Volume 2 - Issue 4

S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
SIMULTANEOUS HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF OXICAMS IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
*Wael Abu Dayyih, Ahmad Abu Hamaid, Kamal Swiedan, Khalid Matalka, Eyad Abu Nameh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A highly sensitive, accurate and rapid HPLC analytical method for the determination of Tenoxicam (TEN), Piroxicam (PIR) and Meloxicam (MEL) in a finished dosage form was developed and validated. C18 reversed phase column was used. The mobile phase was composed of methanol and aqueous buffer solution (disodium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate mixed with citric acid) (60:40),at pH of 5.8. The flow rate was 1.2 ml/min and the applied analytical wavelength was 360 nm. The calibration curve was linear over the range 1.010- 3.030, 1.513-4.538 and 1.765-5.295 mg/L for TEN, PIR and MEL, respectively. The lower limit of detection and the lower limit of quantification for TEN were 0.06 and 0.18 mg/L, while they were 0.09 and 0.28 mg/L, for PIR, and 0.12 and 0.38 mg/L, respectively for MEL. The peaks resolution was tested under several conditions and found that 5% increase of organic mixture or a 0.5 increase in the pH buffer would decrease the peak resolution between PIR and MEL.&nbsp; In conclusion, such method may successfully replace the classical analytical methods of Oxicams.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <br />
687-695
2
MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION AND MINIMUM BACTERICIDAL CONCENTRATION OF AZITHROMYCIN TABLET IN BANGLADESH
*Suharto Chakma and M. Amirul Islam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The azithromycin tablet in Bangladesh maintains standard MIC and MBC. But how much is this assumption is true; this will be evaluated through this research work. This is a cross sectional study to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of selected azithromycin tablet. The collected samples were analyzed according to USP specification. The MICs of azithromycin were determined by broth dilution method. MBCs were determined by the drop plate method from the tubes, where apparently no visible growth found. This study showed that MIC &amp; MBC values of azithromycin tablet found highest against Pseudomonas spp., Shigella spp. and E. coli were &gt; 64.0 mg/ml (micro gram per milliliter) and lowest against B. pumillus was 1.0/2.0 mg/ml. MIC and MBC values higher than that of the peak serum concentration of azithromycin must have chance of therapeutic failure and development of azithromycin tolerance and resistance to the bacteria tested. To evaluate the efficiency of antibiotic there are two factors2. Which influence potential utility of a antibiotics in a specific clinical situation. The first is the measure of potency of the antibiotic for the pathogen in question minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). The second is relationship between the concentration time profile and potency of the antibiotics. This research work will play an important role to determine the MIC and MBC of selected azithromycin tablet in Bangladesh. <br />
696-699
3
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF RITCHIEA LONGIPEDICELLATA FAM. CAPPARIDACEAE
*C.F. Anowi, M. N. Ikegbunam, C.O. Ezugwu, G. Oche
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ritchiea longipedicellata had been reported to exhibit antimicrobial properties. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the antimicrobial activities of Ritchiea longipedicellata; family caparidaceae leaves against microorganisms and to serve as criteria to recommend the Ethnopharmacological uses of the plant. The plant leaves were dried, powdered and extracted by cold maceration with Ethylacetate for 24h. Phytochemical screening was done for alkaloids, saponin, essential oil, phenolic group, steroidal nucleus, simple sugar, starch, cyanogenic glycoside, proteins and flavonoid using standard procedures. Antimicrobial screenings were done using agar diffusion technique. Antibacterial activity test was conducted by screening against seven pathogens comprising both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria obtained from pharmaceutical Microbiology laboratory stock. The extract was screened against 24h broth culture of bacteria seeded in the nutrient agar at concentrations 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg/ml in DMSO and incubated at 37&#267;, for 24 h and measuring the inhibition zone diameter - IZD. The same was done for antifungal however; fungi were seeded into a sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated for 72 h at 25oC. Aspergillus niger and Candida albican were used. The positive control was ampicillin 20&micro;g/ml and clotrimazole cream 1mg/ml for bacteria and fungi respectively.&nbsp; DMSO was used as negative control. The results of phytochemical screening showed moderate availability of alkaloid, simple sugar and abundance of flavonoid, steroidal nucleus, essential oil, phenolic group, cyanogenic glycoside; absence of starch and protein and doubtful quantity of saponin. The extract displayed various activities against bacteria inhibiting it at various concentrations ranging from 200 to 6.25 mg/mL. Ethylacetate extract inhibited all the bacteria in a most appreciable extent. The extract demonstrated activities against certain bacteria and fungi (to some extent) confirming the use of the plant in ethno pharmacology. Taking the least IZD of the standard (Ampicillin) as the breaking point, the extract passed the breaking point. <br />
