Volume 3 - Issue 1

S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS METHANOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS
*Rachad Alnamer, Katim Alaoui, Latifa Doudach, El Houcine Bouidida, Fatiha Chibani, Mosa’d AL-Sobarry, Abdelaziz Benjouad and Yahia Cherrah
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L., family Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional medicine, to exhibit antimicrobial properties. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the antibacterial activity of R. officinalis leaves against pathogenic microorganisms by determination the minimal inhibitory concentration and to serve as criteria to recommend the ethno pharmacological uses of the plant. Plant leaves were dried, powdered and extracted by cold maceration with methanol for 48h. The extracts were screened against 24h broth culture of bacteria seeded in Muller Hinton Agar at concentration 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, 3.125 and 1.56mg/ml in sterile distilled water and incubated at 37°C, for 18h and measuring the inhibition zone diameter (IZD). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against three Gram-positive bacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis), three Gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) were determined for the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis. The methanolic extract showed pronounced antibacterial than the aqueous extract against all of the tested microorganisms. Methanolic extract inhibited with minimal inhibitory concentration of 1.56, 1.56, 3.13, 1.56, 3.13 and 3.13mg/ml against Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, respectively, while the aqueous extract inhibited with minimal inhibitory concentration of 6.25 mg/ml against all tested bacterial strains both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of R. officinalis demonstrated activities against certain bacteria confirming the use of the plant in ethno pharmacology.
1-6
2
RP-HPLC DETERMINATION OF RIFAXIMIN IN BULK DRUG AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
*K. Nageswara Rao, S. Ganapaty and A. Lakshmana Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, rapid, sensitive, accurate and precise HPLC method has been developed and validated for the estimation of Rifaximin in bulk and its pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method was carried out using Chromosil Symmetry C18 (150 x 4.6 mm I.D., 5 &#61549;m particle size) column and mobile phase comprised of phosphate buffer pH 4.0 and acetonitrile in proportion of ratio 40:60 v/v and degassed in ultrasonic water bath. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the detection wavelength was at 292 nm. The linearity was observed in the range of 10-60 &micro;g/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.999. The retention time of Rifaximin was 2.963 min. The method was validated as per the ICH guidelines for its linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and by performing recovery studies. The percentage recovery of the drug Rifaximin was 100.6% to 101.4% from the tablet formulation. The proposed method is suitable for the routine quality control analysis for the estimation of Rifaximin in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. <br />
7-13
3
EVALUATION OF LOOK-ALIKE AND SOUND-ALIKE MEDICINES AND DISPENSING ERRORS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL PHARMACY OF EASTERN NEPAL
*Mukhtar Ansari and Abhishek Sen
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Medication errors are common in hospitals which may occur at prescribing, dispensing and administration level. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dispensing errors that occur mainly due to similar sounding and looking medicines. A cross-sectional and observational study was conducted at Nobel Medical College Pharmacy, Biratnagar, Nepal during the months of August and September 2010. Three dispensing staffs were observed every day from 9 am to 5 pm for errors made while dispensing. Besides, a survey of look-alike and sound-alike medicines available at the pharmacy and their placement in the shelves was also done. Various reported cases of dispensing errors due to similar sounding and looking medicines were found. There were about twelve similar sounding brand names with different constituents in the pharmacy. Additionally, prescriptions or medication slips containing inappropriate information also led to dispensing errors.&nbsp; There is an urgent need of considering the medication errors with special emphasis to the similar sounding and looking medicines.
14-19
4
PRIMARY DYSMENHORREA, ITS EFFECTS AND REMEDIES USED AMONG YOUNG FEMALES OF DIFFERENT UNIVERSITIES IN KARACHI, PAKISTAN
*Fakhsheena Anjum, Noor Jahan, Sana Ghayas, Shumaila Shoaib, Nighat Tanveer, Warda Naseem and Anam Muzaffar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was conducted to reveal primary dysmenorrhea and its effects in young females belonging to various universities in Karachi, Pakistan. Remedies used to alleviate the undesired effects were also determined using a structured questionnaire. A structured questionnaire was filled by 621 subjects in the presence of the study researchers after taking their consent. The survey was conducted from March to May 2012. The results of the study showed that dysmenorrhea was mild in 28.8% (n=179), moderate in 36.9% (n=229) and severe in 15.8% (n=98) subjects. The age of menarche of majority of the females was 12-15 years with 85% (n=528) having regular and 15 % (n=93) having irregular menstruation. The most frequently reported associated symptoms were abdominal pain in 75.04% (n=466) females, headache in 15.62% (n=97), nausea in 20.45% (n=27) and vomiting in 7.41% (n=46) females. Only 9.33% (n=58) of the females consulted physicians, 33.5% (n=208) self medicated and 66.3% (n=412) took no action for their pain. Conventional medicine was used by 26.41% (n=164) females, household remedies by 9.02% (n=56), herbal by 2.89% (n=18) and homeopathic by 2.41 % (n=15) females. Paracetamol, ibuprofen and mefenemic acid were reported as commonly used allopathic medicines for dysmenorrhea; green tea, black caraway, coriander/ginger tea were used as herbal remedies whereas hot milk, boiled eggs and hot water bottles were used as household remedies by the participating females. Dysmenorrhea also affected different activities and performances of 52.3% (n=325) subjects; stress and depression affected 33.17% (n=207) subjects. Various symptoms contribute to severity of primary dysmenorrhea in which abdominal pain, headache and nausea are prevalent among the females. Due to this, activities and performances of young females are disturbed to quite much extent. The need for awareness regarding primary dysmenorrhea among young females is necessary and should be addressed by health care professionals and health related educational programs.<br />
20-23
5
VALIDATION OF A UV-SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE ASSAY AND PURITY OF PARACETAMOL IN SOLUTIONS FOR IV INFUSION, AND COMPARISON OF MARKETED BRANDS
*Tabbouche O. S, Soukkariyyeh I, Naji M and Alwan T
