Volume 3 - Issue

S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS METHANOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS
*Rachad Alnamer, Katim Alaoui, Latifa Doudach, El Houcine Bouidida, Fatiha Chibani, Mosa’d AL-Sobarry, Abdelaziz Benjouad and Yahia Cherrah
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L., family Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional medicine, to exhibit antimicrobial properties. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the antibacterial activity of R. officinalis leaves against pathogenic microorganisms by determination the minimal inhibitory concentration and to serve as criteria to recommend the ethno pharmacological uses of the plant. Plant leaves were dried, powdered and extracted by cold maceration with methanol for 48h. The extracts were screened against 24h broth culture of bacteria seeded in Muller Hinton Agar at concentration 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, 3.125 and 1.56mg/ml in sterile distilled water and incubated at 37°C, for 18h and measuring the inhibition zone diameter (IZD). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against three Gram-positive bacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis), three Gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) were determined for the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis. The methanolic extract showed pronounced antibacterial than the aqueous extract against all of the tested microorganisms. Methanolic extract inhibited with minimal inhibitory concentration of 1.56, 1.56, 3.13, 1.56, 3.13 and 3.13mg/ml against Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, respectively, while the aqueous extract inhibited with minimal inhibitory concentration of 6.25 mg/ml against all tested bacterial strains both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of R. officinalis demonstrated activities against certain bacteria confirming the use of the plant in ethno pharmacology.
1-6
2
RP-HPLC DETERMINATION OF RIFAXIMIN IN BULK DRUG AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
*K. Nageswara Rao, S. Ganapaty and A. Lakshmana Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, rapid, sensitive, accurate and precise HPLC method has been developed and validated for the estimation of Rifaximin in bulk and its pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method was carried out using Chromosil Symmetry C18 (150 x 4.6 mm I.D., 5 &#61549;m particle size) column and mobile phase comprised of phosphate buffer pH 4.0 and acetonitrile in proportion of ratio 40:60 v/v and degassed in ultrasonic water bath. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the detection wavelength was at 292 nm. The linearity was observed in the range of 10-60 &micro;g/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.999. The retention time of Rifaximin was 2.963 min. The method was validated as per the ICH guidelines for its linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and by performing recovery studies. The percentage recovery of the drug Rifaximin was 100.6% to 101.4% from the tablet formulation. The proposed method is suitable for the routine quality control analysis for the estimation of Rifaximin in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. <br />
7-13
3
EVALUATION OF LOOK-ALIKE AND SOUND-ALIKE MEDICINES AND DISPENSING ERRORS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL PHARMACY OF EASTERN NEPAL
*Mukhtar Ansari and Abhishek Sen
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Medication errors are common in hospitals which may occur at prescribing, dispensing and administration level. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dispensing errors that occur mainly due to similar sounding and looking medicines. A cross-sectional and observational study was conducted at Nobel Medical College Pharmacy, Biratnagar, Nepal during the months of August and September 2010. Three dispensing staffs were observed every day from 9 am to 5 pm for errors made while dispensing. Besides, a survey of look-alike and sound-alike medicines available at the pharmacy and their placement in the shelves was also done. Various reported cases of dispensing errors due to similar sounding and looking medicines were found. There were about twelve similar sounding brand names with different constituents in the pharmacy. Additionally, prescriptions or medication slips containing inappropriate information also led to dispensing errors.&nbsp; There is an urgent need of considering the medication errors with special emphasis to the similar sounding and looking medicines.
14-19
4
PRIMARY DYSMENHORREA, ITS EFFECTS AND REMEDIES USED AMONG YOUNG FEMALES OF DIFFERENT UNIVERSITIES IN KARACHI, PAKISTAN
*Fakhsheena Anjum, Noor Jahan, Sana Ghayas, Shumaila Shoaib, Nighat Tanveer, Warda Naseem and Anam Muzaffar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was conducted to reveal primary dysmenorrhea and its effects in young females belonging to various universities in Karachi, Pakistan. Remedies used to alleviate the undesired effects were also determined using a structured questionnaire. A structured questionnaire was filled by 621 subjects in the presence of the study researchers after taking their consent. The survey was conducted from March to May 2012. The results of the study showed that dysmenorrhea was mild in 28.8% (n=179), moderate in 36.9% (n=229) and severe in 15.8% (n=98) subjects. The age of menarche of majority of the females was 12-15 years with 85% (n=528) having regular and 15 % (n=93) having irregular menstruation. The most frequently reported associated symptoms were abdominal pain in 75.04% (n=466) females, headache in 15.62% (n=97), nausea in 20.45% (n=27) and vomiting in 7.41% (n=46) females. Only 9.33% (n=58) of the females consulted physicians, 33.5% (n=208) self medicated and 66.3% (n=412) took no action for their pain. Conventional medicine was used by 26.41% (n=164) females, household remedies by 9.02% (n=56), herbal by 2.89% (n=18) and homeopathic by 2.41 % (n=15) females. Paracetamol, ibuprofen and mefenemic acid were reported as commonly used allopathic medicines for dysmenorrhea; green tea, black caraway, coriander/ginger tea were used as herbal remedies whereas hot milk, boiled eggs and hot water bottles were used as household remedies by the participating females. Dysmenorrhea also affected different activities and performances of 52.3% (n=325) subjects; stress and depression affected 33.17% (n=207) subjects. Various symptoms contribute to severity of primary dysmenorrhea in which abdominal pain, headache and nausea are prevalent among the females. Due to this, activities and performances of young females are disturbed to quite much extent. The need for awareness regarding primary dysmenorrhea among young females is necessary and should be addressed by health care professionals and health related educational programs.<br />
20-23
5
VALIDATION OF A UV-SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE ASSAY AND PURITY OF PARACETAMOL IN SOLUTIONS FOR IV INFUSION, AND COMPARISON OF MARKETED BRANDS
*Tabbouche O. S, Soukkariyyeh I, Naji M and Alwan T
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Paracetamol or chemically named p-acetyl-N-aminophenol is a unique analgesic and antipyretic widely used in the hospital setting all over the globe. The Paracetamol solution for IV infusion is clinically the standard analgesic in Pain Management and the first line, most safe antipyretic especially in the Pediatrics Department. According to many pharmacopoeias, the UV spectroscopy is still one of the most validated and relied on quality control assays in pharmaceutical research. Our research objective is to compare the purity and quantity of the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) &ldquo;Paracetamol&rdquo; in five different brands of Paracetamol solution for IV infusion present in the Lebanese market. The &#61548;max was 244nm in all five brands which confirms purity of the API, however Amax was the highest in Bofalgan (Bosch Pharma) and lowest in Perfumol (Hikma Pharmaceuticals). The highest concentration was observed in Perfalgan (Bristol Myers Squibb), while the lowest concentration was observed in Perfumol (Hikma Pharmaceuticals).&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <br />
24-27
6
A NOVEL RAPIDLY DISINTEGRATING TABLET OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE WITH ENHANCED STABILITY: DESIGN AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION
*Mahmoud M. Ghorab, Yasser S. El-Saharty, Amna A. Makky, Shaimaa M. Badr-Eldin
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This work aimed to formulate sildenafil citrate rapidly disintegrating tablets with enhanced stability utilizing the approach of incorporating antioxidant simultaneously with pH modifier for adjusting the tablet microenvironmental pH. Studies for effect of pH on the drug saturated solutions stability revealed that the drug exhibited maximum stability at pH 4.6. Studies for the effect of antioxidants on drug stability revealed marked stabilizing effect of sodium metabisulphite. Tablets were prepared by direct compression according to 22 factorial design considering the factors; filler and disintegrant types. All blends contained sodium metabisulphite as antioxidant and potassium dihydrogen phosphate as microenvironmental pH adjuster. Two-way ANOVA was performed to assess effects and interactions of formulation factors on tablets characteristics. Two selected formulae (F b and F ab) were subjected to storage at 50 &ordm;C/75 % R.H for 12 weeks, where no significant changes was observed for F ab, while marked discoloration was observed for F b. The results suggested that F ab could be a promising drug formulation with rapid disintegration and enhanced stability.
28-39
7
ANTIMALARIAL DRUGS: A REVIEW
*Modupe Iretiola Builders
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Malaria causes about 400-900 million cases of fever and approximately 1-3 million deaths annually; this represents at least one death every 30 seconds. The vast majority of cases occur in children under the age of 5 years, pregnant women are also especially vulnerable. Resistance to antimalarial drugs as well as resistance of vectors to insecticides is proving to be a challenging problem in malaria control in most parts of the world. Furthermore, the difficulty of creating efficient vaccines and also adverse side-effects of the existing anti-malarial drugs highlight the urgent need for novel, well-tolerated antimalarial drugs for both prophylaxis and treatment of malaria, therefore researchers had discovered other antimalarial agents, mainly from plant sources. In this article, we would like to address current status of recent advances in malaria chemotherapy.
40-46
8
EVALUATION OF MAJOR COMPLICATIONS; PRE & POST HEMODIALYSIS IN PAKISTANI POPULATION
*Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Hanif and Javeid Iqbal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The commonly used renal replacement therapy for the end stage renal disease (ESRD) is the maintenance dialysis and kidney transplantation. The objective of the study was to evaluate and determine the frequency of different complications during and after haemodylisis in patients having ESRD. A patient having approaches for the renal transplantation is the gold standard of treatment. The maintenance haemodialysis is the substitute for the proper kidney functions. On one hand, it is blessing for renal failure patients, while on other hand, complications may occurs during and after the process of hemodialysis. Some are inherent side effects of the normal extra corporeal circuit, some results from technical errors, &amp; yet others are due to abnormal reactions during the dialysis procedure. This prospective and observational study was conducted at two different public and private hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Patients were selected from the lists of regular hemodialysis patients during the period of August, 2011 to April, 2012. The most frequently observed complications were cardiovascular system (CVS). These complications like hypotension &amp; arrhythmia were at the top with frequency of 79.3%. The gastrointestinal (GIT) complications like nausea, vomiting abdominal pain followed the CVS complication in order of frequency. There is a need for development of effective strategies to prevent gastrointestinal bleeding in patients on hemodialysis who use Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These complications may be decreased by taking some measures such as premedication of hemodialysis, well trained dialysis machine operators, latest technology dialysis machines,&nbsp; full monitoring during the process of dialysis and to improve the socioeconomic conditions of the patients so as to reduce the post dialysis problems such as infections at the site of catheter.
47-52
9
ASSESSMENT OF MEDICATION ERRORS IN AMONG PATIENTS VISITING COMMUNITY PHARMACIES IN RURAL AREAS OFCHIDAMBARAM, TAMILNADU AT SOUTH INDIA: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY
*Akram Ahmad, Isha Patel, S. Parimalakrishnan, G.P. Mohanta, Anoop Parchuri and R. Balkrishnan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Medication errors are important problems in hospitalized and outpatients department. Medication errors are inevitable and are affected by numerous human factors. Nevertheless, the epidemiological data about medication errors in outpatients in India is still limited. Objectives: This study was purposed to know the occurrence of medication errors including prescribing error, pharmaceutical error and dispensing error and the occurrence of the most type happened in these errors in outpatient settings. The present study is a prospective and study subjects were selected from community based ambulatory pharmacies. The study was carried over one month during January 2012. 250 prescriptions were collected and 212 of them were selected for the further analysis. We observed the prescription of 202 outpatients (of 212, 10 were excluded). About 81% of prescriptions were carrying with variety of errors. Among 202 prescriptions, 95.54 % were with prescribing errors, 9.9 % were with pharmaceutical errors and 7.91% were with dispensing errors. The most type of prescribing error was incomplete prescription orders and it was the most common stage of errors (95.54%). The dosing errors were including over dose and under dose of drugs, while dispensing errors includes improper drug preparation and incomplete or no drug information. Medication errors are still common problem in outpatients in Chidambaram, India. Pharmacists needed to prevent and overcome the medication errors.
53-58
10
A SURVEY OF CAREER IDENTITY AMONG RETAIL AND HOSPITAL PHARMACISTS IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY
*Sandeep Maharaj, Sureshwar Pandey, Arti Maharaj, Bonnilyn Berkeley, Ceema Ramnarine, Crissanne Ramoutar, Jadeine Joseph, Omphemetse Basinyi, Fazal Ali, Robin M. Antoine, Isaac Dialsingh and Ashok Sahai
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of this study was to investigate how retail pharmacists view themselves versus hospital pharmacists. This was explored in terms of self perception, workload, salary, technology and responsibilities. Questionnaires were distributed to thirty full time pharmacists. Fifteen were hospital pharmacists from the North Central Regional Health Authority and the fifteen retail pharmacists from along the North east-west corridor in Trinidad. The differences noted in perception corresponded to the areas of salary (benefits) and working conditions. Retail pharmacists felt that hospital pharmacists would be paid better and have more favourable working conditions (responsibilities; autonomy; technology; reporting relations). This investigation showed that hospital pharmacists basically had a relatively good perception of themselves as compared to their counterparts.
59-65
11
DEVELOPMENT OF pH BASED PHASE CHANGE SOLUTIONS FOR OPHTHALMIC DRUG DELIVERY OF GATIFLOXACIN
*Abdullah Khan, SMd Noorulla, Mohammed Muqtader, Roshan S and Sadath Ali
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Conventional dosage forms like gels and eye drops show relatively low bioavailability due to poor precorneal contact time. In situ gelling systems are of great importance in providing prolonged ocular drug delivery due to their elastic properties. It resists ocular drainage leading to longer contact time. In the present study an in situ gelling solution was formulated for gatifloxacin an antibacterial agent, using different ratios of hydroxypropyl cellulose and Sodium alginate with a view to increase gelling strength and bio-adhesion force in order to increase pre-corneal contact time, thereby increasing ocular bioavailability of the drug. The prepared formulations were evaluated for various physical parameters such as, clarity, pH, viscosity, drug content, sterility, and in vitro drug release. The formulated gels were transparent, uniform in consistency and had sufficient spreadability with a pH range of 6.8 to 7.1. It was found that with an increase in the concentration of the bioadhesive polymer sodium alginate the drug release was prolonged for longer period of time. Amongst the different polymer combinations studied the G-7 showed satisfactorily higher gel strength, and sustained drug release for more than twelve hours and was stable throughout the stability studies. Thus it can be concluded that the G-7 was more suitable combination for the formulation of ophthalmic in situ gelling system for sustained ocular drug delivery of gatifloxacin, which improves the bioavailability of the drugs on the precorneal area.
66-72
12
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF GASTRORETENTIVE FLOATING TABLETS OF FAMOTIDINE
*Brajendra singh Rajpoot
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of this investigation was to prepare a gastro retentive drug delivery system of famotidine. Floating tablets of famotidine were prepared by using two different grades of HPMCK4M and HPMCK100M by effervescent technique; these HPMCK have gel-forming properties. The floating tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content. All prepared tablet showed good in vitro buoyancy.
73-76
13
LEUCAS CEPHALOTES (ROTH) SPRENG: REVIEW AT A GLANCE
*Reena Bhoria and Sushma Kainsa
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Leucas cephalotes is an annual herb growing widely in India. It is used as anti-filarial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepato-protective, antimicrobial &amp; anti-diabetic .The Leucas cephalotes (Roth) Spreng whole herb contains new Labdane, Nor Labdane &amp; Abietone-type, Diterpenes named Leucasdins A (1), B (2), C (3), five sterols and eight flavones. The review summaries phytochemical and pharmacological investigations carried out on this plant.
77-81
14
PREPARATION OF BIODEGRADABLE MICROSPHERES BY SPRAY DRYING METHOD FOR ISONIAZID PULMONARY DELIVERY
*Aliasgar J. Kundawala, Vishnu A. Patel, Harsha V. Patel and Dhaglaram Choudhary
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study was to prepare microspheres containing Isoniazid, using Chitosan, Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) as carrier polymers to achieve aerodynamic properties with sustainable drug release in lungs. The microspheres were evaluated for morphological characterization, particle size analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry and in-vitro deposition studies. The microspheres were spherical shaped with slight rough surface and appeared as aggregated particles, however, HPMC-microspheres found to have collapsed surface. The in vitro drug deposition revealed that mass median aerodynamic diameter of microspheres was in the range of 2.53 to 3.01&mu;m with fine particle fraction between 44-66%. All the formulation batches showed acceptable drug loading (&gt; 90%), powder flow properties having Carr&rsquo;s index in the range of 30 to 44 %. Microspheres showed sustained drug release over period of more than 8 hours except HPC-microspheres. The microspheres prepared with spray drying technique showed promising aerosol properties with sustained drug release properties required for effective pulmonary administration of isoniazid.
82-90
15
METHODS TO STUDY ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MEDICINAL PLANTS
*Susmita Mahapatra, Yugal Kishore Mohanta, Sujogya Kumar Panda
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Antioxidant properties have been credited to medicinal plants because plants have to counteract themselves from stress caused by oxygen. Plants have no side effects and provide protection against free radicals, thus prevent our body from oxidative damage. As a result, it is very much necessary to screen medicinal plants for their antioxidant properties. There are several in vitro assays are reported for measurement of antioxidant properties. Results comparability is largely dependent on the techniques employed in the investigations and conclusive results can only be obtained if methods are standardized and worldwide. In the light of the fact, the present review is designed for the simplicity and feasibility of the authors to use the appropriate methods based on the availability of the instruments, so as to reduce the time consumption. This review offers an idea behind the mechanism involved in each test assay. At the same time it also provide information on the most common methods used in the present day to study antioxidant activity with their advantages and comparison of different standards used by several authors.
91-97
16
STUDIES RELATED TO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF AMINOBENZYLATED MANNICH BASES OF UREA
*Chaluvaraju KC and Ishwar bhat K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
An elegant synthesis of newer aminobenzylated mannich bases (6a to 6j) is described in the present study. These were synthesized by reacting aromatic aldehydes, cyclic secondary amines and a reagent with active hydrogen atom such as Urea in the presence of hydrochloric acid. The constituents of the newly synthesized compounds have been established on the basis of their physical and spectral data. All the newly obtained compounds have been screened for invitro antimicrobial activity against bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtillis, Escherichia coli and fungal strains Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger.