700-705
4
CAUSES OF MIGRAINE IN KARACHIITES AND ITS TREATMENT FROM MUSHROOMS
*Fakhsheena Anjum, Nighat Razvi, Hina Yasin, Arije Ahmad, Marvi Khan Sherwani, Nimra Rahim Khan and Sidra Arshad
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was conducted to find the causes of migraine in Karachi, Pakistan and also to assess the efficacy of mushrooms (GANODERMA LUCIDUM therapy) in treatment of migraine. Migraine is an episodic headache that affects the general population. There are lots of factors that cause migraine and may include stress, exposure to light and sounds, anxiety, caffeine reduction etc. Many medicines are used for treating migraine and Ganoderma lucidum, a medicinal fungus belonging to the Polyporaceae family, (known in Japan as REISHI), is now being used in Pakistan for this purpose. It has proved to completely eradicate migraine without side effects. The study was conducted by researchers using a specially designed questionnaire developed from different sources to find the major factors contributing to the occurrence of migraine. About 220 questionnaires were filled by the subjects from March to May 2012. Regarding the treatment using mushrooms (ganotherapy), about 66 cases of migrainuers were studied by the researchers who were treated at DXN International Clinic, Karachi, Pakistan. Results recorded were calculated statistically. People having migraine may experience different types of symptoms and they may belong to different age groups. The most fre&not;quent aggravating factors reported by migrainuers were stress 50.90% (n=112), sunlight 48.18% (n=106) and loud noise 45.5% (n=100). The relieving factors for migraine reported by most of the migrainuers were rest/sleep 61.8% (n=136), dark/quiet environment 39.54% (n=87) and various medications used 24.09% (n=53). Ganotherapy (treatment with Ganoderma lucidum) can prove to be very helpful in treating migraines with almost no side effects. According to the cases studied after ganotherapy, 93.99 % persons (n=62) had relief after taking the product among which 83.18% (n=54) of the people experienced no side effects and 25.8% persons (n=17) used G. lucidum powder for the treatment of conditions other than migraine as well. Migraine is a common cause of severe, recurring headache; however, it can be effectively treated and sometimes even prevented. A good trigger-management strategy can be a very powerful tool to help manage migraine better. After the survey, it was found that the most common causes of migraine in Karachi were stress, exposure to light, sound, and empty stomach. It was also found that the treatment for migraine through Ganoderma lucidum is very effective and may completely eradicate this condition with almost no side effects in majority of patients who used it.
709-711
5
EVALUATION OF ANTINOCICEPTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SIDA CORDIFOLIA ROOT FROM BANGLADESH
*Md. Hemayet Hossain, Md. Sariful Islam Howlader, Shubhra Kanti Dey, Arpona Hira, Arif Ahmed
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The crude ethanolic extract of the roots of Sida cordifolia Linn. (Family: Malvaceae) was evaluated for its possible antinociceptive and antioxidant properties growing in southeast part of Bangladesh. The ethanolic extract of roots of Sida cordifolia exhibited statistically significant (p&gt;0.001) writhing inhibition in acetic acid induced writhing model in white albino mice (Swiss-webstar strain). The crude extract produced 25.77% inhibition of writhing at the dose of 250 mg/kg body weight &amp; 44.11 % inhibition of writhing at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight while the standard drug diclofenac inhibition was found to 51.97 % at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight. The antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia was assessed by DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value was found to be (65 &micro;g/ml) which was comparable to the standard ascorbic acid (16 &micro;g/ml). Phytochemical nature (group determination of plant constituent) and selected phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of the roots of Sida cordifolia indicated the presence of steroid, reducing sugars, tannin &amp; saponin types of compounds. The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine and its further investigation.