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Paracetamol or chemically named p-acetyl-N-aminophenol is a unique analgesic and antipyretic widely used in the hospital setting all over the globe. The Paracetamol solution for IV infusion is clinically the standard analgesic in Pain Management and the first line, most safe antipyretic especially in the Pediatrics Department. According to many pharmacopoeias, the UV spectroscopy is still one of the most validated and relied on quality control assays in pharmaceutical research. Our research objective is to compare the purity and quantity of the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) &ldquo;Paracetamol&rdquo; in five different brands of Paracetamol solution for IV infusion present in the Lebanese market. The &#61548;max was 244nm in all five brands which confirms purity of the API, however Amax was the highest in Bofalgan (Bosch Pharma) and lowest in Perfumol (Hikma Pharmaceuticals). The highest concentration was observed in Perfalgan (Bristol Myers Squibb), while the lowest concentration was observed in Perfumol (Hikma Pharmaceuticals).&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <br />
24-27
6
A NOVEL RAPIDLY DISINTEGRATING TABLET OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE WITH ENHANCED STABILITY: DESIGN AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION
*Mahmoud M. Ghorab, Yasser S. El-Saharty, Amna A. Makky, Shaimaa M. Badr-Eldin
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This work aimed to formulate sildenafil citrate rapidly disintegrating tablets with enhanced stability utilizing the approach of incorporating antioxidant simultaneously with pH modifier for adjusting the tablet microenvironmental pH. Studies for effect of pH on the drug saturated solutions stability revealed that the drug exhibited maximum stability at pH 4.6. Studies for the effect of antioxidants on drug stability revealed marked stabilizing effect of sodium metabisulphite. Tablets were prepared by direct compression according to 22 factorial design considering the factors; filler and disintegrant types. All blends contained sodium metabisulphite as antioxidant and potassium dihydrogen phosphate as microenvironmental pH adjuster. Two-way ANOVA was performed to assess effects and interactions of formulation factors on tablets characteristics. Two selected formulae (F b and F ab) were subjected to storage at 50 &ordm;C/75 % R.H for 12 weeks, where no significant changes was observed for F ab, while marked discoloration was observed for F b. The results suggested that F ab could be a promising drug formulation with rapid disintegration and enhanced stability.
28-39
7
ANTIMALARIAL DRUGS: A REVIEW
*Modupe Iretiola Builders
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Malaria causes about 400-900 million cases of fever and approximately 1-3 million deaths annually; this represents at least one death every 30 seconds. The vast majority of cases occur in children under the age of 5 years, pregnant women are also especially vulnerable. Resistance to antimalarial drugs as well as resistance of vectors to insecticides is proving to be a challenging problem in malaria control in most parts of the world. Furthermore, the difficulty of creating efficient vaccines and also adverse side-effects of the existing anti-malarial drugs highlight the urgent need for novel, well-tolerated antimalarial drugs for both prophylaxis and treatment of malaria, therefore researchers had discovered other antimalarial agents, mainly from plant sources. In this article, we would like to address current status of recent advances in malaria chemotherapy.
40-46
8
EVALUATION OF MAJOR COMPLICATIONS; PRE & POST HEMODIALYSIS IN PAKISTANI POPULATION
*Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Hanif and Javeid Iqbal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The commonly used renal replacement therapy for the end stage renal disease (ESRD) is the maintenance dialysis and kidney transplantation. The objective of the study was to evaluate and determine the frequency of different complications during and after haemodylisis in patients having ESRD. A patient having approaches for the renal transplantation is the gold standard of treatment. The maintenance haemodialysis is the substitute for the proper kidney functions. On one hand, it is blessing for renal failure patients, while on other hand, complications may occurs during and after the process of hemodialysis. Some are inherent side effects of the normal extra corporeal circuit, some results from technical errors, &amp; yet others are due to abnormal reactions during the dialysis procedure. This prospective and observational study was conducted at two different public and private hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Patients were selected from the lists of regular hemodialysis patients during the period of August, 2011 to April, 2012. The most frequently observed complications were cardiovascular system (CVS). These complications like hypotension &amp; arrhythmia were at the top with frequency of 79.3%. The gastrointestinal (GIT) complications like nausea, vomiting abdominal pain followed the CVS complication in order of frequency. There is a need for development of effective strategies to prevent gastrointestinal bleeding in patients on hemodialysis who use Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These complications may be decreased by taking some measures such as premedication of hemodialysis, well trained dialysis machine operators, latest technology dialysis machines,&nbsp; full monitoring during the process of dialysis and to improve the socioeconomic conditions of the patients so as to reduce the post dialysis problems such as infections at the site of catheter.
47-52
9
ASSESSMENT OF MEDICATION ERRORS IN AMONG PATIENTS VISITING COMMUNITY PHARMACIES IN RURAL AREAS OFCHIDAMBARAM, TAMILNADU AT SOUTH INDIA: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY
*Akram Ahmad, Isha Patel, S. Parimalakrishnan, G.P. Mohanta, Anoop Parchuri and R. Balkrishnan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Medication errors are important problems in hospitalized and outpatients department. Medication errors are inevitable and are affected by numerous human factors. Nevertheless, the epidemiological data about medication errors in outpatients in India is still limited. Objectives: This study was purposed to know the occurrence of medication errors including prescribing error, pharmaceutical error and dispensing error and the occurrence of the most type happened in these errors in outpatient settings. The present study is a prospective and study subjects were selected from community based ambulatory pharmacies. The study was carried over one month during January 2012. 250 prescriptions were collected and 212 of them were selected for the further analysis. We observed the prescription of 202 outpatients (of 212, 10 were excluded). About 81% of prescriptions were carrying with variety of errors. Among 202 prescriptions, 95.54 % were with prescribing errors, 9.9 % were with pharmaceutical errors and 7.91% were with dispensing errors. The most type of prescribing error was incomplete prescription orders and it was the most common stage of errors (95.54%). The dosing errors were including over dose and under dose of drugs, while dispensing errors includes improper drug preparation and incomplete or no drug information. Medication errors are still common problem in outpatients in Chidambaram, India. Pharmacists needed to prevent and overcome the medication errors.
