO. To compare glucose control, lipid control, adverse events, and pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters between low and high doses of PIO in T2D. Medical chart of 139 diabetic patients using PIO at Ramathibodi hospital were reviewed to compare outcomes and adverse effects between low and high doses of PIO. 38 patients who stabilized dose of PIO and agree to participate were recruited to collect 2 blood samples at 2 appropriated times and were analyzed their PIO concentrations, then, PK parameters were determined. The outcomes of glucose control and lipid control were not differences between low and high dose of PIO, but edema and HF events were significantly higher in high dose of PIO (P=0.010 and P=0.014, respectively). For PK parameters of PIO, elimination rate constant (ke) and clearance rate (CL) values of patients who were stabilized on high dose of PIO were significantly higher (P=0.022 and P=0.031, respectively) while elimination half-life (t1/2) was significantly shorter (P=0.007) than those who were stabilized on low dose of PIO. PK monitoring for optimal dose of PIO might possibly provide good controlling of blood glucose and lower adverse events in T2D. <br />
8-14
3
CELL PHONE INDUCED SPERMATIC & BIRTH DEFECTS ON ALBINO RAT
*Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo, Sarda Prasad Sarangi, Viren kumar Patel and Mohanlal kori
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The flooding of cell phone and towers in world market cause hazardous issue from public health to its future generation. This revengeful interaction between cell phone and human being is depends upon the time and frequency of exposure of electromagnetic waves, which emitted from cell phones. This radiation may cause genotoxic on exposed animals and also may affect to its future offspring. Here we give special attention on the defect of sperm cell on parent animal and gives birth defect to their offspring due to exposure of electromagnetic waves. This defect can be observed by using the male albino rats with the exposure of cell phone for a period of three months. The special cage was designed as mobile stand to keep mobile inside the cage. After termination period, the male animals were mated with female animals for observing birth defect. After gestation period, the delivery statuses of female animals were noted.&nbsp; The current result found that some congenital malformations were found in offspring e.g. infertility of parent animal, under weight of Offspring, Delivery of dead offspring, some physically changes in shape and size etc. This congenital character may be cause physically or mentally handicapped e.g. Change in mandible shape, Ear size, Skin pigmentation, Eye color, skeletal abnormalities etc on long term study. After mating period, the male animals were allowed for laperotomy e.g. sperm analysis. The sperm analysis was compared between the cell phone treated group and without cell phone treated group. The present finding concludes that there was significant damage (* P&lt; 0.05) i. e.&nbsp;&nbsp; 67.60 % of sperm cell in cell phone treated group for three month study. <br />
15-20
4
ANTIDIARRHEAL ACTIVITY OF LEAVES EXTRACT OF MICROCOS PANICULATA LINN IN MICE
*Md. Masudur Rahman, Abu Mohammed Taufiqual Islam, Md. Ashraf Uddin Chowdhury, Muhammad Erfan Uddin and Ahsan Jamil
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The experiment of methanolic extract of Microcos paniculata leaves showed significant (p&lt;0.001) inhibitor activity against castor oil induced diarrhea and castor oil induced enteropooling in mice at dose of 400 mg/kg body weight. There was also significant (p&lt;0.01) reduction in gastrointestinal motility in the charcoal meal test. Loperamide (5 mg/kg b. wt) was used as positive control. These results revealed that the leaves extract possess pharmacological activity against diarrhea and may possibly explain the use of the plant in traditional medicine.
21-25
5
ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY OF PLANTS USED AS MEMORY ENHANCER AND ANTIAGING IN ONDO STATE, NIGERIA
*Cyril -Olutayo Christiana Mojisola, Adekunle Tajudeen Oladele and Taiwo Olayemi Elufioye
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In traditional medicine, numerous plants have been used for cognitive disorders, including memory loss and antiaging. We document the medicinal plants used by people in Ondo State of Nigeria to alleviate memory loss and aging. Three hundred and twenty six persons (326) were randomly selected and interviewed on their knowledge of medicinal plants used in treating aging and memory loss. Respondents were recruited across the three vegetation types in the state, Okitipupa in swamp rain forest (113), Akoko in southern guinea savannah (110) and Ifedore in tropical rain forest (103). Occupations of the respondents were 30.4% herbalist, 19.9% herb sellers and others 49.7%. Results obtained from the ethnobotanical survey revealed 14 plants species commonly used as memory enhancer and 20 species as antiaging. Trees (61.8%) are used more than other plant forms, Herbs (17.7%), Shrubs (11.8%) and Climbers (5.9%). Further pharmacological work is recommended for the identified plant species for possible development of affordable anticholinesterate and neuro-protective drugs especially in a depressed economy like Nigeria.
