Volume 3 - Issue 2

S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
DETECTION AND ANALYSIS OF POSSIBLE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN DRUGS PRESCRIBED AT HOSPITAL DISCHARGE
*Bianchi Stefano, Bianchini Erica, Fedele Daniela and Scanavacca Paola
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Interaction between drugs constitutes a frequent cause of adverse drug reaction. The aim of this study, was to provide an analysis of potential drug interactions. The study groups were 225 patients from the dialysis unit and 519 patients from the heart failure centre. Discharge prescriptions from the two units were collected for six months during 2011. In the heart failure centre, 74% of patients received prescriptions for drug combinations that may have adverse interactions. The most frequent and important potential interactions concerned furosemide with enalapril,17%, and acetylsalicylic acid with metoprolol, 15%. In the dialysis unit, 19% of patients received prescriptions that may have adverse interactions. Two examples were algeldrate with amlodipine, 6%, In 1.3% of patients increase in INR occurred owing to interactions. The results have revealed particularly high risk for potential interactions in heart failure centre patients because of the prescription of many drugs and because of the types of these drugs.
290-295
2
SELF-MONITORED BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL TIMING TO REPRESENT HEMOGLOBIN A1C LEVEL IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS
*Sutathip Pichayapaiboon, Duangchit Panomvana
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Glycosylated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) is used to assess treatment efficacy in type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM). It is a function of both fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia. This study evaluated the relationship between different time point of self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) testing and HbA1C.&nbsp; Within 2 weeks, 64 T2DM patients at Police General Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand,&nbsp; performed 12-point SMBG (4 points per each meal per day on every other day: immediately pre meal, 1,2,and 4-hour post meal) twice . SMBG level was reported as mean level from two measurements. HbA1C was measured 2 months later.&nbsp; SMBG levels of all 3 meals and of pre breakfast indicated good relationship with HbA1C (r = 0.766, and r = 0.689, p &lt; 0.01). SMBG level at 4-hour post lunch was also exhibited a good relationship with HbA1C (r = 0.671, p &lt;0.01). Therefore, SMBG testing at 4-hour post lunch might be recommended as another good option to assess glycemic control in T2DM patients. <br /><br />
296-300
3
EXTRACT OF 1:5 MIXTURE OF FIVE MOROCCAN MEDICINAL PLANTS HAS CYTOTOXIC EFFECT ON SOME HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES
*Latifa Doudach, Laila Benbacer, Bouchra Meddah, My El Abbes Faouzi, Khalil Hammani, Mohammed El Mzibri and Yahia Cherrah
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Traditional medicines have long been used by the Moroccan people. Several medicinal recipes prepared from a mixture of plants are often used by traditional medicinal practitioners for the treatment of many diseases including cancer. However, little is known for their scientific information especially their anticancer effects. In this study, one traditional used Moroccan herbal remedy for treatment of hemorrhoids and cancer therapy (cervical cancer, skin cancer) was investigated for its cytotoxic effect against cancer cell lines. Aqueous herbal distillate of mixture in equal quantity of five medicinal plants was evaluated for its in vitro cytotoxicity, using the 3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, against two human cancer cell lines; cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa) and breast cancer cell line (MCF7). The mixture of plants exhibited potent cytotoxicity with an IC50 of 60 &micro;g/ml for Hela cells and 122 &micro;g/ml for MCF7 cells. Furthermore, the mixture was evaluated in vitro for antioxidant potential with the spectrophotometric method based on the reduction of the stable DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) free radical. The IC50 value was calculated in order to evaluate the antioxidant efficiency of plants mixture. The Aqueous herbal distillate of mixture exhibited moderate antioxidant activity 62.76 %, with an IC50 value of 96.8 &micro;g/ml compared to the IC50 value of 4.73 &micro;g/ml as shown by the reference antioxidant Trolox. In conclusion, this herbal remedy that was used to treat cancer patients has effective cytotoxic effect on cancer cells in vitro, and further studies of the active extracts are necessary for chemical characterization of the active compounds and more extensive biological evaluations.
