Volume 4 - Issue

S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
MELATONIN MEDIATES CLASSIC LACTOPEROXIDASES CATALYTIC MECHANISM
Semira Galijasevic, Elvisa Hodzic
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Lactoperoxidase (LPO) found in saliva, tears and airways protects system against bacterial and viral attack. It utilized hydrogen peroxide in the presence of halides or pseudohalide forming hypohalous acid a potent biocidal and virocidal agent. Melatonin is an important biomolecule that controls a number of functions including circadian sleep rhythms, blood pressure, oncogenesis, retinal function, seasonal reproduction, and immunity. Additionally, melatonin is frequently used as a supplement in a variety of medical conditions such as jet lag, shift work, and circadian rhythm sleep disorders, cancer, longevity and antioxidant therapy. Here, we demonstrate that melatonin modulates classic catalytic mechanism of LPO under physiological-like conditions. In the presence of chloride (SCN-), melatonin inactivated LPO classic peroxidase cycle by formation of compound II or two different intermediate compounds that are dead end products of LPO system. This behavior indicates that melatonin modulates the formation of LPO intermediates and their decay rates to the ground state this efficiently slowing down or inhibiting the cycling of the enzyme. Importantly, melatonin-dependent inhibition of LPO depends on hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Thus, the interplay between LPO and melatonin can have a broader implication especially in the cases of supplemental melatonin therapy.
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IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC AND ALKALOIDIC EXTRACTS OF DELPHINIUM STAPHISAGRIA
Bouchra Faridi, Latifa Doudach, Rachad Alnamer, Moulay Abbas Faouzi, FatimaTahiri, Yahia Cherrah and Amina Zellou
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In this study, the in vitro cytotoxicity and antioxidant properties of the ethanolic and alkaloidic extract of Delphinium Staphisagria seeds were assessed. The antioxidant activity of the plant extracts and the standard was assessed on the basis of the radical scavenging effect of the stable 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-free radical activity. The in vitro cytotoxicity was carried out by using the 3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, against two animals cancer cell lines; Vero cell line, initiated from the kidney of a normal, adult African green Monkey and Neuro-2a (N2a) from a spontaneous tumor of a strain A albino mouse. The DPPH scavenging activity of both extracts was concentration-dependent (increasing from 15.62 µg/ml to 500 µg/ml), exhibited considerably (P<0.05) DPPH radical-scavenging activity and was able to inhibit the formation of DPPH radicals with a percentage inhibition of 62.19 and 94 % respectively at the highest concentration. The results showed that the alkaloidic extract (1000-31.25 µg/ml) of Delphinium Staphisagria possesses significant IC50 compared to the drug positive control on all cancer cell lines used. The lower IC50 represent the highest potency of a compound to inhibit the growth of cells and cause toxicity and death of cells. The result obtained in this work demonstrated a high activity at low alkaloids extracts doses (500µg/ml). In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that Delphinium Staphisagria seeds plant have various secondary metabolites and has good quantity of alkaloidic compounds (diterpenoid alkaloids). Plant has potent free radical scavenging activity. Detailed studies on chemical composition, isolation of active constituents and pharmacological evaluation are essential to characterize them as biological antioxidants. The present findings of this study support the view that Delphinium Staphisagria seeds are a promising source of potential antioxidant which can be used in treatment of various ailments.
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3
WHEN AND FOR HOW LONG SHOULD DEXMEDETOMIDINE BE USED IN THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT
Engi Nakhla, Ehab Daoud, Shyam Gelot
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Dexmedetomidine is a novel sedative that was approved for use in the US at the end of the last century. Currently, the FDA labeling for its use are: sedation in non-intubated patients prior to and during surgical and other procedures, and in intubated and mechanically ventilated patients during treatment in an intensive care setting and to be administered by continuous infusion not to exceed 24 hours. Multiple investigations for other indications and prolonged durations have caused controversies for its use. Given the risks of this medication, strict adherence to guidelines for its use is recommended. The aim of this review is to discuss the approved and the not yet approved indications to use this medication.