53-58
10
A SURVEY OF CAREER IDENTITY AMONG RETAIL AND HOSPITAL PHARMACISTS IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY
*Sandeep Maharaj, Sureshwar Pandey, Arti Maharaj, Bonnilyn Berkeley, Ceema Ramnarine, Crissanne Ramoutar, Jadeine Joseph, Omphemetse Basinyi, Fazal Ali, Robin M. Antoine, Isaac Dialsingh and Ashok Sahai
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of this study was to investigate how retail pharmacists view themselves versus hospital pharmacists. This was explored in terms of self perception, workload, salary, technology and responsibilities. Questionnaires were distributed to thirty full time pharmacists. Fifteen were hospital pharmacists from the North Central Regional Health Authority and the fifteen retail pharmacists from along the North east-west corridor in Trinidad. The differences noted in perception corresponded to the areas of salary (benefits) and working conditions. Retail pharmacists felt that hospital pharmacists would be paid better and have more favourable working conditions (responsibilities; autonomy; technology; reporting relations). This investigation showed that hospital pharmacists basically had a relatively good perception of themselves as compared to their counterparts.
59-65
11
DEVELOPMENT OF pH BASED PHASE CHANGE SOLUTIONS FOR OPHTHALMIC DRUG DELIVERY OF GATIFLOXACIN
*Abdullah Khan, SMd Noorulla, Mohammed Muqtader, Roshan S and Sadath Ali
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Conventional dosage forms like gels and eye drops show relatively low bioavailability due to poor precorneal contact time. In situ gelling systems are of great importance in providing prolonged ocular drug delivery due to their elastic properties. It resists ocular drainage leading to longer contact time. In the present study an in situ gelling solution was formulated for gatifloxacin an antibacterial agent, using different ratios of hydroxypropyl cellulose and Sodium alginate with a view to increase gelling strength and bio-adhesion force in order to increase pre-corneal contact time, thereby increasing ocular bioavailability of the drug. The prepared formulations were evaluated for various physical parameters such as, clarity, pH, viscosity, drug content, sterility, and in vitro drug release. The formulated gels were transparent, uniform in consistency and had sufficient spreadability with a pH range of 6.8 to 7.1. It was found that with an increase in the concentration of the bioadhesive polymer sodium alginate the drug release was prolonged for longer period of time. Amongst the different polymer combinations studied the G-7 showed satisfactorily higher gel strength, and sustained drug release for more than twelve hours and was stable throughout the stability studies. Thus it can be concluded that the G-7 was more suitable combination for the formulation of ophthalmic in situ gelling system for sustained ocular drug delivery of gatifloxacin, which improves the bioavailability of the drugs on the precorneal area.
66-72
12
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF GASTRORETENTIVE FLOATING TABLETS OF FAMOTIDINE
*Brajendra singh Rajpoot
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of this investigation was to prepare a gastro retentive drug delivery system of famotidine. Floating tablets of famotidine were prepared by using two different grades of HPMCK4M and HPMCK100M by effervescent technique; these HPMCK have gel-forming properties. The floating tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content. All prepared tablet showed good in vitro buoyancy.
73-76
13
LEUCAS CEPHALOTES (ROTH) SPRENG: REVIEW AT A GLANCE
*Reena Bhoria and Sushma Kainsa
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Leucas cephalotes is an annual herb growing widely in India. It is used as anti-filarial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepato-protective, antimicrobial &amp; anti-diabetic .The Leucas cephalotes (Roth) Spreng whole herb contains new Labdane, Nor Labdane &amp; Abietone-type, Diterpenes named Leucasdins A (1), B (2), C (3), five sterols and eight flavones. The review summaries phytochemical and pharmacological investigations carried out on this plant.
77-81
14
PREPARATION OF BIODEGRADABLE MICROSPHERES BY SPRAY DRYING METHOD FOR ISONIAZID PULMONARY DELIVERY
*Aliasgar J. Kundawala, Vishnu A. Patel, Harsha V. Patel and Dhaglaram Choudhary
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study was to prepare microspheres containing Isoniazid, using Chitosan, Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) as carrier polymers to achieve aerodynamic properties with sustainable drug release in lungs. The microspheres were evaluated for morphological characterization, particle size analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry and in-vitro deposition studies. The microspheres were spherical shaped with slight rough surface and appeared as aggregated particles, however, HPMC-microspheres found to have collapsed surface. The in vitro drug deposition revealed that mass median aerodynamic diameter of microspheres was in the range of 2.53 to 3.01&mu;m with fine particle fraction between 44-66%. All the formulation batches showed acceptable drug loading (&gt; 90%), powder flow properties having Carr&rsquo;s index in the range of 30 to 44 %. Microspheres showed sustained drug release over period of more than 8 hours except HPC-microspheres. The microspheres prepared with spray drying technique showed promising aerosol properties with sustained drug release properties required for effective pulmonary administration of isoniazid.
82-90
15
METHODS TO STUDY ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MEDICINAL PLANTS
*Susmita Mahapatra, Yugal Kishore Mohanta, Sujogya Kumar Panda
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Antioxidant properties have been credited to medicinal plants because plants have to counteract themselves from stress caused by oxygen. Plants have no side effects and provide protection against free radicals, thus prevent our body from oxidative damage. As a result, it is very much necessary to screen medicinal plants for their antioxidant properties. There are several in vitro assays are reported for measurement of antioxidant properties. Results comparability is largely dependent on the techniques employed in the investigations and conclusive results can only be obtained if methods are standardized and worldwide. In the light of the fact, the present review is designed for the simplicity and feasibility of the authors to use the appropriate methods based on the availability of the instruments, so as to reduce the time consumption. This review offers an idea behind the mechanism involved in each test assay. At the same time it also provide information on the most common methods used in the present day to study antioxidant activity with their advantages and comparison of different standards used by several authors.
91-97
16
STUDIES RELATED TO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF AMINOBENZYLATED MANNICH BASES OF UREA
*Chaluvaraju KC and Ishwar bhat K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
An elegant synthesis of newer aminobenzylated mannich bases (6a to 6j) is described in the present study. These were synthesized by reacting aromatic aldehydes, cyclic secondary amines and a reagent with active hydrogen atom such as Urea in the presence of hydrochloric acid. The constituents of the newly synthesized compounds have been established on the basis of their physical and spectral data. All the newly obtained compounds have been screened for invitro antimicrobial activity against bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtillis, Escherichia coli and fungal strains Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger.
