Volume 3 - Issue 4

S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
PHARMACOKINETICS OF ATAZANAVIR IN RITONAVIR-BOOSTED COMBINATION IN ASIAN HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS: COMPARISONS BETWEEN THE STANDARD AND REDUCED DOSES OF BOTH AGENTS
*Chankit Puttilerpong, Duangchit Panomvana and Kiat Ruxrungtham
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) 200/100 mg once-daily (OD) has been shown comparable in drug exposure to the standard dose in Asian study. We explored the pharmacokinetic profiles of the boosting effect of ritonavir at 50 mg to either atazanavir 300 or 200 mg in 32 adult Thai healthy volunteers. The geometric means (GM) of ATV AUC0-24 were 40.66, 25.50 and 24.97 mg-h/L and Cmin were 0.53, 0.27 and 0.24 mg/L for 300/100, 300/50 and 200/50 mg OD doses, respectively. Subjects while taking ATV/r 300/50 and 200/50 mg OD had ATV AUC0-24 and Cmin significantly lower than when 300/100 mg was taken (P &lt; 0.05). The GM of bilirubin concentrations were&nbsp; significantly reduced 2.46 vs 1.48 mg/dL for 300/50 mg and 2.60 vs 1.36 mg/dL for 200/50 mg (P = 0.001). The reduced dose of ATV/r decreased in ATV AUC0-24, Cmin and the rate of hyperbilirubinaemia. However, one-third of subjects taken either ATV/r 300/50 or 200/50 had subtherapeutic ATV levels, boosted with 50 mg RTV is therefore not recommended.&nbsp; <br />
643-654
2
HAEMATOLOGICAL EFFECTS AND SAFETY BEHAVIOUR OF 20 kDa PEGINTERFERON ALPHA-2A (UNIPEG®) IN HEALTHY HUMAN SUBJECTS
*Ghousia. Saba, Javeid. Iqbal, Tasneem. Ahmad, Ayaz Ali Khan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
20 kDa pegylated interferon alpha-2a (UNIPEG&reg;) manufactured through the pegylation of E.coli-derived interferon alpha-2a. The hematological effects of Unipeg&reg; were studied after a single subcutaneous dose of 180 &micro;g (protein content) in ten healthy human subjects.&nbsp; Vital signs, adverse events and lab tests (hematological and biochemical) were monitored for safety analysis. Clinical laboratory tests results before and after drug administration were processed for any statistically significant change by computing the ANOVA (F-value) and performing t-tests. Statistically significant decrease in neutrophils, absolute neutrophil count, total white blood cells count and platelets count were observed but most of these were not clinically significant. Transient leucopenia and leucopenia was reported for 10% and 20% subjects, respectively, transient thrombocytopenia in 10% subjects and an increase in ALT levels above normal ranges in 30% of subjects were observed while no serious adverse effect was reported. The hematological effects were found similar to those of reported in literature for unmodified IFN-alpha-2a and other pegylated IFN-alpha-2a products generally used in therapy. <br />
655-662
3
Diagnostic criteria of different species of leishmaniasis in Balochistan, Pakistan
*Darshna Kumari, Muhammad Nadeem, Ayaz Ali Khan and Javeid Iqbal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that results into severe lesion/lesions after bitten by the sandfly. The proper and immediate diagnosis is necessary for this lethal disease until it become worse in condition. The purpose of this research study is to present diagnostic criteria of leishmaniasis of different species which is helpful in early diagnosis. Diagnosis criteria include location and number of lesions, type and size of lesions located on the body of the patients. This study was conducted at public and private hospitals and clinics of Karachi Pakistan. Total 200 patients were included in this study. All patients were included in the study after fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Data was collected from the February, 2011 &ndash; December, 2012 in the form of well organized questionnaire which had following information as; age, sex, location of patients, site, number, and type of lesion. The mean age of patient was 35&plusmn;5 years.&nbsp; Out of all selected patients, 40 % were male and rest of 60 % was female. The highest ratio of patients was natives of Baluchistan Pakistan due to its climate which is favorable for sandfly. Majority of patients have single lesion&gt;multiple lesion&gt;double lesion&gt;binary lesion. The common type of lesion seen was the wet ulcerative type open and reddish lesion and the dry nodules. The size of the lesion was observed ranging from 1cm - 3cm respectively. It is observable from the lesion types that the cutaneous leishmaniasis is more common in Pakistan especially in Balochistan than other species of leishmaniasis. In the light of this study, it is concluded that the leishmaniasis is still highly dominated in the Pakistan especially in Balochistan province which is due to its favorable climate for the causative agent. Beside this, there is no proper treatment available and due to poor socioeconomic condition of Pakistan, delayed in diagnosis and treatment of such disease is common. For the purpose of treatment, derivative of pentavalent antimony have been applied that is also more poisonous. There is need of extensive study about parasite of leishmaniasis and their proper treatment and awareness should be provided in the dominated area of Pakistan.