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4
PREVALENCE AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH FUNCTIONAL SECONDARY AMENORRHEA
Huda Kafeel, Ramsha Rukh, Asma Zubair, Ayesha Ghazala, Hira Muzaffar, Hira Raees, Kanwal Riaz, Tania Qudsia, Zunaira Ali
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The main objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence of functional secondary amenorrhea and also to study the different variable factors associated with it with its possible pathological outcome in our community. A retrospective study is conducted in the city of Karachi. Data regarding the occurrence of amenorrhea, specifically functional secondary amenorrhea, their related complications and symptoms were collected together with demographic variables by means of structured questionnaire. Study sample was of 1052 women (age between 13 to 48 years) out of 1258 women approached. (n= 1052 with response rate 83.62%) 12 women out of 1052 (1.14%) gave a history of primary amenorrhea with no onset of menstrual cycle even at the age of 15. Contrary there were 44.77% women having history of no onset of menstrual cycle for more than 3 months duration during the past year. (Secondary amenorrhea).  5.04% was due to established ovarian cause like PCOs and 39.73% was due to functional causes like stress, excessive dieting, exercise or use of medications (like oral contraceptives or sedative hypnotics or SSRI’s) classified as Functional secondary amenorrhea. 11.12% amenorrhea was due to pregnancy. Among different variables studied weight, age, marital status, pregnancy history was found to be significant. A significant correlation between the use of oral contraceptives and secondary amenorrhea was found in about 7.03% of women. Obesity was found to be the most common effect in women having secondary amenorrhea.
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DELIVERY OF WATER-INSOLUBLE DRUGS: CAFFEINE MONOHYDRATE AND SALICYLIC ACID AS MICROCAPSULES USING IRVINGIA GUM AS THE COACERVATING AGENT
Uzondu, Akueyinwa Lovet Esther, Okor, Roland Sydney
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The potential of irvingia gum as a coacervating agent was investigated in the microencapsulation of caffeine and salicylic acid. Irvingia gum was produced according to the methods described by previous workers. Coacervation was achieved by adding ethanolic solution of the drug (6g in 8ml) to the gum mucilage (3g in 100ml of water): i.e, gum: drug ratio 1:2, and allowing to stand for 48h to form a sediment ( coacervate). Also prepared were gum: drug ratios: 1:1 and 2:1. Effects of composition, temperature and pH on coacervate yield and degree of drug entrapment were investigated. Tragacanth gum was used, as reference standard. 1:2 ratio gave the highest yield for both caffeine (78.5±0.02% w/w) and salicylic acid (79±0.00%w/w) coacervates. pH increase of gum mucilage (2.21 to 12.03) increased the yield of irvingia caffeine coacervate but decreased that of irvingia: salicylate coacervates. Raising the temperature (25-600C) decreased both coacervate yields. Both systems (with gum: drug ratio 1:2) gave the highest degree of drug  entrapment. This study, therefore, presents optimal condition for enhancement of yield and degree of drug entrapment in coacervation of poorly-water soluble drugs: caffeine and salicylic acid.
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INCIDENCES, SCREENING AND MANAGEMENT OF PROSTATE CANCER
Sheikh Abdul Khaliq,, Zahid Khan, Atiquddin Mallick, Anab Fatima
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Retrospective study in different ethnic groups determines the burden and patterns of prostate cancer during the last eight years reported in Oncology wards of hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Compares the management pharmacotherapy/chemotherapy/surgery with international guidelines, develops strategies for screening and evidence based pharmacotherapy/chemotherapy/surgery of cases. Every single one male case with histologically and cytologically established prostate cancer was enrolled from January 2003 to December 2010. Data for all patients were collected retrospectively by patient’s file & charts, which represents the population of Karachi, Interior Sindh & Balochistan. 72 male patients investigated for their diagnosis of cancer type, ethnicity, age & gender. The statistical analysis was performed for mean, standard error & proportions. Screening, Pharmacotherapy/Chemotherapy/Surgery employed by the hospitals was compared with international guidelines and evidences. Proportionately major ethnic groups male diagnosed with prostate cancer in total male cases of prostate cancer was Sindhi (43%), Urdu Speaking/Immigrants (24%), Baloch (10%), Pukhtoon (8%), Punjabi (7%), Minorities & others (8%). Mean age at the time of diagnosis was 65.44±10.89 years, SE± 0.227 and RSD 34%. Screening strategies are implemented in <10% targeted population, however pharmacotherapy/chemotherapy/surgery was comparable with international guidelines. The study reveals that prostate cancer incidences are highest among Sindhi Speaking and then Urdu Speakings. Rests of the ethnic groups are in the range of 7-10%. There is a need to implement the screening strategies more extensively to the small/basic/rural health care centers for early diagnosis of the disease and new treatments strategies especially in surgical management like application of cryosurgery, high intensity ultrasound and proton beam radiation therapy are making revolution in the management of prostate cancer.