26-32
6
DEVELOPMENT OF VALIDATED HPTLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS QUANTIFICATION OF RUTIN AND QUERCETIN FROM BARK OF ANOGEISSUS LATIFOLIA
*Pradeep Hulikare Ananth, Saleemulla Khan, Raghu Chandrasekhar and Mohammed Ibrahim
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In traditional medicine, numerous plants have been used for cognitive disorders, including memory loss and antiaging. We document the medicinal plants used by people in Ondo State of Nigeria to alleviate memory loss and aging. Three hundred and twenty six persons (326) were randomly selected and interviewed on their knowledge of medicinal plants used in treating aging and memory loss. Respondents were recruited across the three vegetation types in the state, Okitipupa in swamp rain forest (113), Akoko in southern guinea savannah (110) and Ifedore in tropical rain forest (103). Occupations of the respondents were 30.4% herbalist, 19.9% herb sellers and others 49.7%. Results obtained from the ethnobotanical survey revealed 14 plants species commonly used as memory enhancer and 20 species as antiaging. Trees (61.8%) are used more than other plant forms, Herbs (17.7%), Shrubs (11.8%) and Climbers (5.9%). Further pharmacological work is recommended for the identified plant species for possible development of affordable anticholinesterate and neuro-protective drugs especially in a depressed economy like Nigeria.
33-38
7
UV-SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC AND RP-HPLC METHODS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ACETAMINOPHEN AND CAFFEINE: VALIDATION, COMPARISON AND APPLICATION FOR MARKETED TABLET ANALYSIS
*SM Ashraful Islam, Shamima Shultana, Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed and Irin Dewan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple and fast method was developed for simultaneous quantitative determination of two biologically active flavonoid compounds i.e. quercetin and rutin in bark of Anogeissus latifolia using High-Performance Thin-layer Chromatography. The separation was performed on TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60 F254. Good separation was achieved in the mobile phase of Ethyl acetate: Formic acid: Glacial acetic acid: Water (100:11:11:26, v/v) and densitometric determination of these compounds was carried out at 366 nm in reflection/absorbance mode. The rutin and quercetin content of hydroalcohol bark extract of Anogeissus latifolia were found to be 0.1617% w/w and 1.875%w/w respectively. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed a good linear relationship with r=0.9997 and r= 0.9942 for rutin and quercetin, respectively.  The average recovery of rutin and quercetin was 99.98 % and 100.11%, respectively indicating the excellent reproducibility. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the method is reproducible. The present method is being reported first time and may be used for routine quality control of the bark of Anogeissus latifolia. This HPTLC method was found to be simple and convenient for rapid screening of active compounds and quantification of the investigated flavonoids in Anogeissus latifolia.
39-45
8
PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF MULTIPLE-UNIT GASTRO RETENTIVE FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR ONDANSETRON HYDROCHLORIDE BASED ON GAS FORMATION TECHNIQUE
*Kishore Rapolu, Sathish Dharani and Madhusudan Rao Yamsani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present study UV-spectrophotometric and RP-HPLC methods were validated for the simultaneous analysis of acetaminophen and caffeine in marketed tablets. The methods were validated in terms of linearity, accuracy (% Recovery), precision (inter day, intra day and reproducibility) and robustness. Both the methods were linear (R2 = 0.998-0.999) and accurate (% recovery was 99.29% - 100.19% for UV method and 99.14% - 100.25% for HPLC method). The method was also found precise (% RSD&lt; 2%) and robust. Potency of five marketed brands was determined by both the methods and no statistically significant difference was noticed between the potency obtained from UV-spectrophotometric and RP-HPLC methods by paired t test at 5% significance level. Drug release from the marketed products complied compendia specification that indicates that test products are equivalent. Any one of the validated methods can be used for the analysis of acetaminophen and caffeine tablets.
