Volume 2 - Issue 2

S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
EFFECT OF THE CYP3A5 GENETIC POLYMORPHISM ON BLOOD LEVEL TO DOSE RATIO OF CYCLOSPORINE IN THAI RENAL ALLOGRAFT RECIPIENTS
*Pailin Wannapraphan, Duangchit Panomvana and Viroon Mavichak
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study concentrated on the effect of CYP3A5 polymorphism on cyclosporine (CsA) pharmacokinetics in Thai renal allograft recipients. A prospective descriptive study design was used. Thirty-four renal transplant outpatients who were on microemulsion CsA (Neoral®) and have had stable renal allograft function for at least 3 months were recruited. CsA dose and general demographic data of the patients were recorded. The CsA concentrations at C0 and C2 were determined in whole blood using the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). CYP3A5 genotyping was determined by real-time PCR technique. The results obtained indicated that CYP3A5 polymorphism was correlated with CsA dosage requirement in Thai renal transplant patients. The weight-adjusted dose was significantly higher in the CYP3A5*1/*1 group as compare to CYP3A5*1/*3 and CYP3A5*3/*3 group (2.66±0.49 vs 2.07±0.53 mg/kg/day, p=0.028) while the dose-adjusted C0 and C2 showed tendency to be lower in the CYP3A5*1/*1 group as compare to the other group.
230-236
2
IMPACT OF CLINICAL PHARMACIST INTERVENTION ON DECREASING INCIDENCE OF PREVENTABLE ADVERSE DRUG EVENTS AFTER HOSPITAL DISCHARGE
*Osama H. Mohamed Ibrahim
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Most of the time discharge from the hospital after hospitalization involves disturbance of care, multiple changes in medications and medication regimens, and insufficient patient education, which can cause several adverse drug events (ADEs) and unnecessary health care utilization that can be avoided. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of clinical pharmacist intervention on decreasing the incidence of preventable ADEs after patient discharge. A randomized trial was conducted involving 250 patients being discharged from the general medicine service at a large teaching hospital in Cairo (Egypt). Patients in the intervention group received pharmacist counseling at discharge and a follow-up telephone call 3 to 4 days later. Intervention group counseling concentrates on reviewing indications, clarifying medication regimens; explaining directions of use, explaining potential side effects of medications; screening for barriers to adherence; and providing patient counseling. Patients in the control group received the standard dispensing and counseling with no follow-up telephone call. The primary outcome was the rate of preventable ADEs. All patients in the trial were contacted 30 days after discharge to assess adherence and the occurrence of ADE. Clinical pharmacists observed that medication non-adherence happened in about 13%.of the intervention group versus 24% in the control group (P-value < 0.05). Comparing study outcomes 30 days after discharge, preventable ADEs were detected in 14% of patients in control group and 3% of patients in intervention group (P-value<0.05). Clinical pharmacists’ interventions such as medication review, patient counseling, and telephone follow-up were associated with a statistically significant lower rate of preventable ADEs 30 days after hospital discharge (P-value <0.05) through reduction in medication discrepancies and improvement of adherence to medication regimen. Greater roles for clinical pharmacists in hospital care should be considered, especially in case of patient at high risk to ADE and poor compliance.
237-243
3
EVALUATION OF PHARMACOKINETICS AND LIVER FUNCTION EVALUATED IN RATS FOLLOWING THE CO-ADMINISTRATION OF CAPTOPRIL AND CIPROFLOXACIN
*Essam Ezzeldin and Hebatalla Ibrahim Ahmed
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Simultaneous co-administration of multiple drugs is highly probable to allow effective treatment of a disease or multiple disease symptoms. Ciprofloxacin antibiotic is in use worldwide and it is possible to be used in cardiovascular patient&rsquo;s treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the biochemical and pharmacokinetic interactions between ciprofloxacin and captopril in rats. The study was conducted in six groups of rats that received captopril 7.5 mg/kg, ciprofloxacin 50 and 100 mg/kg alone or co-administered with captopril 7.5 mg/kg for 28 days. Captopril and Ciprofloxacin plasma levels were determined by validated HPLC methods. Liver function biomarkers were also assessed. Ciprofloxacin significantly increased the Cmax AUC0-12 and AUC0-inf and prolonged t1/2 and MRT of captopril. Conversely, captopril had no significance effect on the ciprofloxacin.&nbsp; Ciprofloxacin elevated the liver function biomarkers. Therefore the clinical significant of this work should be taken into consideration when these two agents are concomitantly administered. <br />
244-251
4
MEDICINE STOCK OUT AND INVENTORY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS IN PUBLIC HOSPITALS IN TANZANIA: A CASE OF DAR ES SALAAM REGION HOSPITALS
*Godeliver A.B. Kagashe and Terevael Massawe
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The supply of medicines needs to be managed efficiently in order to prevent all types of wastage including overstocking, pilferage and expiry. This wastage may influence the quality of health care provided to patients. Problems of stock outs or overstocking and expiry of medicines in public hospitals in Tanzania have been reported. Factors contributing to these stock outs on one hand and over stocking on the other are not very clear. This descriptive cross sectional study therefore assessed the logistic skill levels of personnel involved in medicines supply as well as inventory management of medicines in public hospitals in Dar es Salaam region. Data was obtained using questionnaires as well as record review of tracer medicines. Results show that logistic skill level was poor and inventories were not well managed. Lack of funds and poor logistic skills contributed to stock outs. It is recommended that personnel dealing with medicines supply be trained in procurement and inventory management. <br />