98-102
17
VALIDATED CHROMATOGRAPHICAL METHODS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
*Delhiraj N and Anbazhagan S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Two new, rapid, precise, accurate and specific chromatographic methods for the simultaneous determination of Olmesartan medoxomil,Amlodipine besylate and Hydrochlorothiazide in combined pharmaceutical dosage forms. The first method based on reverse phase liquid chromatography by using Qualisil BDS C18 column (250 mm X 4.6 i.d., 5 &mu;m). Mobile phase consists of 1.0 ml of triethylamine in one litre water and the pH was adjusted to 2.5 with orthophosphoric acid and Acetonitrile (60:40) with a flow rate of 1ml/min, with a detection wavelength of 231nm.The second method involved silica gel 60F254 high performance thin layer chromatography and densitometric detection at 231 nm using chloroform: methanol (85:15) as the mobile phase.<br />
103-103
18
DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CONTROLLED RELEASE SPHERICAL AGGLOMERATES BY USING THE QUASI-EMULSION SOLVENT DIFFUSION METHOD
*Anuradha A. Ranpise, Pratiksha M. Kadam, Shilpa P. Chaudhari, Atul A. Phatak
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Aspirin is moisture sensitive drug and having poor flowability and compressibility, it is necessary to increase the flowability and compressibility of Aspirin. Spherical crystallization of aspirin was done by quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method (QESD). 32 factorial design were used to study the effect of agitation speed and amount of polymer in development of spherical agglomerates. Agglomerates were evaluated for micromeritics properties, drug release, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, Karl Fischer titration, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction. Flowability and compressibility properties of agglomerates were good enough to adopt direct compression technology. In vitro drug release of optimized formulation shows 98% .X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis reveal the conversion of crystalline drug to amorphous. FTIR of agglomerates does not shown any extra peaks as compared to pure drug. Controlled release aspirin agglomerates were prepared successfully by QESD method. The method was simple, inexpensive and reproducible. <br />
108-115
19
A RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF DIHYDRALAZINE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
*Saroj Kumar Raul, B.V.V Ravi kumar, Ajaya Kumar Pattnaik, Nagireddy Neelakanta Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, selective, linear, precise and accurate RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for rapid assay of Dihydralazine in pharmaceutical dosage form. Isocratic elution at a flow rate of 0.8 mL min -1 was employed on a Hypersil C18 column at 40oC. The mobile phase consisted of phosphate buffer: acetonitrile 98:2 (v/v) and the detection wavelength was at 305 nm. Linearity was observed in concentration range of 25-150 &mu;g/mL. The retention time for Dihydralazine was 2.75 min. The method was validated as per the ICH guidelines. The proposed method can be successfully applied for the estimation of Dihydralazine in pharmaceutical dosage forms.
116-121
20
FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT, CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF LIQUISOLID TABLET CONTAINING PIOGLITAZONE HCL
*K. J. Gandhi, A. R. Sawant, S. V. Nagpure, S. V. Deshmane, K .R. Biyani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of present study was to improve the solubility of pioglitazone HCl a practically insoluble antidiabetic drug by using liquisolid technique. The in vitro release pattern of liquisolid tablets and directly compressed tablets were studied using USP-II apparatus. Different Liquisolid tablets were prepared using a mathematical model to calculate the required quantities of powder and liquid ingredients to produce acceptably flowable and compressible admixture. Avicel PH 102, Aerosil 200 and Sodium starch glycolate were employed as carrier, coating material and disintegrant respectively. The drug release rates of Liquisolid tablets were distinctly higher as compared to directly compressed tablets, which show significant benefit of Liquisolid tablets in increasing wetting properties and surface area of drug available for dissolution. The optimized formulation showed the higher drug release during ex-vivo and in-vivo study against conventional and marketed tablet preparation. The DSC and FT-IR studies conforms the no significant interaction between the drug and excipients used in Liquisolid tablets. From this study it concludes that the Liquisolid technique is a promising alternative and best suitable method for enhancing solubility of pioglitazone HCl.
122-130
21
PATTERN OF THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTIONS MADE BY CLINICAL PHARMACIST IN A SOUTH INDIAN HOSPITAL
*Mohammed Saji S, Raslif Khan S and Siraj Sundaran
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
70% of medication errors occurring in the hospitals are preventable. The study was aimed to document, classify and examine interventions and examine reasons as to why pharmacists initiate changes in drug therapy and the outcomes of interventions, also examine the acceptability of interventions to analyze if intervention study can be a reliable learning process and to identify the areas of weakness in case of ineffective interventions. Interventions were broadly classified into Reactive interventions and Passive interventions. The study was conducted for six months. A total of 470 interventions were recorded in this study. Out of these 470 interventions, 104 were reactive interventions and 366 were passive interventions. Out of 92 outcome assessed interventions, the outcomes were beneficial in (91.30%) and had no effect in (8.70%). Active involvement of clinical pharmacists in the wards helps physicians in taking better therapeutic decisions which highlights areas where clinical pharmacists could prove their skill and knowledge to achieve better patient outcomes. <br />
131-135
22
NEW STABILITY INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LAMIVUDINE, TENOFOVIR DF AND NEVIRAPINE IN EXTENDED RELEASE TABLETS
*Lanka A. Rama Prasad, J.V.L.N.S. Rao, Srinivasu Pamidi, J. Vara Prasad and J. Hemalatha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
New stability-indicating reverse phase LC method developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Lamivudine, Tenofovir DF and Nevirapine in extended release tablet dosage form.&nbsp; Tenofovir and Lamivudine are formulated into immediate release and Nevirapine into extended relase. The chromatographic conditions were optimized using an impurity-spiked solution and the samples generated from forced degradation studies. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a core shell technology C18 stationary phase. The method employed a linear gradient elution and the detection wavlength was set at 260 nm. The mobile phases consists of buffer and acetonitrile delivered at a flow rate of 0.7 mL&bull;min&ndash;1. Proposed method was extensively validated as per ICH guidelines. Regression analysis shows an r value (correlation coefficient) of greater than 0.999 for individual active drug substances. The samples were assayed against a qualified reference standard and the mass balance was found to be close to 98.3%.
136-144
23
SYNTHESIS OF 9-BROMO-N-SUBSTITUTED- 6H- INDOLO [2, 3-b] QUINOXALINE-3-SULFONAMIDE DERIVATIVES CONTAINING QUINOXALINE MOIETY AS PROSPECTIVE ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS
*Sandeep Talari, Govindarajan. R, Divya Karunakaram, Srikanth Jupudi and Udhayavani.S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
O-phenylene diamine is reacted with 5-bromo Isatin and the resultant compound is reacted with various aromatic and aliphatic amines to form the 9-bromo-N-substituted- 6H- indolo [2,3-b] quinoxaline-3-sulfonamide derivatives of Quinoxaline (QXN 1 to QXN 12). All the compounds were structurally elucidated with physical and analytical methods. All the compounds were evaluated with anti-microbial activity against a variety of bacterial strains (both Gram +ve and Gram &ndash;ve) and fungal strains and some of these compounds have shown significant antibacterial and antifungal activities. <br />
145-151
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FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF VENLAFAXINE HYDROCHLORIDE EXTENDED RELEASE PELLETS BY EXTRUSION SPHERONIZATION METHOD
*Omprakash Bagdiya, Ajay Kumar Sav and Purnima Dhanraj Amin
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Venlafaxine hydrochloride is an antidepressant drug used to treat various mental disorders. Single layer or double layer coating generally used method to prepare extended release pellets of Venlafaxine hydrochloride. In current work, extended release pellets of Venlafaxine was prepared by extrusion spheronization method using combination of hydrophobic low melting wax and hydrophilic polymers as release retarding agent. This method avoids the process of layering or film coating. The optimized capsule formulation containing Venlafaxine hydrochloride pellets (F10) was evaluated for physical properties like size distribution, surface morphology and Invitro drug release. The developed capsule formulation was found to be complying with the marketed formulation Venlor XR &reg; (37.5 mg) with respect to dissolution Invitro drug release profile and physical property. SEM study showed that formulation comprised of sphere pellets of uniform size. Dissolution data was found to be best fitted in Higuchi equation revealed that drug releases by diffusion mechanism. The optimized batch (F10) was found to be stable for period of stability study. <br />
152-159
25
A TYPICAL REVIEW ON PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS OF GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROPHOTOMETRY
*Gattu Madhava Prathap,B. Krishnamoorthy, M. Muthukumaran and Amreen Nishat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present review article to discuss briefly about the construction and working mechanism of the hyphenated technique GC-MS. Here the importance of the hyphenated technique in the drug resolution was determined. GC with low resolution electron ionization (EI)-MS was used, together with confirmation with chemical standards, for identification work. The method was successfully applied in many fields like forensic department&nbsp;&nbsp; and environmental analysis. It is also used in the anti-doping analysis. The combines the features of gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample. Applications of GC - MS include drug detection, fire investigation, environmental analysis, explosives investigation, and identification of unknown samples. GC - MS has been widely heralded as a &quot;gold standard&quot; for forensic substance identification because it i s used to perform a specific test.
160-165
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DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE AND CANDESARTAN CILEXETIL IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
*Ananda Rao Bonthala and T.A.D. Surya Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of hydrochlorothiazide and candesartan cilexetil in pharmaceutical dosage form. The column used was Zorbax C8 (150&times;4.6 mm, 3.5&micro;m) in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing phosphate buffer-methanol (30:70) adjusted to pH 3.0 using ortho phosphoric acid was used. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/ min and effluents were monitored at 230 nm. The retention times of hydrochlorothiazide and candesartan cilexetil were 2.170 min and 7.280 min, respectively. The linearity for Hydrochlorothiazide and Candesartan cilexetil were in the range of 25-125 mg/mL and 16-80 mg/mL respectively. The recoveries of Hydrochlorothiazide and Candesartan- cilexetil were found to be 101.5% and 100.9%, respectively. The proposed method was validated and successfully applied to the estimation of Hydrochlorothiazide and Candesartan cilexetil in combined tablet dosage forms.
166-169
27
SOLID DISPERSION–AN APPROACH TO ENHANCE THE DISSOLUTION RATE OF AMLODIPINE
*R. B. Desi Reddy, P. Sivanarayana, T. Madhu Mounica, N. Prathibha, G. Sandhya and P. Alekhya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Solid dispersion refers to the dispersion of one or more active ingredients in an inert carrier in a solid state, frequently prepared by the melting method, solvent method, or fusion solvent method. The oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug remains as the most challenging aspects of drug development. Solid dispersion approach is to reduce particle size, therefore increases the dissolution rate and absorption of drugs. Amlodipine is poorly soluble drug. The solubility of this drug is enhanced by preparing the solid dispersions of amlodipine, with hydrophilic polymers like PEG4000, in different ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 and 1:6). The amount of drug released is measured by UV spectroscopy at the wavelength of 238nm using methanol as blank.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <br />
170-172
28
NEW ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF GEMFIBROZIL IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION BY RP-HPLC
*A. Sushma, K. Harinadha Babu and G. Vijay Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination Gemfibrozil in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. The column used was Agilent Zorbax C8 (150 &times;4.6mm, 5&micro;) in gradient mode,&nbsp;&nbsp; with mobile phase containing Solvent-A: phosphate buffer adjusted the pH-3.0 with orthophosphoric acid Solvent-B: Methanol the flow rate was 1.5 mL/ min and eluents was monitored at 276 nm. The retention time Gemfibrozil was 5.158 min, respectively. The linearity for Gemfibrozil was in the range of 30-450 &micro;g/ml respectively. The recovery of Gemfibrozil was found to be 99.5%, respectively. The proposed method was validated and successfully applied to the estimation of Gemfibrozil in capsule dosage form
173-175
29
EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC AND ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF MOMORDICA CHAIRANTIA
*Sri Ramachandra M, Srinivasa Rao Avanapu and S Shobha Rani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the Analgesic &amp; anti inflammatory activities of the Momordica charantia extract. Momordica chirantia (MC) is a herbal medicine traditionally applied to treat so many diseases and disorders. In the evaluation of analgesic activity the model used was Eddy&rsquo;s hot plate method in which the animals treated with Momordica charantia and standard Pentazocin has significantly decreased the Hot plate-induced writhing and licking responses when compared with control group animals. The anti &ndash; inflammatory activity was screened by Carageenan induced paw edema model in which the animals treated with testing drug and standard Indomethacin has significantly reduced the inflammation when compared with carageenan induced inflammatory positive control group animals. So we can conclude that the extract of Momordica charantia has the analgesic and anti inflammatory activities. <br />
176-179
30
NIOSOMES – VESICULAR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
*V. Lokeswara Babu , Sam T. Mathew1, K.N. Jayaveera and V.V. Prasanth
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
At present days drugs are formulated by using different novel drug delivery system (NDDS) which are used for targeting drugs to different organ systems and for controlled /sustained release of drug from the dosage forms. The NDDS can be used to overcome many disadvantages of conventional dosage forms like poor bioavailability, first pass effect, systemic toxicity, degradation of drug in stomach etc. which results in decreased biological activity of the drugs. Vesicular system is one of the important NDDS studied since a lot of time, of which main importance was given to liposomes. Due to the unstability of phospholipids (used for the formulation of liposomes) on storage was replaced with non ionic surfactants. Niosomal vesicles were prepared by using non ionic surfactants and were first reported in cosmetic industry. Niosomes are used as carrier systems for the delivery of most of the drugs, biologically active agents, hormones and antigens for the better treatment. The present review involves a detailed description about the drug delivery through niosomal formulation. <br />
180-185
31
FORMULATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND IN-VIVO ASSESSMENT OF TOPICAL NANOEMULSION OF BETAMETHASONE VALERATE FOR PSORIASIS AND DERMATOSE
*Md Sajid Ali, Md Sarfaraz Alam, Nawazish Alam, Syed Akmal Shah Qadry, Md Intakhab Alam, Md Shamim and Md Daud Ali
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the current work was the formulation, characterization and in vivo study of betamethasone valerate nanoemulsion based on the induction of contact dermatitis in rats using a dispersion of nickel sulfate in solid vaseline at 5%, carragennen induce inflammation and their irritation study. Nanoemulsions were prepared by aqueous phase titration method, using sefsol, tween 20, transcutol P, and distilled water as the oil phase, surfactant, co surfactant and aqueous phase, respectively. Selected formulations were subjected to physical stability studies and consequently in vitro skin permeation studies. A surface study of optimized formulation was done by transmission electron microscopy. In vivo anti-inflammatory, In vivo irritation study and In vivo nickel induced contact dermatitis activity were done.&nbsp; The droplet size of nanoemulsion ranged from 150 to 200 nm. The optimized formulation exhibited viscosity 26.95 &plusmn; 1.71mP, refractive index 1.431, pH 6.5, and conductivity 10 -4 scm -1. The optimized nanoemulsion was converted into hydro gel using carbopol 934. Drug deposition in skin was found to be 58.46 &mu;g/cm2. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity indicated 84.2% and 45.05% inhibition of inflammation in case of developed nanoemulsion gel (A5) and marketed cream, respectively. The irritation score was found to be 1.83 which indicates our optimized nanoemulsion was not cause any irritation. Result of nickel induced dermatitis demonstrate that the nanoemulsion formulation (A5) gel did not appear to stimulate an inflammatory or immune response using the contact dermatitis model.
186-199
32
A VALIDATED AND STABILITY INDICATING HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TERBUTALINE SULPHATE, GUAIPHENESIN AND BROMHEXINE HCL IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION
*Safeena Sheikh, Suhail Asghar and Showkat Ahmad
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A fast, rapid, sensitive and stability indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method is developed and validated for quantitative estimation of terbutaline sulphate (TS), Guaiphenasin (G) and Bromhexine hydrochloride (B.HCl) simultaneously in pharmaceutical formulation (Cough Syrup). The sample are chromatographed on silica gel 60F254- TLC plates, using solvent system Dichloromethane: Methanol: Acetic Acid (7.5: 1:0.5) and scanned at 254nm. The current method demonstrates good linearity over the range for TS was 200-1200ng/spot with r2 of 0.999; G is 1.0-6.0mcg/spot with r2 of 0.998 and B.HCl 500-3500ng/spot with r2 of 0.997. The average recovery of the method is 100.47% for TS; 99.94% for G and 100.12% for B.HCl in formulation. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for TS, G and B.HCl were found to be 50-150ng/spot, 200-800ng/spot and 100-300ng/spot respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for the assay of market formulation. The degree of reproducibility of the results obtained as a result of small deliberate variations in the method parameter and by changing analytical parameter operated proven that the method is robust.
200-210
33
ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CHICORY ROOTS IN STREPTOZOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
*Faheem Mubeen, Hardeep and Dhananjay Kumar pandey
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
To study the antidiabetic activity of Chicory roots methanolic extract (MEC) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. MEC of root was subjected to preliminary qualitative phytochemical investigations by using standard procedures. The extract (400 mg/kg p.o.) was screened for antidiabetic activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats (30 mg/kg, i.p.). Acute oral toxicity study for the test extract of the plant root was carried out using OECD/OCED guideline 425. Phytochemical analysis of MEC of roots revealed the presence of inulin, sucrose, cellulose, protein, carbohydrates, lipids, alkaloids, glycosides and tannins compounds. In acute toxicity study, no toxic symptoms were observed for MEC up to dose 2000 mg/kg. Oral administration of MEC for 21 days exhibited highly significant (P &lt; 0.01) hypoglycemic activity and also correction of altered biochemical parameters, namely cholesterol and triglycerides significantly (P &lt; 0.05). Urine analysis on 1st day showed the presence of glucose and traces of ketone in the entire group except normal control group. However, on 21st day glucose and ketone traces were absent in MEC and glibenclamide-treated groups while they were present in diabetic control. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance followed by Dunnett&rsquo;s test. The observations confirm that methanolic extract of the root of the plant has antidiabetic activity and is also involved in correction of altered biological parameters. It also warrants further investigation to isolate and identify the hypoglycemic principles in this Chicory root so as to elucidate their mode of action.
211-216
34
FORMULATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE EXTENDED RELEASE AND GLIMEPIRIDE IMMEDIATE RELEASE INTO BILAYERED TABLET DOSAGE FORM: IN VITRO EVALUATION
*P. Shashidhar and G. Vidya sagar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of the research work was formulation development and evaluation bi-layer floating tablets for metformin hydrochloride and glimepiride to improve the oral therapeutic efficacy Both these drugs exhibit&nbsp; pH dependent solubility&nbsp; and show good permeability from stomach and upper part of the small intestine into systemic circulation. Direct compression method form metformin hydrochloride layer and wet granulation method for glimepiride was used to formulate bi-layer floating tablets. The optimized formula F-5 of metformin layer exhibits float for more than 12 h and extend drug release above 12 h. Different grades of methocel (HPMC) was used as was used as drug release retarding agents in order to get the extended release profile of metformin hydrochloride over a period of 12 h. Glimepiride immediate release layer was formulation using different excipients. HPMC K100M based formulation 5 was showing drug release according to the USP specifications and was optimized and kept of stability studies. The drug release profiles at 1 month in 40&#9702;C and 75%RH suggesting that In various invitro drug release kinetics studies Higuchi model was found to be the best fitted in all dissolution profile having higher correlation coefficient 0.995 followed by Peppas model and first order release, Slope of vergnaurd model obtained is 0.399. Indicates fickian diffusion and the rate of matrix erosion of metformin hydrochloride tablets were found to 0.062 /min from the tablets. <br />
217-227
35
IMPACT OF FURFURAL AND KEROSENE COEXPOSURE THROUGH INHALATION IN LUNGS OF RATS
*Tabarak Malik, D. K. Pandey
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Furfural is being added to kerosene to check the adulteration of gasoline/high speed diesel oil. The possibility of a co-exposure of furfural and kerosene and the ability to exhibit the toxic effects of such a mixture were examined in view of the toxicity potential of the two alone and in combination with each other. A single inhalation exposure of rats to furfural was fully tolerated up to a concentration of 126 ppm. However, exposure to higher concentrations of furfural resulted in a dose dependent mortality. Exposure of rats to vapor of kerosene ranging from 426-1054 ppm did not show toxic signs and mortality up to a period of seven days. Simultaneous exposure of rats to furfural and kerosene vapors ranging in concentration from 35 ppm to 138 ppm showed a suppression of LC50 value of furfural. The LC50 was 105 ppm in rats exposed to furfural-kerosene vapors. Inhalation exposure of rats to &frac12; LC50 of furfural to 95 ppm, 1 hr daily, 5 days/week over a period of 28 days caused severe irritation of eyes and nose leading to lacrimation, perinasal and perioral wetness, labored breathing and mild nasal bleeding. Neither the body weight nor lung weight showed any change as compared to the control group. Activities of acid and alkaline phosphatase, glutamic pyruvic and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminases, succinic dehydrogenase, total sulphydryl content and lactic acid content were evaluated.
