Volume 2 - Issue 3

S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
REVERSAL OF MULTI-DRUG RESISTANCE IN MDR CANCER CELL BY 3113, A NEW DIPEPTIDOMIMETIC OF P-AMINOBENZOIC ACID
*Haiyan Wei , Jufang Yan , Wentao Liu and Chunyuan Fan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In this study, we reported for the first time that a new compound named 3113, which is the dipeptidomimetic of p-aminobenzoic acid showed multi-drug resistance (MDR) reversal activity. In MDR cancer cells, no matter acquired or inherent, combination with 3113 enhanced doxorubicin (DXR) cytotoxicity by 8 to 10 folds, which was slightly higher than the effect of verapamil (VPL). 3113 was indicated to enhance the cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs through increasing its intracellular accumulation in a time-dependent manner. According to the result of FCM (flow cytometry), the intracellular fluorescence representing the concentration of intracellular DXR was improved by 10 folds as compared with the MDR cells without 3113. Western blotting analysis of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) confirmed that 3113 can alter P-gp expression in a time-dependent way. In conclusion, MDR reversal activity of 3113 depends on, at least in part, the inhibition of P-gp expression.
432-438
2
MEDICINES PRESCRIBING PATTERNS FOR THE TREATMENT OF COMMON DISEASES AT COMMUNITY HEALTH CENTRES IN 3 DISTRICTS OF TIMOR-LESTE
*Stanley Chindove , Antonio Ximenes and Nelson Martins
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Problems with inappropriate use of medicines leading to antimicrobial resistance and increased healthcare costs are a major global concern. In Timor-Leste, concerns of inappropriate use of medicines at public health facilities are current among stakeholders in the health community. Therefore this descriptive, cross-sectional and retrospective study investigated the pattern of medicine use at community health centres in 3 districts of Timor-Leste.&nbsp; 100 case records of outpatients with acute respiratory infections, diarrhoea and malaria during a one year period (July 2010 to July 2011) were randomly sampled at 8 community health centres. Our findings show that the average number of medicines per encounter was slightly higher compared to a previous study at community health centres in Timor-Leste. However, extremely low usage of injections for outpatients was observed.&nbsp; Use of antibiotics among patients with upper respiratory infections and diarrhoea was considerably high. Antibiotics, analgesics, vitamins and antihistamines were commonly prescribed medicine categories. There was moderate availability of key medicines. <br />
439-444
3
ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF ANCHUSA STRIGOSA LAB IN STREPTOZOTOCIN DIABETIC RATS
*Ahmed Muhammed and Nuray Arı
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Flowers of Anchusa strigosa Lab. (Boraginaceae) used traditionally in Iraq for curing many kinds of diseases including diabetes. The present study was carried out to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of flowers of A. strigosa in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. The aqueous extract of A. strigosa flowers was administered orally (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) to diabetic rats for 30 days. A. strigosa caused a dose-dependent fall in blood glucose. Also there was an improvement in serum insulin levels. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels showed significant reduction in comparison with diabetic control group. The extract treatment also showed significant increase in hepatic glycogen levels. The results suggest that A. strigosa possesses antidiabetic effects in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
445-449
4
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF FIVE DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF WITHANIA SOMNIFERA ROOT
*Mohammad Shahriar, Abu Nizam Md Bahar, Md. Ismail Hossain, Sadika Akhter, Md. Aminul Haque and Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Current investigation aimed to assess the phytochemical screening, free radical scavenging potential and cytotoxic activity of the root extracts of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha). Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenol, flavonoid, tannin, saponin, alkaloid, glycoside and carbohydrate. In evaluation, methanol, ethanol, chloroform, pet-ether and n-hexane extract of the root powder was prepared and screened for in-vitro antioxidant activities by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity where chloroform, pet-ether and methanol extract of Withania somnifera showed noticeable effect in the DPPH scavenging assay. All five extracts were subjected to brine shrimp lethality bioassay for possible cytotoxicity. Concentration dependent increment in percent mortality of Brine Shrimp nauplii produced by the ethanol extract of Withania somnifera indicates the presence of cytotoxic principles in these extractives.
450-453
5
DRUG INTERACTION IN POLY PRESCRIPTIONS; EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT
*Hina Rehman, Ammar Hussain and Javeid Iqbal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Drug Interaction is increasing day by day leading to the major manifestations of Health care issues. According to &ldquo;WHO&rdquo; Drug Interaction was estimated to be from 6.2 % to 6.7 % per year. According to the &ldquo;Journal of the American Medical Association&rdquo; (JAMA 1996) reported that 108,000 American died in hospital and 2.2 million American had reaction to &ldquo;FDA&rdquo; permitted medication. To overcome for this scenario there are numerous sources of in sequence which accessible to Prescriber, Pharmacist and User about the Drug Interaction. In 2009, in the UK, drugs are gradually more obtainable over the counter and on-line devoid of prescription. Additionally, close at hand is widespread use of numerous herbal medicines from relatively under-regulated suppliers and the constituents of such products are often not known. This clinical reality of the widespread use of potent medicines &ndash; be they allopathic or traditional showed us the need for a practical hands-on guide that aims to be a compact, succinct and accessible source of Information for practitioners, prescribers and the public about adverse drug-Interactions. In this Cross Sectional Study total 300 Prescriptions were collected after analysis 250 informed consent have filled. Rest in 50 prescriptions the prescribing pattern errors have found including consent displeasure. In 250 prescriptions 70 is interacted and 180 is non-interacted or safe, without any significance level. The statically data have given below and graph demonstrates the interaction in all clinic, Government and private sectors hospitals. In this study poly prescription evaluation in primary, secondary and tertiary care hospitals. The percentage of interacted and non-interacted prescription is 28% in the city of Karachi, Pakistan. Female genders were more susceptible for interaction due to various causes about 17.6% and Male about 10.4% out of 28%.The major significance level is about 4% in Major Interaction, Moderate is about 13.6% and Minor is about 14.8%. Most Interaction Found in Cardiovascular is about 11.6% along with it 2.0 % interaction in Angina and 1.2% in Arrthymias.