712-716
6
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ORAL DISINTEGRATING RELEASE DOSAGE FORM CONTAINING MECLIZINE HCL
*Ramanjaneyulu M, M Shubash Kumar, Ravindar Bairam and P Mahesh Babu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Orally&nbsp; Disintegrating&nbsp; Tablet&nbsp; ( ODT )&nbsp; is&nbsp; a&nbsp; solid&nbsp; unit&nbsp; dosage&nbsp; form&nbsp; containing&nbsp; drugs&nbsp; that disintegrates&nbsp; rapidly&nbsp; and&nbsp; dissolves&nbsp; in&nbsp; the&nbsp; mouth&nbsp; without&nbsp; taking&nbsp; water&nbsp; within&nbsp; 60seconds&nbsp;&nbsp; or&nbsp; less. Hence ,&nbsp; in&nbsp; the&nbsp; present&nbsp; study&nbsp; an&nbsp; attempt&nbsp; made&nbsp; to&nbsp; formulate&nbsp; and evaluate the oral dissolving&nbsp;&nbsp; tablets&nbsp;&nbsp; of&nbsp;&nbsp; Meclizine&nbsp;&nbsp; Hydrochloride&nbsp; of&nbsp; ( 25 mg )&nbsp;&nbsp; oral&nbsp;&nbsp; disintegrating&nbsp; tablets containing&nbsp; different&nbsp; concentration&nbsp; of&nbsp; excipients&nbsp; used&nbsp; for&nbsp; anti vertigo and&nbsp; motion sickness. Microcrystalline&nbsp; cellulose&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; selected&nbsp;&nbsp; as&nbsp; diluents ,&nbsp; crosscarmellose&nbsp; sodium ,&nbsp; crosspovidone were&nbsp; selected&nbsp; as&nbsp; super&nbsp; disintetegrants. Magnesium stearate was used as a lubricant. Direct compression method was used to formulate the tablets.&nbsp; All&nbsp; the&nbsp; formulations&nbsp; shown&nbsp; the acceptable&nbsp; flow&nbsp; properties&nbsp; &amp;&nbsp; pre-compression&nbsp; parameters&nbsp; like&nbsp;&nbsp; bulk&nbsp; density,&nbsp; tap&nbsp; density, angle&nbsp; of&nbsp; repose. The&nbsp; post&nbsp; compression&nbsp; parameters&nbsp; like&nbsp; hardness,&nbsp; friability,&nbsp; disintegration time,&nbsp; wetting&nbsp; time,&nbsp; values&nbsp; found&nbsp; to&nbsp; be&nbsp; within&nbsp;&nbsp; I.P. limits.&nbsp; The&nbsp; percentage content&nbsp; of&nbsp;&nbsp; all&nbsp; tablets found&nbsp; to&nbsp; be&nbsp; between&nbsp; 97.6&nbsp; to&nbsp; 99.8&nbsp; of&nbsp; meclizine&nbsp; hydrochloride&nbsp; which&nbsp; is within&nbsp; the&nbsp; limit.