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Synthesis and Characterization of Polymeric Conjugated Sirolimus on MCF-7(Estrogen Positive) and MDA MB 231(Estrogen Negative) Breast Cancer Cell Lines
Bontha Venkata Subrahmanya Lokesh and Palanirajan Vijayaraj Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Sirolimus (SR) is used as an immunosuppressant drug to prevent organ rejection in kidney transplants. It is chemically a macrolide and isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus in a soil sample. Of recent, it has potent antiproliferative properties and useful in the treatment of certain types of cancer. In our objective of the study, SR is chemically conjugated with Methoxy-polyethylene glycolic acid (mPEG COOH) and Poly(lactic-co glycolic acid)[PLGA]. Two polymeric SR conjugates (mPEG-SR and PLGA-SR) were characterized by UV-spectra, infrared (IR) spectra, 1H NMR spectra, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and HPLC analyses. It was found to be structurally correlated among the chemical structures of SR, mPEG COOH-SR conjugate, PLGA-SR conjugate, PLGA and m-PEG COOH polymers. The MTT assay of mPEG-SR, PLGA conjugates were carried out on specific MCF-7(Estrogen positive) and MDA MB231 (Estrogen negative) breast cancer cell lines using tamoxifen as control. All results were showing the positive effects of mPEG-SR with IC50 values of 15 µg/ml and 1.5 µg/ml more active than tamoxifen with IC50 values of 28 µg/ml and 4.9 µg/ml on MDA-MB 231(estrogen negative) and MCF-7(estrogen positive) breast cancer cell lines in vitro, respectively. Whereas PLGA-SR conjugate was shown high activity on MCF-7(estrogen positive) with IC50 value of 1.2 µg/ml and less activity on MDA MB 231(estrogen negative) with IC50 value of more than 100 µg/ml. Both conjugates have not shown any cytotoxicity activity on 3T3 fibroblast normal cell lines. These results indicate that both conjugates may provide highly potent cytotoxicity activity against specific breast cancer types than SR alone. In conclusion, polymeric conjugation is a useful approach in drug delivery systems. These conjugates are basic precursors to formulate into a novel drug delivery system for better release and with increased good bioavailability with fewer side effects.
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FIXED DOSE COMBINATION: UNDERSTANDING OF IMMINENT PHARMACIST
Riffat Yasmin, Sadia Shakeel, Wajiha Iffat, Madiha Fatima Sana
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was conducted to evaluate the awareness of pharmacy students’ about prescribing fixed dose combination (FDC) in pharmacy institutions in Karachi. A cross sectional study was conducted during July-Sep, 2013. Participants’ overall response towards the importance of the FDCs was found positive. Out of 600 students, 511 pharmacy students (85.16%) responded the questionnaire, belonging to public and private institutes of Karachi. 47.7% of the respondents were aware of the practice for prescribing FDCs. Only 29.15% students were informed about the standard protocol for prescribing FDCs. 65.75% of the students agreed that patient compliance can be improved by using simpler dosage schedule of FDCs. On the other hand 49.9% of the students claimed that FDCs may lead to alteration of therapeutic effect due to possible drug-drug interaction. It is concluded that pharmacy students’ awareness of prescribing FDC is the demand of modern medicine to improve the patient compliance, ease in drug administration, safe and successful use of drugs.
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A RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW OF ANTIBIOTIC UTILIZATION IN ADULT MEDICAL WARDS OF A PRIMARY CARE HOSPITAL IN ETHIOPIA
Zenaw Tessema, Chalachew Teshale, Segewkal Hawaze
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Inappropriate antibiotic use results emergence of resistance, preventable morbidity and mortality and resource wastage. Institution based retrospective cross sectional study was conducted using patient cards and prescription registration books to assess antibiotics utilization pattern in adult medical wards of Finote Selam Hospital (FSH). 30 cases per quarter were selected from the documented cards, based on Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Organizations (JCAHO) sample size recommendation. Out of 130 cards reviewed, ceftriaxone (31.02%), amoxicillin (14.29%) and gentamicin (13.88%) were commonly prescribed. Combined antibiotics were used in 17.50% of cases and 18.77% of prescribed antibiotics were inappropriately indicated. 53.88% of prescribed antibiotics were administered through the intravenous route. Average number of antibiotics per encounter was 1.22 and 97.1% of antibiotics were prescribed with generic name. 58% of antibiotics were prescribed from Essential Drug List (EDL). Correct frequency and duration were specified in 88.16% and 42.04% of the antibiotics respectively. Duration, dosage form, route and frequency were not specified in 57.96%, 10.20%, 8.57% and 6.53% of antibiotics respectively. Not specifying dosage form, route, and duration; prescription habit deviating from EDL and improper indication were problems identified. Good generic prescription habit, low level poly-pharmacy and specifying frequency were the good practices observed.