46-54
9
MICROWAVE SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL CARBOHYDRATE POLYMER AND ITS USE IN PREPARATION OF LIQUID DETERGENTS
*Anand D. Deshpande, BB Gogte and BW Phate
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
During the last decades, a fast growing interest in natural, biodegradable and renewable materials has been noticed. As the current use of non-biodegradable surfactants is a drawback, there is a need to develop new families of &lsquo;green&rsquo; surfactant molecules with starch, sorbitol, sugar maleic anhydride and phthalic anhydride. It can be used as a useful ingredient in preparing liquid detergent by conventional batch heating process and novel microwave synthesis technique. microwave synthesis is very fast gives clean polar and more homogeneous product the conditions of voltage temperature and time of heating have been standardize the product has been successfully used in formulation of liquid detergent.
55-63
10
VALIDATED AND STABILITY INDICATING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY METHOD FOR QUANTIFICATION OF BISOPROLOL FUMARATE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Kishore Rapolu, Sathish Dharani and Madhusudan Rao Yamsani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple and accurate liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the analysis of bisoprolol fumarate in tablets. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column utilizing a mobile phase of buffer/acetonitrile (75:25, v/v, pH 5.6) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The separation was performed at room temperature. Detection was carried out at 226 nm, using a diode array detector. The developed method was statistically validated for the linearity, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, precise and specificity. The specificity of the method was ascertained by forced degradation studies; the degraded products were well separated from the analyte. The mean recovery for bisoprolol fumarate from tablets ranged between 99.87-100.43%. The proposed method is also found to be precise and robust. The method can be used for routine quality control analysis.
64-70
11
THE EFFECT OF MINOCYCLINE ON OXIDATIVE STRESS AND MEMORY DEFICITS IN AGED RATS
*Vivek Sharma, Subrahmanya GS and Ashok Kumar G
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease (AD) is a progressive, neurological and psychiatric age associated disorder. Ageing and age-related neurodegenerative disorders like AD are associated with Oxidative-nitritive stress that may cause impairment of learning and memory in animals and human beings. These losses reflect the failure of cellular processes that encode memory or disturbances in events that retrieve it. The oxidative stress play a major role on the aging process and associated cognitive decline, therefore antioxidant treatment may alleviate age-related impairment in spatial memory. Age-related morphological alterations of hippocampus and other areas associated with memory formation may be a reason for Cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the effects of Minocycline, a tetracycline derivative on spatial memory in aged male rats. In this study 24 months old male rats were used. Rats were divided into control and Minocycline groups and injected intraperitoneally (ip) for 25 days. Learning experiments were performed using Morris water maze. Spatial learning was significantly better in Minocycline treated rats compared to Aged rats. Minocycline treatment elicited a significant decrease of lipid peroxidation and nitrittive stress. A significant increase of glutathione peroxidase, catalase and SOD activity was also observed in Minocycline treated rats compared with aged animals. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Minocycline increases spatial memory performance in aged male rats and this increase may be related to suppression of lipid peroxidation and other oxidative stress parameters.&nbsp; The results of such studies may be useful in pharmacological modification of aging process.
71-79
12
PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF BAUHINIA RACEMOSA LAM CAESALPINACEAE SEED MUCILAGE AS TABLET BINDER
*Gangurde AB and Boraste SS
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of present investigation was to evaluate Bauhinia racemosa Lam. Caesalpinaceae seed mucilage as a binder for pharmaceutical dosage forms. Natural mucilages are economic, easily available and found useful as tablet binder. No work has been reported on it as a tablet binder. Granules were prepared with its varying concentrations and evaluated for tablet characteristics. Wet granulation technique was used for the preparation of amoxicillin trihydrate granules. The binder concentrations used in the formulation were 2, 4, 6 &amp; 8 % w/w. The evaluation of granules showed 0.52 to 0.72 mm granule size, 28 to 31 &ordm; angles of repose and 20.53 to 11.81 % fines. The evaluation of tablets showed 3.52-0.89% w/w friability, 4 to 12 min disintegration time and more than 90% dissolution in 60 min. Tablets at 8% w/w binder concentration showed more optimum results as tablet binder. The mucilage was found to be useful for the preparation of uncoated tablet dosage form.