98-102
17
VALIDATED CHROMATOGRAPHICAL METHODS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
*Delhiraj N and Anbazhagan S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Two new, rapid, precise, accurate and specific chromatographic methods for the simultaneous determination of Olmesartan medoxomil,Amlodipine besylate and Hydrochlorothiazide in combined pharmaceutical dosage forms. The first method based on reverse phase liquid chromatography by using Qualisil BDS C18 column (250 mm X 4.6 i.d., 5 &mu;m). Mobile phase consists of 1.0 ml of triethylamine in one litre water and the pH was adjusted to 2.5 with orthophosphoric acid and Acetonitrile (60:40) with a flow rate of 1ml/min, with a detection wavelength of 231nm.The second method involved silica gel 60F254 high performance thin layer chromatography and densitometric detection at 231 nm using chloroform: methanol (85:15) as the mobile phase.<br />
103-103
18
DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CONTROLLED RELEASE SPHERICAL AGGLOMERATES BY USING THE QUASI-EMULSION SOLVENT DIFFUSION METHOD
*Anuradha A. Ranpise, Pratiksha M. Kadam, Shilpa P. Chaudhari, Atul A. Phatak
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Aspirin is moisture sensitive drug and having poor flowability and compressibility, it is necessary to increase the flowability and compressibility of Aspirin. Spherical crystallization of aspirin was done by quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method (QESD). 32 factorial design were used to study the effect of agitation speed and amount of polymer in development of spherical agglomerates. Agglomerates were evaluated for micromeritics properties, drug release, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, Karl Fischer titration, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction. Flowability and compressibility properties of agglomerates were good enough to adopt direct compression technology. In vitro drug release of optimized formulation shows 98% .X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis reveal the conversion of crystalline drug to amorphous. FTIR of agglomerates does not shown any extra peaks as compared to pure drug. Controlled release aspirin agglomerates were prepared successfully by QESD method. The method was simple, inexpensive and reproducible. <br />
108-115
19
A RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF DIHYDRALAZINE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
*Saroj Kumar Raul, B.V.V Ravi kumar, Ajaya Kumar Pattnaik, Nagireddy Neelakanta Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, selective, linear, precise and accurate RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for rapid assay of Dihydralazine in pharmaceutical dosage form. Isocratic elution at a flow rate of 0.8 mL min -1 was employed on a Hypersil C18 column at 40oC. The mobile phase consisted of phosphate buffer: acetonitrile 98:2 (v/v) and the detection wavelength was at 305 nm. Linearity was observed in concentration range of 25-150 &mu;g/mL. The retention time for Dihydralazine was 2.75 min. The method was validated as per the ICH guidelines. The proposed method can be successfully applied for the estimation of Dihydralazine in pharmaceutical dosage forms.
116-121
20
FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT, CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF LIQUISOLID TABLET CONTAINING PIOGLITAZONE HCL
*K. J. Gandhi, A. R. Sawant, S. V. Nagpure, S. V. Deshmane, K .R. Biyani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of present study was to improve the solubility of pioglitazone HCl a practically insoluble antidiabetic drug by using liquisolid technique. The in vitro release pattern of liquisolid tablets and directly compressed tablets were studied using USP-II apparatus. Different Liquisolid tablets were prepared using a mathematical model to calculate the required quantities of powder and liquid ingredients to produce acceptably flowable and compressible admixture. Avicel PH 102, Aerosil 200 and Sodium starch glycolate were employed as carrier, coating material and disintegrant respectively. The drug release rates of Liquisolid tablets were distinctly higher as compared to directly compressed tablets, which show significant benefit of Liquisolid tablets in increasing wetting properties and surface area of drug available for dissolution. The optimized formulation showed the higher drug release during ex-vivo and in-vivo study against conventional and marketed tablet preparation. The DSC and FT-IR studies conforms the no significant interaction between the drug and excipients used in Liquisolid tablets. From this study it concludes that the Liquisolid technique is a promising alternative and best suitable method for enhancing solubility of pioglitazone HCl.
122-130
21
PATTERN OF THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTIONS MADE BY CLINICAL PHARMACIST IN A SOUTH INDIAN HOSPITAL
*Mohammed Saji S, Raslif Khan S and Siraj Sundaran
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
70% of medication errors occurring in the hospitals are preventable. The study was aimed to document, classify and examine interventions and examine reasons as to why pharmacists initiate changes in drug therapy and the outcomes of interventions, also examine the acceptability of interventions to analyze if intervention study can be a reliable learning process and to identify the areas of weakness in case of ineffective interventions. Interventions were broadly classified into Reactive interventions and Passive interventions. The study was conducted for six months. A total of 470 interventions were recorded in this study. Out of these 470 interventions, 104 were reactive interventions and 366 were passive interventions. Out of 92 outcome assessed interventions, the outcomes were beneficial in (91.30%) and had no effect in (8.70%). Active involvement of clinical pharmacists in the wards helps physicians in taking better therapeutic decisions which highlights areas where clinical pharmacists could prove their skill and knowledge to achieve better patient outcomes. <br />
131-135
22
NEW STABILITY INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LAMIVUDINE, TENOFOVIR DF AND NEVIRAPINE IN EXTENDED RELEASE TABLETS
*Lanka A. Rama Prasad, J.V.L.N.S. Rao, Srinivasu Pamidi, J. Vara Prasad and J. Hemalatha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
New stability-indicating reverse phase LC method developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Lamivudine, Tenofovir DF and Nevirapine in extended release tablet dosage form.&nbsp; Tenofovir and Lamivudine are formulated into immediate release and Nevirapine into extended relase. The chromatographic conditions were optimized using an impurity-spiked solution and the samples generated from forced degradation studies. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a core shell technology C18 stationary phase. The method employed a linear gradient elution and the detection wavlength was set at 260 nm. The mobile phases consists of buffer and acetonitrile delivered at a flow rate of 0.7 mL&bull;min&ndash;1. Proposed method was extensively validated as per ICH guidelines. Regression analysis shows an r value (correlation coefficient) of greater than 0.999 for individual active drug substances. The samples were assayed against a qualified reference standard and the mass balance was found to be close to 98.3%.