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SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF CEFPODOXIME USING 2-HYDROXY NAPHTHALDEHYDE AS A DERIVATIZING REAGENT
M. L. Maheshwari, U. R. Mughal, Muhammad Ali Ghoto, Abdullah Dayo, Naheed Memon Mudassar Iqbal Arain, Abbas Ali
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The optimum experimental parameters for the reactions have been studied. The validity of the procedure was assessed and did not show any change in absorbance up to 24 hrs at room temperature. Statistical analysis of the result has been carried out revealing high accuracy, good precision and suitability for quality control application. The developed procedure is used for the determination of cefpodoxime in pharmaceutical formulations including tablets and suspensions. A good agreement is observed with labeled values Relative standard deviation (RSD) within 1% and recovery of the drug from pharmaceutical preparations was calculated within 95- 99.5% .
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DOCKING STUDIES OF SWINE FLU NEURAMINIDASE WITH HERBAL COMPOUNDS
Jayasree Ganugapati , Archana Battu, Aishwarya Aare
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Swine Flu is a seasonal viral infectious disease caused due to H1N1. The aim of the present study is to identify natural compounds found in dietary resources that can inhibit neuraminidase, a protein that plays a crucial role in the H1N1 infection and invasion into the human host tissues. The X-Ray Crystallographic structure of the protein Neuraminidase was retrieved from RCSB -PDB and 3D structures of the selected ligands were obtained from NCBI PubChem in SDF format. Lipinski Rule was analyzed using Mol inspiration. Docking studies were performed using ARGUSLAB, AUTODOCK 4.0 and AUTODOCK VINA to study the interactions of the protein with the ligands. The compounds having affinity towards the protein’s active site region were identified. Docking results indicate that all the six compounds interact with neuraminidase with varied binding energies. From our observations It can be concluded that the six compounds selected for analysis bind with neuraminidase and our further studies suggest that the activity of neuraminidase can be inhibited by Curcumin and Gingerol since they have a better binding energy and interact with active site residues.
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ROLE OF SHORT TERM CAMPAIGNS IN BOOSTING UP SALES, WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON INDIAN PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET
Aravinda Pai, G.K.Sudhakar, Venkatesh Kamath, Vasudev Pai
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In recent years, strategic marketing has played an important role in the process of pharmaceutical marketing. Due to increase in the number of pharmaceutical companies as well as rapidly growing product portfolio, it is essential to look for innovative strategies periodically to ensure competitiveness in the market place. Strategies may look different for different segments of markets because some segments may depend only on concept selling. Nowadays, particularly in the Indian pharmaceutical market, we see more than 100 brands competing for a single drug and price also playing an important role. Since patient is an indirect customer for a pharmaceutical company, it is the discretion of a physician to select particular brand for a drug (1). In this scenario, short term campaigns can be effective in brand conversions and to boost up sales. In the present article a brief overview will be given on short term campaigns conducted by different pharmaceutical companies and the output in the form of incremental sales.
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A SENSITIVE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY–TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRIC ASSAY FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ARTEMETHER AND ITS ACTIVE METABOLITE DIHYDROARTEMISININ IN HUMAN PLASMA
Bhanu Prakash Tummuru, Nageswara Rao Pilli, Babu Rao Bhukya and Gowri Shankar D
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This paper describes a simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography / tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) assay method for the simultaneous quantification of artemether and its active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin in human plasma samples. Nevirapine was used as an internal standard. Analytes and the internal standard were extracted from 200 µL of human plasma via liquid-liquid extraction technique using tert-butyl methyl ether. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column by using a mixture of methanol and 5mM ammonium acetate buffer (90:10, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.85 mL/min. The calibration curve obtained were linear (r 2 >= 0.99) over the concentration range of 1.00-204.50 ng/mL for artemether and 0.51-161.52 ng/mL for dihydroartemisinin. Method validation was performed as per US FDA guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. A run time of 3.5 min for each sample made it possible to analyze more number of plasma samples per day. The proposed method can be applicable to clinical studies in humans.