663-667
4
ASSESSMENT OF DISPENSING PRACTICE IN SOUTH WEST ETHIOPIA: THE CASE OF JIMMA UNIVERSITY SPECIALIZED HOSPITAL
*Workneh Etefa, Chalachew Teshale, Segewkal Hawaze
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Dispensing is a crucial part of drug use process. This study aimed at assessing quality of dispensing in Jimma University Specialized Hospital Outpatient Pharmacy. A prospective participatory observation of dispensing process and interview of patient were conducted using checklist and semi structured questionnaire. World Health Organization patient care indicators and other quality indicators were employed. Pearson Chi-Square test was used to determine association and P&lt;0.005 was considered statistically significant. Average number of drugs per prescription was 1.84 and 81% of prescriptions were fully dispensed. Mean labeling score was 2.5 and mean dispensing time was 22.5 seconds. Mean knowledge score was 2.8 and 69% of patients had adequate knowledge. Adequate knowledge was significantly associated with educational status (p&lt;0.005). Correct dosage was recalled by 79% patients and knowledge about correct dosage was significantly associated with age and educational status (p&lt;0.005). Inadequate labeling, short dispensing time and unavailability of essential drugs and dispensing aids reflect discrepancies in quality of care.<br />
668-674
5
Cytotoxic Effect of Gliotoxin, Protease, and Melanin purified from Aspergillus fumigatus on REF Cell Line, in vitro Study
*Batol Imran Dheeb, Farooq Ibrahem Mohammad, Abdulkareem Jasim Hashim
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Aspergillus fumigatus especially clinical isolate produces a series of toxic substances and proteinicios hemolysin, protease and pigment like melanin which appear to act in an additive and synergic way on cells. In this study, gliotoxin, Protease, and Melanin were used in an experimental model to study their Cytotoxic activity by evaluating their effect on REF cell line ( Rat embryonic fibroblast ), on exposure time of&nbsp; 24&nbsp; hrs at three different concentrations of&nbsp; each compounds&nbsp; triplicate of each concentration&nbsp; were used, Cytotoxicity of the purified compounds are&nbsp; active against REF cell line under study and a toxic effect was clear with a significant difference at the level of probability (p&lt; 0.05) and this effect was contrasted among different concentrations for each purified compound growth inhibition of&nbsp; REF cell line was increase gradually with the increase of compound&nbsp; concentration.
675-679
6
PATTERN OF DRUG PRESCRIBING DURING PREGNANCY IN NEPALESE WOMEN
*Priyanka Shrestha and Shiva Kumar Bhandari
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Objective of this study is to assess the utilization pattern and the teratogenesity risk of the drugs prescribed among pregnant women in Nepal. The drugs that were prescribed during pregnancy were assessed retrospectively in 94 Nepalese pregnant women who attended the prenatal clinic of the two Hospitals in Nepal.&nbsp; From Patient medical record, FDA drug category of prescribed drugs was identified. Maximum number of pregnant women was from age grouping 15 to 25 (72%). According to FDA drug category, our finding reveals that two drugs prescribed of FDA category X were oxytocin and dydrogesterone. A majority of drugs prescribed were from category B (42%). A majority of drugs were given as an oral dosage form i.e. Tablet form (56%) and in severe cases injection was preferred i.e. 24%. Anthelminthic was prescribed to all pregnant women during their second trimester. The most commonly prescribed drugs were nutritional supplements like Iron, Folate, Calcium, Vitamins followed by Tetanus Toxoid. <br />
680-688
7
Knowledge and Perception of Undergraduate Students about Generic Drugs and Their Attitude towards Generic Substitution in Karachi, Pakistan
*Fatima Ramzan Ali, Sheikh Abdul Khaliq, Samana Zehra, Hina A. Khan, Iqbal Azhar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Generic substitution has become a common practice. In Pakistan living standards are below average. Improving knowledge and perception about generic drugs will increase the generic substitution, and it will reduce cost of treatment. The aim of study was to determine the knowledge, perception and attitude of undergraduate students of Pakistan about generic drugs. A questionnaire comprising of questions regarding knowledge and perception about generic drugs and attitude towards generic substitution was distributed to 100 students. Mostly students knew about generic drugs and difference between generic and brand names. Their idea about cost of generic drugs wasn&rsquo;t correct. Mostly students prefer doctor&rsquo;s advice while buying or changing their brand. Students substituting their brand didn&rsquo;t find any difference in efficacy of both drugs. Overall good knowledge and perception about generic drugs was found, and mostly students showed positive attitude towards drug substitution. However, few required additional information. <br />
689-691
8
Association between HLA-B*5801 Allele and Other Risk Factors to Allopurinol - Induced Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reaction and Exfoliative Dermatitis in Thai Population
*Sunicha Limkobpaiboon, Duangchit Panomvana, Ajchara Koolvisut, Sasijit Vejbaesya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
To investigate the association of HLA-B*5801 and HLA-Cw*0302 alleles in Thai patients who had allopurinol induced SCAR including exfoliative dermatitis. Other risk factors besides genetic were also investigated. A case - control study was used. The study was performed during December 2009 &ndash; March 2010 at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok. The totals of 82 patients were recruited into the study; 34 patients were recruited from patient with adverse drug reactions from allopurinol. Genotyping of HLA-B*5801 and HLA-Cw*0302 alleles were determined. Within 34 patients with ADR from allopurinol, there were 25 SCAR (SJS/TEN/HSS) cases HLA-B*5801 and HLA-Cw*0302 alleles were found in all 25 patients with SCAR. Odds ratio was 282.2. This study demonstrated that HLA-B*5801 allele was also associated to allopurinol induced exfoliative dermatitis. Other significant risk factors for hypersensitivity to allopurinol besides genetics were female gender and the presence of diabetes mellitus along with chronic renal insufficiency.