136-144
23
SYNTHESIS OF 9-BROMO-N-SUBSTITUTED- 6H- INDOLO [2, 3-b] QUINOXALINE-3-SULFONAMIDE DERIVATIVES CONTAINING QUINOXALINE MOIETY AS PROSPECTIVE ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS
*Sandeep Talari, Govindarajan. R, Divya Karunakaram, Srikanth Jupudi and Udhayavani.S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
O-phenylene diamine is reacted with 5-bromo Isatin and the resultant compound is reacted with various aromatic and aliphatic amines to form the 9-bromo-N-substituted- 6H- indolo [2,3-b] quinoxaline-3-sulfonamide derivatives of Quinoxaline (QXN 1 to QXN 12). All the compounds were structurally elucidated with physical and analytical methods. All the compounds were evaluated with anti-microbial activity against a variety of bacterial strains (both Gram +ve and Gram &ndash;ve) and fungal strains and some of these compounds have shown significant antibacterial and antifungal activities. <br />
145-151
24
FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF VENLAFAXINE HYDROCHLORIDE EXTENDED RELEASE PELLETS BY EXTRUSION SPHERONIZATION METHOD
*Omprakash Bagdiya, Ajay Kumar Sav and Purnima Dhanraj Amin
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Venlafaxine hydrochloride is an antidepressant drug used to treat various mental disorders. Single layer or double layer coating generally used method to prepare extended release pellets of Venlafaxine hydrochloride. In current work, extended release pellets of Venlafaxine was prepared by extrusion spheronization method using combination of hydrophobic low melting wax and hydrophilic polymers as release retarding agent. This method avoids the process of layering or film coating. The optimized capsule formulation containing Venlafaxine hydrochloride pellets (F10) was evaluated for physical properties like size distribution, surface morphology and Invitro drug release. The developed capsule formulation was found to be complying with the marketed formulation Venlor XR &reg; (37.5 mg) with respect to dissolution Invitro drug release profile and physical property. SEM study showed that formulation comprised of sphere pellets of uniform size. Dissolution data was found to be best fitted in Higuchi equation revealed that drug releases by diffusion mechanism. The optimized batch (F10) was found to be stable for period of stability study. <br />
152-159
25
A TYPICAL REVIEW ON PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS OF GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROPHOTOMETRY
*Gattu Madhava Prathap,B. Krishnamoorthy, M. Muthukumaran and Amreen Nishat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present review article to discuss briefly about the construction and working mechanism of the hyphenated technique GC-MS. Here the importance of the hyphenated technique in the drug resolution was determined. GC with low resolution electron ionization (EI)-MS was used, together with confirmation with chemical standards, for identification work. The method was successfully applied in many fields like forensic department&nbsp;&nbsp; and environmental analysis. It is also used in the anti-doping analysis. The combines the features of gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample. Applications of GC - MS include drug detection, fire investigation, environmental analysis, explosives investigation, and identification of unknown samples. GC - MS has been widely heralded as a &quot;gold standard&quot; for forensic substance identification because it i s used to perform a specific test.
160-165
26
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE AND CANDESARTAN CILEXETIL IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
*Ananda Rao Bonthala and T.A.D. Surya Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of hydrochlorothiazide and candesartan cilexetil in pharmaceutical dosage form. The column used was Zorbax C8 (150&times;4.6 mm, 3.5&micro;m) in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing phosphate buffer-methanol (30:70) adjusted to pH 3.0 using ortho phosphoric acid was used. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/ min and effluents were monitored at 230 nm. The retention times of hydrochlorothiazide and candesartan cilexetil were 2.170 min and 7.280 min, respectively. The linearity for Hydrochlorothiazide and Candesartan cilexetil were in the range of 25-125 mg/mL and 16-80 mg/mL respectively. The recoveries of Hydrochlorothiazide and Candesartan- cilexetil were found to be 101.5% and 100.9%, respectively. The proposed method was validated and successfully applied to the estimation of Hydrochlorothiazide and Candesartan cilexetil in combined tablet dosage forms.