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ISOLATION, QUANTIFICATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF PHYTOSTEROLS FROM DIFFERENT PARTS OF CASSIA PUMILA LAMK
Ankita Yadav, Richa Bhardwaj and R. A. Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cassia species have been of keen interest in phytochemical and pharmacological research due to their excellent medicinal values. Aim of this study is to identify and characterize the bioactive principles from the different parts of Cassia pumila. Four compounds were isolated and purified and the structures were determined as β-sitosterol, lanosterol, campersterol, stigmasterol by analysis of physical, chemical and spectral characterstics (IR,NMR). Present study shows the presence of various concentrations of phytosterols in different plant parts of C. pumila. The higher level of total phytosterols was measured in pods of C. pumila (1.15 mg/g dw) and lowest in flowers (0.38mg/gdw).The highest level of β-sitosterol and lanosterol, was found highest in pods(0.23mg/gdw) and 0.24mg/gdw) respectively, whereas highest level of campersterol was found in leaves(0.24mg/gdw). The isolated phytosterols were effective against all test bacteria and fungi. β-sitosterol was more active against fungi and bacteria and their MIC value was recorded 2 X 103 mg/disc while the MIC value of 3X 103 mg/disc was recorded for lanosterol, Campersterol and Stigmasterol.
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PREPARATION OF NANOPARTICLES OF CANDESARTAN CILEXETIL BY IONOTROPIC GELATION TECHNIQUE AND THEIR EVALUATION
Shilpa Bhilegaonkar, Ram Gaud
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Candesartan cilexetil is a poorly soluble antihypertensive agent with low bioavailability. It is a prodrug which converts into active drug candesartan with hydrolysis in GIT.Ion gelation technique is utilized for delivery of protein and peptide drug and involves formation of nanoparticles by means of electrostatic interactions between the positively charged chitosan chains and polyanions employed as cross linkers. The most extensively used polyanion is the tripolyphosphate (TPP). As chitosan is soluble in acidic pH and reduction in particle size was required to enhance solubility and dissolution of candesartan cilexetil, nanoparticles of candesartan cilexetil were prepared by ionotropic gelation technique and evaluated for particle size , surface morphology, saturation solubility and multimedia dissolution. The technique was found to be effective for candesartan cilexetil with particle size in the range of 324 nm with a smooth surface. Percentage entrapment efficiency was in between 45-54%. Rise in solubility and dissolution as compared to pure drug was seen with little slow release in acidic and buffer media.
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QUALITATIVE SCREENINGS OF PHYTOCHEMICAL AND GC-MS ANALYSIS OF CEROPEGIA BULBOSA- AN ENDANGERED TUBEROUS PLANT
Riddhu Palawat and Payal Lodha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ceropegia bulbosa is a medicinal herb, this is useful in curing many disease like kidney stone and deafness. Ethno botanical study showed that the plant has good medicinal value for tribe of Rajasthan The preliminary phytochemical studies of Ceropegia bulbosa tuber and leaf extracts revealed the presence of&nbsp; steroids, glycosides, flavonoids alkaloids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids and potassium salt. Gas chromatography mass spectroscopic investigation of methanolic extract of Ceropegia bulbosa &ndash; a annual land plant is investigated by GCMS technique while the mass spectra of the compounds found in the extract are matched with the standard library of NIST. Maximum % area are found for 2H-Azepin-2-one, 3-(dimethylamino) hexahydro is present in maximum amount (9.09.%) with RT=8.913min, followed by 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z) (8.16% )with RT=16.165min in the methanolic extract of leaves of C.bulbosa. 2H-Azepin-2-one, 3-(dimethylamino)hexahydro is present in maximum amount (43.58%) with RT=8.955min, followed by 2-Amino-9-(3,4-Dihydroxy-5-Hydroxymethyl-(16.08%) with RT=9.543min in the methanolic extract of tuber of C.bulbosa.
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PRACTICES OF STERILIZATION TECHNIQUES AT DENTAL CLINICS OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
Atiquddin Mallick, Sheikh Abdul Khaliq , Muhammad Nasir , Rehan Qureshi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The main objective of the study was to determine of practices of sterilization techniques at private dental clinics of Karachi, Pakistan. 150 dental clinics of the town were selected, owned and run by qualified dentists. The purpose of the study was explained to the owners /practitioners verbal consent was taken. Author designed the questionnaire by close ended questions in order to get information for sterilization method and infection control. The survey was completed in two weeks while five house officers of Karachi Medical &amp; Dental College participated to in filling of questionnaire. The sample size of the study was 150 with 95% confidence interval. Sample selection criteria: (Inclusion) Dentists, Dental hygienists and Dental assistants who are responsible or oversee the sterilization procedure from dental clinics of District Central Karachi. Exclusion: Reception staff, dental technicians. The result shows that 121 (81%) out of 150 clinics used autoclave as the method of sterilization and 15(10%) of the clinics used dry heat as the method of sterilization. While 14(9.3%) still employ the boiling and chemical as method of sterilization. The result shows that the 65.3% were the owner of the clinic and 34.7 % were dentist among the respondents. It is worth noting that 115(76.7) were female and 35(23.3%) male were among respondent. Among the dentist who answered the questioner 79.3% were BDS and 20.7% were postgraduates. From the results of the study it is quite evident that the Infection control measures taken in dental clinics were quite satisfactory. It is worth noting that almost 81% of the clinics used autoclaving method of sterilization. Internationally, the method used for sterilization is autoclaving for the sterilization of instruments in the private dental clinics. Some of the dental clinics used, chemical and dry heat sterilizer for the sterilizations of instruments. However, PMDC (Pakistan Medical &amp; Dental Council) or any other government organization did not set any legal bindings for the quality and standards of dental practice in Pakistan.