301-307
4
THROMBOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF CENTELLA ASIATICA LEAVES
*Rishikesh, Drishti Rani Ghosh, Md. Moshfiqur Rahman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The methanol extract of Centella asiatica was estimated for thrombolytic effect. The extract demonstrated moderate thrombolytic activity which was 25.01 % where as the thrombolytic activity of standard was found 88.23 %. Thrombolytic indicates that have potent clot lysis property and anti-oxidative activity. The result showed momentous effect with comparison to standard thrombolytic agent, streptokinase. The obtained results support for the uses of this plant as traditional medicine.
308-311
5
MOBILE PHONE TEXT MESSAGING FOR PHARMACEUTICAL CARE IN SAUDI ARABIA: A PILOT STUDY
*Abdlatif A. Al-Dhawailie, Ahmad N. Al-Enezi, Bandar F. Al-Qhtani, Khaled T. Al-Enezi, Naif M. Al-Harbi, Nasser S. Al-Tulaian, Fowad Khurshid, and Mohammad S. AlSultan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
So far, there has been no published study assessing mobile phone text messaging for pharmaceutical care in the Saudi Arabia. Therefore, we designed and conducted a pilot study to measure the patient acceptance rate of using their personal mobile phone to receive pharmaceutical care in the country. This 6-week pilot study was conducted at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A short pilot study questionnaire in Arabic language was structured to gather information about benefiting patients. This questionnaire consisted of several items including demographic information. Among the 250 participants 40.8% were males and 59.2% were females. Arabic (87.2 %) was the preferred language of the text messages for the participants. The majority (74%) of participants had never used a mobile phone in healthcare previously. Agreement with the sharing of mobile number (72%) to the pharmaceutical service department and using the service (91.2%) and acceptance of idea of messaging system (97.2%) remained high throughout the study. Among the expected information, we have found that the most of the participants (98.7%) are looking for the information about the medicine, such as proper dose, the treatment duration, the proper way to use the medicine, and the possible side effect. This study illustrates that the participants were happy with the idea of using their mobiles in the pharmaceutical care. The acceptability of a text messaging system would be worth exploring in future research especially with the chronic diseases intervention, primary care services, medication dispensing and refill, patient education, smoking cessation program and in the elderly population.
312-315
6
DRUG INFORMATION IN COMMUNITY PHARMACY AND OUTPATIENT PHARMACY IN AL AIN CITY, U.A.E.: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY
*Moawia M Al-Tabakha, Lama H Akoulah and Khairi M Fahelelbom
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of this study was to find out if the pharmacists working in community pharmacy and outpatient pharmacy have undergone any formal education regarding drug information, and to describe the drug information resources available, utilization of Internet as drug information resource and whether the available resources are sufficient to answer the types of questions received from the patients. After a pilot study, self administered eleven-question survey, open and close-ended, was distributed by a personal visit to a total of 40 pharmacies located in Al Ain city, UAE. Only one pharmacist of each visited pharmacies was eligible to complete the survey if he/she was licensed and have at least one year of experience at the same site. About 40% of the surveyed pharmacists did not have drug information resources as a course or topic in their formal education. In the pharmacies, all had the &ldquo;British National Formulary&rdquo;, followed by the &quot;Drug Information Handbook&quot;. Tertiary hospital outpatient pharmacy contained generally greater variety of drug information tertiary resources. About one third of the time spent surfing the internet was allocated for drug information. More than half of the surveyed pharmacists (55.6%) used the internet for at least 1 hour to obtain drug information. Drug safety in pregnancy and lactation was among the most frequently received questions (19.5%). The most difficult question the pharmacists received was related to the foreign drugs not available in UAE. There is a need to include a course &quot;Drug Information Resources&quot; in modern pharmacy program syllabi and to have online access to a reliable online database in the community pharmacy in order to allow the pharmacist to adequately provide accurate drug information. <br />
316-322
7
GRAPE SEED EXTRACT- A THERAPEUTIC REVIEW
*K Naga Sravanthi, Rahamat Unissa, Y Prashanth, M Sudhakar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Grapes along with their leaves and sap have been traditional treatments in Europe for thousands of years. Grape seed extract is derived from the ground-up seeds of red wine grapes Vitisvinifera, Family: Vitaceae. Grape Seed is a great source of polyphenols-flavonoids, Essential Fatty Acid-linoleic acid, vitamin E, and oligomeric- proanthocyanidin(OPC), Gallic Acid, Resveratrol. Grape seed extract is now used to treat a number of diseases. Human case reports and results from basic research provide preliminary evidence that grape seed extract may affect diseases, hypertension, high levels of blood cholesterol, platelet aggregation, inflammation, reduce the risk for cancer, to treat diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy and various other conditions. As a nutritional supplement the extract is available in liquid, capsule or tablet form. It can be used as a nutritional supplement in various health conditions under the supervision of a doctor.