252-259
5
SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF LOSARTAN AND ATORVASTATIN IN RAT PLASMA AND ITS APPLICATION TO PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY
*Shankar Ganesh G, Madhusudana K, Sai Shalini N and Ramakrishna Sistla
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, rapid, economic and precise RP-HPLC method for simultaneous analysis of Losartan (LOS) and Atorvastatin (ATR) in rat plasma has been developed and validated. Valsartan (VAL) was used as an internal standard. Extraction of the drug from the plasma was carried out by precipitation method. Analysis was performed using Kromasil C18 column (250 &#61620; 4.6 mm; 5&micro;) with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.02 M sodium dihydrogen phosphate (containing 0.1% heptanesulphonic acid, pH adjusted to 3.0 with ortho phosphoric acid) in the ratio of 55:45 (v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL min-1. Chromatographic separation was monitored at 235 nm. The method was linear over a range of 10-1000 ng mL&minus;1 for both the drugs. Limits of detection and Limits of quantification were 2.9 ng mL&minus;1 and 8.8 ng mL&minus;1 for LOS and 3.2 ng mL&minus;1 and 9.8 ng mL&minus;1&nbsp;&nbsp; ATR respectively. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity, recovery and stability. The applicability of this method in pharmacokinetic studies was demonstrated.
260-271
6
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY, TOTAL FLAVONOIDS AND TANNINS CONTENT FROM THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SPILANTHES PANICULATA LEAF GROWING IN BANGLADESH
*Hemayet Hossain, A.F.M Shahid-Ud-Daula, Kamrul Hasan, Abdullah-Al-Mansur and Muhammad Mahbubul Haq
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The crude ethanolic extract of the leaves of Spilanthes paniculata Wall.ex DC (Family: Asteraceae) was evaluated for its possible anti-inflammatory activity as well as total flavonoids and tannins content growing in northeast part of Bangladesh. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied using carrageenan and histamine-induced rat paw edema test at different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) of the ethanol extract. At the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight, the extract showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity both in the carrageenan and histamine-induced oedema test models in rats showing 55.63% and 56.52% reduction in the paw volume (P&lt;0.01) comparable to that produced by the standard drug indomethacin (61.27% and 63.35%) at 4h respectively. The percentage inhibition of the oedema paw volume by the 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract was also statistically significant (P&lt;0.05; P&lt;0.01) compared favorably with the indomethacin treated animals at 1, 2 and 3 h in both models. The total flavonoids and tannins content were calculated as quite high in ethanolic extract (112.98 mg/g of quercetin equivalent and 187.27 mg of gallic acid equivalent respectively). Acute toxicity test showed that the plant might be safe for pharmacological uses. Therefore, the obtained results tend to suggest the acute anti-inflammatory activity as well as total flavonoids and tannins content from the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Spilanthes paniculata and thus provide the scientific basis for the traditional uses of this plant as a remedy for toothache, pain and inflammations.
271-277
7
ESTIMATION OF SERUM ACTIVITIES OF ANTI-OXIDANT ENZYMES AND LEVELS OF INDICES OF RENAL DAMAGE IN FEMALE WISTAR RATS DOSED WITH ACETAMINOPHEN/METHIONINE
*Iyanda Ayobola Abolape and Adeniyi Francis
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Acetaminophen abuse is common in many parts of the world. At overdose levels it causes hepatic and renal damage and because its treatment is expensive and prognosis is poor in some cases, calls for inclusion of an antidote have been made. Results of a past study showed that inclusion of methionine with acetaminophen in the ratio of 1: 9 did not confer protection on the renal cells at very high level of exposure; 40% and 100% mortality occurred at 3000 &amp; 5000 mg/kg (BW) levels of exposure respectively. The aim of this study is to exclude insufficient methionine in that combination as cause of death in those animals, by using a higher combination ratio of 1: 5 (methionine: acetaminophen). Female Wistar rats were divided into 17 groups (n = 8), 16 groups were administered with different doses of acetaminophen or acetaminophen/methionine ranging from 350 &ndash; 5000 mg/kg. The 17th group which served as the control received physiologic saline. Route of administration was by gastric gavage. Whole blood was obtained by retro-orbital bleeding; serum samples were utilized for the estimation of renal indices, using assay kits. Kidney sections were stained with hematoxylin &amp; eosin.&nbsp; The combination ratio of 1: 5 (methionine: acetaminophen) conferred protection on renal cells even at doses as high as 3000 &amp; 5000 mg/kg using biochemical and histological markers as indices of study. Urea, creatinine and uric acid were not significantly different in acetaminophen/methionine groups compared with controls while histology result showed non-visible lesion at all levels of exposure. The results suggested that the effectiveness of methionine as an antidote in preventing renal damage after exposure to toxic doses depends on the use of right combination ratio which in the case of Wistar rats was found to be 1: 5 (methionine: acetaminophen).