80-83
13
QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF DNA ISOLATED FROM LEAVES AND STEMS OF COLEUS AROMATICUS
*Soni Himesh , Singhai AK and Sharma Sarvesh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Medicinal plants play a vital role to preserve human health. The genus, Coleus consists of herbs, that are widespread in all over India and represents highly valuable plant species having therapeutic and neutraceutical importance. Genetic variation is essential for long term survival of species and it is a critical feature in conservation. For efficient conservation and management, the genetic composition of the species in different geographic locations needs to be assessed. Plants are attracting more attention among contemporary pharmacy scientists because some human diseases resulting from antibiotic resistance have gained worldwide concern. A number of methods are available and are being developed for the isolation of nucleic acids from plants. The different parts of Coleus aromaticus were studied for their nucleic acid content by using spectrophotometric analysis. In order to measure DNA content of the Leaves and stems of C.aromaticus, Spectrophotometry serves various advantages i.e. non-destructive and allows the sample to be recovered for further analysis or manipulation. Spectrophotometry uses the fact that there is a relationship between the absorption of ultraviolet light by DNA/RNA and its concentration in a sample. This article deals with modern approaches to develop a simple, efficient, reliable and cost-effective method for isolation, separation and estimation of total genomic DNA from various parts of the same species.
84-89
14
ANTI BACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF TAGETES ERECTA LINN
Kiranmai M and Mohammed Ibrahim
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was carried out to investigate the antibacterial effect of different extracts of leaves and flowers of Tagetes erecta Linn. After performing preliminary phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatography, antibacterial study was evaluated according to the agar diffusion method by using gram positive B.cereus, S. aureus and gram negative E.coli, P. aeruginosa. This study was shown that pet ether extract of leaves and ethylacetate extract of flower of Tagetes erecta significantly inhibit the growth of bacteria dose dependently.
90-96
15
FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF DIDANOSINE SUSTAINED- RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS USING HPMC K15
*Gourishyam Pasa, Uma Shankar Mishra, Niraj Kanti Tripathy, Sudhir Kumar Sahoo and Anjan Kumar Mahapatra
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present investigation concerned with formulation design and evaluation of oral sustained release matrix tablets of Didanosine (DDI) prepared by direct compression method using various proportion of release retarding polymer viz; HPMC K15. The prepared tablets were evaluated for weight variation, percentage friability, hardness and in vitro dissolution studies and all the formulations showed compliance with pharmacopeia standards. In vitro release studies were performed using USP type II apparatus (Paddle type) at 50 rpm. Formulation F1 failed to sustain release beyond 10 hours and the cumulative percentage of drug release is not more than 85% at the end of 12 hour in formulation F5. The formulations F2, F3 and F4 sustained release of drug for 12 hrs with 31.32%, 28.27% and 23.34% release of drug after 1hr and more than 90% at the end of 12 hrs. The release kinetics was analyzed using Zero-order model equation, Higuchi’s square root equation and Korsmeyer and Peppas’ empirical equation. The regression coefficient obtained for first order kinetics were found to be higher (R2: 0.985 to 0.991) when compared with those of the zero order kinetics (R2: 0.311 to 0.897), indicating that drug release from all formulations followed first order kinetics. The mechanism of drug release from formulation F1 to F3 showed behavior of Fickian diffusion and remaining all formulations showed non-Fickian diffusion.
97-100
16
HYPOGLYCEMIC AND ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF TUBEROUS ROOTS OF DECALEPIS HAMILTONII IN NORMAL AND STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
*Venkata Suresh J, Ganapaty S and Venkat Rao N
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Alcoholic and aqueous extract of tuberous roots of Decalepis hamiltonii (DH) were prepared and given individually orally at different doses to different groups of rats fasted for 18 h (both normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic albino rats). The serum glucose levels were measured initially at 0 h (before treatment) and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h after the treatment. The alcoholic extract of tuberous roots of D. hamiltonii (AETRDH) at higher dose (200 mg/kg) produced maximal serum glucose lowering effect in both normal and STZ induced diabetic rats. The aqueous extract of tuberous roots of D. hamiltonii (AQETRDH) produced maximal percent reduction in serum glucose levels with higher dose (400 mg/kg). AETRDH and AQETRDH produced hypoglycemic and antidiabetic activities at 3 h in normal and STZ induced diabetic rats in a dose dependent manner. The effect produced by AETRDH was found better than that of standard gliclazide (2 mg/kg) an oral hypoglycemic agent. The AETRDH has exhibited higher and better hypoglycemic and antidiabetic activity for a prolonged period than that of the AQETRDH.