228-233
36
SHRAGA™ Griseofulvin Topical for Treatment of Otomycosis: New Indication
*Shraga Shmuel, Elidan Josef, Ben Yaakov Avraham and Cohen Isaac
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This paper(documented by clinical assay and Susceptibility testing )will discuss, an innovative remedy (SHRAGA&trade;), containing Griseofulvin (GF), for treating Otomycosis , a fungal infection of the ear external auditory canal, by topical use, This composition includes: Tea tree oil (TTO) used for dissolving the (GF )in water , with its&nbsp; additional role of&nbsp; synergism effect to GF. Betamethasone (BM) which is a steroid, a synthetic glucocorticoid, known for its potent anti-inflammatory action, which also suppresses the immune response to GF. GF compound is non soluble in water and therefore was not available so far for use as topical treatment. Our methods make the facility for solubility of Griseofulvin in water for using&nbsp;&nbsp; it as a topical drug. Aspergillus. and Candida species are the most common isolated organisms in fungal external otitis(Otomycosis) .&nbsp; and were eradicated by(SHRAGA&trade;). GF alone has no any effect to Aspergillus. and Candida species. TTO originally by100% concentration has a negligible effect on Aspergillus, and Candida species which is toxic. In the contrary (SHRAGA&trade;), using a low concentration of TTO and GF, has safe and almost 3 fold effectiveness. (SHRAGA&trade;) is most effective for treating the majority of fungi such as Dermatophytes, Molds and Yeasts by topical use, whereas other remedies available in the market specialize in treating only&nbsp; one or at the most two fungi .&nbsp; <br />
234-240
37
NARAVELIA ZEYLANICA: A REVIEW
*Manasa Barlanka and Venu Gopal Y
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Plants are the principal source of raw materials for plant based medicine since ancient times. The traditional herbal medicines are receiving great importance in the health care sector.&nbsp; In Indian system of medicine i.e, ayurveda, one of the plant Naravelia zeylanica (Linn) DC belonging to family ranunculaceae has been used in the treatment of helminthiasis, dermatopathy, leprosy, rheumatalgia, odontalgia, colic inflammation, wounds and ulcers. It is distributed throughout india mainly in warm regions of Eastern Himalayas, Assam, Bengal, Bihar and greater parts of Deccan Peninsula. The aerial parts of Naravelia zeylanica traditionally used in vitiated vata, pitta, inflammation, skin diseases. The present review on Naravelia zeylanica is to know its importance with respect to pharmacognosy, pharmacology and phytochemistry in detail.
241-246
38
INVITRO EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT SOLVENT EXTRACTS OF SECURIDACA LONGEPEDACULATA
*Okoye EI, Ikegbunam MN, Amadi AK and Obi GE
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the present study was to assess the antibacterial activity of different solvent extracts of Securidaca longependuculata. The&nbsp; methanol, petroleum&nbsp; ether&nbsp; and&nbsp; aqueous&nbsp; extracts of&nbsp; the&nbsp; stem&nbsp; bark of the plant were&nbsp; examined&nbsp; for&nbsp; antibacterial activity&nbsp; against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas spp, using&nbsp; the&nbsp; agar well diffusion&nbsp; method while the minimum inhibitory concentration of methanol extract was evaluated using agar dilution method. The extracts were graded into different concentrations of 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml, 25mg/ml and 12.5mg/ml. Results&nbsp; showed&nbsp; that&nbsp; petroleum&nbsp; ether&nbsp; extract&nbsp; had no antibacterial activity&nbsp; while&nbsp; the&nbsp; aqueous&nbsp;&nbsp; extracts showed the most&nbsp; potent activity against Staphylococcus aureus (22.5mm at 100mg/ml) and Salmonella typhi (19mm at 100mg/ml), Escherichia coli (18.5mm at 100mg/ml) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17.5 at 100mg/ml). Methanol extract had the second highest activity against the test organisms. The MIC of the methanol extract against the test organisms were 100mg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus and &#707;100mg/ml for the rest of the organisms tested. The entire evaluations showed that Securidaca longependuculata had antibacterial activity against clinical isolates tested.
247-250
39
ULTRA PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY: A CHROMATOGRAPHY TECHNIQUE
*G. Madhava Prathap and Amreen Nishat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ultra performance liquid chromatography systems take advantage of technological pace in particle chemistry performance, system optimization, detector design and data processing. When taken together, these achievements have created an improvement in chromatographic performance. This new category of analytical separation science retains the practicality and principles of HPLC while increasing the overall interrelated attributes of speed, sensitivity and resolution. Today&rsquo;s pharmaceutical industries are looking for new ways to cut cost and shorten time for development of drugs while at the same time improving the quality of their products and analytical laboratories are not exception in this trend. Speed allows a greater number of analyses to be performed in a shorter amount of time thereby increasing sample throughput and lab productivity. These are the benefits of faster analysis and hence the ultra performance liquid chromatography. A typical assay was transferred and optimized for UPLC system to achieve both higher sample analysis throughput and better assay sensitivity. Analysis of operation cost and sample throughput found UPLC cost advantageous over HPLC.<br />
251-260
40
CHRONOMODULATION: A PLATFORM FOR FUTURE DOSAGE FORMS
*Rahul Bhaskar, Radhika Bhaskar, Mahendra K. Sagar and Vipin Saini
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Gone are the days when patient incompliance was due to cumbersome dosage regimen. The mesmerizing technology of alteration in the time of release of the drug has not only opened up new possibilities but also has made many drug products based on them commercially available. These systems are based on the basic physiological phenomenon known as biological clock or circadian rhythm i.e. a daily cycle of biological activities which may get influenced with the environmental and several other factors. The system ensures the drug is released at the time of its requirement hence known as chronomodulated (chrono means &lsquo;time&rsquo; and modulation means &lsquo;alteration&rsquo;) drug delivery systems. There are a good number of platform technologies which either can be utilized as such or can be amended a bit to get the desired product. This review article deals with such technologies along with their commercially available products.
261-269
41
SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF LAMIVUDINE, TENOFOVIR AND EFAVIRENZ IN LAMIVUDINE, TENOFOVIR DISPROPOXIL FUMARATE AND EFAVIRENZ TABLETS BY STABILITY INDICATING ISOCRATIC RP-HPLC METHOD WITH PDA DETECTOR
*Manikya Rao T*, T. Prabhakar, Dr. G. Girija sankar PVL Naidu and N.Jyothi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple fast, accurate, precise and cost effective isocratic RP-HPLC method is developed for simultaneous determination of Lamivudine, Tenofovir and Efavirenz in tablet formulation. Lamivudine, Tenofovir and Efavirenz are considered as a very potent regimen in therapy-na&#305;ve patients and therefore, it is recommended as &#64257;rst-line therapy. It is indicated for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection in adults and adolescents with virologic suppression to HIV-1 RNA levels of &lt; 50 copies/ml on their current combination antiretroviral therapy for more than three months. Patients must not have experienced virological failure on any prior antiretroviral therapy. The retention times of Lamivudine, Tenofovir and Efavirenz were found to be 2.3, 3.6 and 13.6 minutes respectively. The method was linear over the range of 25 to 45 ppm with r2 = 0.999 for Lamivudine, 25 to 45 ppm with r2 = 0.999 for Tenofovir and 50 to 90 ppm with r2 = 0.999 for Efavirenz. Mean recovery for Lamivudine Tenofovir and Efavirenz were 100.5, 99.4 and 99.9 respectively. The method found simple, accurate, precise, and linear over the given range, rugged and robust.
270-276
42
VALIDATED STABILITY INDICATING REVERSE PHASE HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PERINDOPRIL AND INDAPAMIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
*P.S.R.CH.N.P. Varma D, A. Lakshmana Rao and S.C. Dinda
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, precise and rapid HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of Perindopril and Indapamide in pharmaceutical dosage form. The method was carried out using Hypersil BDS C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5&micro;m) and mobile phase comprised of phosphate buffer pH 3.5&plusmn;0.05 and methanol in the ratio of 65:35 v/v and degassed under ultrasonication. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the effluent was monitored at 215 nm. The retention times of Perindopril and Indapamide were 3.53 min and 4.09 min respectively. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and by performing recovery study. Linearity was in the range of 160 to 480 &micro;g/mL for Perindopril and 50 to 150 &micro;g/mL for Indapamide respectively. The percentage recoveries of both the drugs were ranging from 97.8 to 101.7 for Perindopril and 98.7 to 101.8 for Indapamide respectively from the tablet formulation. The proposed method is suitable for the routine quality control analysis of simultaneous determination of Perindopril and Indapamide in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. <br />
277-289
43
DETECTION AND ANALYSIS OF POSSIBLE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN DRUGS PRESCRIBED AT HOSPITAL DISCHARGE
*Bianchi Stefano, Bianchini Erica, Fedele Daniela and Scanavacca Paola
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Interaction between drugs constitutes a frequent cause of adverse drug reaction. The aim of this study, was to provide an analysis of potential drug interactions. The study groups were 225 patients from the dialysis unit and 519 patients from the heart failure centre. Discharge prescriptions from the two units were collected for six months during 2011. In the heart failure centre, 74% of patients received prescriptions for drug combinations that may have adverse interactions. The most frequent and important potential interactions concerned furosemide with enalapril,17%, and acetylsalicylic acid with metoprolol, 15%. In the dialysis unit, 19% of patients received prescriptions that may have adverse interactions. Two examples were algeldrate with amlodipine, 6%, In 1.3% of patients increase in INR occurred owing to interactions. The results have revealed particularly high risk for potential interactions in heart failure centre patients because of the prescription of many drugs and because of the types of these drugs.
290-295
44
SELF-MONITORED BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL TIMING TO REPRESENT HEMOGLOBIN A1C LEVEL IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS
*Sutathip Pichayapaiboon, Duangchit Panomvana
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Glycosylated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) is used to assess treatment efficacy in type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM). It is a function of both fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia. This study evaluated the relationship between different time point of self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) testing and HbA1C.&nbsp; Within 2 weeks, 64 T2DM patients at Police General Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand,&nbsp; performed 12-point SMBG (4 points per each meal per day on every other day: immediately pre meal, 1,2,and 4-hour post meal) twice . SMBG level was reported as mean level from two measurements. HbA1C was measured 2 months later.&nbsp; SMBG levels of all 3 meals and of pre breakfast indicated good relationship with HbA1C (r = 0.766, and r = 0.689, p &lt; 0.01). SMBG level at 4-hour post lunch was also exhibited a good relationship with HbA1C (r = 0.671, p &lt;0.01). Therefore, SMBG testing at 4-hour post lunch might be recommended as another good option to assess glycemic control in T2DM patients. <br /><br />
296-300
45
EXTRACT OF 1:5 MIXTURE OF FIVE MOROCCAN MEDICINAL PLANTS HAS CYTOTOXIC EFFECT ON SOME HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES
*Latifa Doudach, Laila Benbacer, Bouchra Meddah, My El Abbes Faouzi, Khalil Hammani, Mohammed El Mzibri and Yahia Cherrah
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Traditional medicines have long been used by the Moroccan people. Several medicinal recipes prepared from a mixture of plants are often used by traditional medicinal practitioners for the treatment of many diseases including cancer. However, little is known for their scientific information especially their anticancer effects. In this study, one traditional used Moroccan herbal remedy for treatment of hemorrhoids and cancer therapy (cervical cancer, skin cancer) was investigated for its cytotoxic effect against cancer cell lines. Aqueous herbal distillate of mixture in equal quantity of five medicinal plants was evaluated for its in vitro cytotoxicity, using the 3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, against two human cancer cell lines; cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa) and breast cancer cell line (MCF7). The mixture of plants exhibited potent cytotoxicity with an IC50 of 60 &micro;g/ml for Hela cells and 122 &micro;g/ml for MCF7 cells. Furthermore, the mixture was evaluated in vitro for antioxidant potential with the spectrophotometric method based on the reduction of the stable DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) free radical. The IC50 value was calculated in order to evaluate the antioxidant efficiency of plants mixture. The Aqueous herbal distillate of mixture exhibited moderate antioxidant activity 62.76 %, with an IC50 value of 96.8 &micro;g/ml compared to the IC50 value of 4.73 &micro;g/ml as shown by the reference antioxidant Trolox. In conclusion, this herbal remedy that was used to treat cancer patients has effective cytotoxic effect on cancer cells in vitro, and further studies of the active extracts are necessary for chemical characterization of the active compounds and more extensive biological evaluations.
301-307
46
THROMBOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF CENTELLA ASIATICA LEAVES
*Rishikesh, Drishti Rani Ghosh, Md. Moshfiqur Rahman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The methanol extract of Centella asiatica was estimated for thrombolytic effect. The extract demonstrated moderate thrombolytic activity which was 25.01 % where as the thrombolytic activity of standard was found 88.23 %. Thrombolytic indicates that have potent clot lysis property and anti-oxidative activity. The result showed momentous effect with comparison to standard thrombolytic agent, streptokinase. The obtained results support for the uses of this plant as traditional medicine.
308-311
47
MOBILE PHONE TEXT MESSAGING FOR PHARMACEUTICAL CARE IN SAUDI ARABIA: A PILOT STUDY
*Abdlatif A. Al-Dhawailie, Ahmad N. Al-Enezi, Bandar F. Al-Qhtani, Khaled T. Al-Enezi, Naif M. Al-Harbi, Nasser S. Al-Tulaian, Fowad Khurshid, and Mohammad S. AlSultan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
So far, there has been no published study assessing mobile phone text messaging for pharmaceutical care in the Saudi Arabia. Therefore, we designed and conducted a pilot study to measure the patient acceptance rate of using their personal mobile phone to receive pharmaceutical care in the country. This 6-week pilot study was conducted at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A short pilot study questionnaire in Arabic language was structured to gather information about benefiting patients. This questionnaire consisted of several items including demographic information. Among the 250 participants 40.8% were males and 59.2% were females. Arabic (87.2 %) was the preferred language of the text messages for the participants. The majority (74%) of participants had never used a mobile phone in healthcare previously. Agreement with the sharing of mobile number (72%) to the pharmaceutical service department and using the service (91.2%) and acceptance of idea of messaging system (97.2%) remained high throughout the study. Among the expected information, we have found that the most of the participants (98.7%) are looking for the information about the medicine, such as proper dose, the treatment duration, the proper way to use the medicine, and the possible side effect. This study illustrates that the participants were happy with the idea of using their mobiles in the pharmaceutical care. The acceptability of a text messaging system would be worth exploring in future research especially with the chronic diseases intervention, primary care services, medication dispensing and refill, patient education, smoking cessation program and in the elderly population.
312-315
48
DRUG INFORMATION IN COMMUNITY PHARMACY AND OUTPATIENT PHARMACY IN AL AIN CITY, U.A.E.: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY
*Moawia M Al-Tabakha, Lama H Akoulah and Khairi M Fahelelbom
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of this study was to find out if the pharmacists working in community pharmacy and outpatient pharmacy have undergone any formal education regarding drug information, and to describe the drug information resources available, utilization of Internet as drug information resource and whether the available resources are sufficient to answer the types of questions received from the patients. After a pilot study, self administered eleven-question survey, open and close-ended, was distributed by a personal visit to a total of 40 pharmacies located in Al Ain city, UAE. Only one pharmacist of each visited pharmacies was eligible to complete the survey if he/she was licensed and have at least one year of experience at the same site. About 40% of the surveyed pharmacists did not have drug information resources as a course or topic in their formal education. In the pharmacies, all had the &ldquo;British National Formulary&rdquo;, followed by the &quot;Drug Information Handbook&quot;. Tertiary hospital outpatient pharmacy contained generally greater variety of drug information tertiary resources. About one third of the time spent surfing the internet was allocated for drug information. More than half of the surveyed pharmacists (55.6%) used the internet for at least 1 hour to obtain drug information. Drug safety in pregnancy and lactation was among the most frequently received questions (19.5%). The most difficult question the pharmacists received was related to the foreign drugs not available in UAE. There is a need to include a course &quot;Drug Information Resources&quot; in modern pharmacy program syllabi and to have online access to a reliable online database in the community pharmacy in order to allow the pharmacist to adequately provide accurate drug information. <br />
316-322
49
GRAPE SEED EXTRACT- A THERAPEUTIC REVIEW
*K Naga Sravanthi, Rahamat Unissa, Y Prashanth, M Sudhakar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Grapes along with their leaves and sap have been traditional treatments in Europe for thousands of years. Grape seed extract is derived from the ground-up seeds of red wine grapes Vitisvinifera, Family: Vitaceae. Grape Seed is a great source of polyphenols-flavonoids, Essential Fatty Acid-linoleic acid, vitamin E, and oligomeric- proanthocyanidin(OPC), Gallic Acid, Resveratrol. Grape seed extract is now used to treat a number of diseases. Human case reports and results from basic research provide preliminary evidence that grape seed extract may affect diseases, hypertension, high levels of blood cholesterol, platelet aggregation, inflammation, reduce the risk for cancer, to treat diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy and various other conditions. As a nutritional supplement the extract is available in liquid, capsule or tablet form. It can be used as a nutritional supplement in various health conditions under the supervision of a doctor.
323-327
50
SYNTHESIS AND PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF NOVEL 1, 5-BENZOTHIAZEPINE DERIVATIVES AS ANTI-LUNG CANCER AGENTS
*K. L. Ameta, Nitu S. Rathore and Biresh Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A series of novel 1, 5-benzothiazepine derivatives having a biologically active thiazepine moiety was synthesized by the condensation of substituted chalcones with 2-aminothiophenol using conventional as well as non-conventional methods. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectral data and elemental analysis. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activity against human lung cancer cell line (A549) using Adriamycin as a reference drug.