278-286
8
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF RITCHIEA LONGIPEDICELLATA FAM. CAPPARIDACEAE
*Anowi CF, Utoh-Nedosa UA, Onyegbule AF and Oche G
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ritchiea longipedicellata Gilg had been reported in traditional medicine, to exhibit antimicrobial properties. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the antibacterial and antifungal activities of Ritchiea longipedicellata Gilg leaves against pathogenic microorganisms by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration and to serve as criteria to recommend the ethno pharmacological uses of the plant. Plant leaves were dried, powdered and extracted by cold maceration with methanol for 24hours. Phytochemical screening was done for alkaloids, saponin, essential oil, phenolic group, steroidal nucleus, simple sugar, starch, cyanogenic glycoside, proteins and flavonoids using standard procedures. Antimicrobial and minimal inhibitory concentration screenings were done using agar diffusion technique. Antibacterial activity test was conducted by screening against seven pathogens comprising both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria obtained from Pharmaceutical Microbiology laboratory stock. The extracts were screened against 24hour broth culture of bacteria seeded in the nutrient agar at concentrations 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg/ml in DMSO and incubated at 370C, for 24 hours and measuring the inhibition zone diameter - IZD. The same was done for antifungal screening, however, fungi were seeded into a sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated for 72 hours at 250C (.Aspergillus niger and Candida albican were used). The positive controls were ampicillin 20&micro;g/ml and clotrimazole cream 1mg/ml for bacteria and fungi respectively.&nbsp; DMSO was used as negative control. The results of phytochemical screening showed moderate availability of alkaloid, simple sugar and abundance of flavonoids, steroidal nucleus, essential oil, phenolic group, cyanogenic glycoside; absence of starch and protein and doubtful quantity of saponin. Methanolic extract inhibited with minimal inhibitory concentration of 200, 6.25, 200, 12.5, and 12.5 mg/ml against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, E. coli, B. subtilis, and Sarcinae lutea respectively. The extract demonstrated activities against certain bacteria confirming the use of the plant in ethno pharmacology and since the root extract are more often used, it is yet to be confirmed if it has more activity than the leaves against the test organisms. Taking the least IZD of the standard (Ampicillin) as the breaking point, most of the extracts passed the breaking point. <br />
287-293
9
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF DOXORUBICIN LIPOSOMES
*Prasanth VV, Maharshi S, Sam T. Mathew, Abin Abraham, Kiran Jadhav
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Doxorubicin is an effective anticancer drug used in the treatment of several cancers such as osteosarcoma, kaposis sarcoma. The usage of the drug is limited because of its adverse effects on the heart. To reduce the adverse effects and to increase the release rate doxorubicin is formulated into liposomal dosage form. The liposomes are prepared by the thin film hydration method.Using soyalecithin as the phospholipid. This study mainly explains about the effect of concentration of soyalecithin, cholesterol and DSPE-MPEG2000 on the particle size of formulated liposomes which ranges in between 0.766 &plusmn; 0.03&micro;m to 13.56 &plusmn;&nbsp; 0.10 &micro;m , drug entrappment efficiency of different formulations in which maximum entrapment efficiency was determined as 96.45 &plusmn; 0.95 % and minimum was 24.89 &plusmn; 1.18 % , zeta potential which is determainedd as -0.271 mV, in vitro drug release in which the the maximum sustain release was found as 41.45 &plusmn; 1.06 %&nbsp; and stability studies at different temperatures and maximum drug retention was found in refrigerated temperature 2-8 oC. <br />
294-298
10
SYNTHYSES, REACTIONAND CHARACTRIZATION OF QUINOLINE DERIVATIVES
*O.A. Fathalla, M.E.A. Zaki, Eman A. ElHefny and S.A. Swelam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Starting with 4, 7-dichloroquinoline and on treatment with hydrazine hydrate we obtained the hydrazine derivative 1. Compound 1 reacted with dithioacetal to give compounds 2a, b, respectively. Compound 2a reacted&nbsp; with formamide and formic acid to give compounds 3 and 4. The imidoformate derivative 5 obtained through the reaction of compound 2a with trimethyl orthoformate in presence of acetic anhydride. The imino derivatives 6a-c was obtained upon reacting of 5 with hydrazine hydrate and appropriate primary amines. The chloroquinoline derivative 7 was subjected to react with glycine, anthranilic acid, hydrazine hydrate and appropriate primary amines affording compounds 8, 9, 10a-d, respectively Also compound 10a was allowed to react sodium azide and acetohydrazid affording fused quinolone derivatives 11and 12. Compounds 2a and 2b were allowed to react with aryl sulfonylchloride, namely benzene sulfonylchloride, p-toluene sulfonylchloride p-chlorosulfonylchloride and p-bromo benzene sulfonylchloride to give the corresponding 13a-d, 14a-d derivatives,&nbsp;&nbsp; respectively. All structures of the newly synthesized compounds were elucidated by their correct values in elemental analysis and spectral data.