454-465
6
A STUDY ON UTILIZATION PATTERN OF HIGHER GENERATION ANTIBIOTICS AMONG PATIENTS VISITING COMMUNITY PHARMACIES IN CHIDAMBARAM, TAMIL NADU AT SOUTH INDIA
*Akram Ahmad, S. Parimalakrishnan, Guru Prasad Mohanta, Isha Patel and PK Manna
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Infectious diseases are a prominent cause of death in developing countries. The antibiotic resistance caused by emergence of antibiotic resistant microorganisms, is a health problem leading to poor treatment outcomes and increased cost, increased mortality, morbidity and adverse drug reactions. The government of India proposed to introduce the New Drug Policy in 2011which calls for the making of a new schedule, Schedule HX, under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act. A cross-sectional and observational study was conducted in a private community pharmacy situated in Chidambaram, a city in rural South India to determine the appropriateness of the higher generation antibiotics (cephalosporin, flouroquinolone and coamoxiclav groups) in the out-patient department. The prescriptions were collected from the patients after they purchased the medicine from the pharmacy. All prescriptions containing higher generation antibiotics were assessed for the inappropriateness using a modified Medication Appropriateness Index. 300prescriptions containing higher generation antibiotics were analyzed. Out of the 77.66% of the prescriptions containing, 69.95% of prescriptions contained higher generation antibiotics. When assessed for the appropriateness of the prescription, 51%of the prescriptions containing higher generation antibiotics were prescribed inappropriately. <br />
466-471
7
COMPLEXATION, OPTIMIZATION, FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CLINDAMYCIN PHOSPHATE GEL USING ZINC ACETATE DIHYDRATE
*Manoj Kumar Mishra and Pramod Kumar Biswal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A stable zinc-clindamycin complex gel was formed by optimizing concentration of clindamycin phosphate (1.188gm) and zinc acetate dehydrate (500 mg), determining optimum pH condition (pH 7.5) and stabilizing (pH 5-8) the complex using various gelling agents. Drug identification was carried out by FTIR and DSC study. Related substances analysis and quantitative determination of drug were carried out on HPLC. Physical parameters like color, smoothness/ grittiness, ease of application, oiliness/greasiness, skin irritation, pH and viscosity of gel were conducted from time to time. Antimicrobial effectiveness test were screened against five selected pathogens. A Franz diffusion cells system was used to determine the release rate profile of the formulation which produces better result comparable to the marketed product (Dalacin&reg; lotion) concludes the topical application of gel useful in acne vulgaris is capable of storage during shelf life for longer period of time without losing its therapeutic effectiveness and maintaining the uniformity.<br /><br />
472-483
8
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF SOLANUM PUBESCENS WILD EXTRACTS GEL ON ALBINO WISTAR RATS
*P. Niyogi, N.J. Raju, P.G. Reddy, B.G. Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was aimed to prepared and characterize gel formulations of ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Solanum pubescens (Solanaceae) leaves using different polymers as gelling agents in various concentrations and also to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of gel. For the study, polymers such as Carbopol 940 (0.5%w/v), Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose K4M (2.5%w/v), Sodium Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (3.5%w/v) were selected for preparation of different gel formulations. The prepared gels were evaluated for physical appearance, pH, viscosity, extrudability, spreadability, anti inflammatory activity and also skin irritation to observe toxicity or side effects. At last the stability study performed to confirm the stability of final formulation. It was inferred from the results that gel formulation prepared by HPMC K4M found to be best formulations among the prepared batches.&nbsp; The prepared gels were evaluated for anti inflammatory activity by carrageenan induced paw odema method in wistar rat model using Diclofenac Sodium as the reference anti-inflammatory drug. And HPMC K4M formulation having 7.5%w/v ethyl acetate extract of Solanum pubescens (Solanaceae) leaves in gel shown significant inhibition in carrageenan induced paw odema.
484-490
9
HYPOGLYCEMIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF GLINUS OPPOSITIFOLIUS
*Ghanshyam Panigrahi, Uma Shankar Mishra, Sujata Mahapatra, Chhayakanta Panda, Gourishyam Pasa and Deepak Ku Hati
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study has been to investigate the possible hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of methanolic extract of the plant Glinus oppositifolius. The methanolic extract of Glinus oppositifolius was tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose overloaded hyperglycemic rats and hypoglycemic activity in overnight fasted normal rats. The extract was also evaluated for antihyperlipidemic activity in triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats. All the methods were carried out at three dose levels, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively. The results of the study were expressed as mean &plusmn; SEM, n=6 and data was analyzed by using one way analysis of variance test (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni&#39;s Multiple Comparison Test with 5% level of significance (P&lt;0.05). The methanolic extract of Glinus oppositifolius exhibited significant antihyperglycemic activity (P&lt;0.05) at 200 and 400 mg/ kg but did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats. It also exhibited a significant reduction (P&lt;0.05) in serum lipid profile like total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipopreotein (VLDL) and increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) in hyperlipidemic rats as compared to hyperlipidemic control statistically. All the activities were found dose dependent. This study supports the traditional claim and the methanolic extract of this plant possessed significant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect could be added in traditional preparations for the ailment of complications associated with hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic conditions or as an adjuvant with existing therapy.<br /><br />
491-497
10
INFLUENCE OF NATURAL GUMS FOR EFFECTIVE COLON TARGETING OF METHOTREXATE FOR THE TREATMENT OF COLORECTAL CANCER
*Bharani S. Sogali, Mohammed Yousuff and Shashank Nayak
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Colon-specific drug delivery systems (CDDS) are developed to reduce side effects and to achieve high local drug concentration at the affected site in the colon, hence optimal therapeutic effectiveness and good patient compliance. The aim of the present investigation was to develop colon targeted drug delivery system for methotrexate using guar gum and pectin as a carriers in the treatment of crohn&rsquo;s disease, ulcerative colitis, colorectal cancer, etc. Fast-disintegrating methotrexate core tablets were compression-coated with different ratios of guar gum and pectin. All the formulations were evaluated for the hardness, drug content uniformity, and subjected to in vitro drug release studies with and without rat caecal contents. The in vitro studies concluded that, amongst the different formulations, the F10 containing polymers 50%(guar gum and pectin) in the ratio 1:1 showed better drug release and satisfactory results&nbsp; showing a release of 83.4&plusmn;0.98% of methotrexate after degradation by colonic bacteria at the end of 24 hrs of the dissolution study and 49.4&plusmn;0.9% in simulated colonic fluids. The statistical significance was tested by using Student&rsquo;s t-test and found statistically significant. Optimised F10 formulation was subjected to stability studies at 40&ordm;C&plusmn;2&ordm;C/75%&plusmn;5% RH for 3 months and observed no significant change either in physical appearance, drug content or dissolution pattern. The DSC study showed that methotrexate did not react with polymers (guar gum &amp; pectin) or other excipients used in the study.