166-169
27
SOLID DISPERSION–AN APPROACH TO ENHANCE THE DISSOLUTION RATE OF AMLODIPINE
*R. B. Desi Reddy, P. Sivanarayana, T. Madhu Mounica, N. Prathibha, G. Sandhya and P. Alekhya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Solid dispersion refers to the dispersion of one or more active ingredients in an inert carrier in a solid state, frequently prepared by the melting method, solvent method, or fusion solvent method. The oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug remains as the most challenging aspects of drug development. Solid dispersion approach is to reduce particle size, therefore increases the dissolution rate and absorption of drugs. Amlodipine is poorly soluble drug. The solubility of this drug is enhanced by preparing the solid dispersions of amlodipine, with hydrophilic polymers like PEG4000, in different ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 and 1:6). The amount of drug released is measured by UV spectroscopy at the wavelength of 238nm using methanol as blank.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <br />
170-172
28
NEW ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF GEMFIBROZIL IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION BY RP-HPLC
*A. Sushma, K. Harinadha Babu and G. Vijay Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination Gemfibrozil in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. The column used was Agilent Zorbax C8 (150 &times;4.6mm, 5&micro;) in gradient mode,&nbsp;&nbsp; with mobile phase containing Solvent-A: phosphate buffer adjusted the pH-3.0 with orthophosphoric acid Solvent-B: Methanol the flow rate was 1.5 mL/ min and eluents was monitored at 276 nm. The retention time Gemfibrozil was 5.158 min, respectively. The linearity for Gemfibrozil was in the range of 30-450 &micro;g/ml respectively. The recovery of Gemfibrozil was found to be 99.5%, respectively. The proposed method was validated and successfully applied to the estimation of Gemfibrozil in capsule dosage form
173-175
29
EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC AND ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF MOMORDICA CHAIRANTIA
*Sri Ramachandra M, Srinivasa Rao Avanapu and S Shobha Rani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the Analgesic &amp; anti inflammatory activities of the Momordica charantia extract. Momordica chirantia (MC) is a herbal medicine traditionally applied to treat so many diseases and disorders. In the evaluation of analgesic activity the model used was Eddy&rsquo;s hot plate method in which the animals treated with Momordica charantia and standard Pentazocin has significantly decreased the Hot plate-induced writhing and licking responses when compared with control group animals. The anti &ndash; inflammatory activity was screened by Carageenan induced paw edema model in which the animals treated with testing drug and standard Indomethacin has significantly reduced the inflammation when compared with carageenan induced inflammatory positive control group animals. So we can conclude that the extract of Momordica charantia has the analgesic and anti inflammatory activities. <br />
176-179
30
NIOSOMES – VESICULAR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
*V. Lokeswara Babu , Sam T. Mathew1, K.N. Jayaveera and V.V. Prasanth
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
At present days drugs are formulated by using different novel drug delivery system (NDDS) which are used for targeting drugs to different organ systems and for controlled /sustained release of drug from the dosage forms. The NDDS can be used to overcome many disadvantages of conventional dosage forms like poor bioavailability, first pass effect, systemic toxicity, degradation of drug in stomach etc. which results in decreased biological activity of the drugs. Vesicular system is one of the important NDDS studied since a lot of time, of which main importance was given to liposomes. Due to the unstability of phospholipids (used for the formulation of liposomes) on storage was replaced with non ionic surfactants. Niosomal vesicles were prepared by using non ionic surfactants and were first reported in cosmetic industry. Niosomes are used as carrier systems for the delivery of most of the drugs, biologically active agents, hormones and antigens for the better treatment. The present review involves a detailed description about the drug delivery through niosomal formulation. <br />
180-185
31
FORMULATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND IN-VIVO ASSESSMENT OF TOPICAL NANOEMULSION OF BETAMETHASONE VALERATE FOR PSORIASIS AND DERMATOSE
*Md Sajid Ali, Md Sarfaraz Alam, Nawazish Alam, Syed Akmal Shah Qadry, Md Intakhab Alam, Md Shamim and Md Daud Ali
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the current work was the formulation, characterization and in vivo study of betamethasone valerate nanoemulsion based on the induction of contact dermatitis in rats using a dispersion of nickel sulfate in solid vaseline at 5%, carragennen induce inflammation and their irritation study. Nanoemulsions were prepared by aqueous phase titration method, using sefsol, tween 20, transcutol P, and distilled water as the oil phase, surfactant, co surfactant and aqueous phase, respectively. Selected formulations were subjected to physical stability studies and consequently in vitro skin permeation studies. A surface study of optimized formulation was done by transmission electron microscopy. In vivo anti-inflammatory, In vivo irritation study and In vivo nickel induced contact dermatitis activity were done.&nbsp; The droplet size of nanoemulsion ranged from 150 to 200 nm. The optimized formulation exhibited viscosity 26.95 &plusmn; 1.71mP, refractive index 1.431, pH 6.5, and conductivity 10 -4 scm -1. The optimized nanoemulsion was converted into hydro gel using carbopol 934. Drug deposition in skin was found to be 58.46 &mu;g/cm2. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity indicated 84.2% and 45.05% inhibition of inflammation in case of developed nanoemulsion gel (A5) and marketed cream, respectively. The irritation score was found to be 1.83 which indicates our optimized nanoemulsion was not cause any irritation. Result of nickel induced dermatitis demonstrate that the nanoemulsion formulation (A5) gel did not appear to stimulate an inflammatory or immune response using the contact dermatitis model.
186-199
32
A VALIDATED AND STABILITY INDICATING HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TERBUTALINE SULPHATE, GUAIPHENESIN AND BROMHEXINE HCL IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION
*Safeena Sheikh, Suhail Asghar and Showkat Ahmad
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A fast, rapid, sensitive and stability indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method is developed and validated for quantitative estimation of terbutaline sulphate (TS), Guaiphenasin (G) and Bromhexine hydrochloride (B.HCl) simultaneously in pharmaceutical formulation (Cough Syrup). The sample are chromatographed on silica gel 60F254- TLC plates, using solvent system Dichloromethane: Methanol: Acetic Acid (7.5: 1:0.5) and scanned at 254nm. The current method demonstrates good linearity over the range for TS was 200-1200ng/spot with r2 of 0.999; G is 1.0-6.0mcg/spot with r2 of 0.998 and B.HCl 500-3500ng/spot with r2 of 0.997. The average recovery of the method is 100.47% for TS; 99.94% for G and 100.12% for B.HCl in formulation. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for TS, G and B.HCl were found to be 50-150ng/spot, 200-800ng/spot and 100-300ng/spot respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for the assay of market formulation. The degree of reproducibility of the results obtained as a result of small deliberate variations in the method parameter and by changing analytical parameter operated proven that the method is robust.
200-210
33
ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CHICORY ROOTS IN STREPTOZOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
*Faheem Mubeen, Hardeep and Dhananjay Kumar pandey
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
To study the antidiabetic activity of Chicory roots methanolic extract (MEC) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. MEC of root was subjected to preliminary qualitative phytochemical investigations by using standard procedures. The extract (400 mg/kg p.o.) was screened for antidiabetic activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats (30 mg/kg, i.p.). Acute oral toxicity study for the test extract of the plant root was carried out using OECD/OCED guideline 425. Phytochemical analysis of MEC of roots revealed the presence of inulin, sucrose, cellulose, protein, carbohydrates, lipids, alkaloids, glycosides and tannins compounds. In acute toxicity study, no toxic symptoms were observed for MEC up to dose 2000 mg/kg. Oral administration of MEC for 21 days exhibited highly significant (P &lt; 0.01) hypoglycemic activity and also correction of altered biochemical parameters, namely cholesterol and triglycerides significantly (P &lt; 0.05). Urine analysis on 1st day showed the presence of glucose and traces of ketone in the entire group except normal control group. However, on 21st day glucose and ketone traces were absent in MEC and glibenclamide-treated groups while they were present in diabetic control. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance followed by Dunnett&rsquo;s test. The observations confirm that methanolic extract of the root of the plant has antidiabetic activity and is also involved in correction of altered biological parameters. It also warrants further investigation to isolate and identify the hypoglycemic principles in this Chicory root so as to elucidate their mode of action.