299-305
11
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ROOTS OF LAWSONIA INERMIS AGAINST PARACETAMOL AND ANTI-TUBERCULAR DRUGS INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS
*Ravishah S, Manjula SN, Mruthunjaya K, Krishnanand P, Pramod Chakravarthy KN, Madhu Raghav M, Javia Sweety and Mina Basirian
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of roots of Lawsonia inermis (LI)&nbsp;&nbsp; ethanolic&nbsp;&nbsp; extract in paracetamol and anti tubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity in&nbsp;&nbsp; Wistar rats. Roots of LI were extracted with alcohol and water which has given ethanolic extract of LI &amp; aqueous extract of LI. Preliminary phytochemical tests were done. The in vitro hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of lawsonia inermis (LIALC) and aqueous extract of lawsonia inermis (LIAQ) were assessed. The in vivo hepatoprotective activity of LIALC was investigated against Paracetamol and Anti-TB drugs induced hepatotoxicity in Rats. Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of lactones, &#64258;avonoids, sterols, terpenes, carbohydrates, tannins compounds, which have been known for their hepatoprotective activities. In both in vivo and in vitro hepatoprotective models, the levels of cytosolic enzymes, a marker of oxidative damage to hepatocytes, were significantly reversed to almost to normal in dose dependent manner.&nbsp; Both the extracts significantly increased the levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione (GSH) as compared to control. LI possesses marked hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol and anti tubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity in rats as evidenced by both in vivo and in vitro results. The activity may be attributed to the individual or combined action of phytoconstituents present in it.<br />
306-316
12
A VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF GUAIFENESIN AND PSEUDOEPHEDRINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
*Rahul Sahu, NPS Sengar, Parul D. Mehta and NS Lodhi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate, rapid, precise, specific and cost effective reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method have been developed and subsequently validated for simultaneous estimation of Guaifenesin (GUA) and Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PSE) in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Chromatography is carried out isocratically at 25&deg;C &plusmn; 0.5&deg;C on an Prontosil C-18 column (4.6 x 250mm, 5&mu; particle size) with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile-methanol-phosphate buffer (pH-5.0) (72:8:20, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a PDA detector at 218 nm. Parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, specificity and ruggedness are studied as reported in the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The retention times for GUA and PSE are 2.99 &plusmn; 0.5 min and 5.04 &plusmn; 0.5 min respectively. The linearity range for GUA and PSE are 15-75 &micro;gml-1 and 6-30 &micro;gml-1 respectively. The percentage recoveries of GUA and PSE are 98.72 and 98.35% respectively. The correlation coefficients for both components are close to 1. The relative standard deviations for three replicate measurements in three concentrations of samples in tablets are always less than 2%. <br /><br />
317-321
13
ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC BARK EXTRACT OF VITEX NEGUNDO Linn
*Sampath kumar Ch, Rajender Arutla and Sunil Kumar M
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was undertaken to assess the analgesic effect of methanolic extract of Vitex negundo bark in albino rats. The analgesic action in acute pain models was studied by tail flick method and hot plate method. The methanolic extract of Vitex negundo bark was screened for phytochemical analysis and it&rsquo;s revealed the presence of all components. The adult Sprague- Dawley rats were divided into four groups of six each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac sodium (9mg/kg), the methanolic extract of Vitex negundo bark 200mg/kg and 300mg/kg were fed to group III, IV. It is observed that the both Vitex negundo bark shows considerable analgesic effect in acute pain models which is less than the effect of Diclofenac group. The higher dose groups of Vitex negundo bark extract (300mg/kg) was revealed more activity than their corresponding lower dose. <br />
322-326
14
PHARMA @ 2020 - (THE NEXT CENTURY PHARMA TREND)
*Shashank Tiwari, Navneet Batra and Mohd. Sohrab
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Well said that research is a never ending field but still is always motivates to one &amp; all for thinking beyond in order to create miracles. And the 2020 will be miracles world for pharma sector. At that time the time will be OTC medicines. The Indian pharmaceutical sector is the highly organized sector; it ranks very high amongst all the thirds world countries in the term of technology, quality and the vast range of medicines that are manufactured.