692-697
9
Centratherum anthelminticum ameliorates antiatherogenic index in hyperlipidemic rabbits
*Tooba Lateef and Shamim A Qureshi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study first time scrutinized the lipid lowering effect of ethanolic seed extract (ESEt) of Centratherum anthelminticum in high-fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemic rabbits. ESEt was used to determine acute toxicity in overnight fasted normal rabbits while its effect on biochemical parameters including serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high (HDL-c), low (LDL-c), very low-density (VLDL-c) lipoproteins, antiatherogenic index (AAI), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), catalase (CAT), creatine kinase (CK), lipase, lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and HMG-CoA/mevalonate ratio were estimated in HFD induced hyperlipidemic animal model. ESEt (10-2000 mg/kg) showed no sign of acute toxicity in rabbits. Similarly, three doses (200, 400, &amp; 600 mg/kg) of same extract induced significant reduction in serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-c, VLDL-c and an increase in HDL-c level with improvement in AAI found in test groups. Normal ALT and CK levels were also observed with positive progress found in antioxidant enzymes status, HMG-CoA / mevalonate ratio and lipase activity. Results conclude that ESEt exhibits antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects in HFD induced hyperlipidemic animal model.
698-704
10
INCIDENCES, SCREENING AND CHEMOTHERAPY OF BREAST CANCER
*Sheikh Abdul Khaliq, Syed Baqir S. Naqvi, Anab Fatima
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Retrospective study in different ethnic groups determines the burden and patterns of breast cancers during the last eight years reported in Oncology wards of hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan and compares the pharmacotherapy/chemotherapy used with international guidelines, develops strategies for screening and evidence based pharmacotherapy/chemotherapy of cases. Every single one male &amp; female case with histologically and cytologically established breast cancer was enrolled from January 2003 to December 2010. Data for all patients were collected retrospectively by patient&rsquo;s file &amp; charts, which represents the population of Karachi, Interior Sindh &amp; Balochistan. 847 female patients investigated for their diagnosis of cancer type, ethnicity, age &amp; gender. The statistical analysis was performed for mean, standard error &amp; proportions. Pharmacotherapy/Chemotherapy &amp; screening employed by the hospitals was compared with international guidelines and evidences. Proportionately major ethnic groups female diagnosed with breast cancer in total female cases was Sindhi (25%), Urdu Speaking (48%), Baloch (6%), Pukhtoon (5%), Punjabi (11%), Siraiki (1%), Minorities &amp; others (4%). Mean age at the time of diagnosis was 44.07&plusmn;12.37 years, SE&plusmn; 0.069. Screening strategies are implemented in &lt;10% targeted population, however pharmacotherapy/chemotherapy was comparable with international guidelines. The study reveals that breast cancer incidences are highest among Urdu Speaking (17%) and then Sindhis (9%). Rests of the ethnic groups are in the range of 2-4%. There is a need to implement the screening strategies more extensively to the small/basic/rural health care centers for early diagnosis of the disease and new treatments like monoclonal antibodies are making revolution in the management of breast cancer.<br /><br />
705-709
11
SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF RISPERIDONE IN PHARMACEUTICAL BULK AND DOSAGE FORMS
*Akachukwu I, Nwodo N.J and Mbah C. J
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric method for determination of Risperidone has been developed. The method was based on the charge &ndash; transfer complexation reaction of Risperidone with chloranilic acid to form a violet &ndash; coloured complex having absorption maximum at 500 nm. Different variables affecting the reaction conditions such as the concentration of chloranilic acid, reaction time, diluting solvents were studied and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, linear relationship with good correlation coefficient (0.9979) was found between absorbance and the concentrations of Risperidone in the range of 2 &ndash; 12 &micro;g/ml. The assay limits of detection and quantitation were 0.979 and 2.97 &micro;g/ml respectively. The precision of the method and the values of relative standard deviation never exceeded 1.19%. No interference could be observed from the excipients commonly present in dosage forms. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of Risperidone in pure and pharmaceutical dosage forms with good accuracy and precision; the recovery percentage ranges from 99.02 to 101.88 &plusmn; 0.54 to 1.19%. The proposed spectrophotometric method gives accurate and reproducible results besides being much more sensitive than the British Pharmacopoeia method that uses a larger amount of Risperidone.
710-715
12
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MOUTH DISSOLVING FILMS OF ZOLPIDEM TARTRATE BY EXPLORATION OF POLYMERS COMBINATION
*M.K. Patidar, F.A. Karjikar, F.A. Patel, S.S. Rathi, S.B. Thokal, C.L. Bhingare
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Fast dissolving drug delivery is the new approach to administer drugs; mouth dissolving film is one of them. The object of the present research work was to formulate a mouth dissolving film of Zolpidem tartrate from polymers Hydroxypropyl cellulose (EF-P) with a combination of Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose K-15 by solvent casting method for enhancing the drug release rate and absorption to incessant increase drug bioavailability. Hydroxypropyl cellulose is a synthetic water soluble polymer, form a brittle film with high elastic modulus, thus to improve film forming properties, Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose used in a ration of (1:1 and 2:1) with it. Compatibility of drug and polymers were studied by the IR spectrophotometer, any kind of interaction was not found. All the formulations were evaluated by different evaluation parameters and showed satisfactory results. Batches have uniformity in weight with a thickness of (0.930 mm), (98.3%) drug content and 100% drug release within 6 mins and films pH was reassembled with the pH of saliva. <br />
716-721
13
FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY AND PHENOLIC CONTENT ESTIMATION OF GLINUS OPPOSITIFOLIUS AND SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA
*Chhayakanta Panda, Uma Shankar Mishra, Sujata Mahapatra, Ghanshyam Panigrahi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present research work was carried out to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of the whole plant of Glinus oppositifolius (MEGO) and leaves of Sesbania grandiflora (MESG). The therapeutic effects of tannins and flavonoids can be largely attributed to their antioxidant properties. The quantitative estimation of phenolic content was measured by using UV-spectrophotometric method. The total phenolic content value of MEGO was 12.2&plusmn;0.12w/w and of MESG was 8.34&plusmn;0.08 % w/w, respectively, and total flavonoid estimation of MEGO and MESG&nbsp; showed the content values of 4.9&plusmn;0.02 % w/w and 1.2&plusmn;0.13 %w/w, respectively, for quercetin and 3.6&plusmn;0.18 % w/w and 1.56&plusmn;0.09 % w/w, respectively, for rutin. The results revealed that these plants have antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of MEGO was found to be more potent than MESG. So finally it indicates that both the plants contains antioxidant substances which can be used for the treatment of oxidative stress related diseases.