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PREPARATION AND COMPARITIVE EVAULATION OF NIZATIDINE LOADED SUPER POROUS FLOATING HYDROGELS
K.B.V. Yasaswi, Sowjanya Battu, V. Umamaheswara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the present investigation is to formulate Nizatidine loaded superporous floating hydrogel tablets. In the present study Nizatidine floating tablets were prepared by effervescence method using sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent. The tablets were formulated using direct compression technology by employing polymers like chitosan, carbopol 934p and ethyl cellulose. The prepared superporous floating hydrogel tablets were evaluated for pre compression, post compression and in-vitro drug release. The in-vitro drug release pattern of Nizatidine loaded superporus floating hydrogel tablets was fitted in different kinetic models which showed highest regression for zero order kinetics with higuchi’s type of drug release mechanism. Among all the formulations, F18 which is acombination of chitosan,carbopol 934p and ethyl cellulose was optimized based on desired sustained release time (18hrs) followed by acceptable swelling and floating properties.
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DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LISINOPRIL AND AMLODIPINE BESYLATE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
B. Prathap, Akalanka Dey, G.H. Srinivasa Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, specific, precise, and accurate reversed-phase HPLC method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of lisinopril and amlodipine besylate in tablet dosage forms. The separation was achieved by Hypersil ODS-BP C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5.0 µm) using methanol: phosphate buffer at pH 6 adjusted with orthophosphoric acid (30: 70, v/v) as eluent, at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Detection was carried out at wavelength 212 nm. The retention times of lisinopril and amlodipine besylate were 3.88 min and 2.716 min, respectively. The linearity was established over the concentration ranges of 20–80 µg/mL and 20–80 µg/mL with correlation coefficients (r2) 0.9999 and 0.9993 for lisinopril and amlodipine besylate respectively. The mean recoveries were found to be in the ranges of 98.33–101.37% and 98.90–100.70% for lisinopril and amlodipine besylate respectively. The proposed method has been validated as per ICH guidelines and successfully applied to the estimation of lisinopril and amlodipine besylate in their combined tablet dosage form.
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ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED HERBAL EXTRACTS AGAINST MULTI DRUG RESISTANT ORAL PATHOGENS ISOLATED FROM LEPROSY PATIENTS
Divya VV and Umamaheswari S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Many systemic diseases reflect the poor oral health of an individual. Leprosy patients are functionally dependent and present enormous oral malformation which helps the colonization of pathogens. Oral health of leprosy patients were assessed based on the prevalence of the load of oral isolates from fifty volunteer patients. Pseudomonas sp. was found to be more prevalent in all patients which expressed a higher rate of co aggregation with other isolates (Neisseria sp., Pseudomonas sp., Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp., Candida albicans and C. tropicalis). All bacterial and fungal isolates were subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity test using antibiotics and antifungal drugs recommended for oral infection (Amoxicillin, Clindamycin, Erythromycin, Penicillin G, Amphotericin B and Fluconazole) and aqueous extracts of five different herbs(Berberis aristata, Cyminum cuminum, Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Zingiber officinale). Berberis aristata exhibited highest antifungal activity and Syzygium aromaticum exerted highest anti bacterial activity. Hence we&nbsp; recommend the use of herbs for the preparation of choorna or oral rinse which can effectively control the colonization of multi drug resistant pathogens in the oral cavity.<br />
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FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLET OF TINIDAZOLE
Dwivedi Rohit, Mahajan Ritu Priya, Mahajan SC
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Tinidazole mouth dissolving tablet were prepared to achieve quick onset of action and for maximum bioavalability. The purpose of the present research work was to compare the efeect of different superdisintegrants on the mouth dissolving property of tinidazole tablets. Mouth dissolving tablet of tinidazole were prepared using crospovidone, crosscarmellose, and sodium starch glycolate as superdisintegrants by direct compression technique. Prepared tablet were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, content uniformity, wetting time, in vitro dispersion time, in vitro disintegration time and dissolution studies. Disintegration time of all prepared formulation was found to be in order: M9
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DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF METFORMIN AND PIOGLITAZONE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Swathi Malichetti, Sujitha Hazari and Akki Srivani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new precise, accurate, reliable validated method for the determination of Metformin and Pioglitazone has been developed by using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) in pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation was carried out by using mobile phase 0.02M Potassium dihydrogen ortho phosphate: acetonitrile (55:45v/v, PH-5.64 adjusted with Orthophosphoric acid) on Agilent Thermo Scientific Hypersil, C18 (250 x 4.6 mm, 5m at a flow rate 1.0ml/min with UV detection at 228nm.The retention times for Metformin and Pioglitazone were 2.579 and 5.633 min respectively and both drugs showed good linearity in the range of 500-2000 µg/ml and 30-120 µg/ml. The proposed method has been successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulation and was validated according to ICH guidelines and method showed good precision with percentage relative standard deviation less than 2%. The percentage recovery for Metformin and Pioglitazone was found between 99.48-100.85% and 99.48-100.89% respectively indicating the proposed method was accurate and precise.