211-216
34
FORMULATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE EXTENDED RELEASE AND GLIMEPIRIDE IMMEDIATE RELEASE INTO BILAYERED TABLET DOSAGE FORM: IN VITRO EVALUATION
*P. Shashidhar and G. Vidya sagar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of the research work was formulation development and evaluation bi-layer floating tablets for metformin hydrochloride and glimepiride to improve the oral therapeutic efficacy Both these drugs exhibit&nbsp; pH dependent solubility&nbsp; and show good permeability from stomach and upper part of the small intestine into systemic circulation. Direct compression method form metformin hydrochloride layer and wet granulation method for glimepiride was used to formulate bi-layer floating tablets. The optimized formula F-5 of metformin layer exhibits float for more than 12 h and extend drug release above 12 h. Different grades of methocel (HPMC) was used as was used as drug release retarding agents in order to get the extended release profile of metformin hydrochloride over a period of 12 h. Glimepiride immediate release layer was formulation using different excipients. HPMC K100M based formulation 5 was showing drug release according to the USP specifications and was optimized and kept of stability studies. The drug release profiles at 1 month in 40&#9702;C and 75%RH suggesting that In various invitro drug release kinetics studies Higuchi model was found to be the best fitted in all dissolution profile having higher correlation coefficient 0.995 followed by Peppas model and first order release, Slope of vergnaurd model obtained is 0.399. Indicates fickian diffusion and the rate of matrix erosion of metformin hydrochloride tablets were found to 0.062 /min from the tablets. <br />
217-227
35
IMPACT OF FURFURAL AND KEROSENE COEXPOSURE THROUGH INHALATION IN LUNGS OF RATS
*Tabarak Malik, D. K. Pandey
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Furfural is being added to kerosene to check the adulteration of gasoline/high speed diesel oil. The possibility of a co-exposure of furfural and kerosene and the ability to exhibit the toxic effects of such a mixture were examined in view of the toxicity potential of the two alone and in combination with each other. A single inhalation exposure of rats to furfural was fully tolerated up to a concentration of 126 ppm. However, exposure to higher concentrations of furfural resulted in a dose dependent mortality. Exposure of rats to vapor of kerosene ranging from 426-1054 ppm did not show toxic signs and mortality up to a period of seven days. Simultaneous exposure of rats to furfural and kerosene vapors ranging in concentration from 35 ppm to 138 ppm showed a suppression of LC50 value of furfural. The LC50 was 105 ppm in rats exposed to furfural-kerosene vapors. Inhalation exposure of rats to &frac12; LC50 of furfural to 95 ppm, 1 hr daily, 5 days/week over a period of 28 days caused severe irritation of eyes and nose leading to lacrimation, perinasal and perioral wetness, labored breathing and mild nasal bleeding. Neither the body weight nor lung weight showed any change as compared to the control group. Activities of acid and alkaline phosphatase, glutamic pyruvic and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminases, succinic dehydrogenase, total sulphydryl content and lactic acid content were evaluated.
228-233
36
SHRAGA™ Griseofulvin Topical for Treatment of Otomycosis: New Indication
*Shraga Shmuel, Elidan Josef, Ben Yaakov Avraham and Cohen Isaac
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This paper(documented by clinical assay and Susceptibility testing )will discuss, an innovative remedy (SHRAGA&trade;), containing Griseofulvin (GF), for treating Otomycosis , a fungal infection of the ear external auditory canal, by topical use, This composition includes: Tea tree oil (TTO) used for dissolving the (GF )in water , with its&nbsp; additional role of&nbsp; synergism effect to GF. Betamethasone (BM) which is a steroid, a synthetic glucocorticoid, known for its potent anti-inflammatory action, which also suppresses the immune response to GF. GF compound is non soluble in water and therefore was not available so far for use as topical treatment. Our methods make the facility for solubility of Griseofulvin in water for using&nbsp;&nbsp; it as a topical drug. Aspergillus. and Candida species are the most common isolated organisms in fungal external otitis(Otomycosis) .&nbsp; and were eradicated by(SHRAGA&trade;). GF alone has no any effect to Aspergillus. and Candida species. TTO originally by100% concentration has a negligible effect on Aspergillus, and Candida species which is toxic. In the contrary (SHRAGA&trade;), using a low concentration of TTO and GF, has safe and almost 3 fold effectiveness. (SHRAGA&trade;) is most effective for treating the majority of fungi such as Dermatophytes, Molds and Yeasts by topical use, whereas other remedies available in the market specialize in treating only&nbsp; one or at the most two fungi .&nbsp; <br />
234-240
37
NARAVELIA ZEYLANICA: A REVIEW
*Manasa Barlanka and Venu Gopal Y
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Plants are the principal source of raw materials for plant based medicine since ancient times. The traditional herbal medicines are receiving great importance in the health care sector.&nbsp; In Indian system of medicine i.e, ayurveda, one of the plant Naravelia zeylanica (Linn) DC belonging to family ranunculaceae has been used in the treatment of helminthiasis, dermatopathy, leprosy, rheumatalgia, odontalgia, colic inflammation, wounds and ulcers. It is distributed throughout india mainly in warm regions of Eastern Himalayas, Assam, Bengal, Bihar and greater parts of Deccan Peninsula. The aerial parts of Naravelia zeylanica traditionally used in vitiated vata, pitta, inflammation, skin diseases. The present review on Naravelia zeylanica is to know its importance with respect to pharmacognosy, pharmacology and phytochemistry in detail.