327-329
15
ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF THE PLUMERIA RUBRA LEAVES EXTRACT
*Vimlesh Misra, Sheikh Mubeen Uddin, Vivek Srivastava and Umashankar Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Antipyretic effect of ethanolic extract of the leaf of plumeria rubra was investigated. Intraperitoneal administration of boiled milk at a dose 0.5 ml/kg body weight in albino rabbit leads to pyrexia. Intraperitoneal (i. p. route) administration of ethanolic extract of the leaf of plumeria rubra at a dose 200mg/kg body weight were shown significantly reduce the elevated body temperature of rabbit which was compared with&nbsp; aspirin (Standard Drug) and solvent used.
330-332
16
COMPARISON STUDIES OF UNCOATED & ENTERIC COATED ASPIRIN FORMULATIONS
*K. Gouthami, M. Raghavendra Praneeth, Ch. Madhu Sudan, C. Vandhit Reddy, Roopa Patel, Sarojini N, AS Rao and V. Lokeswara Babu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Aspirin is belonging to the class of NSAID having analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet activity at regular normal doses. At higher doses it causes gastrointestinal ulcers, stomach bleeding etc. This effect of aspirin can be minimized by preventing the drug exposure to the gastric region which is achieved by using enteric coating of the aspirin tablet. The present study involves comparison of physical evaluation of uncoated tablets with that of enteric coated tablets of Aspirin.
333-336
17
OCCURRENCE OF CHLORIDE ENRICHED CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTAL IN CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS LINN
*Rupali Taur, Shantanu Chavan and Narayan Pandhure
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cissus quadrangularis Linn. is known for its ability to accelerate the healing process of bone fracture in Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant. It is a rich source of vitamin C, &beta; carotene and calcium. The plant part used in this study is stem of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. The fleshy stem are ground in a heavy duty blender and sieved through a 0.20mm sieve. The suspension obtained is suspended in distilled water. The crystals are concentrated at the bottom of a test tube. The supernatant must be washed until it is free of plant pigment and other organic substances. The calcium crystals have well defined and sharp peaks, indicating very high crystallinity. Secondly the profile shows highest peak of calcium for the first time. Peaks for chloride are the indicators of enrichment of chloride in Calcium oxalate crystals. The objective of this study is to extract, to study crystal morphology and chemical constituents of crystals.
337-340
18
TOXICOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION IN LEGAL CONTEXT FOR VETERINARIANS
*Modi CM, Dudhatra GB, Avinash Kumar, Chukewar AB, Awale MM, Patel HB and Mody SK
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Due to rapid industrial expansion and change in socio-economic dynamics of human population, the death and also cruelty to animals due to toxicant, poisons or industrial or agricultural chemicals is very common social phenomenon now a days. The prevention of such incidences depends on investigation of incidence, finalizing causes of death and cruelty to animals and formulating policy based on findings and experiences. Under such toxicological investigation, Veterinarian plays key role by offering his services to law enforcing agency for performing the post-mortem, collection of samples, submitting the samples to forensic laboratory and interpretation of results hereby obtained. All these functions become very crucial when there is involvement of legal disputes or conflicts. Under such condition, Veterinarian is authorized sources of expert evidence and opinions as per Expert Witness Act of India. Veterinarian has to present his findings and related opinions in the presence of court jury. Admissibility of expert evidences and opinions depends on accuracy of Veterinarian&rsquo;s professional functions performed during investigation of cases. It is a challenging job for Veterinarian to investigate veterolegal cases in field condition in order to protect the interest of animal or owner or society or government. So the intersection of knowledge of toxicological and legal matters is of vital for Veterinarians to understand and to conduct such investigation in most correct ways. The present review is focused on blending of technicality of toxicological investigation and its legality for the use of court and jury. <br />
341-347
19
EFFECT OF OFLOXACIN ON TIZANIDINE PHARMACOKINETICS IN RATS
*Dipika S. Sherkar, Vaibhav G. Bhamre, Deelip V. Derle, Minal R. Narkhede, Jitesh H. Shet and Amit Tiwari
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Objective of this work was to study the effect of ofloxacin on bioavailability and other pharmacokinetic parameters of tizanidine in rats. A single dose parallel design was used with 36 animals randomly divided in reference group and test group.&nbsp; All the rats received 7 mg tizanidine orally and in test group 200 mg ofloxacin was co-administered with tizanidine. Nine blood samples were collected from each animal over a 24-hour period. Plasma tizanidine concentrations were determined by HPTLC using UV detection, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by non-compartmental method. The mean value of the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of tizanidine decreased significantly (8.47%, P value &lt;0.001; 90% CI, 91.32% -91.72%) in animals who had given the drug with ofloxacin (Cmax , 31.54 &plusmn; 0.16 &micro;g/mL) than those who had given the drug with water (Cmax, 34.46 &plusmn; 0.07 &micro;g/mL). The area under the plasma concentration time curve from t=0 to time of the last measureable concentration (AUC0-t) was also increased significantly (17.17%, P value &lt;0.001; 90% CI, 116.99% -117.34%). Similarly, the value of area under the concentration-time curve from t=0 to in&#64257;nity (AUC0-&infin;) value was increased significantly (5.24% %, P value &lt;0.001; 90% CI, 103.77% -104.83%); these changes were not within the 90% CI range of 80.000 - 125.000 % which is the acceptable range of bioequivalence. Tmax, T1/2, terminal elimination rate constant (&lambda;z), CL/F value, Vd/F value, AUMC0-t and AUMC0-&infin; values, MRT0-t and MRT0-&infin; values and % relative bioavailability (Fr) value for test group were also determined and compared with reference group. Form results the values of Cmax and AUC0-&infin; were not within the bioequivalence acceptable range and from statistical analysis the reference and test samples were found to be bio-in-equivalent, suggesting the improved tizanidine oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy due to co-administration of ofloxacin.