717-726
7
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ENICOSTEMMA AXILLARE (LAM) Raynal IN LANTANA CAMARA LINN
*M. Surendra Kumar, Lalitha M, Astalakshmi N and G BABU
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Hepatotoxicity is a common condition of liver damage due to chemical entities or any other substances. The present study aims to explore the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Enicostemma axillare (Lam.) Raynal against Lantana camara Linn induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Silymarin (100mg/kg) is used as a reference standard. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Enicostemma axillare at about the doses of 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg are used for the study. Both aqueous and alcoholic extracts have shown very significant hepatoprotection against Lantana camara induced hepatotoxicity in male wistar rats by reducing Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT) levels and increasing the serum total albumin and protein levels. However the alcoholic extract is found to be more potent than aqueous extract at about the dose of 400 mg/kg. Thus we can claim that, the drug Enicostemma axillare is a hepatoprotective agent suitable for veterinary category, since Lantana camara is a common hepatotoxic agent among the veterinary categories.
727-730
8
Evaluation of Antidiarrhoeal, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic activities of Cinnamomum tamala Leaves from Bangladesh
*Md. Hemayet Hossain, Md. Sariful Islam Howlader, Shubhra Kanti Dey, Arpona Hira, Arif Ahmed, Ferdoushi Jahan and Ram Proshad Sarkar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The crude ethanolic extract of the leaves of Cinnamomum tamala (family: Lauraceae) was evaluated for its possible phytochemical nature (group determination of plant constituent) and selected pharmacological activities (Antidiarrhoeal, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic activity) growing in Bangladesh. Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of C. tamala indicated the presence of reducing sugar, glycoside, tannins, steroid, amino acid &amp; alkaloid types of compounds. The ethanolic extract of leaves of C. tamala on Castor oil induced diarrheal method in mice. The result showed that extract inhibited the mean number of defecation which were 24.49 % (P&lt;0.01) and 40.82 % (P&lt;0.001) at the doses of 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg respectively. The latent period for the extract treated group was (p&lt;0.01 &amp; P&lt;0.001) increased as compared to control group. The extract of C. tamala (500 &micro;g/disc) showed moderate anti-microbial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis(10), Vibrio cologet (Zone of inhibition 11mm), Streptococcus agalactiae (9mm), Shigella sonnei (9 mm), Streptococcus pyogenes (9mm), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (11mm), Staphylococcus aureus ( 8 mm). The extract of leaves of C. tamala showed significant (p&lt;0.001) toxicity to the brine shrimp nauplii. The concentrations of crude extract for 50% mortality (LC50) and 90% mortality (LC90) were 32 &mu;g/mL and 74.29 &mu;g/mL respectively. Therefore, the obtained results tend to suggest the antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of C. tamala (Buch.-Ham.)&nbsp; leaves from Bangladesh and justify its use in folkloric remedies.<br />
731-736
9
INTERESTING CASE STUDY OF INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGE IN AN INFANT
*Himani Asani, S. Parimalakrishnan, Guru Prasad Mohanta, S.Ramesh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Intracranial hemorrhage is bleeding within the skull cavity (cranium) that usually progresses rapidly and often results in permanent brain damage and death. The incidence of intra cranial hemorrhage in infants is rare. Here we are presenting a rare case of intracranial hemorrhage in which infant developed fever, seizures, vomiting after 45 days of immunization. A 2 months old male infant was brought to the pediatric casualty with chief complaints of 6 episodes of seizures for one night, fever for last 4 days and vomiting immediately after breast feeding since 2 days. Baby was apparently normal before the baby was brought for immunization (DT, OPV), the baby developed the above