101-108
17
CYCLODEXTRINS: NANOCARRIERS FOR NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY
*Kishore Rapolu, Vinaydas Aatipamula, Kavitha Jayapala Reddy and Swathi Voruganti
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cyclodextrins are cyclic (&alpha; -1, 4)-linked oligosaccharides of &alpha; -D-glucopyranose containing a relatively hydrophobic central cavity and hydrophilic outer surface. Cyclodextrins, which can&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; serve as solubilising and stabilizing agent of drug, are very significant in improving the bioavailability of drug, increasing the solubility, decreasing the stimulation, and masking the Smell. The objective of this review is to discuss and summarize some of the findings and application of novel cyclodextrin based nanocarriers.&nbsp; The nanoparticles, taking cyclodextrins as the matrix, can enhance the capability of encapsuling the guest molecule; efficiently regulate the drug release rate and targeting of drug. This review also highlights the molecular structure, properties like complexation solubility, etc. of cyclodextrins and focuses on its usage in various nanocarriers like liposomes, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles and nanosponges. Thus cyclodextrins, because of their continuing ability to find several novel applications, are expected to solve many problems associated with the delivery of different novel drugs through different approaches of nanotechnology.
109-116
18
EFFECTS OF BINDERS, LUBRICANTS AND FILLERS ON DRUG RELEASE FROM DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLOIDE BI-LAYERED MATRIX TABLETS OBTAINED BY DIRECT COMPRESSION AND WET GRANULATION TECHNIQUE
*Naga Raju Potnuri, Devala Rao G, Srinivasa Rao A, Gnaneshwar Reddy M and Shashidhar Reddy S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study is aimed to study and investigate the effects of binders, lubricants and fillers influencing the drug release from the Diltiazem hydrochloride bi-layered matrix tablets containing matrix components such as natural polymer (Gum Olibanum) and hydrophilic polymer (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose). The amount of drug loading did not affect the drug release which was influenced by the hydrodynamic force and the matrix composition. An increase in the binder concentration (eg: 10, 20 and 30%) correspondingly increased the release rate of drug from matrices except gelatin as a binder. Moreover, incorporation of soluble diluents in core or barrier could enhance the drug release. The release kinetics and mechanism of drug release by regression coefficient analysis and Higuchi constant and Peppas exponential release model equation were also investigated.&nbsp; It was observed that all the fabricated tablets delivered the drug following Higuchi diffusion mechanism and the release mechanism of DHL from matrix tablets indicated Fickian transport mechanism. The in-situ interactions between the drug, polymers and excipients (binders, lubricants and fillers, etc.,) during wet granulation process are also investigated by DSC examination. Most dissolution profiles of the prepared DHL bi-layered tablets provided a better fit to zero order kinetic than to first order kinetic and Higuchi&rsquo;s equation. All the batches were evaluated by physical parameters like &ldquo;weight uniformity, hardness, friability, drug content uniformity&rdquo; and in vitro drug release characteristics as per USP XXIV monograph. The binder&rsquo;s [starch, gelatin and polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000)] effect on drug release from the dosage form was also investigated.
117-128
19
ENHANCEMENT OF TRANSDERMAL DELIVERY SYSTEM AND ANTIDIABETIC APPROACH: AN OVERVIEW
*Suresh C. Joshi and Nakuleshwar Dut Jasuja
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The&nbsp; modern&nbsp; era&nbsp; has&nbsp; witnessed&nbsp; development&nbsp; of&nbsp; alternate&nbsp; and&nbsp; successful&nbsp; routes&nbsp; of&nbsp; drug delivery system i.e. Transdermal Drug Delivery System (TDDS). In a broad sense, it includes all topically administered drug formulations intended to deliver the active ingredient into the general circulation. Increasing prevalence of diabetes is presently pushing strong demand for novel drug delivery devices. Most of the antidiabetic drugs today are available in injectable form through syringes, pens, pumps and needle-free devices. Today about 74% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. Innovations in drug delivery systems have not only enabled the successful implementation of many of these novel pharmaceuticals, but have also permitted the development of new medical treatments with existing drugs. The creation of TDDS has been one of the most important innovations. This article provides an overview on various techniques and new antidiabetic approaches of TDDS.