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EVALUATION OF DIURETIC AND ANTIUROLITHIATIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF BASELLA ALBA
K. Sridevi, K. Ravishankar and G.V.N Kiranmayi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic and antiurolithiatic activities of ethanolic leaf extract of Basella alba in Albino rats. Ethanolic leaf extract was administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg (each p.o). Furosemide (5mg/kg) was used as a standard. The diuretic effect of the extract was evaluated by measuring the urine volume and determining sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate contents. Urolithiasis was induced in male rats by administering ethylene glycol (0.75%) in drinking water to groups II-V except normal control (Group I) for 28 days. Groups I, II and III served as normal control, positive control (hyperurolithiatic), and standard (cystone 750mg/kg), respectively, Groups IV and V served as curative regimen. Oxalate, calcium, phosphate were monitored in urine. Serum calcium, creatinine and uric acid were also recorded. The extract of Basella alba was safe and exhibited no gross behavioral changes in the rats. A significant diuretic effect was observed from the experimental animals treated with extract of Basella alba individually compared to the control. The results obtained suggest potential usefulness of extract of Basella alba leaf as an antiurolithiatic agent.
145-149
24
ENHANCEMENT OF SOLUBILITY AND DISSOLUTION RATE OF EFAVIRENZ USING LIQUI SOLID COMPACT TECHNIQUE
Jagan Mohan Vatyam, Ch. S. Vijaya Vani, V. Umamaheshwara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the present investigation is to formulate Liqui-Solid tablets of Efavirenz. In the present study Efavirenz immediate release tablets were prepared by using aid of non-volatile solvents like polyethylene glycol (PEG) and propylene glycol (PG), in which the poorly soluble drug is dissolved and thereby increasing its solubility and in turn dissolution rate. The tablets were formulated using direct compression technology by employing super disintegrants like cross povidone and sodium starch glycolate. The prepared liquid-solid compact tablets were evaluated for pre compression, post compression and in-vitro drug release. The in-vitro drug release pattern of liquisolid tablets of Efavirenz was fitted in kinetic model which showed highest regression i.e. for zero order kinetics. Among all the formulations, LS-12 which is a combination of Propylene glycol, Ratio (R) =2 and cross povidone- 4% was optimized based on desired immediate release time (10mins) followed by acceptable disintegration and drug release properties.
150-156
25
PRODUCTION, OPTIMIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL COMPOUND FROM ASPERGILLUS SP
Daljit Singh Arora, Harpreet kaur , Jemimah Gesare Onsare and Vishal Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Fungi have been reported to be active producers of secondary metabolites. In this study, a fungal isolate (Aspergillus sp) isolated from soil has been evaluated for its antimicrobial activity. The activity was studied under various physio-chemical parameters, such as pH, temperature, incubation period, carbon and nitrogen sources. The best antimicrobial activity was observed in the production medium having pH 5-7, on fifth day of incubation at 25 ºC when grown as static culture. Starch was the most promising carbon source, while yeast extract and soyabean meal acted as best nitrogen sources. Butanolic extract was comparable to standard antibiotics in contrast to aqueous extract. Response surface analysis showed that the antimicrobial activity was enhanced by 1.25 folds in S.aureus, 1.28 folds (S.epidermidis), 1.6 folds (K.pneumoniae 1), 1.37 folds (C.albicans), 1.38 folds (MRSA). Characterization of the purified compound responsible for antimicrobial activity was carried out by various analytical procedures i.e. TLC, HPLC, NMR and IR. MIC of the butanolic extract ranged from (0.016mg/ml-18mg/ml) while purified compound exhibited lower MIC value of 6µg/ml, 20 µg/ml and 20 µg/ml respectively for S.epidermidis, C.albicans and MRSA. VCC (Viable cell count) studies revealed E.coli to be the most sensitive and demonstrated 100% killing at 0 hr. Butanolic extract (crude) and the purified compound were found to be neither cytotoxic nor mutagenic.