328-333
51
STUDY OF COCHLEAR CELLS ABNORMALITIES IN CHILDREN; ITS CAUSES AND MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTANI POPULATION
*Amna Mumtaz, Muhammad Nadeem, Javeid Iqbal, Samiullah Burki
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Deafness is the disability to hear sounds usually due to malfunctioning of cochlear cells. These cells are responsible for deafness. If inner ear or auditory nerve is involved in causing deafness it is called sensory neural hearing loss. Causes of hearing loss vary in different regions of the world. Many diseases like meningitis, measles and high grade fever are responsible for deafness as well as trend of consanguineous marriages and positive family history is also thought to be responsible for deafness. As Pakistan is a developing country lack of immunization, trend of consanguineous marriages, factors associated with prenatal and postnatal care of mother play a major role in causing deafness in children, management of deafness is difficult and expensive. It includes hearing aid, cochlear implant and rehabilitation services the purpose of this study was to find the major causes of deafness in Pakistani children. For this purpose 122 children were included from deaf school located in Karachi, Pakistan. The data was gathered in the form of questioners and interviews of parents and children, and there previous audiological test reports. The provided information was analyzed and it was noted that the consanguineous marriages are responsible for deafness as well as positive family history and diseases also play role in causing deafness. In this study, it was found that&nbsp; 69.67% of&nbsp; deaf children&nbsp; have parental relationship(cousins) ,44.26% have family history of deafness .The cause of deafness was unknown in 65.57 children Ear infection was present in 7(5.73%) children .High grade fever was 3.27 %. Meningitis was 2.45 %, Measles was 1.63%, 4.9% were born premature&nbsp; ,jaundice was present in 2.45% of children but due to lack of education and awareness parents were not able to provide satisfactory answers of questioners/interviews. It was concluded that trend of family marriages is common in Pakistani population, poor immunization of children, no screening at the time of birth, lack of awareness and poor socioeconomic conditions are factors which are responsible for deafness in children of Pakistan.
334-339
52
CaCO3 MICROPARTICLE CONTAINING IBANDRONATE–ALGINATE BEADS FOR IMPROVED ADHERENCE TO BISPHOSPHONATE ORAL THERAPY: FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO RELEASE
*Jaya Shukla, BR Mittal, A Sood, GP Bandopadhaya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Bisphosphonates are established as supportive therapy to reduce the frequency and severity of cancer-related skeletal complications. Oral formulations are preferred over intravenous if the patients are not hospitalized. The maximum absorption of oral bisphosphonates takes place in stomach. The adverse events with oral dosing are seen in buccal mucosa and gastrointestinal tract, which lead to poor adherence to bisphosphonates therapy. In the present study different ibandronate-alginate beads were formulated and characterized for physiochemical parameters like shape, effect of ibandronate and alginate content, encapsulation of drug and drug release. CaCO3 microparticles were incorporated in ibandronate-alginate formulations and studied for increased ibandronate release in simulated gastric fluid (SGF). The ibandronate encapsulation in all formulations was high and was independent on the amount of drug encapsulated. The release of ibandronate from ibandronate-alginate beads was dependent on alginate concentration and not on the amount of drug encapsulated. Additionally, the drug release was more in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) than in SGF. However, the incorporation of CaCO3 microparticles in ibandronate&ndash;alginate beads increased the release of drug in SGF. The scanning electron microscope studies of CaCO3 microparticles containing ibandronate&ndash;alginate beads, after incubation in SGF, demonstrated the presence of tiny pores on the surface as well as within the beads. These beads also exhibited increased and sustained ibandronate release in SGF. <br />
340-347
53
ANALYTICAL DEVELOPMENT AND FORMULATION OF RAMIPRIL AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN COMBINATION WITH SELECTIVE EXCIPIENTS
*R. Vani, B. Vijaya Kumar, Anas Rasheed
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study is carried out for the analytical development and formulation of ramipril and hydrochlorothiazide in combination with selective excipients. The objective of drug and excipient compatibility considerations and practical studies is to delineate, as quickly as possible, real and possible interactions between potential formulation excipients and the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API). This is an important risk reduction excercise early in formulation of drugs. A specific and accurate reverse phase ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the excipient compatibility studies of selective excipients in bulk drugs (Ramipril and Hydrochlorothiazide). The developed method consists of mobile phase, is a mixture of two solutions mobile phase A and mobile phase B in the ratio of 30:70. Mobile Phase A(Buffer and methanol in the ratio of 93:7, the buffer used is Sodium phosphate). Mobile Phase B (100 % Acetonite ) with gradient programming, Hypersil BDS C18, The size of the column is 100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 &mu;m column as stationary phase with a flow rate of 0.1 mL/min and the PDA detector is employed. With the proposed method the compatibility of the excipients with bulk drugs was found to be acceptable under the guidelines of ICH-Q8 (R2) and the excipients with bulk drugs are then subjected forauthenticated formulations and are assayed for purity of formulated tablets with marketed product for comparable studies. The in vitro dissolution studies were also carried out. The drug content obtained from the prepared formulations is also within the limits and comparable with the marketed product, Cardace. The formulated tablets have shown promising results in the invitro dissolution studies.
348-355
54
EVALUATION OF ANTIMITOTIC EFFECT OF CALOTROPIS PROCERA L ON ALLIUM CEPA L
*Bhat SK, Singhal K, Shruti Priya and Pal S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Calotropis procera is a tropical medicinal plant known for its multiple curative effects on wide range of diseases. Current study has evaluated the antimitotic&nbsp; activity of the extracts of leaf and latex of C. procera on root meristem cells of Allium cepa. Onion bulbs were allowed to grow roots on moist cotton imbibed with solutions of test sample with known concentration of the extracts. Mitotic index was estimated in squash preparation of root tips collected after 72 hrs and compared with control.&nbsp; Reduction in mitotic index of the target cells was observed to varying extent among the treatments. Chloroform extract of the latex showed highest level of inhibition of cell division and ethyl acetate extract of the latex showed least inhibition, while chloroform extract of the leaf did not interfered with cell division. Outcomes of the study have indicated presence of potential anticancer component in C. procera. <br />
356-359
55
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF IRBESARTAN AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
*S. Hemamrutha, R. Rambabu and S. Vidhyadhara
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate and precise RP-HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Irbesartan (IRB) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in combination. A&nbsp; C 18 (Agilent ODS UG 5 Column 250mmX4.5 mm Dimensions) column with mobile phase composition&nbsp; Methanol: Acetonitrile: Buffer (10mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate pH6.8)(40:30:30%v/v/v) was used at isocratic mode and eluents were monitored at 264 nm. The retention times of IRB and HCTZ were 5.1 and 3.1min respectively. Irbesartan showed good linearity in the concentration range of 24-120 &micro;g/ml with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.9993 and 2-10 &micro;g/ml for Hydrochlorothiazide with correlation coefficient (R) 0.9995 respectively.&nbsp; The proposed method was validated as per ICH guidelines and method showed good precision with percent relative standard deviation less than 2%. The assay values of Irbesartan and Hydrochlorothiazide were found to be 99.85 and 101% respectively and recovery values are within the limits of 98-102% indicating the proposed method was accurate and precise for the simultaneous estimation of Irbesartan and Hydrochlorthiazide in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms.
360-363
56
WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC SEED EXTRACT OF BRASSICA JUNCEA
*Siva Kumar Gurram, Lakshmi Sindhoor K, Govindarao M, Karthik YP, Sudha Bhargavi CH
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Wound healing is physiological process, which takes place by body&rsquo;s natural regenerative capacity. Due to various reasons they may delay in healing and this prolonged healing sometimes lead to scar formation. Currently attention has been focused on natural products to prevent infections and to promote the healing. In the present study, Brassica juncea has been used since ancient times and it is popularly known as mustards. The aim of present study was to evaluate the wound healing activity of ethanolic extracts of Brassica juncea (EEBJ) against incision, excision and burn wound models in rats. Ethanolic extract has shown the wound healing activity against different wound models in rats in a concentration dependent manner and among the two concentrations of gels. 20% gel shows better wound healing activity compared to 10% gel.
364-368
57
MICROWAVE MEDIATED GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SOME PYRAZOLINES AND ISOXAZOLINES
*Sonal D.Boob and PR. Solanki
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pyrazolines and Isoxazolines have been reported to possess various activities such as analgesic, antiplatelet, antimalerial, anticancer and antiviral. Four new substituted bis benzylidiene derivative (IIIa-IIId) have been synthesized with 80-85% yield by microwave promoted condensation of ketone and aromatic aldehyde in presence of Sodium carbonate as solid phase media .A Considerable&nbsp; increase in the reaction rate has been observed with better yields .The newly synthesized derivatives were treated with hydrazine hydrate and&nbsp; hydroxylamine hydrochloride&nbsp; to synthesize pyrazolines(IVa-d) and isoxazolines(Va-d)with neat reaction technology .The newly synthesized derivatives were characterized by&nbsp; UV, IR, PMR&nbsp; and elemental analysis and also screened for antimicrobial activity .
369-373
58
ASSESSMENT OF THE ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF BREADFRUIT LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST PATHOGENIC BACTERIA
*Chinmay Pradhan, Monalisa Mohanty and Abhijeeta Rout
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) leaf extracts in different solvent media (petroleum ether, methanol and ethyl acetate) were examined for the antimicrobial activity against some pathogenic bacterial species like Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis following the MIC (minimal inhibitory concentrations). Steroids, phytosterols, gums and resins were detected in methanolic, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether leaf extracts. Phenols and terpenoids were detected in both the ethyl acetate and methanolic leaf extracts. Flavonoids were present in the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate leaf extracts whereas tannins were detected only in the methanolic leaf extract of Artocarpus altilis. The MIC values ranges from 0.3 mg/ml to 0.6 mg/ml which correspond to variations in different solvent media used for leaf extracts against four different pathogenic microbes.
374-379
59
SUPERDISINTEGRANTS IN FAST DISINTEGRATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A BRIEF REVIEW
*Vimal VV, Aarathi TS, Anuja, Soumya Baby John
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Disintegration plays a major role in facilitating drug action in oral solid dosage forms. Disintegrants (substances or mixture of substances) when added to the drug formulation facilitates the breakup or disintegration of tablet or capsule content into smaller particles that dissolve more rapidly. The inclusion of right disintegrant is a prerequisite requirement to get an optimum bioavailability in tablets and capsules which need rapid disintegration. Super-disintegrants are used to improve the efficacy of solid dosage forms. This is achieved by decreasing the disintegration time which in turn enhances drug dissolution rate. Super-disintegrants are generally effective in a low concentration, and generally at higher concentrations they hinder disintegration. Examples of Super-disintegrants are crosscarmelose, crosspovidone, sodium starch glycolate which represents crosslinked cellulose, crosslinked polymer and a crosslinked starch, respectively. The development of fast dissolving or disintegrating tablets provides an opportunity to take an account of tablet disintegrants. The disintegrants have the major function to act against the efficiency of the tablet binder and the physical forces that act under compression to form the tablet. The stronger the binder, the more effective must be the disintegrating agents in order for the tablet to release its medication. . The present review describes super-disintegrants, their types, selection criteria and various methods of incorporating disintegrants and mechanism of tablet disintegration.
380-386
60
THE WORLD OF BREAST CANCER - A REVIEW
*Venu T, Vamshi N and Anil A
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cancer is a generic term for a large group of diseases that can occur in any part of the body. It is caused by abnormal changes in the &lsquo;DNA&rsquo; of the cell. Of all the types of cancers, &lsquo;Breast cancer&rsquo; is most dangerous. It occurs mostly in women. Nearly 4,60,000 deaths per year are caused only by the breast cancer1. Though there are many different types of cancer treatments like chemotherapy (chemotherapy medicines prevent cancer cells from growing and spreading by destroying the cells or stopping them from dividing.), surgery (removing the part of the breast which underwent the cancer.), hormonal therapy (hormonal therapy medicines treat the hormone receptor-positive breast cancers.) etc. but till now there is no successful method of treatment to cure the cancer completely. So always we need a new technology to treat the cancer. Thus nano technology, microwave technology, targeted therapy were introduced to detect and treat the cancer.&nbsp; Along with those technologies we can boost the immune system to fight against the cancer, drugs to silence the activity of &lsquo;hedgehog molecule&rsquo; to prevent the metastasis of cancer and using &lsquo;blue berries&rsquo; to prevent aggressive form of breast cancer. The research on mouse models that have contributed to our understanding of the molecular processes underlying breast cancer metastasis and how such experimentation can open new avenues to the development of innovative cancer therapy.
386-395
61
A CRITICAL REVIEW ON FUNDAMENTAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS OF FT-IR SPECTROSCOPY
*G. Murali Krishna, M. Muthukumaran, B. Krishnamoorthy, Ameren Nishat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a technique which is used to obtain an infrared spectrum of absorption, emission, photoconductivity or ramanscattering of&nbsp; solid,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; liquid or gas. An FTIR spectrometer simultaneously collects spectral data in a wide spectral range. An FT-IR Spectrometer is an instrument which acquires broadband NIR to FIR spectra. Unlike a dispersive instrument, i.e. grating monochromator or spectrograph, FT-IR Spectrometers collect all wavelengths simultaneously. FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infra Red) is a method of obtaining infrared spectra by first collecting an interferogram of a sample signal using an interferometer, and then performing a Fourier Transform (FT) on the interferogram to obtain the spectrum. The main goal of FTIR spectroscopic analysis is to determine the chemical functional groups in the sample. Using various sampling accessories, FTIR spectrometers can accept a wide range of sample types such as gases, liquids, and solids. Thus, FTIR spectroscopy is an important and popular tool for structural elucidation and compound identification.
396-402
62
ANTIAMNESIC ACTIVITY OF GUGGUL EXTRACT ON SCOPOLAMINE INDUCED AMNESIA IN MICE
*Ajay J Parikh, Krishna KL
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Objective of this study was to evaluate Guggul extract for the treatment of Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease using scopolamine induced amnesia in mice on Morris water maze. Guggul extract (50mg/kg) was administered orally for fifteen successive days followed by Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p.) from 15th to 18th day in mice. Morris water maze was employed to evaluate learning and memory using parameter like Escape Latency Time (ELT), Time Spent in Target Quadrant (TSTQ) and determination of brain Acetylcholinesterase level. Scopolamine was used to induce amnesia in mice and the activity was compared with standard drug Piracetam.&nbsp;&nbsp; Guggul extract significantly improved learning and memory in mice and reversed the scopolamine induced amnesia. Guggul extract when co administered with Piracetam (200mg/kg) has shown synergistic activity. Guggul extract is a known hypolipidemic agent and has shown excellent activity in scopolamine induced amnesia when given orally for 15 successive days in mice. It has shown synergistic effect with Piracetam and further detailed studies are required to exploit Guggul extract as new therapeutic agents for antialzheimer&rsquo;s disease. <br />
403-409
63
PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THREE WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS, CORAL MUSHROOM, AGARICUS BISPORUS AND LENTINUS SAJOR, COMMON IN OHAUKWU AREA OF EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA
*Afiukwa CA, Ugwu Okechukwu PC, Ebenyi LN, Ossai Emmanuel C, Nwaka Andrew C
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The concentrations of some phytochemicals in three species of edible mushrooms (Coral mushroom, Agaricus bisporus and Lentinus sajor) that are common in Ohaukwu area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria were determined using standard methods. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, oxalates, phytates, HCN and phenols in significant amounts with tannins being the highest, followed by flavonoids and phenols, while HCN was the least in concentration. There was a significant variation among the mushrooms in their composition of the phytochemicals (p&lt;0.05). The obtained values of the phytochemicals in all the mushrooms were interestingly found to be significantly lower (p&lt;0.05) than their toxicity levels according to World Health Organization (WHO) safe limits. The results of this study suggest that these mushrooms may be very safe for consumption in terms of phytochemical toxicity and at the same time have some medicinal properties. <br />
410-414
64
IMPACT OF CYP3A5 AND P-gp POLYMORPHISMS ON THE PHARMACOKINETIC INTER-INDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY OF A SINGLE-DOSE OF A QUETIAPINE IMMEDIATE-RELEASE TABLET: A RANDOMIZED, OPEN-LABEL, TWO-PERIOD CROSSOVER STUDY IN HEALTHY JORDANIAN VOLUNTEERS
*Sireen Abdul Rahim Shilbayeh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study aimed to investigate the impact of the CYP3A5 and ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1) C3435T polymorphisms on the inter-individual variability of quetiapine pharmacokinetics in a Jordanian population. Quetiapine plasma concentrations were measured in 34 healthy Jordanian Arabic volunteers. Twenty blood samples were collected over a 24-hour period following the administration of a 25 mg immediate release tablet. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from the plasma concentration-time profiles using the WinNonlin&reg; software. The CYP3A5 and ABCB1 C3435T genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction. With regard to the CYP3A5 polymorphism, the *3*3 genotype carriers showed consistently higher exposure index values in comparison to the non-carriers, with differences ranging from 1.34- to 1.6-fold. While, the TT genotype subjects displayed a trend toward lower exposure and higher disposition (up to 2.2-fold) indexes when compared to the CC genotype carriers. These results may provide useful data that clinicians can utilize to optimize the quetiapine dose administered to psychotic patients.
415-425
65
INFLUENCE OF SEROTONIN TRANSPORTER-LINKED POLYMORPHIC REGION (5-HTTLPR) VARAINTS ON CLINICAL OUTCOMES IN THAI PATIENTS WITH DEPRESSIVE DISORDER
*Kamolwan Tantipiwattanaskul, Duangchit Panomvana, and Verayuth Praphanphoj
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The influence of the serotonin transporter polymorphisms on fluoxetine clinical outcomes was determined in 69 Thai patients with major depressive disorder. The results indicated that patients with l/l genotype had a significantly better response to fluoxetine treatment when compared with s allele carriers either evaluated based on the Thai HRS-D scores or psychiatrist efficacy evaluation (p = 0.001). At the same time, carriers with s allele had significantly higher rate of various side effects than the l/l genotype group (p = 0.002). These preliminary data might be used to reduce or prevent adverse effects and improve prescribing efficacy for depressive patients with different genotypes.&nbsp; <br />
426-430
66
BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF THE SPECTRA DOSES OF SPARFLOXACIN ON HEALTHY ALBINO RATS
*Ukpo Grace E, Adevokhai Gladys I, Ehianeta Teddy S, Ebuehi Albert OT
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The fluoroquinolones have become an increasingly popular class of antibiotics for use in a variety of infections. This study investigated the effect of the spectra doses of sparfloxacin on the clinical chemistry parameters of healthy albino rats. The rats were evenly distributed into four groups such that each group had similar mean weights. Group 1 (control group) was administered 2.0 ml of 0.9% normal saline solution throughout the experimental duration. Group 2 (sub therapeutic dose) was administered a loading dose of 0.7 mg/kg body weight by oral route on day 1 and 0.35 mg/kg body weight p.o on days 2 to 7 while Group 3 (therapeutic dose) was administered a loading dose of 0.35mg/kg body weight p.o on day 1 and 0.175 mg/kg body weight p.o on days 2 to 7. Group 4 (toxic dose) was administered a loading dose of 3.5 mg/kg body weight p.o on day 1 and 1.75 mg/kg body weight p.o on days 2 to 7. The elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the sub-therapeutic group are suggestive of liver-related malfunction or injuries to the liver parenchyma.&nbsp; It can also be seen that sub-therapeutic doses of sparfloxacin has some inductive effects on the ALTs but inhibitory effects by the toxic doses. Since no elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were seen in the treated groups, this suggests sparfloxacin is not hepatotoxic. There was no statistical difference in the creatinine levels of the control as well as all the treated groups. Thus it can be concluded that the renal function is not affected as serum creatinine level is a more reliable indicator of renal function
431-435
67
THERAPEUTIC APPROACHES FOR THE TREATMENT OF PULMONARY HYPERTENSION
*Diana Malaeb, Fouad Sakr, Mariam Dabbous
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pulmonary hypertension is a progressive symptomatic fatal disease. It is a diagnosis of exclusion. The main goal of therapy is to lower pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance while preserving systemic pressure. Current treatments including calcium channel blockers, endothelin-1 antagonists, prostanoids, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and prostacyclins. These treatments are palliative, may slow the progression of the disease, relief symptoms, and improve quality of life, but do not cure it. The article reviews the current updated therapeutic treatment, pharmacological action, doses, and adverse drug reaction.