323-327
8
SYNTHESIS AND PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF NOVEL 1, 5-BENZOTHIAZEPINE DERIVATIVES AS ANTI-LUNG CANCER AGENTS
*K. L. Ameta, Nitu S. Rathore and Biresh Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A series of novel 1, 5-benzothiazepine derivatives having a biologically active thiazepine moiety was synthesized by the condensation of substituted chalcones with 2-aminothiophenol using conventional as well as non-conventional methods. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectral data and elemental analysis. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activity against human lung cancer cell line (A549) using Adriamycin as a reference drug.
328-333
9
STUDY OF COCHLEAR CELLS ABNORMALITIES IN CHILDREN; ITS CAUSES AND MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTANI POPULATION
*Amna Mumtaz, Muhammad Nadeem, Javeid Iqbal, Samiullah Burki
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Deafness is the disability to hear sounds usually due to malfunctioning of cochlear cells. These cells are responsible for deafness. If inner ear or auditory nerve is involved in causing deafness it is called sensory neural hearing loss. Causes of hearing loss vary in different regions of the world. Many diseases like meningitis, measles and high grade fever are responsible for deafness as well as trend of consanguineous marriages and positive family history is also thought to be responsible for deafness. As Pakistan is a developing country lack of immunization, trend of consanguineous marriages, factors associated with prenatal and postnatal care of mother play a major role in causing deafness in children, management of deafness is difficult and expensive. It includes hearing aid, cochlear implant and rehabilitation services the purpose of this study was to find the major causes of deafness in Pakistani children. For this purpose 122 children were included from deaf school located in Karachi, Pakistan. The data was gathered in the form of questioners and interviews of parents and children, and there previous audiological test reports. The provided information was analyzed and it was noted that the consanguineous marriages are responsible for deafness as well as positive family history and diseases also play role in causing deafness. In this study, it was found that&nbsp; 69.67% of&nbsp; deaf children&nbsp; have parental relationship(cousins) ,44.26% have family history of deafness .The cause of deafness was unknown in 65.57 children Ear infection was present in 7(5.73%) children .High grade fever was 3.27 %. Meningitis was 2.45 %, Measles was 1.63%, 4.9% were born premature&nbsp; ,jaundice was present in 2.45% of children but due to lack of education and awareness parents were not able to provide satisfactory answers of questioners/interviews. It was concluded that trend of family marriages is common in Pakistani population, poor immunization of children, no screening at the time of birth, lack of awareness and poor socioeconomic conditions are factors which are responsible for deafness in children of Pakistan.
334-339
10
CaCO3 MICROPARTICLE CONTAINING IBANDRONATE–ALGINATE BEADS FOR IMPROVED ADHERENCE TO BISPHOSPHONATE ORAL THERAPY: FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO RELEASE
*Jaya Shukla, BR Mittal, A Sood, GP Bandopadhaya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Bisphosphonates are established as supportive therapy to reduce the frequency and severity of cancer-related skeletal complications. Oral formulations are preferred over intravenous if the patients are not hospitalized. The maximum absorption of oral bisphosphonates takes place in stomach. The adverse events with oral dosing are seen in buccal mucosa and gastrointestinal tract, which lead to poor adherence to bisphosphonates therapy. In the present study different ibandronate-alginate beads were formulated and characterized for physiochemical parameters like shape, effect of ibandronate and alginate content, encapsulation of drug and drug release. CaCO3 microparticles were incorporated in ibandronate-alginate formulations and studied for increased ibandronate release in simulated gastric fluid (SGF). The ibandronate encapsulation in all formulations was high and was independent on the amount of drug encapsulated. The release of ibandronate from ibandronate-alginate beads was dependent on alginate concentration and not on the amount of drug encapsulated. Additionally, the drug release was more in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) than in SGF. However, the incorporation of CaCO3 microparticles in ibandronate&ndash;alginate beads increased the release of drug in SGF. The scanning electron microscope studies of CaCO3 microparticles containing ibandronate&ndash;alginate beads, after incubation in SGF, demonstrated the presence of tiny pores on the surface as well as within the beads. These beads also exhibited increased and sustained ibandronate release in SGF. <br />