complaints after the immunization. In the past there were also similar complaints at time of birth. Baby was on anticonvulsant drug, phenobarbital, since seizure occurrence was found with the help of electroencephalogram. The CT scan report have showed, left front to back subdural hygroma with left frontal, temporal, parietal intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). There was a shift in the midline, which was toward right side of the brain with the association of inter hemispherical bleed along hygroma. Treatment was initiated with anticonvulsant, phenobarbital, antibiotics cefotaxime and amikacin and antipyretic paracetamol and loop diuretic, furosemide, was also administered with peripheral vasodilator and cerebral activator, nimodipine. We conclude that (1) In all difficult deliveries, the baby should be screened for intracranial hemorrhage by doing neurosonogram (2) early recognition of intra cranial hemorrhage is of paramount importance for initiating appropriate management to prevent complications and (3) early diagnosis and prompt therapy will lead to complete recovery. <br />
737-739
10
ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC OF RUELLIA TUBEROSA LINN IN TRITON INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIC RATS
*Krishna Chaitanya B, Ravindra Babu S, Jayasree Vardhan, Alekhya Ravella, Diana Vivian Atigari, Jaji Sree
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Hyperlipidemia is the greatest risk factor of coronary heart disease. The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperlipidemic activity of Ruellia tuberosa ethanolic extract (RTEE 2012) in Triton X-100 induced Hyperlipidemic rats. RTEE 2012 was administered at a dose of 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg, (p.o) to Triton induced Hyperlipidemic rats. Atorvastatin is used as reference standard. The statistical analyses were carried out using one way ANOVA. RTEE 2012 show a significant decrease in the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL and significant increase in the level of serum HDL with increase in dose of RTEE 2012 against Triton induced hyperlipidemic rats. Therefore it effectively suppressed the Triton induced hyperlipidemia in rats, suggesting the potential protective role in Coronary heart disease.&nbsp; <br />
740-745
11
AN OVERVIEW ON: BIOREMEDEATION
*N. T. Rangari, T. M. Kalyankar, P. K. Puranik, S. M. Kalmegh and S. R. Chaudhari
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Bioremediation is the transformation or degradation of contaminants into non-hazardous or less hazardous chemicals. This technology includes biostimulation (stimulating viable native microbial population), bioaugmentation (artificial introduction of viable population), bioaccumulation (live cells), biosorption (dead microbial biomass), phytoremediation (plants) and rhizoremediation (plant and microbe interaction). Bioremediation is an option that offers the possibility to destroy or render harmless various contaminants using natural biological activity. As such, it uses relatively low-cost, low-technology techniques, which generally have a high public acceptance and can often be carried out on site.
746-757
12
Study of in Vitro Anticataract Activity of Tamarindus indica Linn on Isolated Goat Lenses
*Srikanth Merugu, Veeresh B, Deepa Rekulapally and Swetha T
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The antioxidant such as Tamarindus indica Linn. was subjected to prevent cataract formation in vitro on galactose induced cataract model. Goat lenses were incubated in artificial aqueous humor containing 55mM galactose (cataractogenesis) and Tamarindus indica Linn. extract in different concentrations kept at room temperature for 72 h. Biochemical parameters were studied in the lens homogenate, which are malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid peroxidase and proteins. Galactose-induced opacification of goat lens began 8-10 hrs after incubation and was complete in 72-80 h. Cataractous lenses showed higher MDA (P&lt;0.001), and water-soluble protein content. Lenses treated with Tamarindus indica Linn.extract in concentrations of 50, 75&micro;g/ml showed higher protein (total proteins) content and prevented formation and progress of cataract by galactose, as evidenced by biochemical parameters.