348-352
20
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACT OF ROOTS OF EUGENIA JAMBOLANA
*S.M. Patil and R. Saini
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the ethyl acetate extract of roots of Eugenia jambolana. The ethyl acetate extract of Eugenia jambolana in gum acacia was administered orally at 150 and 300mg/kg. The results of the present study revealed that the treatment groups showed a significant reduction in paw volume in a dose dependent manner indicating their anti-inflammatory action, which had provided a proof for the scientific validation of their ethno pharmacological property.
353-355
21
COMPARATIVE PET STUDY BETWEEN TWO PROSTAGLANDIN DERIVATIVES OPHTHALMIC SOLUTIONS
*Kashyap Nagariya, Piyush Sharma, Anil Bhandari, Sarangdevot YS and Chouhan CS
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Although in vitro and in vivo laboratory studies have suggested that benzalkonium chloride (BKC) in ophthalmic solutions may be detrimental to corneal epithelial cells, multiple short- and long-term clinical studies have provided evidence supporting the safety of BKC. Despite the conflicting evidence, BKC is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmic products largely due to its proven antimicrobial efficacy. This study was designed to characterize the preservative efficacy performance of two commonly used ocular hypotensive agents that employ BKC as preservative: latanoprost with 0.01% BKC and travoprost 0.02% BKC, in an isotonic buffer solution.
356-361
22
CHALLENGES IN TRANSDERMAL FORMULATION: IN VITRO EVALUATION
*Mudasir Mohamad and Roheena Jan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:SnapToGridInCell/> <w:WrapTextWithPunct/> <w:UseAsianBreakRules/> <w:DontGrowAutofit/> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--> <p style="text-align: justify" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size: 10pt">One of the most vital challenges for Transdermal Therapy is the skin, itself acting as a barrier. Hence, in this study, an attempt was made to elucidate the transdermal permeation potential of Surfactant (Brij-58 &amp; Brij-30)in comparison to terpene (clove oil) using Aceclofenac as a model drug. The <em>in vitro</em> skin permeation studies for aceclofenac in various drug solutions revealed that the drug in isotonic phosphate buffer was able to permeate skin with a flux which is not significant for transdermal permeation from any formulation. Addition of co- solvent (ethanol 95%) resulted in an increase in the flux. Different skin permeation enhancers were tried in an attempt to increase permeation of the drug in order to achieve the desired plasma concentration of aceclofenac. Enhancers tried included, Brij-58, Brij-30 and Clove oil. All skin permeation enhancers increased the flux of drug with respect to their respective controls. An increase in both the flux as well as permeability coefficient of the drug was seen when the concentration of enhancers was increased from 1% to 2% in case of Brij-58 and Brij-30 and from 1-10% in case of Clove oil. On the basis of these studies 2% Brij-58 which showed highest permeation potential was selected as permeation enhancer for the design of Transdermal Therapeutic System.</span></p> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style> <![endif]-->
362-365
23
TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS INFLUENCING FACTORS, STUDY METHODS AND THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS
*Ravi Theaj Prakash U and Padma Thiagarajan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Drug delivery across the skin offers several advantages, which includes bypassing of gastrointestinal tract and deviation from liver metabolism. Several drugs have been successfully assimilated through this route, which is in turn controlled by the drug lipophilicities and molecular weights along with their partition coefficients. The age and condition of the skin are also determining factors. However, an obvious barrier to this process is the stratum corneum which restricts efficient penetration of drugs. This drawback has been partially overcome by the use of permeation enhancers, and also by coercive techniques, which promote easy drug uptake, as proved by various in vitro and in vivo assays. Consequently, several transdermal delivery based therapeutic systems have been developed to treat various specific pathological conditions. The factors controlling drug uptake and penetration enhancers have been discussed in this review, along with some important therapeutic applications.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <br />
366-374
24
OPTIMIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS FOR MAXIMUM TANNASE PRODUCTION FROM CASHEW HUSK
*Lokeswari N
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Tannase production under solid-state fermentation was investigated using isolated Aspergillus oryzae. Among all agro-industrial waste material evaluated, cashew husk supported maximum tannase production. The metabolic processes of microorganisms are influenced by changes in parameters like Temperature, pH, incubation time, humidity etc., which are very specific for a particular organism. Microbial synthesis of enzymes in a SSF process are also affected by factors like particle size of substrate, water content, relative humidity, type and size of inoculum, control of temperature, period of cultivation, etc. Biotransformation of cashew husk tannin to gallic acid by SSF is also influenced by all the factors affecting tannase production, since the synthesized enzyme causes the breakdown of tannin to gallic acid and glucose.