722-727
14
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF SOME NEWLY SYNTHESIZED CHALCONES
*Jahirul Islam Talukdar, Monica Kachroo and Rema Razdan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new series of chalcones have been synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation of appropriate acetophenones like N-(4-acetyl-phenyl)-4-methoxy-benzamide [which is synthesized by reacting 4-methoxy-benzoyl chloride with 4-amino acetophenone] and N-(4-acetyl-phenyl)-4-chloro-benzamide, [which is synthesized by reacting 4-chloro-benzoyl chloride with 4-amino acetophenone]&nbsp; with various aldehydes&nbsp; in ethanolic KOH solution. The synthesized compounds were characterized using melting point, TLC, UV, IR, 1HNMR, 13C-NMR and CHN analysis. The compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity by bovin serum albumin assay method ( in vitro ) and carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method ( in vivo ). Among the compounds synthesized, 2, 4-dimethoxy phenyl and 4-ethoxy phenyl derivative exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity.<br /><br />
728-733
15
SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF DULOXETINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND METHYLCOBALAMIN BY UV SPECTROSCOPIC METHOD
*A. S. Shete, P. D. Lade, Sumaiyya J. Inamdar, S. S. Kumbhar, A. P. Mhadeshwar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate and precise UV Spectroscopic method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Duloxetine Hydrochloride and Methylcoblamin. The overlay spectra of Duloxetine hydrochloride and Methylcoblamin exhibit &lambda; max of 291 nm and 350 nm for Duloxetine hydrochloride and Methylcoblamin in Double distilled water respectively. The drugs obeyed the Beer&rsquo;s law in the range of 8-28&mu;g/ml and 0.6-15&mu;g/ml for Duloxetine hydrochloride and Methylcoblamin with correlation coefficients of 0.998 and 0.999 respectively and it has showed good linearity. The results of analysis were validated by recovery studies. The % recovery was found to be 99.99-100.96 % for Duloxetine hydrochloride and 100.55-101.02 % for Methylcoblamin. LOD and LOQ were found to be 1.278&mu;g/ml, 2.330&mu;g/ml for Duloxetine hydrochloride and 0.949&mu;g/ml, 2.857&mu;g/ml for Methylcoblamin respectively. The %RSD values were less than 2. The method was found to be simple, accurate, precise, economical and reproducible.
734-740
16
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF COLORIMETRY METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF OXCARBAZEPINE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
*A. S. Shete, P. D. Lade, Snehal S. Kumbhar, A. P. Mhadeshwar, S. J. Inamdar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A colorimetric method has been developed and validated for estimation of Oxcarbazepinein its tablet form. Ferric chloride and potassium ferricyanide were used as the coloring agents, and a yellow green color solution was formed after reaction of the drug with ferric chloride and potassium ferricyanide. The solution absorbance was measured at 735 nm. The linearity range was in the range of 1-6&mu;g/ml. The validation of the new proposed method was carried out on various parameters like linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity, specificity, robustness, ruggedness, LOD and LOQ.
741-746
17
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ETRAVIRINE IN PURE AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
*G. Raveendra Babu, A. Lakshmana Rao and J. Venkateswara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A validated simple, sensitive, specific and precise RP-HPLC method was developed for the determination of Etravirine in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. Method was carried on Hypersil BDS C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 &mu; particle size) using phosphate buffer:acetontrile (35:65 v/v) as mobile phase. Detection was carried out by UV at 322 nm. The proposed method obeyed linearity in the range of 20-150 &mu;g/mL and met all specifications as per ICH guidelines. Statistical analysis revealed that this method can be used in routine quality control studies of Etravirine in pure and its pharmaceutical formulations.