498-506
11
THE SCENARIO OF PHARMACY JOURNALS WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON IMPACT FACTOR
*Nimbekar TP, Wanjari BE, Bais YG and Nema
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The Impact Factor of a journal reflects the frequency with which the journal&#39;s articles are cited in the scientific literature. It provides a quantitative tool for ranking, evaluating, categorizing and comparing journals worldwide. Along with the impact factor, another term citation index rates the journal articles. It counts for an individual article, an author and a journal altogether. In our country, ranking, rating of pharmacy and scientific journals is lagging far behind as compared to international journals. The main reasons are comparatively low content value and low economic status in our country. Therefore, we need to increase the research work and publicity of our journals and make them available online which reduces the cost as well.
502-517
12
ANTI-PSYCHOTIC EFFECT OF AQUEOUS LEAVES EXTRACT OF MORUS ALBA IN ANIMAL MODELS
*Girish P. Laddha and G. Vidyasagar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
There are number of patients suffering from of psychiatric condition such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, migraine, anti-impulsivity, cognition. Serotonin is the most important neurotransmitters that have been implicated in etiology of number of these psychiatric conditions. Ethyl acetate soluble fraction and insoluble of leaves extracts of morus Alba was carried out on different in-vitro methods.&nbsp; Laboratory animals were given lithium sulphate to causes serotonin blockage from serotonergic neurons. They were treated with different higher concentration clozapine (active comparator) and EASF and EAISF then the psychotic symptoms were monitored to see which group exhibited the best response. The highest dose extract (100mg/kg) was comparable to clozapine in lowering psychotic behavior characterized by head twitches, stereotypy and 5-hydroxytryptophan potention hence both morus Alba and clozapine can be used to treat psychosis induced by amphetamine. The anti-psychotic effect of morus alba leaves may be in dose graded fashion. <br /><br />
513-519
13
EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC POTENTIAL OF SIDA CORDIFOLIA LINN. IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS
*Mehul V. Makwana, Nilesh M. Pandya, Bhavik D. Doshi, Dharmesh N. Darji, Sarav A. Desai and Bhaskar VH
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was aimed to evaluate antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity of an aqueous extract of root of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCAE) against Triton WR-1339 and High fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia in experimental animal. Effect of simultaneous administration of SCAE in different doses (200 &amp; 400 mg/kg) by oral route was estimated in Triton WR-1339 and HFD induced hyperlipidemic animals by estimating serum lipid levels of cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), Low density lipoproteins (LDL), High density lipoprotein (HDL) and Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and atherogenic index. Whereas antioxidant activity was carried out by estimating serum levels oxidative marker Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT). From the study, it was revealed that the aqueous extract of Sida cordifolia possesses significant hyperlipidemic activity in acute as well as chronic hyperlipidemic models in the company of promising antioxidant activity. So, it was concluded that aqueous extract of Sida cordifolia possesses potential antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity in experimental animals.
520-525
14
FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CEFUROXIME AXETIL FLOATING MICROSPHERES
*Marimuthu S, Nantheeswaran S, Shanmugarathinam A and Purachikody A
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of this research work was to increase the residence time of drug Cefuroxime axetil by formulating as floating microspheres and to study the effect of formulation variables on microsphere characteristics. Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation method in which ethyl cellulose used as a release retardant polymer. Nine different formulations were prepared by changing drug to polymer ratio, volume of internal phase, volume of external phase and stirring time. The prepared microspheres were characterized for drug - polymer compatibility by IR, percentage yield, particle size analysis, drug entrapment efficiency, surface morphology by SEM, bulk density, percentage buoyancy, in-vitro release and release kinetic studies. Results of these evaluations showed that particle size in the range of 58.52 to 77.36&micro;m, encapsulation efficiency was found to be 60.7 to 75.7%, Percentage buoyancy of all formulations were in the range of 62.12 to 81.23%.&nbsp; Fourier-Transform Infra Red (FT-IR) studies ensured that no drug - polymer interaction in the formulated microspheres and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) photograph revealed that microspheres were spherical in nature with rough surface. In- vitro release profile of microspheres were in the range of 73.47 % to 89.78%, at the end of 12 hrs.&nbsp; In release kinetic studies, most of the formulation followed hiquchi release kinetics and follows anomalous transport (non- fickian) mechanism. This entire evaluation confirmed that drug: polymer ratio has significant effect on microsphere characteristics than the other variables used, and also the in-vivo bioavailability of the drug will increase because the buoyancy of microspheres in simulated gastric fluid was satisfactory.