758-763
13
QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF FLURBIPROFEN IN BOTH BULK AND FORMULATIONS USING ACID-BASE TITRATION
*Kiran Aarelly, Shilpa Allabotharam, Manish Kumar Thimmaraju and Raghunandan Nerella
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Flurbiprofen, a propionic acid derivative, is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAIA) with antipyretic and analgesic activity. Oral formulations of flurbiprofen may be used for the symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and anklylosing spondylitis. Flurbiprofen may also be used topically prior to ocular surgery to prevent or reduce intra-operative miosis. In the present study, simple titrimetric method was developed. Respective quantities of Flurbiprofen were taken in aqueous methanol titrated against 0.1N sodium hydroxide acid using phenolphthalein as an indicators for acid-base titration. This method were found to be sensitive and inexpensive, do not require any sample processing steps and can be utilized for estimation of flurbiprofen in bulk and formulations. <br />
764-767
14
VESOSOMAL DRUG DELIVERY IN LIPOSOMES: A REVIEW
*Bhawna Khurana, Ritesh Bajaj, Lohit Girotra
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Liposomal drug delivery can be put forth as the cynosure for the release kinetics of lipophillic drugs that require compartmental models in its therapeutics and triggers. The localization of the drug at the site of action, rate of achieving the therapeutic index and Circulation lifetime are the key parameters for a liposome. Lately, their arises a need for a multi-compartment structure consisting of drug-loaded liposomes encapsulated within another bilayer, is a promising drug carrier with better retention and stability. A vesosome contemplates a large lipid bilayer enclosing many smaller liposomes, serving as a support for the customization of separate environments for multiple therapeutics and release triggers, highlighting the vesosomes potential as a single site, single dose, and multiple component drug treatment. The permeation rate, membrane charge, specific recognition particles, steric stabilizers, membrane rigidity, and phase transition temperatures all play a role in optimization of vesicles for particular delivery applications. The vesosomes are optimized on the basis of phase behavior exhibited by homogeneous lipid mixtures. A variety of microscopy techniques, including freeze-fracture and cryo-transmission electron microscopy as well as fluorescence and confocal microscopy are used for characterization of these lipophillic, eukaryotic cell like species. The present paper tries to tap another vesicular drug delivery comport such that release and bioavailability of liposomes is taken to another level.&nbsp; <br />
768-776
15
PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF SOLID DISPERSIONS OF NIMESULIDE
*Swathi Gunturu and Divya Amaravadi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Nimesulide is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Here, the present study was planned to prepare and evaluate the solid dispersions of Nimesulide. Solid dispersions of Nimesulide were prepared by using various hydrophilic carriers like PVP K-40, PEG 4000, PEG-6000 in various ratios by solvent evaporation method. The solubility of Nimesulide in different solvents; water, acetone and ethanol was enhanced in the form of solid dispersions. The prepared solid dispersions were subjected to solubility studies (in water, 0.1 N HCL and phosphate buffer pH 7.4. Stability studies were carried out at 40&plusmn;2&deg; C and at 75&plusmn;5 % RH. The phosphate buffer pH 7 Showed highest solubility for the drug. The cumulative amount of drug release of Nimesulide: PVP K-40 was 97.06 %; Nimesulide: PEG-4000 was 97.42%; Nimesulide: PEG -6000 was 97.46% respectively. Therefore it can be concluded that dissolution rate of poorly soluble drug (Nimesulide) can be significantly enhanced by formulating them into solid dispersions
777-785
16
TRADITIONAL UNDERUTILIZED GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES AND ITS CURATIVE PROPERTIES
*Sudha K and S.K. Mathanghi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Any discussion on health and wellness is not complete without a discussion on the uses of greens food in our daily diet plan. Studies have shown that a fiber rich diet ensures our overall health. Nutritional value of greens (Keerai) is twenty times more than in other vegetables. Dark green leafy vegetables are calorie for calorie, probably the most concentrated source of nutrition of any food. They are a rich source of minerals (including iron, calcium, potassium, and magnesium) and vitamins, including K, C, E, and many of the B complex vitamins. They also provide a variety of phytonutrients including beta-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin, which protect our cells from damage also helps in alleviating the age-related problems. The range of health benefits of the greens is so vast that it is not easy to consolidate them in a single article like the present one. However, we can cite here a few varieties of greens and their respective health benefits.
786-793
17
THERAPEUTIC APPROACHES FOR THE TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS
*Radhika Bhaskar, Rahul Bhaskar, Mahendra K. Sagar and Vipin Saini
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Diabetes, an epidemic, has become a point of concern as far as healthcare crisis are concerned in developing and developed countries. The therapy against type 2 diabetes is aimed to get control over metabolism of glucose with due consideration on safety point also. The target of therapy is to maintain the HbA1c value &lt; 6.5% at the early stages of the disease and &lt; 7.5% at advanced stages or when patient is at a risk of hypoglycemia. The treatment is categorized in three steps. The first step starts at early stages of the disease, when hyperglycemia is not too high and value of HbA1c lies between 6.5%-8.5%. Though several oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA) are available, metformin is considered as drug of choice. Other alternatives are recommended only if patient is not able to tolerate metformin or it is contraindicated with other components. However if metformin fails to control the situation and level of hyperglycemia reaches as high as HbA1c &gt; 8.5%, one should move to second step which includes addition of a second drug with a synergistic action. Out of various available options of OHA, the dose and combination individualization are supposed to be carried out. The condition, if not under control, even after step 2, this is a call for the third step, which incorporates either oral triple therapy or introduction of basal insulin (condition apply that patient is not insulin- resistant).