375-379
25
DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF PRESS COATED TABLET BY USING RUPTURABLE MATERIAL (EC) COMBINED WITH ERODIBLE MATERIAL (KLUCEL EXF) OF ACECLOFENAC
*Mayee RV and Shinde PV
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a press-coated pulsatile drug delivery system intended for treatment of early morning stiffness and symptomatic relief from pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with a distinct predetermined lag time of 6 h .Aceclofenac as a model drug by using various proportion of polymers such as rupturable material (EC) combined with erodible material (klucel EXF). Seven formulations were prepared and formulation F2 possessed good lag time time 6 hr and showed pulsatile drug delivery pattern the tablets were also evaluated for its hardness, friability and other In- vitro evaluation tests. All parameters complied with IP limits. Results of this study indicated that the combinations of rupturable material (EC) combined with erodible material (klucel EXF) are suitable to optimize pulsatile drug release formulation of aceclofenac. The formulation involved press coating of a rupturable coat around a rapidly disintegrating core tablet of aceclofenac.
380-385
26
ADVANCES IN CHIRAL SEPARATIONS: A REVIEW
*Bhawani S, Nagalakshmi Ch and Rohini P
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Chiral separation in forensic science is chemical separations of optically active isomers of drugs and metabolites. Specific functions of D-amino acids in humans are bound to lead to the revelation of D-amino acid abnormalities in human disorders. Therefore, high-throughput analysis techniques are warranted to determine D-amino acids in biological fluids. Two chromatographic techniques, a nonchiral derivatization with chiral (chirasil-L-val column) separation in a GC-MS system and a chiral derivatization with Marfey&rsquo;s reagent and LC- MS analysis were developed. The techniques for D-serine, L-serine, and glycine determination in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were validated. Toluene monooxygenases (TMOs) have been shown previously to catalyze region selective hydroxylation of substituted benzenes and phenols. TMOs are also capable of performing enantio selective oxidation reactions of aromatic sulfides. <br />
386-391
27
DIRECT ROOT REGENERATION AND INDIRECT ORGANOGENESIS IN SILYBUM MARIANUM AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL, ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES OF ITS CALLUS
*S. Ahmed John and M. Koperuncholan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The morphogenic potential and free-radical scavenging activity of the medicinal plant, Silybum marianum L. (milk thistle) were investigated. Direct root regeneration and indirect organogenesis and preliminary phytochemical, antibacterial studies of its callus. From leaf explants the highly significance result was found on the NAA at 2 mg/l and KIN at 0.2 mg/l for the direct root induction and indirect organogenesis the 100% callus induction was obtained from leaf explants on 2, 4-D at 2.5 mg/l),and The 100% shoot initiation was obtained from NAA at 2 mg/l and the BAP at 1.5 mg/l and then it was transferred to the shoot elongation medium bearing the hormone concentration of GA3 at 2 mg/l. Finally, it was transferred to root induction medium bearing the hormone concentration of NAA at 2mg/l. the Preliminary Phytochemical showed the Sugar, Saponins, Amino acids, Tannins were occur in the chloroform and ethanol extracts of leaf and hypocotyl callus. More antimicrobial inhibitory activity was recorded for the gram-positive than the gram negative in all extract. <br />
392-400
28
ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY STUDY OF LEAVES AND BARK OF CASSIA FISTULA
*Dinanath D. Patil, Dnyandeo K. Mhaske and Machindra Patare Gurumeet C. Wadhawa
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ethanol, methanol, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride, and hexane extracts from Cassia fistula were investigated for their in vitro antimicrobial properties, along with anti-inflammatory activity.&nbsp; All three extract of Cassia fistula were different in terms of their antibacterial activities. The Ethanol extract showed a stronger and broader spectrum of antibacterial activity. study was also carried out to evaluate the in-vitro antioxidant activities of ethanol, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride extract of Cassia fistula s .This was achieved by screening the two plant extracts at varying concentrations (10-50g/ml)using DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity. The results were analyzed statistically which showed that ethanol extract Cassia fistula had more antioxidant activity than standard antioxidant.Al extract was also studied for their anti-inflametry activity.<br /><br />
401-405
29
TOXICITY, STERILITY AND BIOCHEMICAL TESTING OF NOVEL DTP GROUP OF VACCINES
*Monika Sharma, Hemant Brahmne and Pallavi Bafna