436-441
68
IMPACT OF COUNSELLING IN INHALATION TECHNIQUE (ROTAHALER) IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE PATIENTS
*Sweta Shrestha, Binaya Sapkota, Anurodh Ghimirey, Rajani Shakya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Though inhaled medications are mainstay of therapy for COPD patients, assessment and training on rotahaler technique is lacking. Aim of study was to evaluate effect of counseling in inhalation technique of COPD patients focusing on essential items using combination of video and demonstration. 54 patients meeting inclusion criteria were included. On discharge day, baseline assessment of their technique was done using 8 item checklists. Training on&nbsp;&nbsp; rotahaler technique was given using video and demonstration. Immediate assessment of technique and necessary corrections were done. Final assessment was done after two weeks using same checklist. Comparison of scores at three time points was done. Average percentage of patients obtaining perfect score in essential checklist items prior instruction and after two weeks was 44.43% and 86.4% respectively. Relatively poor technique and best technique was seen at baseline and immediately after counseling respectively which slightly deteriorated after two weeks. Regular counseling and assessment with suitable teaching aids can improve inhalation technique of COPD patients. <br />
442-449
69
ANTIDEPRESSANT ACTIVITY OF THE HERBAL EXTRACT, KHAMIRA GAOZABAN AMBRI JADWAR OOD SALIB WALA
*Humera Ishaq, Raana Mahmood, Itrat Javed, TalatTariq, Iffat Mahmood
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Khamira Gaozaban ambri jadwar ood salib wala (KGA) is a traditional medicine in Southeast Asia, used as anxiolytic, antiepileptic and nervine tonic. We have evaluated its role as an anti-depressant agent in animal models of stress. We evaluated an anti-depressant activity by forced swim and marble burying method. 96 NMRI mice were randomly divided into Control group which received saline, a standard group which received Imipramine and two test groups which were given two doses 86 mg/kg and 170 mg/kg doses of KGA with different models of treatments. Each group consisted of 6 animals irrespective of sex. Results show pronounce anti-depressant effect both in acute (One day) and sub-acute (10 days) treatment with CMS (chronic mild stress) model and one day and 15 day treatments in marble burying test. Concluding results suggest strong anti-depressant activity of KGA in different treatment patterns.
450-456
70
PAXIL, WELLBUTRIN AND AVANDIA- A PERFECT COCKTAIL OF MEDICO MARKETING MALPRACTICE
*A. Shyam Sundar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pulmonary hypertension is a progressive symptomatic fatal disease. It is a diagnosis of exclusion. The main goal of Pharmaceutical industries play the central role in patient care through the process of drug discovery. The noble deed of discovering magic bullets to heal mankind is often neutralized by unethical medico-marketing strategies employed by the pharmaceutical industries. Disreputable acts such as misbranding, selective reporting, data dredging, misusing continuing medical education programs to provide tailored information lead to largest healthcare fraud settlement of US$3billion in the United States by GlaxoSmithkline LLC (GSK). This article analyses the indifferent medico-marketing practices of the pharma major for their products Paxil, Wellbutrin and Avandia. Candid efforts from the regulatory bodies, pharmaceutical industries and practicing doctors are the need of the hour to combat the menace of withholding safety data, illegal marketing which eventually results in poorer patient outcomes. <br />
457-461
71
EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF THE BARK OF HOLARRHENA PUBESCENS, ITS FRACTIONS AND CONESSINE
*Bina S. Siddiqui, Syed Tahir Ali, Saima Tauseef, Saira Kamal, Ghazala H. Rizwani, Sabira Begum, and Aqeel
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant effect of the methanolic extract, its alkaloidal and non-alkaloidal fractions along with petroleum ether soluble, ether soluble and ethyl acetate soluble sub-fractions of non-alkaloidal part of the bark of Holarrhena pubescens. The pure compound conessine was also tested. The activity was determined by using DPPH free radical scavenging assay at 500 &mu;g/mL for the extract and the fractions, and at 200 &mu;g/mL for conessine and the standard (ascorbic acid). The non-alkaloidal fraction was found to be more active (63% inhibition; EC50 = 250 &mu;g / mL) than the alkaloidal fraction (16% inhibition) and its polar ethyl acetate soluble fraction was found to be most active (70% inhibition; EC50 = 250 &mu;g / mL). Conessine was non-active at the concentration used.
462-464
72
MALE WISTAR RATS RESPONSE TO KEROSENE EXPOSURE THROUGH DIFFERENT ROUTES: FOCUS ON ANTIOXIDANT INDICES
*Iyanda A. Ayobola
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Due to poverty, kerosene is widely applied for the treatment of a number of ailments in Africa. The impact of kerosene on antioxidant indices is therefore determined in Wistar rats. The experimental animals were divided into four groups (n=6). Trace quantity of kerosene (0.4 ml/kg body weight) was administered through oral, dermal or combined routes. At the end of 3 weeks of daily administration, activities of the antioxidant enzymes, levels of malondialdehyde and reduced and oxidized glutathione were estimated. Levels of oxidized glutathione and malondialdehyde were significantly elevated (p&lt;0.05); while the levels or activities of reduced glutathione and reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio (p&lt;0.05) as well as all the antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased.&nbsp; The results of this suggest that trace administration of kerosene to male Wistar rats is capable of inducing significant oxidative stress and also support the same kind of observation earlier observed in female rats. <br />
465-469
73
Application and Validation of Two Smart Spectrophotometric and a HP-TLC Densitometric Methods for Determination of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride/ Paracetamol in Raw Material and in Pharmaceuticals
*Amira M. Hegazy, Nagiba Y. Hassan, Fadia H. Metwally, Mohammad Abdel-Kawy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Currently the anti-emetic drug metoclopramide hydrochloride (MCP-HCl) is co-formulated with paracetamol (PCM). Three simple, economic and fast methods for determination of both drugs, simultaneously and without previous separation were developed. In first method (A), a third derivative spectrophotometric method was developed. The peaks amplitudes of third derivative spectra of MCP-HCl and PCM were measured at 334.5 and 299 nm, respectively. In second method (B), a ratio subtraction spectrophotometric method was developed. The peak amplitude of first derivative spectrum of MCP-HCl was measured at 321 nm at which PCM spectrum gives zero crossing point whereas the peak amplitude of ratio subtraction spectrum of PCM was measured at 292 nm.&nbsp; Both spectrophotomertric methods were linear within concentration range of MCP- HCl; 12-60 &micro;g/mL and PCM; 35-165 &micro;g/mL with&nbsp; high correlation coefficients.&nbsp; In third method (C), HP-TLC method was developed. The mobile phase composed of methanol, chloroform and conc. ammonia solution (10: 2: 0.15) gave typical chromatogram for MCP-HCl and PCM at Rfs 0.21 &plusmn; 0.02 &amp; 0.59 &plusmn; 0.02, respectively and the UV scanning was carried out at 270 nm. The method was linear within range of MCP- HCl; 6-18 &micro;g/mL and PCM; 5-50 &micro;g/mL giving high correlation coefficients. Complete validation process of the established methods was performed according to ICH guidelines and USP requirements and gave relative standard deviation values for all the key validation parameters less than 2.00%. <br />
470-481
74
HYPOTENSIVE, SPASMOLYTIC AND SPASMOGENIC EFFECT OF CYPERUS ROTUNDUS CRUDE EXTRACT AND ITS FRACTIONS
*Mansoor Ahmad, Mahayrookh, Mehjabeen, Asif Bin Rehman, Noor Jahan and S.I. Ahmad
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The main objective of present study is to explore the hypotensive and GIT effect of traditionally important plant Cyperus&nbsp; rotudus. Aqueous extract of C. rotundus caused a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure in anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats in a dose dependant manner. At the dose of 3 mg/kg the MAB was found to reduce by 42.6% from its control. This fall in the MABP was statistically significant (p&lt;0.0005). The increased dose of C. rotundus (10 and 30 mg/kg) showed a less reduction in the MABP (22.3% and 10.4% respectively). The crude extract and its fractions (ethylacetate, chloroform, n-butanol and aqueous) were analyzed for its spasmogenic and spasmolytic activity in vitro, on rabbit intestine and the effects were compared with standard drugs acetylcholine, adrenaline and atropine. The crude extract of C. rotundus exhibited highly significant (70.16%) relaxing action on smooth muscles in comparison to control and standard drugs. When it was fractionated except ethylacetate fraction which showed spasmolytic action all other fraction showed very strong spasmogenic activity (chloroform 83.87%, n-butanol 77.11% and aqueous 96.5%). It was also observed that spasmolytic activity was dominant in crude extract.
482-489
75
Establishment and validation of Two Smart UV-Spectrophotometric and a Novel Spectrodensitometric Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride/ Pyridoxine Binary Mixture in Raw Material and in Syrup
*Amira M. Hegazy, Nagiba Y. Hassan, Fadia H. Metwally, Mohammad Abdel-Kawy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Currently the anti-emetic drug metoclopramide hydrochloride (MCP-HCl) is co-formulated with pyridoxine (VB6). Three simple, economic and fast spectroscopic methods for determination of both drugs, simultaneously and without previous separation were developed. The first method is a ratio derivative spectrophotometry. The peaks amplitudes of first derivative spectra of MCP-HCl and VB6 were measured at 318.5 nm and 327.5 nm, respectively. The second one is an isosbestic point spectrophotometry. The peaks amplitudes of MCP-HCl and VB6 spectra were measured at 321.5 and 299.5 nm, respectively. The third method is spectrodensitomerty. The mobile phase was composed of benzene, methanol, glacial acetic acid, and acetone (10: 8: 0.5: 0.5; by volume). It gave typical chromatogram for MCP-HCl and VB6 at Rfs 0.2 &plusmn; 0.02 &amp; 0.51 &plusmn; 0.01, respectively and the UV scanning was carried out at 245 nm. Complete validation processes of the established methods were performed according to ICH guidelines and USP requirements.&nbsp; All methods were linear within wide concentrations ranges with high correlation coefficients.&nbsp; The proposed methods showed high accuracy, precision and selectivity results. Relative standard deviation values for all the key parameters were less than 2.00%. <br />
490-500
76
ASSESSMENT OF PATIENT SATISFACTION ON THE SERVICES PROVIDED BY COMMUNITY PHARMACIES IN AND AROUND PULIKKAL, KERALA
*Linu Mohan P, Shamna M, Dilip C, Abin C, Sajeev V Kumar, Sheron Joseph
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was planned to assess the patient satisfaction on the services provided by the community pharmacies at Pulikkal Panchayath &ndash; Kerala. A questionnaire was prepared with 10 questions which is helpful to measure the patient satisfaction level on the services like, availability of drugs, time taken for billing and dispensing, approach of pharmacist, advices on current health problem / general advices on medicine, location and layout of the pharmacy refund system, counselling service on side effects. A total of hundred filled questionnaire were collected back and the analysis of answers were done. Patients expressed that they were satisfied with the availability of the medicine in most of the pharmacies, and also the time taken for billing and dispensing of medicine. 38% of respondents were satisfactory in approach of the pharmacist. The locations of all pharmacies were very much convenient to the patient. Anyway most of the patients (37%) were not satisfied on services like advices on current health problem, general advices on medicine and the counselling service on side effects of drugs. Considering all the factors overall rating of the pharmacy was good (40%).
501-509
77
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF CYCAS CIRCINALIS (L.) AND IONIDIUM SUFFRUTICOSUM (GING.)
*Senthil Kumar Babu, Vijaya kumar Jagadesan, Selvaraj Ramasamy, Panneer Selvi Gopalsamy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
India is one of the countries richly endowed with vast species of medicinal plants. The various bioactive phytoconstituents of the medicinal plants were identified and used for many chronic ailments. Cycas circinalis L. and Ionidium suffruticosum Ging. are the two herbs which were used in Indian medicine (Siddha) for improving the fertility of male. The present study involves the preliminary physicochemical, phytochemical analysis of the above said herbs. Physicochemical analysis involving ash values such as total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash for Cycas (8.12, 0.64, and 5.2 respectively) and for Ionidium (9.76, 0.94, and 5.6 respectively). The heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic were found to be within permissible limits in both the herbs. The powdered plant material of Cycas showed presence of alkaloid, flavonoids, amino acids and triterpenoids with percent yield of 40% in ethanolic solvent whereas Ionidium showed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, amino acids and triterpenoids with percent yield of 32% in ethanolic solvent.
510-513
78
PHARMACOGNOSTIC, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF CURCUMA LONGA LINN. RHIZOME
*P.V. Kadam, K.N. Yadav, F.A. Patel, F.A. Karjikar, M. K. Patidar, M.J. Patil
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In recent year there has been rapid increase in the standardization of selected medicinal plant of potential therapeutic significance. Despite the morden techniques, identification of plant drug by Pharmacognostic study is more reliable. The rhizomes of Curcuma longa reported to have good medicinal values in traditional system of medicines. The present study deals with pharmacognostic parameters for the rhizomes of Curcuma longa which mainly consist of Macromorphology, Cytomorphology, Physico-chemical constants and Phytochemical screening. This information will be of used for further pharmacological and instrumental evaluation of the species and will assist in standardization for quality, purity and sample identification.
514-520
79
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF IRBESARTAN AND HYDROCHLORTHIAZIDE BY RP-HPLC IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
*Ramesh Bhukya, Elizabeth Y, Dhanalaxmi K, D. Nagarjuna Reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, precise, accurate and rapid reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method had been developed for simultaneous estimation of Irbesartan (IRBE) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in bulk and Pharmaceutical dosage form. A Phenomex Luna C-18 column having I&rsquo;d of 150&times;4.6 mm and 5&micro;m particle size was used. The method was carried out in gradient program using mobile phase, 0.02M Potassium dehydrogenate orthophosphate: acetonitrile (60:40 v/v) adjusted to pH-3.4 using dilute ortho phosphoric acid. Flow rate was adjusted to 1.0ml/min and effluents were monitored at 224nm. The retention time obtained for Irbesartan and HCTZ was 2.59 &amp; 8.13min respectively. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 100-300&micro;g/ml for Irbesartan and 50-150&micro;g/ml for HCTZ. The developed method was validated in accordance to ICH guidelines.
521-526
80
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF LORNOXICAM AS MUCOADHESIVE MICROCAPSULES
*Varun Sharma, Bharat Parashar, Abhisekh Chandel and Ajay Chandel
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The microencapsulation has a major role in solving the problems regarding targeting of drug to a specific organ tissue and controlling the rate of drug delivery to the target site. Microencapsulated drug delivery system plays a major role in developing oral controlled release systems. The objective of this work was to discuss how the efficiency of drug delivery can be increased and also how the release of drug and drug targeting can be improved. This work provides the thorough literature review of different techniques involved in microencapsulation and evaluation parameters of microencapsulation process. Various formulations were developed by using release rate controlling and gel forming polymers like HPMC-5 and HPMC-15. From among all the developed formulations, F3 formulation with HPMC-5 sustained the drug release for longer period of time as compared to other formulations. So, F3 formulation with HPMC-5 was selected as the best formulation. It was concluded that the release followed Zero order kinetics. Thus, best formulation satisfied physicochemical parameters and in vitro drug release profile requirements for a sustained drug delivery system.
527-533
81
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ROSUVASTATIN AND OLMESARTAN IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC
*Elijabeth.Y, Ramesh.B, K.Dhanalaxmi, Nagarjuna reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, precise, accurate and rapid reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic new method had been developed for simultaneous estimation of Rosuvastatin and Olmesartan in bulk and tablet dosage form. An Agilent XDB, C18 column having I&rsquo;d of 150&times;4.6 mm and 5&micro;m particle size was used. The new method was carried out in gradient program using mobile phase, 0.01M Potassium Dehydrogenate orthophosphate: acetonitrile (55:45 v/v) adjusted to pH-3.2 using dilute ortho phosphoric acid. Flow rate was adjusted to 1.0ml/min and effluents were monitored at 240nm. The retention time obtained for Rosuvastatin and Olmesartan was 2.61 and 5.13min respectively. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 10-30&micro;g/ml for Rosuvastatin and 50-150&micro;g/ml for Olmesartan. The developed method was validated in accordance to ICH guidelines.
534-539
82
FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AMPHOTERICIN B LIPOSOMES PREPARED BY THIN FILM HYDRATION METHOD
*Arvind G, Sumit Shah, Shanmukha Mule, Prashanth P, Noveen Konda
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Amphotericin B is a polyene antifungal drug used intravenously for systemic fungal infections. Simple solution of amphotericin B is having many side effects while liposomal amphotericin B preparations exhibit fewer side-effects having similar efficacy. Various preparations of liposomal amphotericin B have recently been introduced and all of these are more expensive than plain amphotericin B. Fungisome and Abelcet are liposomal complex formulation of amphotericin B and being the latest and cheapest addition to the lipid formulations of amphotericin B. AmBisome is a liposomal formulation of amphotericin B for injection which is having less side effects as compared to all other formulations of Amphotericin B. Liposomal formulation of amphotericin B for injection, prepared by thin film hydration technique was selected in the present study. Different formulations variables (solvents ratio and pH of complex formation) and process variable (numbers of homogenization cycles) were carried out to control the impurities levels and particle size of liposomes. Formulation prepared at pH 3.0 with 1:2 solvent ratio (Methanol: Chloroform) was given least impurities. Formulation prepared at 1400 bar pressure with 15 homogenization cycles was shown desire particle size.&nbsp; The optimized formulation was exhibited more than 90% release of drug for a period of 7 days. The stability study (40&plusmn;2&deg;C/ 75&plusmn;5% RH) of the Amphotericin B liposomes was evaluated for 3 months and it was found to be stable.<br /><br />
540-547
83
FORMULATION AND IN VITRO - IN VIVO EVALUATION OF BILAYER FLOATING-BIOADHESIVE FAMOTIDINE TABLETS
*Prabha A. Singh, Amrita Narayan Bajaj, Anjali Harikrishna Singh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Bilayer floating-bioadhesive drug delivery systems exhibiting a unique combination of floatation and bioadhesion to prolong gastric residence time were developed. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and sodium bicarbonate were added such that when immersed in 0.1N HCl, the tablet expands and rises to the surface and famotidine is gradually released without interference from gas bubbles. Effect of different ratios of drug: polymer on in vitro release profile was investigated. Developed tablets were evaluated for uniformity of weight, hardness, friability, drug content, buoyancy and floating lag time. Time buoyancy curve, detachment force and swelling index were evaluated. Antiulcer activity of famotidine tablets was assessed by inducing ulcers in fasted rats by ethanol and indomethacin. Measurement of gastric contents was carried out by ulcer induced pylorus liagated rats. Prepared tablets exhibited satisfactory physico-chemical characteristics. The tablet swelled radially and axially during in vitro buoyancy studies. From the buoyancy kinetic curve it was observed that bilayer tablet started floating in less than 10 minutes and remained buoyant for 12h. In vivo antiulcer studies exhibited that developed formulation showed comparable percent inhibition of ulcers to standard in both gastric ulcer models. Gastric pH was significantly reduced showing decreased acid output. Thus floating-bioadhesive systems exhibited independent regulation of buoyancy and drug release and in vivo studies showed good antiulcer efficacy confirming potential of floating-bioadhesive tablets as drug delivery system for prolonging gastric residence and enhancing local effect of famotidine.