340-347
11
ANALYTICAL DEVELOPMENT AND FORMULATION OF RAMIPRIL AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN COMBINATION WITH SELECTIVE EXCIPIENTS
*R. Vani, B. Vijaya Kumar, Anas Rasheed
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study is carried out for the analytical development and formulation of ramipril and hydrochlorothiazide in combination with selective excipients. The objective of drug and excipient compatibility considerations and practical studies is to delineate, as quickly as possible, real and possible interactions between potential formulation excipients and the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API). This is an important risk reduction excercise early in formulation of drugs. A specific and accurate reverse phase ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the excipient compatibility studies of selective excipients in bulk drugs (Ramipril and Hydrochlorothiazide). The developed method consists of mobile phase, is a mixture of two solutions mobile phase A and mobile phase B in the ratio of 30:70. Mobile Phase A(Buffer and methanol in the ratio of 93:7, the buffer used is Sodium phosphate). Mobile Phase B (100 % Acetonite ) with gradient programming, Hypersil BDS C18, The size of the column is 100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 &mu;m column as stationary phase with a flow rate of 0.1 mL/min and the PDA detector is employed. With the proposed method the compatibility of the excipients with bulk drugs was found to be acceptable under the guidelines of ICH-Q8 (R2) and the excipients with bulk drugs are then subjected forauthenticated formulations and are assayed for purity of formulated tablets with marketed product for comparable studies. The in vitro dissolution studies were also carried out. The drug content obtained from the prepared formulations is also within the limits and comparable with the marketed product, Cardace. The formulated tablets have shown promising results in the invitro dissolution studies.
348-355
12
EVALUATION OF ANTIMITOTIC EFFECT OF CALOTROPIS PROCERA L ON ALLIUM CEPA L
*Bhat SK, Singhal K, Shruti Priya and Pal S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Calotropis procera is a tropical medicinal plant known for its multiple curative effects on wide range of diseases. Current study has evaluated the antimitotic&nbsp; activity of the extracts of leaf and latex of C. procera on root meristem cells of Allium cepa. Onion bulbs were allowed to grow roots on moist cotton imbibed with solutions of test sample with known concentration of the extracts. Mitotic index was estimated in squash preparation of root tips collected after 72 hrs and compared with control.&nbsp; Reduction in mitotic index of the target cells was observed to varying extent among the treatments. Chloroform extract of the latex showed highest level of inhibition of cell division and ethyl acetate extract of the latex showed least inhibition, while chloroform extract of the leaf did not interfered with cell division. Outcomes of the study have indicated presence of potential anticancer component in C. procera. <br />
356-359
13
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF IRBESARTAN AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
*S. Hemamrutha, R. Rambabu and S. Vidhyadhara
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate and precise RP-HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Irbesartan (IRB) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in combination. A&nbsp; C 18 (Agilent ODS UG 5 Column 250mmX4.5 mm Dimensions) column with mobile phase composition&nbsp; Methanol: Acetonitrile: Buffer (10mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate pH6.8)(40:30:30%v/v/v) was used at isocratic mode and eluents were monitored at 264 nm. The retention times of IRB and HCTZ were 5.1 and 3.1min respectively. Irbesartan showed good linearity in the concentration range of 24-120 &micro;g/ml with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.9993 and 2-10 &micro;g/ml for Hydrochlorothiazide with correlation coefficient (R) 0.9995 respectively.&nbsp; The proposed method was validated as per ICH guidelines and method showed good precision with percent relative standard deviation less than 2%. The assay values of Irbesartan and Hydrochlorothiazide were found to be 99.85 and 101% respectively and recovery values are within the limits of 98-102% indicating the proposed method was accurate and precise for the simultaneous estimation of Irbesartan and Hydrochlorthiazide in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms.