129-149
20
ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF ANANAS COMOSUS L. LEAVES IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
*Arun Babu Vuyyuru, Govindarao M, Ravi Chandra Sekhara Reddy D, Harish B, Vishwanath J and Amarnath Reddy G
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was to investigate the presence of Antidiabetic activity on the hydro-alcoholic extract of Ananas comosus L. Leaves. The extracts were obtained using soxhelation method and the Antidiabetic activity tested using streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. After the oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract at doses of 200 mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 600 mg/kg body weight blood glucose levels and body weights were monitored at specific intervals. In chronic model of diabetic, hydro-alcoholic extract of Ananas comosus L.leaves (HEAC) at a dose of 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) were administered for 21 days. In our study, both glibenclamide and HEAC significantly decreases fasting blood glucose and increases the body weight in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats as compared to the animals in the diabetic control group. The antidiabetic activity of HEAC was comparable to that of standard drug glibenclamide at a dose of 5 mg/kg.&nbsp; The present investigation reveals that hydroalcoholic leaves extract of dose 600mg/kg showing good antidiabetic property in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. This investigation concludes Ananas comosus L. Leaves hydroalcholic extract possess Antidiabetic activity against streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. <br />
142-147
21
NEEDLE FREE INJECTION TECHNOLOGY: A REVIEW
*Vishnu P, Sandhya M, Sreesh Kiran R, Vani ChV and Naveen Babu K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Needle-free injection systems are novel ways to introduce various medicines into patients without piercing the skin with a conventional needle. They can take the form of power sprays, edible products, inhalers, and skin patches. Needle-free systems are designed to solve these problems making them safer, less expensive, and more convenient. It is anticipated that these systems will increase the incidence of vaccination and reduce the amount of prescribed antibiotics. Moreover, they should reduce the number of needle stick accidents that have resulted in some health care workers contracting diseases. Today, they are a steadily developing technology that promises to make the administration of medicine more efficient and less painful. Companies are still working on producing devices that are safer and easier to use. They are also working on alternatives which can deliver even more types of medicines.
148-155
22
ESTIMATION OF IBUTILIDE FUMARATE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS BY A SIMPLE AND VALIDATED RP-HPLC
*Venkat Rao S, Chandrasekhar K, Gopalakrishna A and Ameer SK
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A rapid, precise, economical, and accurate HPLC method for estimation of Ibutilide fumarate in bulk and formulations was developed and validated via system suitability method. The chromatographic resolution of Ibutilide was achieved using acetonitrile: 0.1M ammonium dihydrogen phosphate  buffer PH~ 6(Phasphoricacid), (25: 75 V/V) as a mobile phase UV detection at 250 nm and Hypersil thermo C18 column at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min. The calibration curve was linear (r2 = 0.9991) over Ibutilide concentration ranging from 20 to 120 μg/mL. The proposed method is also accurate, precise and robust. The method can be used for routine quality control analysis.
156-158
23
SCREENING OF NOOTROPICS: AN OVERVIEW ON PRECLINICAL EVALUATION TECHNIQUES
*Mali AA, Shenoy PA, Bandawane DD, Nipate SS and Chaudhari PD
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Nootropics are also referred as smart drugs, memory enhancers, and cognitive enhancers. They are reported to improve mental function such as cognition, memory, intelligence, motivation, attention and concentration. They are thought to be work by altering the availability of brains supply of neurochemicals, by improving the brains oxygen supply or by stimulating nerve growth. Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegerative disorder which affects older individuals and is the most common cause of dementia. It may progress to a totally vegetative state. Atrophy of cortical and sub-cortical areas is associated with deposition of &beta;-amyloid protein in the form of senile plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles. There is marked cholinergic deficiency in the brain, though other neurotransmitter systems are also affected. Various measures to augement cholinergic transmitter in the brain have been tried. The relatively cerebroselective anti-ChEs have been approved for clinical use. There are number screening models available for preclinical evaluation of nootropics drugs. Newer models are developed in accordance with limitations of the earlier one. In-vitro methods inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity is measured by determining IC50 with the help of Log probit analysis. In ex-vivo cholinesterase inhibition method the dose response relationship determined for drugs such as physostigmine and tacrine. Studies on molecular form of AchEs are carried in rat frontal cortex and striatum for drug such as donepezil, tacrine. Agents which are H3 receptor agonist are evaluated for [3H] Ach release activity in rat using rat brain slices. The binding affinity of potential nicotinic cholinergic agonist in brain using agonist ligand is determined by [3H]-N- methyl carbamylcholine binding nicotinic cholinergic receptors in rat frontal cortex. In In-vivo methods the inhibitory passive avoidance the test are carried on animals to test the learning and memory capacity of animal by suppressing a particular behavior. It includes step down, step through, two compartment test, up-hill avoidance, scopolamine induced test, and ischemia induced amnesia, memory impairments in basal forebrain. In active avoidance conditioned stimulus is given to the animal, which gives noxious stimulus as a result. It includes runway avoidance, shuttle box avoidance, jumping avoidance. In discrimination learning animals have no choice between the conditioned stimuli. Studies on aged monkeys provides additional advantage for neurobehavioral animal model of aging in that many of behavioral processes thought to be affected by aging.