548-555
84
FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF LEVOFLOXACIN
*Satyabrata Bhanja, Parthasarathi Mishra, Sudhakar Muvvala, Arun Kumar Das
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study aimed to formulate and evaluate sustained release matrix tablets of levofloxacin to achieve sustained drug release with reduced side effects and improved patient compliance. Different batches of sustained release matrix tablets of levofloxacin were prepared by direct compression method using HPMC, sodium CMC and sodium alginate as polymers, Avicel PH 102 (MCC) as filler and starch as binder. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, weight variation, friability, drug content uniformity, in vitro drug release, in vitro drug release kinetics and Acceralerated stability studies. It was found average hardness of the tablets to be in range 6.7&plusmn; 0.04 to 7.7 &plusmn; 0.35 kg/cm2. The friability of the prepared tablets was found in the range of 0.005&plusmn;0.034 to 0.6&plusmn;0.035 %. The uniformity of drug levofloxacin present in tablets formulation ranged from 96.84 &plusmn; 0.16 to 98.87 &plusmn; 0.34%. The in vitro drug release was studied by using pH 1.2 acidic buffer for 24 hours. Among all twelve formulations F1 to F12, the best formulation F4 was found to be 99.5% drug release in 24 hours which showed the sustained action drug release. The formulations F1 to F12 followed first order release kinetics with non fickian diffusion mechanism. <br />
556-564
85
FORMULATION AND CHARECTERIZATION OF IN SITU IMPALNT OF OCTREOTIDE ACETATE
*Prashanth P, Sumit Shah, Arvind G, Naveen Konda
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Octreotide is the acetate salt of a cyclic octapeptide. It is a long-acting octapeptide with pharmacologic properties mimicking those of the natural hormone somatostatin. The peptide drugs after oral and parental administration the poor bioavailability in the blood due to their short biological half &ndash;lives caused by their metabolic instability. so that these peptide drugs are formulated by polymeric drug delivery systems such as micro particles or implants, has been proposed enabling their sustained&nbsp; release after a residence time in the polymer which protects the peptide against enzymatic and hydrolytic influences of biological media. In the present study, In situ implants of Octreotide acetate were prepared by polymer precipitation method. PLGA is dissolved in hydrophilic solvents such as Dimethyl sulphoxide, N-Methyl 2-pyrrolidone, PEG-200 and Triacetin until the formation of a clear solution. Different formulations were prepared using different concentration of polymer i.e. 5to35 % w/w. The characterization of implant was carried out by Determination of PLGA 5050 polymer ratio by NMR, Determination of molecular weight of polymer by GPC, Viscosity of polymer solution, Sterility test, In-vitro drug release, Release kinetics and Scanning electron microscopy. The Maximum percent of drug release with minimum Initial Burst release was found in formulation (F3) with NMP as solvent. Effect of gamma irradiation on molecular weight of polymer, viscosity of polymer solution, monomer ratio of lactide and glycolide and in-vitro release after gamma radiation was studied with F3 formulation.
565-573
86
NOVEL SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR THE ASSAY OF NATEGLINIDE IN PURE AND DOSAGE FORMS
*Ch. Sudheer, T.Tirumaleswara Rao, B.V.Sreenivasulu, C. Ramababu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Two simple, sensitive and selective methods for the determination of Nateglinide in bulk and in pharmaceutical formulations were described. These methods are based on extraction of this drug into chloroform as ion-pair with basic dyes, Safranin O (SFNO) and Methylene blue (MB). The optimum conditions of the reactions of the developed methods were studied and optimized. The absorbance of the colored products was measured at 515nm for nateglinide-SFNO and 620nm for nateglinide-MB. The calibration curves obeyed the beer&#39;s law over the concentration range of 2.5-12.5&mu;g/mL for nateglinide-SFNO and nateglinide-MB with correlation (r2=0.9997 &amp; 0.9992) respectively. The results of analysis for the two methods have been validated statistically and by the recovery studies. The proposed methods were simple, sensitive and economical for the quantitative determination of nateglinide and were successfully employed for the assay in bulk and in formulations.
574-578
87
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS OF LORNOXICAM
*Jyothi Rani L, K. Abbulu, Nagabushan Rao T, A Akhila
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Mouth dissolving tablets are also known as fast disintegrating, fast dissolving, fast melt, quick melt tablets. Lornoxicam is an NSAID with 100% bioavailability having a bitter taste. So by formulating it as an ODT the absorption and the bioavailability of the drug will fasten and hence the action of the drug will be faster .The mode of action of Lornoxicam is mainly by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis (inhibition of cyclooxygeanase enzyme). So the purpose of the present work is to formulate a taste masked mouth dissolving tablet of Lornoxicam. Taste masking was done by using Eudragit (EPO 100) in different ratios. Three superdisintegrants were used namely sodium starch glycolate, crospovidone, crosscarmellose sodium. The tablets were evaluated for various parameters like hardness, friability, drug content, disintegration and in vivo dissolution. Among all the formulations F5 showed 98% drug release with in 15 min. So it was considered as best formulation.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <br />
579-586
88
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLETS OF VILDAGLIPTIN
*Vishnu P, Shireesh kiran R, Chaitanya B, Naveenbabu K, Vijayavani Ch. S.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of this research work was to establish Vildagliptin sustained release matrix tablets of&nbsp; 50mg. Vildagliptin is an anti diabetic drug of the new dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor class of drug. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique using different grades of Hydroxy Propyl Methyl cellulose (HPMC K 100 LV, HPMC K15M and HPMC K4M) as extended release polymer. Tablets were evaluated for different parameters such as thickness, hardness, friability, weight variation, in vitro dissolution studies and FT-IR studies. The physico-chemical property of the finished product compiles with the internal specification limits. In vitro release from the formulation was studied as per the USP and IP dissolution procedure. The formulation gave a release of 98.5 % for 24 hr and the data best fitted into Higuchi model.&nbsp; From the present study it was concluded that the vildagliptin sustained release tablets can extend drug release and improve the bioavailability of vildagliptin. <br />
587-593
89
Analytical Method development and Method validation for the simultaneous estimation of Metformin HCL and Linagliptin in Bulk and tablet Dosage Form by RP-HPLC Method
*A. Janardhan Swamy, K. Harinadha Baba
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A rapid, highly sensitive, economical and accurate RP-HPLC method was developed for simultaneous estimation of Metformin HCL and Linagliptin in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage form. The separation was achieved by Hypersil C18 column (250 &times; 4.6 mm, 5 &mu; particle size) with mobile phase consisting of phosphate buffer (pH 5.6, diluted with orthophosphoric acid), methanol and acetonitrile in the ratio of 40:5:55 v/v, using flow rate 1.0 mL/min and eluents monitored at 233nm .The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines for specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The retention times of Linagliptin and Metformin were 5.4 and 6.6 min respectively. The linearity was found to be in the range of 125-750 &mu;g/mL and 0.625-3.75 &mu;g/mL for Metformin and Linagliptin respectively, had regression coefficients (R2) 0.999. The proposed method was successfully applied for simultaneous estimation of both drugs in Pharmaceutical formulation.
594-600
90
A VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF ALISKIRIN AND AMLODIPINE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
*Venkata Raveendra Babu Vemula, Pankaj Kumar Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate, rapid, precise, specific and cost effective reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method have been developed and subsequently validated for simultaneous estimation of Aliskiren and Amlodipine in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Chromatography is carried out isocratically at 30&deg;C &plusmn; 0.5&deg;C on an Water&rsquo;s X-bridge C-18 column (4.6 x 150mm, 5&mu; particle size) with a mobile phase composed&nbsp; of&nbsp; acetonitrile -phosphate&nbsp; buffer&nbsp; (pH-2.5)&nbsp; (40:60, v/v)&nbsp; at&nbsp; a&nbsp; flow rate&nbsp; of&nbsp; 1.0&nbsp; mL/min. Detection&nbsp; was carried out using a PDA detector at 230 nm. Parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, specificity and ruggedness are studied as reported in the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The retention times for Aliskiren and Amlodipine are 3.8 min and 5.1 min respectively. The linearity range for Aliskiren and Amlodipine are 18.75-187.5&micro;g/ml and 1.25-12.5 &micro;g/ml respectively. The correlation coefficients for both components are close to 1. The relative standard deviations for six replicate measurements of samples in tablets are always less than 2%.
601-606
91
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ROSUVASTATIN AND FENOFIBRATE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
*S. Thukabai, V. Uma Maheshwara Rao and Muhammad Rafi Shaik
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new precise, accurate, reliable validated method for the determination of Rosuvastatin and Fenofibrate has been developed by using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) in pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation was carried out by using mobile phase 0.01M Potassium dihydrogen phosphate: methanol (55:45v/v, PH-2.6 adjusted with Orthophosphoric acid) on Agilent XDB C18 (150 x 4.6 mm, 5&#61549;) at a flow rate 1ml/min with UV detection at 220nm.The retention times for Rosuvastatin and Fenofibrate were 2.36 and 5.80 min respectively and both drugs showed good linearity in the range of 5-20 &micro;g/ml and 80-320 &micro;g/ml. The proposed method has been successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulation and was validated according to ICH guidelines and method showed good precision with percentage relative standard deviation less than 2%. The percentage recovery for Rosuvastatin and Fenofibrate was found between 99.06-100.94% and 99.12-100.95% respectively indicating the proposed method was accurate and precise.
607-612
92
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF LAMIVUDINE AND TENOFOVIR DISPROXIL FUMARATE IR TABLETS
*Patil Sagar Nanaji, Swati Shailendra Rawat, D. Yashwanth Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The main objective of the present study is to formulate and evaluate an immediate release tablet of Lamivudine and Tenofovir Disproxil Fumarate using different disintegrants. Lamivudine and Tenofovir Disproxil Fumarate belong to class of anti-retroviral drugs known as nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Pre formulation studies were performed prior to compression. The tablets were compressed using microcrystalline cellulose, crospovidone, crosscarmallosesodium, magnesium stearate and Aerosil. The fabricated tablets were evaluated for various micrometric properties like bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index, Hausner&rsquo;s ratio, angle of repose and post compression characteristics like thickness, hardness, friability, disintegration time and drug release. Crospovidone is found to be the better disintegrant when compared to crosscarmallosesodium in the formulation of immediate release tablets of Lamivudine and Tenofovir Disproxil Fumarate. The absorbance of Lamivudine and Tenofovir Disproxil Fumarate were screened in the UV region and the maximum absorbance was found to be 271 nm and 260nm respectively and this was used for UV analysis. Among the six different formulations developed F6 was found to be the best one with a drug release of 99.96% at the end of 30min. <br />
613-617
93
MICROANATOMICAL DEFORMATION AFTER PTZ INDUCED SEIZURE IN MICE BRAIN
*Pankaj Kalita, Manash Barthakur
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Seizure is an abnormal state of brain electrical activity. The causes of seizure are different but seizure can be induced artificially also. Present experiment was conducted on albino mice and seizure was induced by Pentamethyline tetrazole (PTZ). Duration of seizure was maintained more than half an hour. Mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and brain was removed. Brain was fixed in Carnoy&rsquo;s fixatives and sectioned at 5 micron thickness. Histological slide was stained in H&amp;E stain. Micro-anatomical deformation of brain was observed in treated animals. Simultaneously control group of mice was maintained in same laboratory conditioned. Loss of cellular architecture in the neocortex I remarkably observed.&nbsp; Excitatory neurotransmitter overloaded in axon terminal may be responsible for neuronal degeneration.
618-620
94
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF NOVEL HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CEFIXIME AND MOXIFLOXACIN IN COMBINED TABLET DOSAGE FORM
*B. Raja, A. Lakshmana Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, rapid, accurate and precise RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of Cefixime and Moxifloxacin in combined tablet dosage form. The chromatographic separation was carried out on Hypersil BDS C18 column (100 x 4.6 mm; 3 &micro;) with a mixture of phosphate buffer pH 6.0: acetonitrile (75: 25 V/V) as a mobile phase; at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. UV detection was performed at 293 nm. The retention times were 2.374 min and 5.776 min for Cefixime and Moxifloxacin respectively. Calibration plots were linear (r2=0.999) over the concentration range of 5-30 &micro;g/mL for both Cefixime and Moxifloxacin. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity and sensitivity. The proposed method was successfully used for quantitative analysis of Cefixime and Moxifloxacin tablets. No interference from any component of pharmaceutical dosage form was observed. Validation studies revealed that the method is specific, rapid, reliable and reproducible. The high recovery and low relative standard deviation confirm the suitability of the proposed method for routine estimation of Cefixime and Moxifloxacin in pure sample and tablet dosage forms.
621-627
95
INVITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SACCHARUM SPONTANEUM
*M. Sai Krishna, K. Naga Sravanthi, G. Sreenika, S. Chaithanya, M. Sudhakar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Biomolecules can be oxidized by free radicals which results in oxidative stress. This oxidative damage has an important etiological role in aging and development of diseases like cancer, atherosclerosis, and other inflammatory disorders. Synthetic antioxidants, like Butylated hydroxyl anisole, Butylated hydroxyl toluene are good free radical scavengers. However, synthetic antioxidants can be carcinogenic. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in searching for antioxidants of natural origin. We report here the in vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of S. spontaneum. The activity of S.spontaneum has been tested using various antioxidant models viz., total phenolic and flavonoid content, estimation of DPPH, nitric oxide,&nbsp; superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity at different concentrations. This study indicates significant free radical scavenging potential of S.spontaneum which may be due to the presence of high Phenolic and Flavonoid content.<br />
628-633
96
A VALIDATED STABILITY-INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF TICAGRELOR IN BULK AND ITS FORMULATION
*L. Kalyani, A. Lakshmana Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, rapid, accurate and precise stability-indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of Ticagrelor in bulk and its tablet dosage forms. Separation of the drug was achieved on Hypersil BDS C18 column (100 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 &micro;) as stationary phase with mobile phase consisting of phosphate buffer pH 3.0 and acetonitrile in the ratio of 70: 30 V/V. The method showed a good linear response in the concentration range of 22.5-135 &micro;g/mL with correlation coefficient of 0.999. The flow rate was maintained at 1.0 mL/min and effluents were monitored at 254 nm. The retention time was 3.215 min. The percentage assay of Ticagrelor was 99.9%. The method was statistically validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, ruggedness, robustness, solution stability, selectivity and forced degradation studies. The results obtained in the study were within the limits of ICH guidelines and hence this method can be used for the determination of Ticagrelor in pharmaceutical dosage forms.
634-642
97
PHARMACOKINETICS OF ATAZANAVIR IN RITONAVIR-BOOSTED COMBINATION IN ASIAN HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS: COMPARISONS BETWEEN THE STANDARD AND REDUCED DOSES OF BOTH AGENTS
*Chankit Puttilerpong, Duangchit Panomvana and Kiat Ruxrungtham
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) 200/100 mg once-daily (OD) has been shown comparable in drug exposure to the standard dose in Asian study. We explored the pharmacokinetic profiles of the boosting effect of ritonavir at 50 mg to either atazanavir 300 or 200 mg in 32 adult Thai healthy volunteers. The geometric means (GM) of ATV AUC0-24 were 40.66, 25.50 and 24.97 mg-h/L and Cmin were 0.53, 0.27 and 0.24 mg/L for 300/100, 300/50 and 200/50 mg OD doses, respectively. Subjects while taking ATV/r 300/50 and 200/50 mg OD had ATV AUC0-24 and Cmin significantly lower than when 300/100 mg was taken (P &lt; 0.05). The GM of bilirubin concentrations were&nbsp; significantly reduced 2.46 vs 1.48 mg/dL for 300/50 mg and 2.60 vs 1.36 mg/dL for 200/50 mg (P = 0.001). The reduced dose of ATV/r decreased in ATV AUC0-24, Cmin and the rate of hyperbilirubinaemia. However, one-third of subjects taken either ATV/r 300/50 or 200/50 had subtherapeutic ATV levels, boosted with 50 mg RTV is therefore not recommended.&nbsp; <br />
643-654
98
HAEMATOLOGICAL EFFECTS AND SAFETY BEHAVIOUR OF 20 kDa PEGINTERFERON ALPHA-2A (UNIPEG®) IN HEALTHY HUMAN SUBJECTS
*Ghousia. Saba, Javeid. Iqbal, Tasneem. Ahmad, Ayaz Ali Khan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
20 kDa pegylated interferon alpha-2a (UNIPEG&reg;) manufactured through the pegylation of E.coli-derived interferon alpha-2a. The hematological effects of Unipeg&reg; were studied after a single subcutaneous dose of 180 &micro;g (protein content) in ten healthy human subjects.&nbsp; Vital signs, adverse events and lab tests (hematological and biochemical) were monitored for safety analysis. Clinical laboratory tests results before and after drug administration were processed for any statistically significant change by computing the ANOVA (F-value) and performing t-tests. Statistically significant decrease in neutrophils, absolute neutrophil count, total white blood cells count and platelets count were observed but most of these were not clinically significant. Transient leucopenia and leucopenia was reported for 10% and 20% subjects, respectively, transient thrombocytopenia in 10% subjects and an increase in ALT levels above normal ranges in 30% of subjects were observed while no serious adverse effect was reported. The hematological effects were found similar to those of reported in literature for unmodified IFN-alpha-2a and other pegylated IFN-alpha-2a products generally used in therapy. <br />
655-662
99
Diagnostic criteria of different species of leishmaniasis in Balochistan, Pakistan
*Darshna Kumari, Muhammad Nadeem, Ayaz Ali Khan and Javeid Iqbal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that results into severe lesion/lesions after bitten by the sandfly. The proper and immediate diagnosis is necessary for this lethal disease until it become worse in condition. The purpose of this research study is to present diagnostic criteria of leishmaniasis of different species which is helpful in early diagnosis. Diagnosis criteria include location and number of lesions, type and size of lesions located on the body of the patients. This study was conducted at public and private hospitals and clinics of Karachi Pakistan. Total 200 patients were included in this study. All patients were included in the study after fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Data was collected from the February, 2011 &ndash; December, 2012 in the form of well organized questionnaire which had following information as; age, sex, location of patients, site, number, and type of lesion. The mean age of patient was 35&plusmn;5 years.&nbsp; Out of all selected patients, 40 % were male and rest of 60 % was female. The highest ratio of patients was natives of Baluchistan Pakistan due to its climate which is favorable for sandfly. Majority of patients have single lesion&gt;multiple lesion&gt;double lesion&gt;binary lesion. The common type of lesion seen was the wet ulcerative type open and reddish lesion and the dry nodules. The size of the lesion was observed ranging from 1cm - 3cm respectively. It is observable from the lesion types that the cutaneous leishmaniasis is more common in Pakistan especially in Balochistan than other species of leishmaniasis. In the light of this study, it is concluded that the leishmaniasis is still highly dominated in the Pakistan especially in Balochistan province which is due to its favorable climate for the causative agent. Beside this, there is no proper treatment available and due to poor socioeconomic condition of Pakistan, delayed in diagnosis and treatment of such disease is common. For the purpose of treatment, derivative of pentavalent antimony have been applied that is also more poisonous. There is need of extensive study about parasite of leishmaniasis and their proper treatment and awareness should be provided in the dominated area of Pakistan.