747-752
18
NOVEL PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATION OF MIXED SOLVENCY IN THE FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF SYRUPS (LIQUID ORAL SOLUTIONS) OF POORLY WATER-SOLUBLE DRUGS
*Yash Maheshwari, D.K Mishra, S.C Mahajan, Prachi Maheshwari, R.K Maheshwari, V. Jain
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Solubilization of poorly water soluble drugs has been a very important issue in screening studies of new chemical entities as well as in formulation research. In the present investigation, mixed-solvency approach has been utilized for solubility enhancement of poorly water-soluble drug, Naproxen and Furosemide (as model drugs). Sixteen blends (having total 40% w/v strength) containing various solubilizers among the commonly used hydrotropes (urea, sodium benzoate and sodium citrate), cosolvents (glycerin, ethanol, propylene glycol, PEG 600 and PEG 400) and water-soluble solids (PEG 4000 and PEG 6000) were made to study the influence on solubility of Naproxen and Furosemide individually. Most of the blends were found to increase the solubility of both drugs. This approach shall prove a boon in pharmaceutical field to develop various formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs by combining various water-soluble excipients in safe concentrations to produce a desirable aqueous solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. <br />
753-758
19
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF PARACETAMOL AND TAPENTADOL HYDROCHLORIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
*Iffath Rizwana, K. Vanitha Prakash, G. Krishna Mohan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination Paracetamol and Tapentadol HCl in pharmaceutical dosage form. The column used was Symmetry C18 (4.6 x 150mm, 5&#61549;m) in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (50:50 v/v) adjusted to pH 3.6 with ortho phosphoric acid. The flow rate was 0.8 mL/ min and effluents were monitored at 243 nm. The retention times of Paracetamol and Tapentadol HCl were found to be 2.206 min and 3.807 min, respectively. The linearity for Paracetamol and Tapentadol HCl were in the range of 100-200 mcg/mL and 15-30 mcg/mL respectively. The recoveries of Paracetamol and Tapentadol Hcl were found to be 98.5% and 98.5%, respectively. The proposed method was validated and successfully applied to the estimation of Paracetamol and Tapentadol Hcl in combined tablet dosage forms.
759-762
20
MUCOADHESIVE MICROSPHERES- A VIRTOUS BIOAVAILABILITY EMBELISHING TOOL
*R. Gowri, N. Narayanan, A. Maheswaran, S. Janarthanan, S. Paulraj, P. Lavanya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Mucoadhesive drug delivery has versatile potential for efficient drug release because of the properties provided by their small particle size for various diseases. Ex., Helicobacter pylori infection is currently the cause of 75% peptic ulcers. In an effort to augment the anti Helicobacter pylori effect, microspheres reside in the gastrointestinal tract with mucoadhesion mechanism and exhibits sustained release effect over a period of time. Microspheres are the carrier linked drug delivery system in which particle size ranges from 1-1000 &mu;m&nbsp; in diameter having a core of drug and entirely outer layers of polymer as coating material. Due to their short residence time, bioadhesive characteristics can be coupled to microspheres to develop mucoadhesive microspheres. The polymers with excellent mucoadhesive properties and good entrapment efficiency. This review article focusses various aspects of mucoadhesion, theories of mucoadhesion&nbsp;&nbsp; preparation methods and applications along with its future trends. <br />
763-773
21
EVALUATION OF ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF PLANT CHROZOPHORA PLICATA
*Kadiri Sunil kumar, Avanapu Srinivasa Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The herbal medicines derived from various plants extracts are being increasingly utilized to treat a wide variety of clinical diseases1. Besides their action as gastroprotectives, flavonoids also act in healing of gastric ulcers2. The study was designed to investigate the anti-ulcer effect of chloroform extract of Chrozophora plicata leaves (600mg/kg) against experimentally induced ulcer models in albino rats. In the present study, anti-ulcer activity was assessed by using pylorus ligation induced and indomethacin (40mg/kg) induced Ulcer 3models in albino rats. The antiulcer activity was assessed by determining and comparing gastric volume, acidity, ulcer score and ulcer index in control, test extract and standard (ranitidine 10mg/kg) treated rats by using both pylorus ligation and indomethacin induced ulcer models. Pre-treatment of animals with the Chloroform extract of Chrozophora plicata (600mg/kg)) orally significantly reduced formation of ulcers induced by pylorus ligation and indomethacin models. The percentage inhibitions of ulcer with test extract being 60 &plusmn;1.12 % and 57.18 &plusmn; 1.32 % respectively whereas standard ranitidine has shown percentage inhibitions of ulcer to an extent of 100&plusmn; 0.42% and 68.52&plusmn;1.07% in both ulcer models. It is evident from literature that Chrozophora plicata leaves possess flavonoids4. The results obtained indicate that Chrozophora plicata possesses antiulcer principles.
774-778
22
THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY AND NUTRITIONAL POTENTIALITY OF INDIAN BAY LEAF (CINNAMOMUM TAMALA BUCH. - HEM.)
*Sukumar Dandapat, Manoj Kumar, Amit Kumar, M. P. Sinha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
C. tamala leaves are mainly used for flavouring food and spice due to clove like taste and pepper like odour. The plant leaves are widely used in pharmaceutical preparation because of therapeutic efficacy against various diseases and disorders due to presence of different phytochemicals. The leaves were analysed for ash content, moisture, crude fat, crude fibre, crude carbohydrate, crude protein and different phytochemical content. The results for percentage of ash content, moisture content, crude fibre, carbohydrate, crude fat and protein were 9.6 &plusmn; 1.12, 50.50 &plusmn; 1.0, 30.5 &plusmn; 0.6, 9.5 &plusmn; 0.5, 6.0 &plusmn; 0.5 and&nbsp; 8.5 &plusmn; 0.18 % respectively. The nutritive value was 143.5 &plusmn; 0.53 Kcal/ 100g. The leaf sample was assessed for quantitative and qualitative phytochemical composition. Among the phytochemicals poly phenols was highest (16.7 &plusmn; 0.7 g/100g) and flavonoid content was lowest (1.0 &plusmn; 0.31 g/100g).