159-180
24
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL TABLET CONTAINING METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM
*Uma Shankar Mishra, Murthy PN, Sudhir Kumar Sahoo and Kanhu Charana Sahu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present paper deals with formulation and evaluation of herbal tablets prepared from methanol extract of the selected plant. A solid pharmaceutical dosage formulation using a novel dry plant extract (stem barks) using various excipients viz., sprays dried lactose, starch 1500, and Aerosil-200 and magnesium stearate by direct compression method. The absorption curve of Calophyllum inophyllum Methanolic extract showed characteristic absorption maximum at 278 nm in 0.1N HCl. The drug obeyed Beer&rsquo;s law in the concentration range of 10mcg/ml to 180mcg/ml, and it was found to be linear with r2 = 0.999, regression equation Y = 0.013x + 0.005. It was found that the release rate of drug increased as the percentage of starch 1500 was increased from 10 mg to 30mg. As the concentration of starch 1500 increased the release rate increased from 67.49% to 99.35% (CIT4) in 6 hours by increasing the concentration of starch 1500. The optimized formulation CIT4 of the drug was subjected to accelerated stability studies and the results were reproducible, even on tablets that had been stored for about 3 months at 250C/60% RH, 300C/60% RH and 400C/75% RH.&nbsp;&nbsp; <br />
181-186
25
ULTRAFAST SPECTROSCOPY: A REVIEW
*Rajeesha Surapaneni, Rohini P, Santosh Kumar Vobbilireddi and Mounika G
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Spectroscopy is the major tool used for the determination of quantum energy levels in atoms, molecules, semiconductor etc. Ultrafast spectroscopy is a very wide field of research from departments of physics, chemistry, electrical engineering, biology and material science. The field of ultrafast spectroscopy includes the spectroscopic measurements for which electronic detectors are not fast enough to allow direct measurement phenomena. These time scales presently range from about 10 fs to 100 ps. It is based on the use of light pulses that have very short temporal duration to interrogate matter. To illustrate the advantages of ultrafast spectroscopy and explore some of its implications, a quantum- mechanical formalism is required. Collisions in room-temperature liquids occur on a few-fs time scale, so nearly all processes in liquids are ultrafast. An ultrafast spectroscopic method using monolithic column high-performance liquid chromatography was evaluated for the simultaneous determination of a drug discovery. Ultrafast 2D-IRspectroscopy has been applied to study the structure and vibrational dynamics.
187-197
26
WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA LEAVES IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS
*Suresh Babu AR and Karki SS
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Calotropis gigantea Linn. (Asclepiadaceae) a widely growing plant has been reported to possess number of medicinal properties. It has been reported as a traditional folk medicine for a variety of alignments. The plant C. gigantea is also used in some parts of India for wound healing in combination with other plants. However there are no scientific reports on wound healing activity of the plant C.gigantea. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate scientifically the wound healing activity of Petroleum ether, Benzene, Chloroform, Methanol and Aqueous extract of leaves of the plant C.gigantea by excision and incision wound healing models in rats. Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing between 160 and 200 g were topically treated with extracts was applied once daily in excision wound model. C.gigantea leaves extracts were given orally at a dose of 200mg/kg and 180 mg/kg (methanol extract) in incision wound healing model. Rats of standard groups were treated with 5% Povidone iodine ointment topically. The percentage wound closure; epithelization time, hydroxyproline content and scar area on complete epithelization were measured. Topical application of methanolic extract of C.gigantea leaves in excision wound model increased significantly the percentage of wound contraction by 12th day, i.e. 70.11&plusmn;0.54 compared with control 45.09&plusmn;0.53. Scar area and epithelization time were decreased from 21.56 to12.56 days when compared with control. In incision wound model breaking strength of wounds and hydroxyproline was increased significantly from 125.48&plusmn;0.78 in control up to 321&plusmn;0.99 with methanolic extract. Hence, the methanolic extract of C.gigantea leaves accelerated wound healing activity in rats and thus supports its traditional use.