794-800
18
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF MILNACIPRAN HCL IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
*Mubarakunnisa Md, Prameela Rani A and Seelam Harika
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new simple isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed for the determination of milnacipran in bulk drug and in its capsules formulations. The mobile phase selected was methanol: acetonitrile:0.1% O-phosphoric acid in the ratio of 55:35:10%(v/v) and Zodiac C18 column with dimensions (250X4.6mm, 5&micro;)was used as stationary phase column temperature is ambient throughout the method. The flow rate and wave length observed were 1.0 mL/min and 220nm, respectively. The method was validated and it was concluded that the developed method was accurate, sensitive, precise, robust, and useful for the quality control of milnacipran in bulk drug and pharmaceutical preparations (capsules).
801-805
19
ISOLATION OF β-SITOSTEROL FROM ETHANOL EXTRACT OF AERIAL PARTS OF BAUHINIA PURPUREA AND EVALUATION FOR ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY
*N. Neelima and M. Sudhakar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Bauhinia purpurea is a flowering plant. General phytochemical screening of the aerial parts of Bauhinia purpurea revealed the presence of steroids, terpenes, phenolic compounds, saponins, fatty acids, alkaloids. The aim of this study is to identify and characterize the bioactive principle from the aerial parts of the plant. It has wide folk medicinal use. For isolation of the compound, the dried aerial parts powder of Bauhinia purpurea was subjected to hot extraction with ethanol; this extract was subjected to chromatography. Isolated compound were purified by chloroform. The isolation and purification afforded white crystalline powder which was subjected to physical, chemical and spectral identification by IR, 1H&#8208;NMR, 13C&#8208;NMR and GC&#8208;MS. The compound was concluded as &beta;&#8208;sitosterol. In the present study after the isolation, the ethanol extract of unripe pods and leaves of Bauhinia purpurea was evaluated for antihyperlipidemic activity in cholesterol high fat diet (CHFD) induced hyperlipidemia. Hyperlipidemia was induced by giving high cholesterol diet in standard rat chow diet for thirty days. The groups of rats selected for the study were treated with atorvastatin, ethanol extract of unripe pods and ethanol extract of leaves daily for the whole period. Changes in body weight and the analysis of serum lipids were carried out at the end of the study. There was a marked decrease in body weight, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels. Also there was a significant increase in high density lipoprotein levels after the treatment with Bauhinia purpurea extracts. Ethanol extract of leaves showed a marked effect over body weight reduction and also had a significant effect on the lipoprotein profile. There is a lowered atherogenic index, TC: HDL-c and LDL: HDL-c ratios in the extract treated groups. The present work indicated that Bauhinia purpurea extracts significantly suppressed the CHFD induced hyperlipidemia in rats, suggesting the antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic potential of the extracts. Further studies are needed to characterize the phytoconstituents responsible for the study.
806-811
20
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF TABERNAEMONTANA DIVARICATA LINN. AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS
*V. Umarani and V. Chitra
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata Linn.against paracetamol induced liver damage in rats. The hydroalcoholic extract of Tabernamontana divaricata Linn. (600mg/kg) was administered orally to the animals with hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (3gm/kg). Silymarin (25mg/kg) was given as reference standard. All the test drugs were administered orally by suspending in 0.5% Carboxy methyl cellulose solution. The plant extract was effective in protecting the liver against the injury induced by paracetamol in rats. This was evident from significant reduction in serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin. It was concluded from the result that the hydroalcoholic extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata possesses hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
812-814