360-363
14
WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC SEED EXTRACT OF BRASSICA JUNCEA
*Siva Kumar Gurram, Lakshmi Sindhoor K, Govindarao M, Karthik YP, Sudha Bhargavi CH
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Wound healing is physiological process, which takes place by body&rsquo;s natural regenerative capacity. Due to various reasons they may delay in healing and this prolonged healing sometimes lead to scar formation. Currently attention has been focused on natural products to prevent infections and to promote the healing. In the present study, Brassica juncea has been used since ancient times and it is popularly known as mustards. The aim of present study was to evaluate the wound healing activity of ethanolic extracts of Brassica juncea (EEBJ) against incision, excision and burn wound models in rats. Ethanolic extract has shown the wound healing activity against different wound models in rats in a concentration dependent manner and among the two concentrations of gels. 20% gel shows better wound healing activity compared to 10% gel.
364-368
15
MICROWAVE MEDIATED GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SOME PYRAZOLINES AND ISOXAZOLINES
*Sonal D.Boob and PR. Solanki
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pyrazolines and Isoxazolines have been reported to possess various activities such as analgesic, antiplatelet, antimalerial, anticancer and antiviral. Four new substituted bis benzylidiene derivative (IIIa-IIId) have been synthesized with 80-85% yield by microwave promoted condensation of ketone and aromatic aldehyde in presence of Sodium carbonate as solid phase media .A Considerable&nbsp; increase in the reaction rate has been observed with better yields .The newly synthesized derivatives were treated with hydrazine hydrate and&nbsp; hydroxylamine hydrochloride&nbsp; to synthesize pyrazolines(IVa-d) and isoxazolines(Va-d)with neat reaction technology .The newly synthesized derivatives were characterized by&nbsp; UV, IR, PMR&nbsp; and elemental analysis and also screened for antimicrobial activity .
369-373
16
ASSESSMENT OF THE ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF BREADFRUIT LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST PATHOGENIC BACTERIA
*Chinmay Pradhan, Monalisa Mohanty and Abhijeeta Rout
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) leaf extracts in different solvent media (petroleum ether, methanol and ethyl acetate) were examined for the antimicrobial activity against some pathogenic bacterial species like Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis following the MIC (minimal inhibitory concentrations). Steroids, phytosterols, gums and resins were detected in methanolic, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether leaf extracts. Phenols and terpenoids were detected in both the ethyl acetate and methanolic leaf extracts. Flavonoids were present in the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate leaf extracts whereas tannins were detected only in the methanolic leaf extract of Artocarpus altilis. The MIC values ranges from 0.3 mg/ml to 0.6 mg/ml which correspond to variations in different solvent media used for leaf extracts against four different pathogenic microbes.
374-379
17
SUPERDISINTEGRANTS IN FAST DISINTEGRATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A BRIEF REVIEW
*Vimal VV, Aarathi TS, Anuja, Soumya Baby John
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Disintegration plays a major role in facilitating drug action in oral solid dosage forms. Disintegrants (substances or mixture of substances) when added to the drug formulation facilitates the breakup or disintegration of tablet or capsule content into smaller particles that dissolve more rapidly. The inclusion of right disintegrant is a prerequisite requirement to get an optimum bioavailability in tablets and capsules which need rapid disintegration. Super-disintegrants are used to improve the efficacy of solid dosage forms. This is achieved by decreasing the disintegration time which in turn enhances drug dissolution rate. Super-disintegrants are generally effective in a low concentration, and generally at higher concentrations they hinder disintegration. Examples of Super-disintegrants are crosscarmelose, crosspovidone, sodium starch glycolate which represents crosslinked cellulose, crosslinked polymer and a crosslinked starch, respectively. The development of fast dissolving or disintegrating tablets provides an opportunity to take an account of tablet disintegrants. The disintegrants have the major function to act against the efficiency of the tablet binder and the physical forces that act under compression to form the tablet. The stronger the binder, the more effective must be the disintegrating agents in order for the tablet to release its medication. . The present review describes super-disintegrants, their types, selection criteria and various methods of incorporating disintegrants and mechanism of tablet disintegration.