526-533
15
INCIDENCES OF CHEMOTHERAPY-INDUCED NEUTROPENIA AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH TREATMENT OUTCOMES
*Bhavik D. Doshi , Nilesh M. Pandya, Chirag A. Shah, Mehul V. Makwana
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was aimed to evaluate the incidences of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in patients with solid tumors in India. The patients with carcinomas of breast, lung, ovary, colon, head and neck, and liver were divided in two groups. Group 1 was for the patients who experienced grade 0-2 neutropenia and Group 2 was for patients with grade 3-4 neutropenia. Different types of chemotherapeutic agents were administered to the patients according to the routine practice of the physicians. The study revealed that the incidences of grade 3-4 neutropenia were observed in the patients with the first time exposure of the chemotherapeutic agents as well as the age factor also played an important role in the occurrence of neutropenia and febrile neutropenia. The results of this observational study indicate that the proportion of grade 0-2 neutropenia does not significantly (P-value &gt; 0.05) differ from the hypotheses value (i.e. 50%). Thus, we observed that the proportion of incidence of grade 3-4 neutropenia is less as compare to proportion of grade 0-2 neutropenia. Significant no. of patients received pegylated GCSF while a small proportion of patients received non-pegylated GCSF. A few patients were hospitalized due to neutropenia wherein age was observed as an important factor. Due to neutropenia, age of patients, and other comorbidities, chemotherapy dose was delayed and/or reduced.
534-541
16
PHYTOCHEMISTY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF BRYONIA LACINOSA: A REVIEW
*Rasagna Yadavalli, Venu Gopal Y and S.A. Sreenivas
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Many herbal remidies have been employed in various medical systems for treatment and management of different diseases. The plant Bryonia lacinosa has been used in different system of traditional medication for the treatment of diseases and ailments of human beings. Goniothalamin, punicic acid and lipids were previously isolated from the whole plant of Bryonia laciniosa. From leaves a bitter principle, bryonin, has been reported. Arabinoglucomannan, a polysaccharide is present in the fruit which is mainly used for anti-microbial activity. It has been reported that the plant contains anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticonvulsant, anti microbial and cytotoxic properties. The current study is therefore reviewed to provide requisite phytochemical and pharmacological detail about the plant. <br />
542-547
17
INTRANASAL THERMOREVERSIBLE MUCOADHESIVE GELS: A Review
*Shailja singh, Kanupriya and S.L. Hari kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Almost 40% of active Pharmaceutical ingredients have low oral bioavailability, high hepatic first-pass metabolism and also less efficient in crossing the blood brain barrier for brain targeting through oral delivery. To overcome this problem the various system such as: nasal spray, gels, emulsions, droplets, suspensions, powders and thermoreversible mucoadhesive gels etc have been studied for nasal delivery. Thermoreversible mucoadhesive gels have promising results in nasal drug delivery. Thermoreversible mucoadhesive gels are those which convert into gel in nasal cavity after administration at body temperature with suitable gel strength, results in enhancement of the residence time in the nasal cavity. These formulations contain thermoreversible polymers (Pluronic F127 or Poloxamer) and mucoadhesive polymers. Thermoreversible polymers are a novel state of matter having both solid and liquid like properties which can be delivered as a fluid and solidifies within the body&rsquo;s microenvironment where the temperature is higher than the sol-gel transition temperature. The formulation has the advantage to prevent the anterior leakage of dosage form, reduce the taste impact, and enhance the nasal bioavailability. Thermoreversible gels are formulated by two methods: simple stirriring and cold method. This abstract gives an overview of Thermoreversible mucoadhesive gels as a promising approach to effectively tackle the problem of low oral bioavailability of drugs.
548-556
18
SCREENING FOR FOLKLORE FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY
*Ekta Menghani and Sita kumari sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Methanolic extracts of two Indian medicinal plants Citrullus colocynthis, and Citrus medica, were examined for their antimicrobial potential against selected bacteria and fungi. The purpose of screening is to justify and authenticate the use of Indian medicinal plants in ethno medicinal or folklore as traditional treasure to cure various ailments. In present investigations attempts were made to screen the Indian medicinal plants as antimicrobial agent. The extracts were tested against selected test bacteria and fungi through disc diffusion assay where Tetracycline and Mycostatin were used as standard. Indian medicinal plants have a traditional background that they have potentials to use as antimicrobial agents. The results showed that alcoholic extract possess good antimicrobial activity against selected test bacteria and fungi. The present results therefore offer a scientific basis for traditional use of the various extract of Citrullus colocynthis, and Citrus medica.