663-667
100
ASSESSMENT OF DISPENSING PRACTICE IN SOUTH WEST ETHIOPIA: THE CASE OF JIMMA UNIVERSITY SPECIALIZED HOSPITAL
*Workneh Etefa, Chalachew Teshale, Segewkal Hawaze
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Dispensing is a crucial part of drug use process. This study aimed at assessing quality of dispensing in Jimma University Specialized Hospital Outpatient Pharmacy. A prospective participatory observation of dispensing process and interview of patient were conducted using checklist and semi structured questionnaire. World Health Organization patient care indicators and other quality indicators were employed. Pearson Chi-Square test was used to determine association and P&lt;0.005 was considered statistically significant. Average number of drugs per prescription was 1.84 and 81% of prescriptions were fully dispensed. Mean labeling score was 2.5 and mean dispensing time was 22.5 seconds. Mean knowledge score was 2.8 and 69% of patients had adequate knowledge. Adequate knowledge was significantly associated with educational status (p&lt;0.005). Correct dosage was recalled by 79% patients and knowledge about correct dosage was significantly associated with age and educational status (p&lt;0.005). Inadequate labeling, short dispensing time and unavailability of essential drugs and dispensing aids reflect discrepancies in quality of care.<br />
668-674
101
Cytotoxic Effect of Gliotoxin, Protease, and Melanin purified from Aspergillus fumigatus on REF Cell Line, in vitro Study
*Batol Imran Dheeb, Farooq Ibrahem Mohammad, Abdulkareem Jasim Hashim
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Aspergillus fumigatus especially clinical isolate produces a series of toxic substances and proteinicios hemolysin, protease and pigment like melanin which appear to act in an additive and synergic way on cells. In this study, gliotoxin, Protease, and Melanin were used in an experimental model to study their Cytotoxic activity by evaluating their effect on REF cell line ( Rat embryonic fibroblast ), on exposure time of&nbsp; 24&nbsp; hrs at three different concentrations of&nbsp; each compounds&nbsp; triplicate of each concentration&nbsp; were used, Cytotoxicity of the purified compounds are&nbsp; active against REF cell line under study and a toxic effect was clear with a significant difference at the level of probability (p&lt; 0.05) and this effect was contrasted among different concentrations for each purified compound growth inhibition of&nbsp; REF cell line was increase gradually with the increase of compound&nbsp; concentration.
675-679
102
PATTERN OF DRUG PRESCRIBING DURING PREGNANCY IN NEPALESE WOMEN
*Priyanka Shrestha and Shiva Kumar Bhandari
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Objective of this study is to assess the utilization pattern and the teratogenesity risk of the drugs prescribed among pregnant women in Nepal. The drugs that were prescribed during pregnancy were assessed retrospectively in 94 Nepalese pregnant women who attended the prenatal clinic of the two Hospitals in Nepal.&nbsp; From Patient medical record, FDA drug category of prescribed drugs was identified. Maximum number of pregnant women was from age grouping 15 to 25 (72%). According to FDA drug category, our finding reveals that two drugs prescribed of FDA category X were oxytocin and dydrogesterone. A majority of drugs prescribed were from category B (42%). A majority of drugs were given as an oral dosage form i.e. Tablet form (56%) and in severe cases injection was preferred i.e. 24%. Anthelminthic was prescribed to all pregnant women during their second trimester. The most commonly prescribed drugs were nutritional supplements like Iron, Folate, Calcium, Vitamins followed by Tetanus Toxoid. <br />
680-688
103
Knowledge and Perception of Undergraduate Students about Generic Drugs and Their Attitude towards Generic Substitution in Karachi, Pakistan
*Fatima Ramzan Ali, Sheikh Abdul Khaliq, Samana Zehra, Hina A. Khan, Iqbal Azhar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Generic substitution has become a common practice. In Pakistan living standards are below average. Improving knowledge and perception about generic drugs will increase the generic substitution, and it will reduce cost of treatment. The aim of study was to determine the knowledge, perception and attitude of undergraduate students of Pakistan about generic drugs. A questionnaire comprising of questions regarding knowledge and perception about generic drugs and attitude towards generic substitution was distributed to 100 students. Mostly students knew about generic drugs and difference between generic and brand names. Their idea about cost of generic drugs wasn&rsquo;t correct. Mostly students prefer doctor&rsquo;s advice while buying or changing their brand. Students substituting their brand didn&rsquo;t find any difference in efficacy of both drugs. Overall good knowledge and perception about generic drugs was found, and mostly students showed positive attitude towards drug substitution. However, few required additional information. <br />
689-691
104
Association between HLA-B*5801 Allele and Other Risk Factors to Allopurinol - Induced Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reaction and Exfoliative Dermatitis in Thai Population
*Sunicha Limkobpaiboon, Duangchit Panomvana, Ajchara Koolvisut, Sasijit Vejbaesya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
To investigate the association of HLA-B*5801 and HLA-Cw*0302 alleles in Thai patients who had allopurinol induced SCAR including exfoliative dermatitis. Other risk factors besides genetic were also investigated. A case - control study was used. The study was performed during December 2009 &ndash; March 2010 at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok. The totals of 82 patients were recruited into the study; 34 patients were recruited from patient with adverse drug reactions from allopurinol. Genotyping of HLA-B*5801 and HLA-Cw*0302 alleles were determined. Within 34 patients with ADR from allopurinol, there were 25 SCAR (SJS/TEN/HSS) cases HLA-B*5801 and HLA-Cw*0302 alleles were found in all 25 patients with SCAR. Odds ratio was 282.2. This study demonstrated that HLA-B*5801 allele was also associated to allopurinol induced exfoliative dermatitis. Other significant risk factors for hypersensitivity to allopurinol besides genetics were female gender and the presence of diabetes mellitus along with chronic renal insufficiency.
692-697
105
Centratherum anthelminticum ameliorates antiatherogenic index in hyperlipidemic rabbits
*Tooba Lateef and Shamim A Qureshi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study first time scrutinized the lipid lowering effect of ethanolic seed extract (ESEt) of Centratherum anthelminticum in high-fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemic rabbits. ESEt was used to determine acute toxicity in overnight fasted normal rabbits while its effect on biochemical parameters including serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high (HDL-c), low (LDL-c), very low-density (VLDL-c) lipoproteins, antiatherogenic index (AAI), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), catalase (CAT), creatine kinase (CK), lipase, lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and HMG-CoA/mevalonate ratio were estimated in HFD induced hyperlipidemic animal model. ESEt (10-2000 mg/kg) showed no sign of acute toxicity in rabbits. Similarly, three doses (200, 400, &amp; 600 mg/kg) of same extract induced significant reduction in serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-c, VLDL-c and an increase in HDL-c level with improvement in AAI found in test groups. Normal ALT and CK levels were also observed with positive progress found in antioxidant enzymes status, HMG-CoA / mevalonate ratio and lipase activity. Results conclude that ESEt exhibits antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects in HFD induced hyperlipidemic animal model.
698-704
106
INCIDENCES, SCREENING AND CHEMOTHERAPY OF BREAST CANCER
*Sheikh Abdul Khaliq, Syed Baqir S. Naqvi, Anab Fatima
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Retrospective study in different ethnic groups determines the burden and patterns of breast cancers during the last eight years reported in Oncology wards of hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan and compares the pharmacotherapy/chemotherapy used with international guidelines, develops strategies for screening and evidence based pharmacotherapy/chemotherapy of cases. Every single one male &amp; female case with histologically and cytologically established breast cancer was enrolled from January 2003 to December 2010. Data for all patients were collected retrospectively by patient&rsquo;s file &amp; charts, which represents the population of Karachi, Interior Sindh &amp; Balochistan. 847 female patients investigated for their diagnosis of cancer type, ethnicity, age &amp; gender. The statistical analysis was performed for mean, standard error &amp; proportions. Pharmacotherapy/Chemotherapy &amp; screening employed by the hospitals was compared with international guidelines and evidences. Proportionately major ethnic groups female diagnosed with breast cancer in total female cases was Sindhi (25%), Urdu Speaking (48%), Baloch (6%), Pukhtoon (5%), Punjabi (11%), Siraiki (1%), Minorities &amp; others (4%). Mean age at the time of diagnosis was 44.07&plusmn;12.37 years, SE&plusmn; 0.069. Screening strategies are implemented in &lt;10% targeted population, however pharmacotherapy/chemotherapy was comparable with international guidelines. The study reveals that breast cancer incidences are highest among Urdu Speaking (17%) and then Sindhis (9%). Rests of the ethnic groups are in the range of 2-4%. There is a need to implement the screening strategies more extensively to the small/basic/rural health care centers for early diagnosis of the disease and new treatments like monoclonal antibodies are making revolution in the management of breast cancer.<br /><br />
705-709
107
SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF RISPERIDONE IN PHARMACEUTICAL BULK AND DOSAGE FORMS
*Akachukwu I, Nwodo N.J and Mbah C. J
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric method for determination of Risperidone has been developed. The method was based on the charge &ndash; transfer complexation reaction of Risperidone with chloranilic acid to form a violet &ndash; coloured complex having absorption maximum at 500 nm. Different variables affecting the reaction conditions such as the concentration of chloranilic acid, reaction time, diluting solvents were studied and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, linear relationship with good correlation coefficient (0.9979) was found between absorbance and the concentrations of Risperidone in the range of 2 &ndash; 12 &micro;g/ml. The assay limits of detection and quantitation were 0.979 and 2.97 &micro;g/ml respectively. The precision of the method and the values of relative standard deviation never exceeded 1.19%. No interference could be observed from the excipients commonly present in dosage forms. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of Risperidone in pure and pharmaceutical dosage forms with good accuracy and precision; the recovery percentage ranges from 99.02 to 101.88 &plusmn; 0.54 to 1.19%. The proposed spectrophotometric method gives accurate and reproducible results besides being much more sensitive than the British Pharmacopoeia method that uses a larger amount of Risperidone.
710-715
108
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MOUTH DISSOLVING FILMS OF ZOLPIDEM TARTRATE BY EXPLORATION OF POLYMERS COMBINATION
*M.K. Patidar, F.A. Karjikar, F.A. Patel, S.S. Rathi, S.B. Thokal, C.L. Bhingare
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Fast dissolving drug delivery is the new approach to administer drugs; mouth dissolving film is one of them. The object of the present research work was to formulate a mouth dissolving film of Zolpidem tartrate from polymers Hydroxypropyl cellulose (EF-P) with a combination of Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose K-15 by solvent casting method for enhancing the drug release rate and absorption to incessant increase drug bioavailability. Hydroxypropyl cellulose is a synthetic water soluble polymer, form a brittle film with high elastic modulus, thus to improve film forming properties, Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose used in a ration of (1:1 and 2:1) with it. Compatibility of drug and polymers were studied by the IR spectrophotometer, any kind of interaction was not found. All the formulations were evaluated by different evaluation parameters and showed satisfactory results. Batches have uniformity in weight with a thickness of (0.930 mm), (98.3%) drug content and 100% drug release within 6 mins and films pH was reassembled with the pH of saliva. <br />
716-721
109
FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY AND PHENOLIC CONTENT ESTIMATION OF GLINUS OPPOSITIFOLIUS AND SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA
*Chhayakanta Panda, Uma Shankar Mishra, Sujata Mahapatra, Ghanshyam Panigrahi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present research work was carried out to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of the whole plant of Glinus oppositifolius (MEGO) and leaves of Sesbania grandiflora (MESG). The therapeutic effects of tannins and flavonoids can be largely attributed to their antioxidant properties. The quantitative estimation of phenolic content was measured by using UV-spectrophotometric method. The total phenolic content value of MEGO was 12.2&plusmn;0.12w/w and of MESG was 8.34&plusmn;0.08 % w/w, respectively, and total flavonoid estimation of MEGO and MESG&nbsp; showed the content values of 4.9&plusmn;0.02 % w/w and 1.2&plusmn;0.13 %w/w, respectively, for quercetin and 3.6&plusmn;0.18 % w/w and 1.56&plusmn;0.09 % w/w, respectively, for rutin. The results revealed that these plants have antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of MEGO was found to be more potent than MESG. So finally it indicates that both the plants contains antioxidant substances which can be used for the treatment of oxidative stress related diseases.
722-727
110
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF SOME NEWLY SYNTHESIZED CHALCONES
*Jahirul Islam Talukdar, Monica Kachroo and Rema Razdan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new series of chalcones have been synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation of appropriate acetophenones like N-(4-acetyl-phenyl)-4-methoxy-benzamide [which is synthesized by reacting 4-methoxy-benzoyl chloride with 4-amino acetophenone] and N-(4-acetyl-phenyl)-4-chloro-benzamide, [which is synthesized by reacting 4-chloro-benzoyl chloride with 4-amino acetophenone]&nbsp; with various aldehydes&nbsp; in ethanolic KOH solution. The synthesized compounds were characterized using melting point, TLC, UV, IR, 1HNMR, 13C-NMR and CHN analysis. The compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity by bovin serum albumin assay method ( in vitro ) and carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method ( in vivo ). Among the compounds synthesized, 2, 4-dimethoxy phenyl and 4-ethoxy phenyl derivative exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity.<br /><br />
728-733
111
SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF DULOXETINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND METHYLCOBALAMIN BY UV SPECTROSCOPIC METHOD
*A. S. Shete, P. D. Lade, Sumaiyya J. Inamdar, S. S. Kumbhar, A. P. Mhadeshwar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate and precise UV Spectroscopic method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Duloxetine Hydrochloride and Methylcoblamin. The overlay spectra of Duloxetine hydrochloride and Methylcoblamin exhibit &lambda; max of 291 nm and 350 nm for Duloxetine hydrochloride and Methylcoblamin in Double distilled water respectively. The drugs obeyed the Beer&rsquo;s law in the range of 8-28&mu;g/ml and 0.6-15&mu;g/ml for Duloxetine hydrochloride and Methylcoblamin with correlation coefficients of 0.998 and 0.999 respectively and it has showed good linearity. The results of analysis were validated by recovery studies. The % recovery was found to be 99.99-100.96 % for Duloxetine hydrochloride and 100.55-101.02 % for Methylcoblamin. LOD and LOQ were found to be 1.278&mu;g/ml, 2.330&mu;g/ml for Duloxetine hydrochloride and 0.949&mu;g/ml, 2.857&mu;g/ml for Methylcoblamin respectively. The %RSD values were less than 2. The method was found to be simple, accurate, precise, economical and reproducible.
734-740
112
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF COLORIMETRY METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF OXCARBAZEPINE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
*A. S. Shete, P. D. Lade, Snehal S. Kumbhar, A. P. Mhadeshwar, S. J. Inamdar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A colorimetric method has been developed and validated for estimation of Oxcarbazepinein its tablet form. Ferric chloride and potassium ferricyanide were used as the coloring agents, and a yellow green color solution was formed after reaction of the drug with ferric chloride and potassium ferricyanide. The solution absorbance was measured at 735 nm. The linearity range was in the range of 1-6&mu;g/ml. The validation of the new proposed method was carried out on various parameters like linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity, specificity, robustness, ruggedness, LOD and LOQ.
741-746
113
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ETRAVIRINE IN PURE AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
*G. Raveendra Babu, A. Lakshmana Rao and J. Venkateswara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A validated simple, sensitive, specific and precise RP-HPLC method was developed for the determination of Etravirine in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. Method was carried on Hypersil BDS C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 &mu; particle size) using phosphate buffer:acetontrile (35:65 v/v) as mobile phase. Detection was carried out by UV at 322 nm. The proposed method obeyed linearity in the range of 20-150 &mu;g/mL and met all specifications as per ICH guidelines. Statistical analysis revealed that this method can be used in routine quality control studies of Etravirine in pure and its pharmaceutical formulations.
747-752
114
NOVEL PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATION OF MIXED SOLVENCY IN THE FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF SYRUPS (LIQUID ORAL SOLUTIONS) OF POORLY WATER-SOLUBLE DRUGS
*Yash Maheshwari, D.K Mishra, S.C Mahajan, Prachi Maheshwari, R.K Maheshwari, V. Jain
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Solubilization of poorly water soluble drugs has been a very important issue in screening studies of new chemical entities as well as in formulation research. In the present investigation, mixed-solvency approach has been utilized for solubility enhancement of poorly water-soluble drug, Naproxen and Furosemide (as model drugs). Sixteen blends (having total 40% w/v strength) containing various solubilizers among the commonly used hydrotropes (urea, sodium benzoate and sodium citrate), cosolvents (glycerin, ethanol, propylene glycol, PEG 600 and PEG 400) and water-soluble solids (PEG 4000 and PEG 6000) were made to study the influence on solubility of Naproxen and Furosemide individually. Most of the blends were found to increase the solubility of both drugs. This approach shall prove a boon in pharmaceutical field to develop various formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs by combining various water-soluble excipients in safe concentrations to produce a desirable aqueous solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. <br />
753-758
115
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF PARACETAMOL AND TAPENTADOL HYDROCHLORIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
*Iffath Rizwana, K. Vanitha Prakash, G. Krishna Mohan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination Paracetamol and Tapentadol HCl in pharmaceutical dosage form. The column used was Symmetry C18 (4.6 x 150mm, 5&#61549;m) in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (50:50 v/v) adjusted to pH 3.6 with ortho phosphoric acid. The flow rate was 0.8 mL/ min and effluents were monitored at 243 nm. The retention times of Paracetamol and Tapentadol HCl were found to be 2.206 min and 3.807 min, respectively. The linearity for Paracetamol and Tapentadol HCl were in the range of 100-200 mcg/mL and 15-30 mcg/mL respectively. The recoveries of Paracetamol and Tapentadol Hcl were found to be 98.5% and 98.5%, respectively. The proposed method was validated and successfully applied to the estimation of Paracetamol and Tapentadol Hcl in combined tablet dosage forms.