195-199
27
A REVIEW ON HIGHLY SENSITIVE ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES IN BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES
*Sathish Kumar K, Rohini P, Santhosh Kumar N and Hemanth Kumar P
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Highly sensitive analytical techniques have allowed a massive increase in the amount of pharmacokinetic data which is useful to estimate the toxicity of the particular drugs. Generally available analytical techniques may not provide sufficient information to identify the all these toxic substances present in biological fluids at low concentrations. So, modifications to generally available analytical techniques are required. They can provide high sensitivity and selectivity of the analytical method towards the particular type of toxic substances. They provide reliable, robust sensitive, specific, quantitative assay procedures for the determination of drugs and metabolites in body fluids. The sensitivity of these techniques is up to nano-grams and pico-grams. Originally, the most common extraction method was liquid&ndash;liquid extraction (LLE). Solid-phase extraction (SPE) has become an increasingly popular extraction method. <br />
200-204
28
COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON BUCCAL DELIVERY
*Murali krishna K, Nagaraju T, Gowthami R, Rajashekar M, Sandeep S, Himabindu S and Shravan kumar Yamsani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The main aim for the oral delivery of most of the drugs as potential therapeutic agents is their extensive presystemic metabolism, instability in acidic environment resulting into inadequate and erratic oral absorption. Parenteral route of administration is the only established route that overcomes all these drawbacks associated with these orally less/inefficient drugs. But, these formulations are costly, have least patient compliance, require repeated administration, in addition to the other hazardous effects associated with this route. Buccal cavity was found to be the most convenient and easily accessible site for the delivery of therapeutic agents for both local and systemic delivery as retentive dosage forms, because it has expanse of smooth muscle which is relatively immobile, abundant vascularization, rapid recovery time after exposure to stress and the near absence of langerhans cells. Direct access to the systemic circulation through the internal jugular vein bypasses drugs from the hepatic first pass metabolism leading to high bioavailability. <br />
205-217
29
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A NEW STABILITY INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR QUANTIFICATION OF PROCESS RELATED AND DEGRADATION IMPURITIES OF BICALUTAMIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORMS
*Palleshwar Rao G, JVLNS Rao, Lanka A. Rama Prasad and Srinivasu Pamidi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present work aims to develop and validate a stability indicating liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of process related and degradation impurities of Bicalutamide in tablet dosage form. Chromatographic separation was achieved on Waters Symmetry C18, (150 mm x 4.6 mm) 3.5&#61549;m particle size column using 0.1%v/v trifluoro acetic acid and 0.05%w/v sodium-1-octane sulphonic acid in water and 0.1%v/v trifluoroacetic acid in acetonitrile the ratio of 65:35 as mobile phase in isocratic elution mode. The analytes were monitored by a photo diode array (PDA) detector set at 270 nm and the flow rate was kept at 1.2mL/min. The method was validated in terms of Specificity, Precision, Ruggedness, Accuracy, Robustness and Linearity as per ICH guidelines.<br />
218-223
30
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF RANOLAZINE
*M Vanaja kumari, P Venkateswar reddy and M Sudhakar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study was to prepare and characterize the Sustained release matrix tablets of Ranolazine using Kollidon&reg; SR. Kollidon&reg; SR is a polyvinyl acetate based excipient. Three different strengths i.e 375mg, 500mg and 750mg of ranolazine SR tablets were prepared by direct compression method and by using common blend. The influence of compression force was studied on the dissolution release profile of Ranolazine SR tablets. In vitro release studies were performed for all the formulations using USP type II apparatus (paddle method) in 900 ml of 0.1N hydrochloric acid at 50 rpm for 24 hours and analyzed by UV spectrophotometer at 272nm. Further, in-vitro release pattern of drug from the optimized formulation was compared with innovator formulation and it was found to be super imposable with the Innovator product RANEXA based on dissimilarity and similarity factors. <br />
224-229