557-560
19
SPL: KEY REQUIREMENT FOR REGULATORY
*Pawbake Ganesh R, Dhut Mayur O, Sayyed Sadik F and Chaudahari Sanjay R
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the world of globalization people gets each &amp; every information on internet by the utilization of different website, with the use of daily med website peoples were aware about all information of particular drug product &amp; it is possible with the concept of structure product labelling (SPL). SPL is the key requirement for the regulated market. By keeping in mind the awareness of people in the medicines or drugs, health level seven (HL7) members approved or introduced the concept of SPL that has been adopted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a mechanism for exchanging medication information. SPL is also used by the FDA for the submission of other regulatory information supporting product labeling, specifically for establishment registration and labeler information.<br /><br />
561-563
20
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL CHARACTERISATION OF DELONIX REGIA - A NOVEL MATRIX FORMING NATURAL POYMER
*Sarojini Sarangapani and Manavalan Rajappan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Herbal medicinal plants are said to be the nature&lsquo;s gift to mankind, since they have been of long age remedies for human diseases. The present study was undertaken to isolate&nbsp;&nbsp; gum&nbsp;&nbsp; from the seeds of Delonix regia linn, to explore its use as a Pharmaceutical exicipient. The isolated gum was evaluated for various Pharmacognostical parameters and physico-chemical characterization. The loss on drying, ash value and microbial load were well within the official limits. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of these extracts revealed the presence of flavonoid, saponins, carbohydrates and tannins in some extracts, The explored result suggest that various bioactive compounds of seed can be used for curing various diseases .This study elucidated the physical, thermal, sorption and functional properties of a gum obtained from the seed of Delonix regia . Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Particle size analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XPRD), Differential scanning colorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transmittance infra red (FTIR), were used to characterize the gum sample which can be used further for the formulation development.<br />
564-573
21
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF MONTELUKAST SODIUM
*Mohd Abdul Hadi, V. Lokeswara Babu, Narottam Pal, and A. Srinivasa Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of this study was to develop sustained release tablets of Montelukast sodium by direct compression method using various polymers. The drug excipient mixtures were subjected to pre-formulation studies. The tablets were subjected to physicochemical studies, in- vitro drug release, kinetic studies and stability studies. FTIR and DSC studies shown there was no interaction between drug and polymers. The physicochemical properties of tablets were found within the limits. Montelukast sodium is a leukotriene receptor antagonist used for the maintenance treatment of asthma. The drug release from formulations was extended for a period of 12 hrs. The kinetic treatment showed that the release of drug follows first order models. The optimized formulations were subjected to stability studies and shown there were no significant changes in drug content, physicochemical parameters and release pattern. Results of the present study indicated the suitability of the above mentioned polymers in the preparation of sustained release formulation of Montelukast sodium.<br />
574-582
22
PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOME THERAPEUTIC MEDICINAL FLOWERS
*U. Thiripura Sundari, S. Rekha and A. Parvathi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study was to analyse the phytochemical constituents of the flowers that have tremendous therapeutic potential which could be explored to provide affordable medicines to masses.&nbsp; In this paper,&nbsp; an attempt&nbsp; was made&nbsp; to survey the phytochemicals of the&nbsp; flowers of&nbsp; ten taxa&nbsp; namely&nbsp; Cassia auriculata, L.,&nbsp; Catharanthus roseus,(L.)Don., Hibiscus rosa sinensis, L., Lawsonia inermis, L., Michelia champaca, L.,&nbsp; Mangifera indica, L., Mimusops&nbsp; elengi, L., Moringa oleifera, Lamk., Nelumbo nucifera, Gaertn. and Rosa indica, L. belonging to ten different angiospermic families to know their therapeutically important secondary metabolites. The scope of the floral remedies to cure various human diseases has been discussed. <br />
583-585
23
LIQUISOLID COMPCT: A NOVEL APPROCH TO ENHANCE BIOAVAILABILITY OF POORLY SOLUBLE DRUG
*Sandip Vajir
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Liquisolid technique is a new and promising method that can change the dissolution rate of water insoluble drugs. According to the new formulation method of liquisolid compacts, liquid medications such as solutions or suspensions of water insoluble drugs in suitable non-volatile liquid vehicles can be converted into acceptably flowing and compressible powders by blending with selected powder excipients. It has been speculated that such systems exhibit enhanced release profiles. In this case, even though the drug is in a solid dosage form, it is held within the powder substratein solution or, in a solubilized, almost molecularly dispersed state, which contributes to the enhanced drug dissolution properties. Large scale production of fabricated drug on commercial level.succesful liquisolid tablet is a determination of optimal flowable liquid retention.
586-590
24
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC AND STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
*Sohan S. Chitlange, Ramesh D. Bhusal, Monesh B. Nikumbh and Ritesh P. Bhole
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate and reproducible UV-Spectrophotometric and Stability indicating RP-HPLC methods have been developed for simultaneous estimation of Metoprolol Succinate and Hydrochlorothiazide in tablet dosage form. The first UV method was a determination using Absorption corrected for interference method and the second UV method was a determination using Multi-Component mode method at 276 nm and 316.5 nm over the concentration range 20-120 &mu;g/mL and 10-60 &mu;g/mL for Metoprolol Succinate and Hydrochlorothiazide respectively. The RP-HPLC analysis is carried out using 0.05M potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer (pH adjusted to 3 with orthophosphoric acid) and acetonitrile in the ratio of (80:20 % v/v) as the mobile phase and Thermo C18 column (4.6 mm i.d. &times; 250 mm), flow rate 1.1 mL/min, with detection wavelength of 222 nm. Linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 20-120 &mu;g/mL and 10-60 &mu;g/mL for Metoprolol Succinate and Hydrochlorothiazide respectively. Both UV-spectrophotometric and stability indicating RP-HPLC methods were developed and statistically validated as per ICH guidelines.
591-597
25
IN-VITRO AND IN-VIVO CORRELATION OF IMMEDIATE RELEASE ACYCLOVIR TABLET USING WAGNER NELSON METHOD
*Somnath Sakore and Bhaswat Chakraborthy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of this study was to establish In-Vitro and In-Vivo correlation of immediate release Acyclovir tablets of 800 mg. In vitro and in vivo studies are done on the test product as Acyclovir Tablet USP 800 mg (containing Acyclovir 800 mg) of Cadila Pharmaceuticals Ltd., India versus Zovirax&reg; Tablet 800 mg (containing Acyclovir 800 mg) of GlaxoSmithKline, USA. In vivo studies are done in 36 healthy, adult, human subjects under fasting condition.In vitro dissolution study was done using USP apparatus II at 50 rpm in 0.1N HCL for 45 minutes. The in vitro&ndash;in vivo correlation of Acyclovir shows R-squared value 0.9794 in excel work sheet, which depicts a successful correlation between in vitro and in vivo Characteristic of the drug. In addition, %PE AUC and %PE Cmax was found to be &ndash;4.604 and -11.19 respectively for each formulation. The present study shows a good correlation between in vivo and in vitro PK profiles of the formulation used as the test drug in the study. <br />
598-604
26
EFFECTIVE PATIENT COUNSELING ON DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS
*B. Akshaya Srikanth, G. Praveen Kumar and S. K. Jain
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The role of the healthcare provider should consist of educating patients and their relatives about the drugs and supplements and ensuring the patients without harming themselves by self medications. Pharmacists can assist them in this by playing a role although some dietary supplements are used while in treating diseases and have some scientific research to support their use. There are many dietary supplements like velarian, melatonin used for the treatment of mild to moderate insomnia, omega-3-fatty acid, niacin in reducing the triglycerides levels and lycopene in reducing the HMG-CoA reductase by enhancing the LDL reductase which are safe and more effective. Current supplements and how they should be effectively useful in different condition and counseling to the patient. Information to assist the healthcare providers about the dietary supplements use in different conditions and counseling the patients is also provided.