241-246
38
INVITRO EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT SOLVENT EXTRACTS OF SECURIDACA LONGEPEDACULATA
*Okoye EI, Ikegbunam MN, Amadi AK and Obi GE
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the present study was to assess the antibacterial activity of different solvent extracts of Securidaca longependuculata. The&nbsp; methanol, petroleum&nbsp; ether&nbsp; and&nbsp; aqueous&nbsp; extracts of&nbsp; the&nbsp; stem&nbsp; bark of the plant were&nbsp; examined&nbsp; for&nbsp; antibacterial activity&nbsp; against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas spp, using&nbsp; the&nbsp; agar well diffusion&nbsp; method while the minimum inhibitory concentration of methanol extract was evaluated using agar dilution method. The extracts were graded into different concentrations of 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml, 25mg/ml and 12.5mg/ml. Results&nbsp; showed&nbsp; that&nbsp; petroleum&nbsp; ether&nbsp; extract&nbsp; had no antibacterial activity&nbsp; while&nbsp; the&nbsp; aqueous&nbsp;&nbsp; extracts showed the most&nbsp; potent activity against Staphylococcus aureus (22.5mm at 100mg/ml) and Salmonella typhi (19mm at 100mg/ml), Escherichia coli (18.5mm at 100mg/ml) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17.5 at 100mg/ml). Methanol extract had the second highest activity against the test organisms. The MIC of the methanol extract against the test organisms were 100mg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus and &#707;100mg/ml for the rest of the organisms tested. The entire evaluations showed that Securidaca longependuculata had antibacterial activity against clinical isolates tested.
247-250
39
ULTRA PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY: A CHROMATOGRAPHY TECHNIQUE
*G. Madhava Prathap and Amreen Nishat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ultra performance liquid chromatography systems take advantage of technological pace in particle chemistry performance, system optimization, detector design and data processing. When taken together, these achievements have created an improvement in chromatographic performance. This new category of analytical separation science retains the practicality and principles of HPLC while increasing the overall interrelated attributes of speed, sensitivity and resolution. Today&rsquo;s pharmaceutical industries are looking for new ways to cut cost and shorten time for development of drugs while at the same time improving the quality of their products and analytical laboratories are not exception in this trend. Speed allows a greater number of analyses to be performed in a shorter amount of time thereby increasing sample throughput and lab productivity. These are the benefits of faster analysis and hence the ultra performance liquid chromatography. A typical assay was transferred and optimized for UPLC system to achieve both higher sample analysis throughput and better assay sensitivity. Analysis of operation cost and sample throughput found UPLC cost advantageous over HPLC.<br />
251-260
40
CHRONOMODULATION: A PLATFORM FOR FUTURE DOSAGE FORMS
*Rahul Bhaskar, Radhika Bhaskar, Mahendra K. Sagar and Vipin Saini
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Gone are the days when patient incompliance was due to cumbersome dosage regimen. The mesmerizing technology of alteration in the time of release of the drug has not only opened up new possibilities but also has made many drug products based on them commercially available. These systems are based on the basic physiological phenomenon known as biological clock or circadian rhythm i.e. a daily cycle of biological activities which may get influenced with the environmental and several other factors. The system ensures the drug is released at the time of its requirement hence known as chronomodulated (chrono means &lsquo;time&rsquo; and modulation means &lsquo;alteration&rsquo;) drug delivery systems. There are a good number of platform technologies which either can be utilized as such or can be amended a bit to get the desired product. This review article deals with such technologies along with their commercially available products.
261-269
41
SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF LAMIVUDINE, TENOFOVIR AND EFAVIRENZ IN LAMIVUDINE, TENOFOVIR DISPROPOXIL FUMARATE AND EFAVIRENZ TABLETS BY STABILITY INDICATING ISOCRATIC RP-HPLC METHOD WITH PDA DETECTOR
*Manikya Rao T*, T. Prabhakar, Dr. G. Girija sankar PVL Naidu and N.Jyothi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple fast, accurate, precise and cost effective isocratic RP-HPLC method is developed for simultaneous determination of Lamivudine, Tenofovir and Efavirenz in tablet formulation. Lamivudine, Tenofovir and Efavirenz are considered as a very potent regimen in therapy-na&#305;ve patients and therefore, it is recommended as &#64257;rst-line therapy. It is indicated for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection in adults and adolescents with virologic suppression to HIV-1 RNA levels of &lt; 50 copies/ml on their current combination antiretroviral therapy for more than three months. Patients must not have experienced virological failure on any prior antiretroviral therapy. The retention times of Lamivudine, Tenofovir and Efavirenz were found to be 2.3, 3.6 and 13.6 minutes respectively. The method was linear over the range of 25 to 45 ppm with r2 = 0.999 for Lamivudine, 25 to 45 ppm with r2 = 0.999 for Tenofovir and 50 to 90 ppm with r2 = 0.999 for Efavirenz. Mean recovery for Lamivudine Tenofovir and Efavirenz were 100.5, 99.4 and 99.9 respectively. The method found simple, accurate, precise, and linear over the given range, rugged and robust.
270-276
42
VALIDATED STABILITY INDICATING REVERSE PHASE HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PERINDOPRIL AND INDAPAMIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
*P.S.R.CH.N.P. Varma D, A. Lakshmana Rao and S.C. Dinda
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, precise and rapid HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of Perindopril and Indapamide in pharmaceutical dosage form. The method was carried out using Hypersil BDS C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5&micro;m) and mobile phase comprised of phosphate buffer pH 3.5&plusmn;0.05 and methanol in the ratio of 65:35 v/v and degassed under ultrasonication. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the effluent was monitored at 215 nm. The retention times of Perindopril and Indapamide were 3.53 min and 4.09 min respectively. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and by performing recovery study. Linearity was in the range of 160 to 480 &micro;g/mL for Perindopril and 50 to 150 &micro;g/mL for Indapamide respectively. The percentage recoveries of both the drugs were ranging from 97.8 to 101.7 for Perindopril and 98.7 to 101.8 for Indapamide respectively from the tablet formulation. The proposed method is suitable for the routine quality control analysis of simultaneous determination of Perindopril and Indapamide in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. <br />
277-289