779-785
23
ERYTHROPOIETIN (EPO): ROLE IN NEUROPROTECTION/ NEUROREGENRATION AND COGNITION
*Rajwar Navneet, Kothiyal Preeti
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:SnapToGridInCell/> <w:WrapTextWithPunct/> <w:UseAsianBreakRules/> <w:DontGrowAutofit/> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--> <p style="text-align: justify" class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size: 10pt; color: black">The discovery of the broad neuroprotective<span>&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>potential of erythropoietin (EPO), an endogenous hematopoietic growth factor, leaded to the new therapeutic avenues in the treatment of brain diseases. EPO has direct effects on cells of the nervous system that make it a highly attractive candidate drug for neuroprotection/neuroregeneration. EPO expression in the brain is induced by hypoxia. Practically all brain cells are capable of production and release of EPO and expression of its receptor. EPO exerts multifarious protective effects on brain cells. It protects neuronal cells from noxious stimuli such as hypoxia, excess glutamate, serum deprivation or kainic acid exposure in vitro by targeting a variety of mechanisms and involves neuronal, glial and endothelial cell functions. In rodent models of ischemic stroke, EPO reduces infarct volume and improves functional outcome, but beneficial effects have also been observed in animal models of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. EPO has a convenient therapeutic window upon ischemic stroke and favorable pharmacokinetics. EPO has been found by many investigators to be protective or regenerative and to improve cognitive performance in various rodent models of neurological and psychiatric disease.<span>&nbsp; </span>Results from first therapeutic trials in humans are promising, but will need to be validated in larger trials. This article reviews on the preclinical and clinical work on EPO for the indications neuroprotection/neuroregeneration and cognition.</span></p> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style> <![endif]-->
785-795
24
THE BENEFICIAL ROLE OF NATURAL POLYPHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AS ANTIOXIDANTS IN ALZHEIMER DISEASE: BIOLOGICAL ACTIONS AND MECHANISMS UNDERPINNING THEIR BENEFICIAL EFFECTS
*Bisht Neha, Kumar Arun, Kothiyal Preeti
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Oxidative stress has been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer&rsquo;s disease (AD). Mitochondrion is a key player that produces reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondrial dysfunction found in AD patients may amplify the generation of ROS and oxidative stress. Increased ROS can cause damage to protein, lipid and nucleic acids. In recent years, antioxidants- especially those of dietary origin have been suggested as possible agents useful for the prevention and treatment of AD. Continuing research highlights the dynamic capacity of natural polyphenolic compounds to exhibit their antioxidant effect by a number of potential mechanisms. The free radical scavenging, in which the polyphenols can break the free radical chain reaction, as well as suppression of the free radical formation by regulation of enzyme activity or chelating metal ions involved in free radical production. Thus, the antioxidant properties certainly contribute to their neuroprotective effect. This article reviews the role of oxidative stress and the contribution of free radicals in the development of AD, and also discusses antioxidant effects of natural polyphenolic compounds such as green tea catechins, curcumin, resveratrol and their intracellular targets focusing on neuroprotective strategies for AD. <br />
796-806
25
INFLUENCE OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE PROTEIN-2 GENETIC POLYMORPHISM ON THE PHARMACOKINETICS OF MYCOPHENOLATE MOFETIL IN THAI KIDNEY TRANSPLANT PATIENTS
*Wanarat Anusornsangiam, Duangchit Panomvana, Kearkiat Praditpornsilpa,Amnart Chaiprasert, Surat Thungpanit
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of multidrug resistance protein (MRP), MRP-2 -24C&gt;T polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of mycophenolate mofetil in 118 Thai kidney transplant patients. The patients with MRP-2 -24C&gt;T variant had a predicted area under the concentration-time curve (AUC 0-12 hr) of mycophenolic acid (MPA) significantly lower than the patients with wild-type gene (5.04 versus 5.92 mg x h/L/kg/mg dose, respectively, p-value = 0.008). In addition, the oral clearance of MPA in the patients with MRP-2&nbsp;&nbsp; -24C&gt;T variant was significantly higher than that of MPA in the patients with wild-type gene (0.15 versus 0.12 L/h/kg, respectively, p-value = 0.025). Therefore, this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) reduced MPA exposure and might lead to inferior immunosuppressive effect and eventually loss of clinical outcomes of immunosuppressive drug in Thai kidney transplant patients.
807-812
26
FTIR spectroscopic studies and antimicrobial activity in populations of Eryngium foetidum L.