605-608
27
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE AND SIMVASTATIN IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
*Ankur Kothari and Sheetal Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple and accurate method of analysis to determine Sitagliptin Phosphate (STG) and Simvastatin(SMV) in combined dosage forms was developed using simultaneous equation method at 267.0nm&nbsp; for Simvastatin and 238.0 nm for Simvastatin in spectra of their solutions in methanol: water(90:10). The calibration curves were linear [correlation coefficient (r) = 0.986 for STG and 0.998 for SMV] in concentration range of 10-50 &mu;g/ml for STG and 5-25 &mu;g/ml for SMV. The method was validated and found to be accurate, precise, and specific. The method was successfully applied to the estimation of STG and SMV in combined dosage tablet formulations.
609-612
28
ANTIMICROBIAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES ON MALLOTUS PHILIPPENSIS, (KAMALA POWDER)
*Dilnawaz Shaikh, Jahanzeb Shaikh, Asif Bin Rehman and Sumaira Shafi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Methanolic extract of Hairs and Glands covering fruits of Mallotus philippinensis (kamala powder) were subjected to Antimicrobial and toxicological screening. Antimicrobial profile indicated that extract was effective against all Gram positive cocci and bacilli used in the study. Among Gram negative bacilli, three important pathogenic species i.e. Salmonella typhi, Salmonella para typhiA and Pseudomonas aeroginosa showed sensitivity to the plant extract. Among Fungi tested, Candida albicans was sensitive whereas penicillium and Aspergillus species were non-sensitive to the extract. Acute toxicity studies in mice indicated that kamala powder is feebly toxic. No mortality is observed even at a high dose of 1000&micro;m/kg B.W. However male mice exhibited significant decrease in body weight. Results of autopsy also showed significant decrease in weight of Liver and spleen at P&lt;0.05 Histopathological studies indicated minor pathological changes in kidneys and liver of the test animals.<br /><br />
613-618
29
SCREENING OF PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIPROLIFARATION OF CELL GROWTH LAGENARIA SICERARIA STAND. FRUIT BY PHYTOTOXIC BIOASSAY MODELS
*Sarang Sunil Mahamuni, Suresh Ganpati Killedar and Harinath Nivrutti More
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Many of the Cucurbitaceae plants possess antitumor activity on the traditional use. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer activity of extracts Lagenaria siceraria Standley Fruit. This fruit has the antioxidant activity so the plant may have anticancer activity. Preliminary phytochemical tests of successive extraction of Lagenaria siceraria Standely Fruit powder had performed to find out the different chemical moieties. Preliminary anticancer screening by exposure of different extracts Phytotoxic Bioassay model was carried out to find out the lead extract which shows the promising cell growth inhibitory activity. Cereals Moth seeds&nbsp;&nbsp; were selected for the Phytotoxic Bioassay which shows the phytotoxicity that compared with standard antimitotic drug (colchicine). n-Butanol extract of Lagenaria siceraria Standley Fruit powder shows the promising anticancer activity or cytotoxicity, so that it is selected as a lead extract. Further isolation of active moiety from n-Butanol extract for anticancer activity by chromatographic techniques is completed. <br />
619-624
30
ASSESSMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF TYPHONIUM TRILOBATUM PLANT
*Sourav Kanti Roy, Pratyush Kumar Mishra, Subhangkar Nandy and Viren kumar Patel
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Typhonium trilobatum is a genus in the Araceae family endemic to tropical Asia, the South Pacific, and Australia. Most of the plant parts of Typhonium trilobatum are used in traditional systems of medicine in India. According to Ayurveda, the rhizome is used with effect for treating vomiting, cough, asthma, excessive expectoration, pyogenic sore throat, headache, gastric ulcer, abcess and snake bite. The present work objectives focus on scientific exploration of anti microbial activity of whole plant of Typhonium trilobatum. The test all extracts exhibited prominent antimicrobial activity against all tested organism, where chloroform extract shown the maximum zone of inhibition. The order of antimicrobial activity of all extract are, chloroform &gt; Methanolic &gt;Ethyl acetate against bacteria i.e. Escherichia Coli, P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and S. Epidermidis and fungi i.e. Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger.
625-630
31
SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ATORVASTATIN AND TELMISARTAN IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY
*Vineetha Vykuntum, Gajja Vijaykumar and Kudipudi Harinadhbabu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, rapid and accurate reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of Atorvastatin and Telmisartan in tablet dosage form is developed and validated. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a kromasil C18 column (150&times;4.6 mm, 3.5 &micro;m) in isocratic mode, the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (adjusted to pH 3.8 with ortho-phosphoric acid) at a ratio of 70:30 v/v, and a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The eluents were monitored at 278 nm. The retention time of Atorvastatin and Telmisartan were found to be 2.804 min and 3.875 min, respectively. The linear ranges were found to be 50-90 &micro;g/mL (r2=0.9992) for Atorvastatin and 12.5-22.5 &micro;g/mL (r2=0.999) for Telmisartan. The proposed method is also found to be accurate, precise and robust. The method could be applied to routine quality control of pharmaceutical formulations containing Atorvastatin and Telmisartan.