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Conventionally, toxicogenic strains of C. diphtheria, C. tetani and B. pertussis are grown on a media of animal origin for production of DTP group of vaccines. This media poses various risks such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), microbial contamination and allergic reactions. To avoid such risks, media containing nutrients of vegetative origin are substituted. The present study involves the toxicity, biochemical and sterility testing of DTP group of vaccines produced on such vegetative media to determine their quality and safety. Toxicity tests are based on the observation that there are body weight changes characteristic to each vaccine and such standardized changes can be used as references for evaluating test vaccines. Sterility test was performed on the final bulk and lot to confirm that the product is free of bacterial and mycotic contamination. Biochemical tests were also carried out to determine the content of aluminium, thiomersal and formalin. The results confirmed that the DTP vaccine samples met the criteria set by I.P., 2007 for toxicity, sterility and safety. <br />
406-415
30
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ASTRAGALUS MEMBRANACEUS AGAINST DIARRHEAL BACTERIAL PATHOGENS
*Balachandar S, Jagadeeswari M, Dhanabalan R and Meenachi M
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Astragalus membranaceus (Fabaceae) is commonly used in medicine to treat a wide variety of infections. However, there is a lack of information on the effectiveness of A. membranaceus against microorganisms. The purpose of this study is to determine whether A. membranaceus inhibits bacterial growth in vitro. Methanolic and Ethanolic extracts of Astragalus membranaceus were prepared using dried root and were screened for phytochemical constituents. Tests for alkaloids, Saponins, Terpenoids, Flavonoids and cardiac glycosides were positive in both methanolic and ethanolic extracts. The evaluation of Antimicrobial activity of both the extracts was also carried out. The extracts were tested in disc diffusion assays against Diarrheal bacterial pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella, and Campylobacter. The results of antibacterial activity revealed that all the extract showed good inhibitory activity against all the tested pathogens. The activity of the extract was compared with standard antibiotics. <br />
416-418
31
MULTIPLE UNIT PELLET SYSTEMS: A REVIEW
*VR Sirisha K, K Vijaya sri, K Suresh and G Kamalakar Reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Compressed multiple unit pellet tablets/multiple unit particulate or pellet system commonly called MUPS are composed of polymer coated subunits namely pellets; which are embedded in an inert excipients matrix designed to overcome the difficulties in administering capsules and improved physico-chemical stability compared to suspensions. The functional coating like drug coating, barrier coating, enteric polymer coating is usually applied in a fluid bed coating processor provides each subunit with the characteristic desired drug release properties. The size, shape and surface morphology of the pellets to be coated are the prerequisites for coating of pellets. Design of MUPS involves formulating pellets by different techniques and further compression of these pellets into rapidly disintegrating tablets; disintegrate rapidly in the oral cavity for the delivery of coated pellets into the gastrointestinal tract or the site of release of the drug. Inspite of the challenges like content uniformity of the compressed tablets, ability of the film to withstand compression force; MUPS occupy a prominent role in formulating drugs due to their greater patient compliance; process, formulation and therapeutic advantages.
419-425
32
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL EVALUATION OF ROOT OF ALPINIA GALANGA WILLD
*Prasad V. Kadam, Kavita N. Yadav, Ramesh S. Deoda, Vidya S. Navasare, Rakesh S. Shivatare and Manohar J. Patil
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pharmacognostic studies of crude drug plays a very important role in identification the purity and quality of crude drugs. Medicinal plants which are found on earth have renowned medicinal significance and their usage is increasing day by day in our daily life. Different investigations are in continuously progressing towards exploring the pharmacological and therapeutical properties of herbal drugs. The present work embodies the investigations carried out to establish methods for quality control of drugs as per WHO guidelines for pharmacognostically untapped drugs. The root of Alpinia galanga, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is one of the same. Complete botanical evaluations which comprise macroscopic, microscopy, physicochemical parameters and phytochemical screening were carried out for the quality control of the drug. Thus it was thought worthwhile to explore this most functional plant on the basis of this standardization parameter. The study will provide referential information for the correct identification of the crude drug. <br />
426-431