*Chandrika R, Komal Kumar J, Thara Saraswathi K. J, Deviprasad A. G
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopic studies have been used to investigate the variations in the phytochemical constituents of two diverse populations of Eryngium foetidum L. from India. Based on the FTIR analysis and preliminary phytochemical investigations it was possible to understand the various functional groups and bioactive components present in the methanolic extracts of both populations. The FTIR pattern highlighted sharp peaks for OH, aldehydes and aminoacids in the extracts. Characteristic strong peaks were observed in the fingerprint region confirming the presence of aromatic compounds, alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aliphatic primary amines, phenols, carbohydrates and halogenated compounds. The extracts were also tested for their antimicrobial efficacy against E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and A. faecalis using Disc diffusion assay at various concentrations .It was observed that the extracts showed significant activity against S. aureus and moderate activity for E. coli and P. aeruginosa. <br />
813-818
27
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTI OXIDANT POTENTIAL AND ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF LEUCAS DIFFUSA PLANT EXTRACT
*Ramachandran Somasundaram, Priyanka Vaddadi, Dhanaraju Magharla Dasaratha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The plants of the genus &lsquo;Leucas&rsquo; have been found to be useful in various diseases. Leucas diffusa (LD) widely distributed throughout India as a weed in cultivated fields, wastelands &amp; roadsides. There is no scientific report published indicating utility of this plant. The present study was performed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities by using hydroxyl radical, reducing power &amp; hydrogen peroxide scavenging abilities and through acetic acid induced vascular permeability model in mice &amp; acetic acid induced colitis in rats significantly. LD (1000 mg/kg, p.o.) presented a significant anti-inflammatory activity towards acetic acid induced vascular permeability model in mice in comparison to Diclofenac sodium(10 mg/kg, s.c.) and acetic acid induced colitis in rats in comparison to 5-ASA. Our findings suggest that, LD contains potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds which will aid us to conduct bioactivity guided isolation &amp; characterization of leading compounds in due course. <br />
819-829
28
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME NEW 4-SUBSTITUTED-6-(p-AMINOPHENYL)-2-AMINOPYRIDINE-3-CARBONITRILE DERIVATIVES
*K. Srikanth Kumar, B. Jagadeeswara Rao and A. Lakshmana Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
4-Substituted-6-(p-aminophenyl)-2-aminopyridine-3-carbonitrile derivatives were prepared by using 4-amino acetophenone as starting material, which is treated with malononitrile, ammonium acetate and various types of benzaldehyde consists of electron releasing and electron withdrawing groups on it via one-pot reaction by using benzene as solvent. This method provides an envirofriendly, easy workup and gives compounds in high yield. The synthesized 4-substituted-6-(p-aminophenyl)-2-aminopyridine-3-carbonitrile derivatives were characterized by physical properties and spectral studies (IR, 1H NMR &amp; Mass).
830-834
29
LEGAL PROTECTION OF INTELECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
*R. Suthakaran
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The legal protection of intellectual property has always played an important part in managing intellectual property which is crucial to the industry. The Intellectual Property Protection Act of 2006 is bolstering and increases the government&rsquo;s ability to fight against IP violations as well as to help reduce terror tolerated and criminal enterprises that are proposed as being supposedly funded by piracy. There are several important cases in the country on intellectual property legislation, pertaining to these aspects of the legal scrutiny that are worth noticing. Overall, the purpose of the legislation is to protect any form of intellectual property and original innovation in order to sustain a sense of copyright for original works and creation. <br />
835-836
30
RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CEFEPIME AND TAZOBACTAM IN MARKETED FORMULATION
*M. Bhavana, T. RamamohanaReddy, M. Sandhya, V. Uma Maheswara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new precise, accurate, reliable validated method for the determination of Cefepime and Tazobactam has been developed by using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) in pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation was carried out by using mobile phase 0.02M Potassium dihydrogen phosphate: Acetonitrile (95:5v/v, pH-3.0 adjusted with Orthophosphoric acid) on Sunfire C18 (50 x 4.6 mm, 5 &micro;) at a flow rate 0.8ml/min with UV detection at 220nm.The retention times for Cefepime and Tazobactam were 2.243 and 4.910 min respectively and both drugs showed good linearity in the range of 250-750 &micro;g/ml and 31.25-93.75 &micro;g/ml. The proposed method has been successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulation and was validated according to ICH guidelines and method showed good precision with percentage relative standard deviation less than 2%. The percentage recovery for Cefepime and Tazobactam was found between 99.80-101.11% and 100.43-101.14% respectively indicating the proposed method was accurate and precise.
837-842
31
DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACTANT FREE NANOPARTICLES BY A SINGLE EMULSION HIGH PRESSURE HOMOGENIZATION TECHNIQUE AND EFFECT OF FORMULATION PARAMETERS ON THE DRUG ENTRAPMENT AND RELEASE
*Jayesh Shivaji Patil, Sunil kumar Yadav, Vinod Jagganathrao mokale, Jitendra Baliram Naik
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study was to prepare surfactant free Diclofenac sodium loaded ethyl cellulose nanoparticles by O/W single emulsion solvent evaporation high pressure homogenization technique.In the preparation of O/W single emulsion sodium alginate used as an emulsifying/stabilizing agent. Microparticles of nine different batches at different condition were prepared after that optimized batch was subjected to the high pressure Homogenizer for 3 cycles at 300 bar for the preparation of nanoparticles. The size of the nanoparticles was obtained in the range of 147.7nm to 256.6 nm .The maximum drugs loading of nanoparticles found about 90% and it showed about 66% of drug release in 12 hours. Physicochemical properties of these nanoparticles such as particle size, FESEM, X-RD and FTIR analysis were investigated. No drug-polymer interaction was observed in FTIR. FE-SEM images show that the particles are spherical and nanosized.