631-635
32
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF LORNOXICAM USING RP-HPLC IN BULK DRUG AND FORMULATION
Kukalakunta Kavya, Gajja Vijaykumar and Kudipudi Harinadhbabu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<p style="margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt; text-align: justify" class="abst"><font size="2">A simple, specific and sensitive reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of esomeprazole and domperidone from pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method uses ODS C18 column and isocratic elution. The mobile phase composed of methanol: phosphate buffer (pH 4.0) in the ratio of 65:35 v/v was used at a flow rate of 1.0 ml /min. DAD detector was programmed at 230 nm for run time 7 min. All the validation parameters were in acceptable range. The developed method was effectively applied to quantitate amount of esomeprazole and domperidone from tablets. The method was also applied suitably for determining the degradation products of esomeprazole and domperidone.</font></p>
636-639
33
RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF DOMPERIDONE AND ESOMEPRAZOLE IN COMBINED DOSAGE FORM
M. Akiful Haque*, S. Hasan Amrohi, A. Manikanta Kumar, Dibyalochan Mohanty and Prakash V Diwan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">A simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative determination of </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">Lornoxicam</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif; letter-spacing: -0.05pt"> </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">in bulk drug and formulation. </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">T<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">h</span>e<span style="letter-spacing: 0.25pt"> </span>d<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">e</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.1pt">v</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.1pt">e</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">l</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">p</span>ed<span style="letter-spacing: 1.1pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">m</span>ethod<span style="letter-spacing: 0.7pt"> </span>co<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">n</span>s<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">i</span>s<span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">ts</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt"> of</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt"> m</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">bil</span>e p<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">h</span>ase, </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">ammonium dihydrogen phosphate Buffer: acetonitrile (50:50) with isocratic </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">pr<span style="letter-spacing: -0.1pt">o</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.1pt">g</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">a</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">mm</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">i</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">n</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.1pt">g</span>, </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">Hypersil BDS C<sub>18</sub>, 250&times;4.6mm, 5&micro;m</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif"> co<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">l</span>umn<span style="letter-spacing: 1.45pt"> </span>as<span style="letter-spacing: 0.8pt"> </span>s<span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span>ati<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">o</span>n<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">a</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span>y<span style="letter-spacing: 1.7pt"> </span>p<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">h</span>ase<span style="letter-spacing: 1.35pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">wi</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span>h<span style="letter-spacing: 1.05pt"> </span>a<span style="letter-spacing: 0.65pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.15pt">f</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">l</span>ow <span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span>ate<span style="letter-spacing: 0.9pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">o</span>f<span style="letter-spacing: 0.8pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">1</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">.</span>0<span style="letter-spacing: 0.9pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">m</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">L/</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">m</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">i</span>n.<span style="letter-spacing: 1.85pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">Pr</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">p</span>os<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">e</span>d<span style="letter-spacing: 1.7pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">m</span>ethod<span style="letter-spacing: 1.35pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">w</span>as <span style="letter-spacing: 0.9pt">&nbsp;</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.15pt">f</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.1pt">o</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">u</span>nd<span style="letter-spacing: 1.15pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: 0.65pt"> </span>be<span style="letter-spacing: 0.7pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">li</span>n<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">e</span>ar<span style="letter-spacing: 1.15pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">i</span>n<span style="letter-spacing: 0.6pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span>he<span style="letter-spacing: 0.8pt"> </span>co<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">n</span>ce<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">n</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">tr</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">a</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">i</span>on<span style="letter-spacing: 2.2pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span>a<span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">n</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.1pt">g</span>e<span style="letter-spacing: 1.1pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">o</span>f </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">5 &ndash; 30 </span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif; letter-spacing: -0.1pt">&micro;g/mL</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">, <span style="letter-spacing: 0.45pt">the</span> cor<span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span>e<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">l</span>ati<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">o</span>n coefficient <span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">was</span><span style="letter-spacing: 1.75pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.15pt">f</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">u</span>nd<span style="letter-spacing: 2.1pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: 1.65pt"> </span>be<span style="letter-spacing: 1.55pt"> </span>0.99<span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">9</span>.<span style="letter-spacing: 2.25pt"> </span></span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">System suitability parameters were studied by injecting the standard solution five times and results were well under the acceptance criteria</span><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;, serif">,<span style="letter-spacing: 0.85pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.1pt">the</span><span style="letter-spacing: 2.35pt"> </span>propos<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">e</span>d&nbsp; <span style="letter-spacing: 0.15pt">&nbsp;</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">m</span>e<span style="letter-spacing: -0.1pt">t</span>h<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">o</span>d is<span style="letter-spacing: 2.05pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.15pt">f</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">u</span>nd<span style="letter-spacing: 2.55pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: 2.05pt"> </span>be se<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">n</span>s<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">i</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">i</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.1pt">v</span>e,<span style="letter-spacing: 1.15pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span>a<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">pi</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">d</span>,<span style="letter-spacing: 0.9pt"> </span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span>e<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">p</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span>o<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">d</span>uc<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">i</span>b<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">l</span>e,<span style="letter-spacing: 1.85pt"> </span>a<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">n</span>d<span style="letter-spacing: 1.95pt"> </span>acc<span style="letter-spacing: -0.05pt">u</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">r</span><span style="letter-spacing: -0.15pt">a</span><span style="letter-spacing: 0.05pt">t</span>e<span style="letter-spacing: 0.5pt">.</span></span>
640-644
34
IN-VITRO AND IN-VIVO EVALUATION TESTS FOR FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A REVIEW
*V. Bhavani Prasad, G.S.N. Koteswara Rao, B. Roja Rani, B. Raj Kumar, B. Sudhakar, P. Uma Devi and K.V. Ramana Murthy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of writing this review on evaluation tests that can be done for floating drug delivery systems (FDDS) was to amass the literature presenting the evaluation tests of various dosage forms that comes under FDDS. With advancements in the technology various dosage forms were designed in such a way that they reside in the stomach for a prolonged period of time releasing the drug at predetermined levels. Evaluation tests are of prime concern in evaluating the success of dosage form. This article gives a glance of all evaluation tests that can be done for various FDDS.