380-386
18
THE WORLD OF BREAST CANCER - A REVIEW
*Venu T, Vamshi N and Anil A
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cancer is a generic term for a large group of diseases that can occur in any part of the body. It is caused by abnormal changes in the &lsquo;DNA&rsquo; of the cell. Of all the types of cancers, &lsquo;Breast cancer&rsquo; is most dangerous. It occurs mostly in women. Nearly 4,60,000 deaths per year are caused only by the breast cancer1. Though there are many different types of cancer treatments like chemotherapy (chemotherapy medicines prevent cancer cells from growing and spreading by destroying the cells or stopping them from dividing.), surgery (removing the part of the breast which underwent the cancer.), hormonal therapy (hormonal therapy medicines treat the hormone receptor-positive breast cancers.) etc. but till now there is no successful method of treatment to cure the cancer completely. So always we need a new technology to treat the cancer. Thus nano technology, microwave technology, targeted therapy were introduced to detect and treat the cancer.&nbsp; Along with those technologies we can boost the immune system to fight against the cancer, drugs to silence the activity of &lsquo;hedgehog molecule&rsquo; to prevent the metastasis of cancer and using &lsquo;blue berries&rsquo; to prevent aggressive form of breast cancer. The research on mouse models that have contributed to our understanding of the molecular processes underlying breast cancer metastasis and how such experimentation can open new avenues to the development of innovative cancer therapy.
386-395
19
A CRITICAL REVIEW ON FUNDAMENTAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS OF FT-IR SPECTROSCOPY
*G. Murali Krishna, M. Muthukumaran, B. Krishnamoorthy, Ameren Nishat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a technique which is used to obtain an infrared spectrum of absorption, emission, photoconductivity or ramanscattering of&nbsp; solid,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; liquid or gas. An FTIR spectrometer simultaneously collects spectral data in a wide spectral range. An FT-IR Spectrometer is an instrument which acquires broadband NIR to FIR spectra. Unlike a dispersive instrument, i.e. grating monochromator or spectrograph, FT-IR Spectrometers collect all wavelengths simultaneously. FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infra Red) is a method of obtaining infrared spectra by first collecting an interferogram of a sample signal using an interferometer, and then performing a Fourier Transform (FT) on the interferogram to obtain the spectrum. The main goal of FTIR spectroscopic analysis is to determine the chemical functional groups in the sample. Using various sampling accessories, FTIR spectrometers can accept a wide range of sample types such as gases, liquids, and solids. Thus, FTIR spectroscopy is an important and popular tool for structural elucidation and compound identification.
396-402
20
ANTIAMNESIC ACTIVITY OF GUGGUL EXTRACT ON SCOPOLAMINE INDUCED AMNESIA IN MICE
*Ajay J Parikh, Krishna KL
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Objective of this study was to evaluate Guggul extract for the treatment of Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease using scopolamine induced amnesia in mice on Morris water maze. Guggul extract (50mg/kg) was administered orally for fifteen successive days followed by Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p.) from 15th to 18th day in mice. Morris water maze was employed to evaluate learning and memory using parameter like Escape Latency Time (ELT), Time Spent in Target Quadrant (TSTQ) and determination of brain Acetylcholinesterase level. Scopolamine was used to induce amnesia in mice and the activity was compared with standard drug Piracetam.&nbsp;&nbsp; Guggul extract significantly improved learning and memory in mice and reversed the scopolamine induced amnesia. Guggul extract when co administered with Piracetam (200mg/kg) has shown synergistic activity. Guggul extract is a known hypolipidemic agent and has shown excellent activity in scopolamine induced amnesia when given orally for 15 successive days in mice. It has shown synergistic effect with Piracetam and further detailed studies are required to exploit Guggul extract as new therapeutic agents for antialzheimer&rsquo;s disease. <br />
403-409
21
PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THREE WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS, CORAL MUSHROOM, AGARICUS BISPORUS AND LENTINUS SAJOR, COMMON IN OHAUKWU AREA OF EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA
*Afiukwa CA, Ugwu Okechukwu PC, Ebenyi LN, Ossai Emmanuel C, Nwaka Andrew C
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The concentrations of some phytochemicals in three species of edible mushrooms (Coral mushroom, Agaricus bisporus and Lentinus sajor) that are common in Ohaukwu area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria were determined using standard methods. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, oxalates, phytates, HCN and phenols in significant amounts with tannins being the highest, followed by flavonoids and phenols, while HCN was the least in concentration. There was a significant variation among the mushrooms in their composition of the phytochemicals (p&lt;0.05). The obtained values of the phytochemicals in all the mushrooms were interestingly found to be significantly lower (p&lt;0.05) than their toxicity levels according to World Health Organization (WHO) safe limits. The results of this study suggest that these mushrooms may be very safe for consumption in terms of phytochemical toxicity and at the same time have some medicinal properties. <br />
410-414