843-852
32
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LAMIVUDINE AND ZIDOVUDINE IN API AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM USING RP-HPLC
*J. Priyanka and P. Anil Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A rapid, sensitive and specific RP-HPLC [1-5] method involving UV detection was developed and validated for determination and quantification of Lamivudine and Zidovudine.&nbsp; Chromatography&nbsp;&nbsp; was&nbsp; carried out on Thermo Hypersil BDS, C18,(150 x 4..6 mm,5&#61549;) column&nbsp;&nbsp; using&nbsp; filtered&nbsp; and&nbsp; degassed&nbsp;&nbsp; mixture of&nbsp; Buffer : Methanol : Acetonitrile (70:5:25) as mobile&nbsp; phase&nbsp; at&nbsp; a&nbsp; flow&nbsp; rate&nbsp; of&nbsp; 0.8ml/min and effluent was monitored at 267nm. The method was&nbsp; validated&nbsp; in&nbsp; terms&nbsp; of&nbsp; linearity,&nbsp; precision,&nbsp; accuracy,&nbsp; robustness&nbsp; and&nbsp; specificity,&nbsp; limit of&nbsp; quantification and limit of&nbsp; detection.&nbsp; The&nbsp; assay&nbsp; was&nbsp; linear&nbsp; over&nbsp; the&nbsp; concentration&nbsp; range&nbsp; of&nbsp;&nbsp; Lamivudine&nbsp; and&nbsp; Zidovudine&nbsp;&nbsp; was&nbsp;&nbsp; 37.5&micro;g - 225&micro;g/ml&nbsp; and&nbsp; 75&micro;g&nbsp; to 450&micro;g/ml&nbsp; respectively.&nbsp; Accuracy&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; method was determined through recovery studies by adding&nbsp; known&nbsp; quantities&nbsp; of standard&nbsp; drug&nbsp; to&nbsp; the&nbsp; pre&nbsp; analyzed&nbsp; test solution&nbsp; and&nbsp; was&nbsp; found&nbsp; to be 99.50%-100.7% and 99.9%-100.7%&nbsp;&nbsp; within&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; precision&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; RSD&nbsp; of&nbsp; 1.30&nbsp;&nbsp; and&nbsp;&nbsp; 0.61&nbsp; for&nbsp;&nbsp; Lamivudine and Zidovudine&nbsp; respectively.&nbsp; The method does require only 10 minutes as run time for analysis which prove the adoptability of the method for the routine quality control of the drug. <br />
853-858
33
Dissolution enhancement of Meloxicam Using Liquisolid Technique
*Nishtha Shrivastava, Ritu Priya Mahajan, Alok Sharma, Suresh Chandra Mahajan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The limited solubility of drugs has always been a challenging task for pharmaceutical industries engaged in manufacturing and development of solid dosage forms. To overcome this problem, Liquisolid technique has gained immense popularity as a novel approach in the last decade. The present study deals with the dissolution enhancement of Meloxicam by Liquisolid Technique. An attempt has been made to formulate fast dissolving tablets of Meloxicam, a poorly water soluble drug. The dissolution rate of Meloxicam was compared with the marketed tablet. The results indicated that formulation (F11) containing microcrystalline cellulose as the carrier and aerosil as the coating material in the 20:1 ratio, displayed higher dissolution profile compared to other formulations. The prepared tablets showed good wettability, rapid disintegration, and acceptable dissolution rate compared to the marketed product. It has been observed that liquisolid technique is the most promising way for solubility and dissolution enhancement of Meloxicam. It can be concluded that liquisolid technique resulted in improved dissolution of Meloxicam.
859-866
34
FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF GASTRORETENTIVE BILAYER FLOATING TABLETS OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM
*Sruthi Buddharaju
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of present study was to formulate and evaluate Gastroretentive bilayer floating tablets of Losartan potassium using direct compression technology. Bilayer floating tablets comprised two layers, i.e. immediate release and controlled release layers. The immediate release layer comprised Crospovidone as a super disintegrant and floating layer comprised Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (SCMC), Metolose SR and Sodium alginate as the release retarding polymers. Sodium bicarbonate was used as a gas generating agent. The powder blends were evaluated for pre-compression parameters. Compressed tablets were further evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, dimensions, Drug Content Uniformity, In-vitro buoyancy and dissolution studies. All the formulations showed good results which were compliance with pharmacopoeial standards. In-vitro dissolution studies were performed in USP-XXIII dissolution test apparatus, type II (paddle method) in 1.2pH buffer. More than 99% Losartan potassium of was released from the immediate release layer within 30 min. The results of dissolution studies indicated that formulation BFT8 (drug to polymer[SCMC] 1:0.25), the most successful of the study, exhibited drug release of approximately 98% at 12th hour with more than 12h buoyancy with floating lag time of 93seconds. An increase in drug release was observed on decreasing polymer ratio. The drug release mechanism of all the formulations was found to be Fickian diffusion-controlled drug release.
867-874
35
FORMULATION AND INVITRO EVALLUATION OF NANOSUSPENSION OF GLIMEPIRIDE
*Ethiraj T, Sujitha R, Ganesan V
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present research work is an attempt to develop and evaluate Nanosuspension of Glimepiride in order to improve the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. Nanosuspensions of Glimepiride were developed with different ratios of Urea and PVP combinations by nanoprecipitation technique. Nanoprecipitation method being simple and less sophisticated was optimized for the preparation of nanosuspension. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to confirm compatibility and to rule out any possible interactions between drug and carriers. Four formulations (F1, F2, F3 and F4) consisting PVP and urea in the ratios of 1:3 and 1:6 respectively were prepared. All formulations were prepared using poloxamer as stabilizer, mixture of drug and acetone as organic phase and distilled water containing carriers as aqueous phase. . Physicochemical characteristics of nanosuspension in terms of size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency (% EE) and in vitro drug release were found within their acceptable ranges. Differential scanning calorimetry studies provided evidence that enhancement in solubility of drug resulted due to change in crystallinity of drug within the formulation. Data of in vitro release from nanosuspensions were fit in to different equations and kinetic models to explain release kinetics. <br />
875-882