645-655
35
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LAMIVUDINE, TENOFOVIR AND EFAVIRENZ BY UPLC
*Sk. Madeesh, Y. Ismail and V. Gunasekaran
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate, rapid and precise isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of lamivudine, tenofovir and efavirenz in tablets. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a BEH symmetry C18 (50&times;4.6mm, 1.7 &micro;m) column with a mixture of methanol: phosphate buffer pH 3.0 adjusted with o-phosphoric acid (65:35, v/v) as mobile phase; at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The retention times for LAM, TEN and EFA were observed to be 0.432, 0.657, 2.281 min, respectively. Calibration plots were linear (r 2 &gt;0.999) over the concentration range of 10-50 &mu;g/mL for LAM and TEN; and 20-100 &mu;g/mL for EFA. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity, and sensitivity. The proposed method was successfully used for quantitative analysis of tablets. No interference from any component of pharmaceutical dosage form was observed. Validation studies revealed that method is specific, rapid, reliable, and reproducible. The high recovery and low relative standard deviation confirm the suitability of the method for routine determination of lamivudine, tenofovir and efavirenz in tablets. <br />
656-660
36
A VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF PIOGLITAZONE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
*A. Chandan Reddy, V. Vijayakumar, R. Sandeep Teja, P. Snehith, R. Karthik and G. N. V. Chandra Sekhar Reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple and rapid RP-HPLC method was developed for quantification of pioglitazone in tablet dosage form. The chromatography system used a reversed phase C8 column with dual wavelength absorbance detection at 267 nm. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (pH adjusted to 4.5 using ortho phosphoric acid) in the ratio of 60:40 % v/v at flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The linearity range was found to be 20-60 &micro;g/mL. The method was validated and it was concluded that the developed method was accurate, sensitive, precise, robust and useful for the quality control of pioglitazone in pharmaceutical preparations.
661-665
37
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL AND METOPROLOL SUCCINATE IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS
*Sohan S. Chitlange*, Reshma A. Talole, Ramesh D. Bhusal and Monesh B. Nikumbh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Simple, accurate, and reproducible two UV-spectrophotometric methods have been developed for simultaneous estimation of Olmesartan Medoxomil (OLME) and Metoprolol Succinate (METO) in tablet dosage form. The first UV- Spectrophotometric method was a determination using the Area Under Curve method and the second UV method was a determination using the Multi-Component mode method at 256.5 nm and 222.0 nm over the concentration range 5-30 &mu;g/mL and 5-30 &mu;g/mL for OLME and METO respectively. Both UV-spectrophotometric methods were statistically validated and can be used for analysis of combined dose tablet formulation containing OLME and METO.
666-669
38
A VALIDATED HPLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ANAGRELIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS
*S. Ramanjaneyulu, A. Durga Vyshnavi and M. K. Ch. Prasad
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method is developed for the determination of anagrelide in pharmaceutical preparations. Anagrelide was analysed on a reversed-phase column (XTerra symmetry C18, 150&times;4.6 mm, 5&micro;m) with a mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water (pH 3.0, pH adjusted with ortho phosphoric acid) in a ratio of 40:60 v/v at a flow-rate of 1.2 mL/min and PDA detection was performed at 250 nm. The retention time anagrelide was 2.349 min. The linearity range was found to be 5-30 &micro;g/mL. The method was validated and it was concluded that the developed method was accurate, sensitive, precise, rugged and useful for the quality control of anagrelide in pharmaceutical preparations. <br />
670-674
39
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF LEVOCETIRIZINE AND MONTELUKAST IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
*Ch. Harika, Gajja Vijaykumar and Kudipudi Harinadhbabu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination levocetirizine and montelukast in pharmaceutical dosage form. The column used was Thermosil C18 (150&times;4.6 mm, 3.5&micro;m) in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (30:70) adjusted to pH 3.6 using ortho phosphoric acid was used. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/ min and effluents were monitored at 232 nm. The retention times of levocetirizine and montelukast were 2.213 min and 5.674 min, respectively. The linearity for levocetirizine and montelukast were in the range of 50-90 mg/mL and 100-140 mg/mL respectively. The recoveries of levocetirizine and montelukast were found to be 100.31% and 100.37%, respectively. The proposed method was validated and successfully applied to the estimation of levocetirizine and montelukast in combined tablet dosage forms.
675-678
40
AN IMPORTANT APPROACH IN
*Shailendra Shekhar Jadiya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Now it&rsquo;s proved- Monoclonal antibodies are very important therapeutic tools for cancer. Today, more than 314 Mabs products are in clinical study worldwide. The recent clinical success of anticancer Monoclonal antibodies like Catumaxomab, Brentuximab, Denosumab, Ipilimumab, Tocilizumab are widely used and these are proving of success rate about Monoclonal antibodies for different cancer treatment. Monoclonal antibody therapy has emerged as an important therapeutic modality for cancer. In 1975, Kohler and Milstein discovered how to prepare hybridomas: a new cell type, resulting from the fusion of B-lymphocytes (immune cells of mouse) with a myeloma (cancer) cell. Hybridomas are cells that have been engineered to produce a desired monoclonal antibody in large amounts. Monoclonal antibodies are targeted at specific receptors on cancer cells. Currently, there are more than 20 new monoclonal antibodies- including murine, chimeric, humanized and human that have won FDA approval, including those aimed at transplant rejection, auto-immune disorders, leukemia, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, certain viral infections, and macular degeneration. Past, present &amp; future planning about Mabs are discussed. <br />
679-686