759-762
116
MUCOADHESIVE MICROSPHERES- A VIRTOUS BIOAVAILABILITY EMBELISHING TOOL
*R. Gowri, N. Narayanan, A. Maheswaran, S. Janarthanan, S. Paulraj, P. Lavanya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Mucoadhesive drug delivery has versatile potential for efficient drug release because of the properties provided by their small particle size for various diseases. Ex., Helicobacter pylori infection is currently the cause of 75% peptic ulcers. In an effort to augment the anti Helicobacter pylori effect, microspheres reside in the gastrointestinal tract with mucoadhesion mechanism and exhibits sustained release effect over a period of time. Microspheres are the carrier linked drug delivery system in which particle size ranges from 1-1000 &mu;m&nbsp; in diameter having a core of drug and entirely outer layers of polymer as coating material. Due to their short residence time, bioadhesive characteristics can be coupled to microspheres to develop mucoadhesive microspheres. The polymers with excellent mucoadhesive properties and good entrapment efficiency. This review article focusses various aspects of mucoadhesion, theories of mucoadhesion&nbsp;&nbsp; preparation methods and applications along with its future trends. <br />
763-773
117
EVALUATION OF ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF PLANT CHROZOPHORA PLICATA
*Kadiri Sunil kumar, Avanapu Srinivasa Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The herbal medicines derived from various plants extracts are being increasingly utilized to treat a wide variety of clinical diseases1. Besides their action as gastroprotectives, flavonoids also act in healing of gastric ulcers2. The study was designed to investigate the anti-ulcer effect of chloroform extract of Chrozophora plicata leaves (600mg/kg) against experimentally induced ulcer models in albino rats. In the present study, anti-ulcer activity was assessed by using pylorus ligation induced and indomethacin (40mg/kg) induced Ulcer 3models in albino rats. The antiulcer activity was assessed by determining and comparing gastric volume, acidity, ulcer score and ulcer index in control, test extract and standard (ranitidine 10mg/kg) treated rats by using both pylorus ligation and indomethacin induced ulcer models. Pre-treatment of animals with the Chloroform extract of Chrozophora plicata (600mg/kg)) orally significantly reduced formation of ulcers induced by pylorus ligation and indomethacin models. The percentage inhibitions of ulcer with test extract being 60 &plusmn;1.12 % and 57.18 &plusmn; 1.32 % respectively whereas standard ranitidine has shown percentage inhibitions of ulcer to an extent of 100&plusmn; 0.42% and 68.52&plusmn;1.07% in both ulcer models. It is evident from literature that Chrozophora plicata leaves possess flavonoids4. The results obtained indicate that Chrozophora plicata possesses antiulcer principles.
774-778
118
THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY AND NUTRITIONAL POTENTIALITY OF INDIAN BAY LEAF (CINNAMOMUM TAMALA BUCH. - HEM.)
*Sukumar Dandapat, Manoj Kumar, Amit Kumar, M. P. Sinha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
C. tamala leaves are mainly used for flavouring food and spice due to clove like taste and pepper like odour. The plant leaves are widely used in pharmaceutical preparation because of therapeutic efficacy against various diseases and disorders due to presence of different phytochemicals. The leaves were analysed for ash content, moisture, crude fat, crude fibre, crude carbohydrate, crude protein and different phytochemical content. The results for percentage of ash content, moisture content, crude fibre, carbohydrate, crude fat and protein were 9.6 &plusmn; 1.12, 50.50 &plusmn; 1.0, 30.5 &plusmn; 0.6, 9.5 &plusmn; 0.5, 6.0 &plusmn; 0.5 and&nbsp; 8.5 &plusmn; 0.18 % respectively. The nutritive value was 143.5 &plusmn; 0.53 Kcal/ 100g. The leaf sample was assessed for quantitative and qualitative phytochemical composition. Among the phytochemicals poly phenols was highest (16.7 &plusmn; 0.7 g/100g) and flavonoid content was lowest (1.0 &plusmn; 0.31 g/100g).
779-785
119
ERYTHROPOIETIN (EPO): ROLE IN NEUROPROTECTION/ NEUROREGENRATION AND COGNITION
*Rajwar Navneet, Kothiyal Preeti
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:SnapToGridInCell/> <w:WrapTextWithPunct/> <w:UseAsianBreakRules/> <w:DontGrowAutofit/> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--> <p style="text-align: justify" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black">The discovery of the broad neuroprotective<span>&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>potential of erythropoietin (EPO), an endogenous hematopoietic growth factor, leaded to the new therapeutic avenues in the treatment of brain diseases. EPO has direct effects on cells of the nervous system that make it a highly attractive candidate drug for neuroprotection/neuroregeneration. EPO expression in the brain is induced by hypoxia. Practically all brain cells are capable of production and release of EPO and expression of its receptor. EPO exerts multifarious protective effects on brain cells. It protects neuronal cells from noxious stimuli such as hypoxia, excess glutamate, serum deprivation or kainic acid exposure in vitro by targeting a variety of mechanisms and involves neuronal, glial and endothelial cell functions. In rodent models of ischemic stroke, EPO reduces infarct volume and improves functional outcome, but beneficial effects have also been observed in animal models of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. EPO has a convenient therapeutic window upon ischemic stroke and favorable pharmacokinetics. EPO has been found by many investigators to be protective or regenerative and to improve cognitive performance in various rodent models of neurological and psychiatric disease.<span>&nbsp; </span>Results from first therapeutic trials in humans are promising, but will need to be validated in larger trials. This article reviews on the preclinical and clinical work on EPO for the indications neuroprotection/neuroregeneration and cognition.</span></p> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style> <![endif]-->
785-795
120
THE BENEFICIAL ROLE OF NATURAL POLYPHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AS ANTIOXIDANTS IN ALZHEIMER DISEASE: BIOLOGICAL ACTIONS AND MECHANISMS UNDERPINNING THEIR BENEFICIAL EFFECTS
*Bisht Neha, Kumar Arun, Kothiyal Preeti
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Oxidative stress has been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease (AD). Mitochondrion is a key player that produces reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondrial dysfunction found in AD patients may amplify the generation of ROS and oxidative stress. Increased ROS can cause damage to protein, lipid and nucleic acids. In recent years, antioxidants- especially those of dietary origin have been suggested as possible agents useful for the prevention and treatment of AD. Continuing research highlights the dynamic capacity of natural polyphenolic compounds to exhibit their antioxidant effect by a number of potential mechanisms. The free radical scavenging, in which the polyphenols can break the free radical chain reaction, as well as suppression of the free radical formation by regulation of enzyme activity or chelating metal ions involved in free radical production. Thus, the antioxidant properties certainly contribute to their neuroprotective effect. This article reviews the role of oxidative stress and the contribution of free radicals in the development of AD, and also discusses antioxidant effects of natural polyphenolic compounds such as green tea catechins, curcumin, resveratrol and their intracellular targets focusing on neuroprotective strategies for AD. <br />
796-806
121
INFLUENCE OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE PROTEIN-2 GENETIC POLYMORPHISM ON THE PHARMACOKINETICS OF MYCOPHENOLATE MOFETIL IN THAI KIDNEY TRANSPLANT PATIENTS
*Wanarat Anusornsangiam, Duangchit Panomvana, Kearkiat Praditpornsilpa,Amnart Chaiprasert, Surat Thungpanit
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of multidrug resistance protein (MRP), MRP-2 -24C&gt;T polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of mycophenolate mofetil in 118 Thai kidney transplant patients. The patients with MRP-2 -24C&gt;T variant had a predicted area under the concentration-time curve (AUC 0-12 hr) of mycophenolic acid (MPA) significantly lower than the patients with wild-type gene (5.04 versus 5.92 mg x h/L/kg/mg dose, respectively, p-value = 0.008). In addition, the oral clearance of MPA in the patients with MRP-2&nbsp;&nbsp; -24C&gt;T variant was significantly higher than that of MPA in the patients with wild-type gene (0.15 versus 0.12 L/h/kg, respectively, p-value = 0.025). Therefore, this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) reduced MPA exposure and might lead to inferior immunosuppressive effect and eventually loss of clinical outcomes of immunosuppressive drug in Thai kidney transplant patients.
807-812
122
FTIR spectroscopic studies and antimicrobial activity in populations of Eryngium foetidum L.
*Chandrika R, Komal Kumar J, Thara Saraswathi K. J, Deviprasad A. G
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopic studies have been used to investigate the variations in the phytochemical constituents of two diverse populations of Eryngium foetidum L. from India. Based on the FTIR analysis and preliminary phytochemical investigations it was possible to understand the various functional groups and bioactive components present in the methanolic extracts of both populations. The FTIR pattern highlighted sharp peaks for OH, aldehydes and aminoacids in the extracts. Characteristic strong peaks were observed in the fingerprint region confirming the presence of aromatic compounds, alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aliphatic primary amines, phenols, carbohydrates and halogenated compounds. The extracts were also tested for their antimicrobial efficacy against E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and A. faecalis using Disc diffusion assay at various concentrations .It was observed that the extracts showed significant activity against S. aureus and moderate activity for E. coli and P. aeruginosa. <br />
813-818
123
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTI OXIDANT POTENTIAL AND ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF LEUCAS DIFFUSA PLANT EXTRACT
*Ramachandran Somasundaram, Priyanka Vaddadi, Dhanaraju Magharla Dasaratha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The plants of the genus &lsquo;Leucas&rsquo; have been found to be useful in various diseases. Leucas diffusa (LD) widely distributed throughout India as a weed in cultivated fields, wastelands &amp; roadsides. There is no scientific report published indicating utility of this plant. The present study was performed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities by using hydroxyl radical, reducing power &amp; hydrogen peroxide scavenging abilities and through acetic acid induced vascular permeability model in mice &amp; acetic acid induced colitis in rats significantly. LD (1000 mg/kg, p.o.) presented a significant anti-inflammatory activity towards acetic acid induced vascular permeability model in mice in comparison to Diclofenac sodium(10 mg/kg, s.c.) and acetic acid induced colitis in rats in comparison to 5-ASA. Our findings suggest that, LD contains potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds which will aid us to conduct bioactivity guided isolation &amp; characterization of leading compounds in due course. <br />
819-829
124
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME NEW 4-SUBSTITUTED-6-(p-AMINOPHENYL)-2-AMINOPYRIDINE-3-CARBONITRILE DERIVATIVES
*K. Srikanth Kumar, B. Jagadeeswara Rao and A. Lakshmana Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
4-Substituted-6-(p-aminophenyl)-2-aminopyridine-3-carbonitrile derivatives were prepared by using 4-amino acetophenone as starting material, which is treated with malononitrile, ammonium acetate and various types of benzaldehyde consists of electron releasing and electron withdrawing groups on it via one-pot reaction by using benzene as solvent. This method provides an envirofriendly, easy workup and gives compounds in high yield. The synthesized 4-substituted-6-(p-aminophenyl)-2-aminopyridine-3-carbonitrile derivatives were characterized by physical properties and spectral studies (IR, 1H NMR &amp; Mass).
830-834
125
LEGAL PROTECTION OF INTELECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
*R. Suthakaran
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The legal protection of intellectual property has always played an important part in managing intellectual property which is crucial to the industry. The Intellectual Property Protection Act of 2006 is bolstering and increases the government&rsquo;s ability to fight against IP violations as well as to help reduce terror tolerated and criminal enterprises that are proposed as being supposedly funded by piracy. There are several important cases in the country on intellectual property legislation, pertaining to these aspects of the legal scrutiny that are worth noticing. Overall, the purpose of the legislation is to protect any form of intellectual property and original innovation in order to sustain a sense of copyright for original works and creation. <br />
835-836
126
RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CEFEPIME AND TAZOBACTAM IN MARKETED FORMULATION
*M. Bhavana, T. RamamohanaReddy, M. Sandhya, V. Uma Maheswara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new precise, accurate, reliable validated method for the determination of Cefepime and Tazobactam has been developed by using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) in pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation was carried out by using mobile phase 0.02M Potassium dihydrogen phosphate: Acetonitrile (95:5v/v, pH-3.0 adjusted with Orthophosphoric acid) on Sunfire C18 (50 x 4.6 mm, 5 &micro;) at a flow rate 0.8ml/min with UV detection at 220nm.The retention times for Cefepime and Tazobactam were 2.243 and 4.910 min respectively and both drugs showed good linearity in the range of 250-750 &micro;g/ml and 31.25-93.75 &micro;g/ml. The proposed method has been successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulation and was validated according to ICH guidelines and method showed good precision with percentage relative standard deviation less than 2%. The percentage recovery for Cefepime and Tazobactam was found between 99.80-101.11% and 100.43-101.14% respectively indicating the proposed method was accurate and precise.
837-842
127
DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACTANT FREE NANOPARTICLES BY A SINGLE EMULSION HIGH PRESSURE HOMOGENIZATION TECHNIQUE AND EFFECT OF FORMULATION PARAMETERS ON THE DRUG ENTRAPMENT AND RELEASE
*Jayesh Shivaji Patil, Sunil kumar Yadav, Vinod Jagganathrao mokale, Jitendra Baliram Naik
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study was to prepare surfactant free Diclofenac sodium loaded ethyl cellulose nanoparticles by O/W single emulsion solvent evaporation high pressure homogenization technique.In the preparation of O/W single emulsion sodium alginate used as an emulsifying/stabilizing agent. Microparticles of nine different batches at different condition were prepared after that optimized batch was subjected to the high pressure Homogenizer for 3 cycles at 300 bar for the preparation of nanoparticles. The size of the nanoparticles was obtained in the range of 147.7nm to 256.6 nm .The maximum drugs loading of nanoparticles found about 90% and it showed about 66% of drug release in 12 hours. Physicochemical properties of these nanoparticles such as particle size, FESEM, X-RD and FTIR analysis were investigated. No drug-polymer interaction was observed in FTIR. FE-SEM images show that the particles are spherical and nanosized.
843-852
128
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LAMIVUDINE AND ZIDOVUDINE IN API AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM USING RP-HPLC
*J. Priyanka and P. Anil Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A rapid, sensitive and specific RP-HPLC [1-5] method involving UV detection was developed and validated for determination and quantification of Lamivudine and Zidovudine.&nbsp; Chromatography&nbsp;&nbsp; was&nbsp; carried out on Thermo Hypersil BDS, C18,(150 x 4..6 mm,5&#61549;) column&nbsp;&nbsp; using&nbsp; filtered&nbsp; and&nbsp; degassed&nbsp;&nbsp; mixture of&nbsp; Buffer : Methanol : Acetonitrile (70:5:25) as mobile&nbsp; phase&nbsp; at&nbsp; a&nbsp; flow&nbsp; rate&nbsp; of&nbsp; 0.8ml/min and effluent was monitored at 267nm. The method was&nbsp; validated&nbsp; in&nbsp; terms&nbsp; of&nbsp; linearity,&nbsp; precision,&nbsp; accuracy,&nbsp; robustness&nbsp; and&nbsp; specificity,&nbsp; limit of&nbsp; quantification and limit of&nbsp; detection.&nbsp; The&nbsp; assay&nbsp; was&nbsp; linear&nbsp; over&nbsp; the&nbsp; concentration&nbsp; range&nbsp; of&nbsp;&nbsp; Lamivudine&nbsp; and&nbsp; Zidovudine&nbsp;&nbsp; was&nbsp;&nbsp; 37.5&micro;g - 225&micro;g/ml&nbsp; and&nbsp; 75&micro;g&nbsp; to 450&micro;g/ml&nbsp; respectively.&nbsp; Accuracy&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; method was determined through recovery studies by adding&nbsp; known&nbsp; quantities&nbsp; of standard&nbsp; drug&nbsp; to&nbsp; the&nbsp; pre&nbsp; analyzed&nbsp; test solution&nbsp; and&nbsp; was&nbsp; found&nbsp; to be 99.50%-100.7% and 99.9%-100.7%&nbsp;&nbsp; within&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; precision&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; RSD&nbsp; of&nbsp; 1.30&nbsp;&nbsp; and&nbsp;&nbsp; 0.61&nbsp; for&nbsp;&nbsp; Lamivudine and Zidovudine&nbsp; respectively.&nbsp; The method does require only 10 minutes as run time for analysis which prove the adoptability of the method for the routine quality control of the drug. <br />
853-858
129
Dissolution enhancement of Meloxicam Using Liquisolid Technique
*Nishtha Shrivastava, Ritu Priya Mahajan, Alok Sharma, Suresh Chandra Mahajan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The limited solubility of drugs has always been a challenging task for pharmaceutical industries engaged in manufacturing and development of solid dosage forms. To overcome this problem, Liquisolid technique has gained immense popularity as a novel approach in the last decade. The present study deals with the dissolution enhancement of Meloxicam by Liquisolid Technique. An attempt has been made to formulate fast dissolving tablets of Meloxicam, a poorly water soluble drug. The dissolution rate of Meloxicam was compared with the marketed tablet. The results indicated that formulation (F11) containing microcrystalline cellulose as the carrier and aerosil as the coating material in the 20:1 ratio, displayed higher dissolution profile compared to other formulations. The prepared tablets showed good wettability, rapid disintegration, and acceptable dissolution rate compared to the marketed product. It has been observed that liquisolid technique is the most promising way for solubility and dissolution enhancement of Meloxicam. It can be concluded that liquisolid technique resulted in improved dissolution of Meloxicam.
859-866
130
FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF GASTRORETENTIVE BILAYER FLOATING TABLETS OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM
*Sruthi Buddharaju
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of present study was to formulate and evaluate Gastroretentive bilayer floating tablets of Losartan potassium using direct compression technology. Bilayer floating tablets comprised two layers, i.e. immediate release and controlled release layers. The immediate release layer comprised Crospovidone as a super disintegrant and floating layer comprised Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (SCMC), Metolose SR and Sodium alginate as the release retarding polymers. Sodium bicarbonate was used as a gas generating agent. The powder blends were evaluated for pre-compression parameters. Compressed tablets were further evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, dimensions, Drug Content Uniformity, In-vitro buoyancy and dissolution studies. All the formulations showed good results which were compliance with pharmacopoeial standards. In-vitro dissolution studies were performed in USP-XXIII dissolution test apparatus, type II (paddle method) in 1.2pH buffer. More than 99% Losartan potassium of was released from the immediate release layer within 30 min. The results of dissolution studies indicated that formulation BFT8 (drug to polymer[SCMC] 1:0.25), the most successful of the study, exhibited drug release of approximately 98% at 12th hour with more than 12h buoyancy with floating lag time of 93seconds. An increase in drug release was observed on decreasing polymer ratio. The drug release mechanism of all the formulations was found to be Fickian diffusion-controlled drug release.
867-874
131
FORMULATION AND INVITRO EVALLUATION OF NANOSUSPENSION OF GLIMEPIRIDE
*Ethiraj T, Sujitha R, Ganesan V
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present research work is an attempt to develop and evaluate Nanosuspension of Glimepiride in order to improve the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. Nanosuspensions of Glimepiride were developed with different ratios of Urea and PVP combinations by nanoprecipitation technique. Nanoprecipitation method being simple and less sophisticated was optimized for the preparation of nanosuspension. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to confirm compatibility and to rule out any possible interactions between drug and carriers. Four formulations (F1, F2, F3 and F4) consisting PVP and urea in the ratios of 1:3 and 1:6 respectively were prepared. All formulations were prepared using poloxamer as stabilizer, mixture of drug and acetone as organic phase and distilled water containing carriers as aqueous phase. . Physicochemical characteristics of nanosuspension in terms of size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency (% EE) and in vitro drug release were found within their acceptable ranges. Differential scanning calorimetry studies provided evidence that enhancement in solubility of drug resulted due to change in crystallinity of drug within the formulation. Data of in vitro release from nanosuspensions were fit in to different equations and kinetic models to explain release kinetics. <br />
875-882