157-171
26
DENTAL PROBLEMS IN THE PATIENTS OF DIABETES MELLITUS
Safia Abidi, Fatima Ramzan Ali, Sheikh Abdul Khaliq, Manzar Raza, Iqbal Azhar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The progression of oral disease is affected by chronic metabolic disorder known as diabetes. Dental health is an integral part of the general health and oral cavity is considered as a mirror of the rest of the body. The most common dental problem of diabetic patients is periodontal disease, and it along with dental caries can damage the whole tooth. The aim of the study is to determine the dental problems in diabetic patients of Karachi, Pakistan. A survey form comprising of issues regarding dental problems was filled by dentists of 94 diabetic patients. The data was entered and analyzed by SPSS 19 software. Out of 94 diabetic patients, the male female ratio is almost same i.e. 51.1% and 48.9%, respectively. Majority of patients had periodontal problems (97.8%). Other common dental problems were endodontitis (45.25), surgery (64.5%), debris in mouth (77.45), loose or carious tooth (50.55%), and inflamed, swollen or bleeding gum (74.2%). 47.3% patients lost their natural teeth. Diabetic patients usually suffer from dental problems and special care must be taken to avoid or manage these problems.
172-174
27
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF LAMIVUDINE AND TINOFOVIR BY RP-HPLC METHOD
Avinash Vajrapu, Dhanalaxmi K, G. Nagarjuna Reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Lamivudine and Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in pharmaceutical dosage form. The method was based on RP-HPLC. Chromatographic separation was performed on Symmetry C18 (4.6 x 150mm, 5m, Make: Waters) or equivalent ,column using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of KH2PO4 buffer (pH 2.5 with dilute ortho-phosphoric acid): Methanol: phosphate Buffer (700%v/v) in an isocratic mode. The following system conditions were maintained throughout development and validation i.e., flow rate 1.0 mL/min, column was maintained at room temperature and the detected by a UV-wave length at 260nm. The Lamivudine and Tinofovir were well resolved on the stationary phase and the retention times were 2.464 and 3.746 minutes respectively. The method was validated; both the drugs were shown to be linear over a range of 300 μg/mL. Precision Intermediate Precision/Ruggedness Accuracy linearity Limit of detection Limit of quantification Robustness was determined to validate the method.
175-182
28
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF FOSINOPRIL SODIUM, HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC
K. Priyanka, A. Ajitha, M. Sandhya Mamindla, V. Uma Maheswara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, precise, rapid, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for simultaneous estimation of Fosinopril Sodium (FOS) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation was performed on X-terra(C8) (4.6mm x 150mm, 3.5m) column, with mobile phase comprising of mixture of buffer (pH 6.0, adjusted with ortho phosphoric acid), acetonitrile and methanol&nbsp; in the ratio of 80:10:10v/v, at the flow rate 0.8 ml/min. The detection was carried out at 226 nm. The retention times of FOS and HCTZ were found to be 2.1 and 3.3 mins respectively with a run time of 6 mins, theoretical levels for FOS and HCTZ were 2015 and 4034 respectively, with a resolution of 5.42. As per ICH guidelines the method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantitation, robustness and ruggedness. Linearity of FOS was found in the range of 10-50 &micro;g/mL and that for HCTZ was found to be 6.25-31.35 &micro;g/mL. The correlation coefficient for FOS and HCTZ were 0.9992 and 0.9991 respectively. The LOD values for FOS and HCTZ were 0.88 and 1.11 &micro;g/mL respectively. The LOQ values for FOS and HCTZ were and 2.96 and 3.7 &micro;g/mL respectively. This demonstrates that the developed method is simple, precise, rapid, selective, accurate and reproducible for simultaneous estimation of FOS and HCTZ tablet dosage form.<br />
183-188
29
PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF ETHYL CELLULOSE MICROSPHERES OF PIOGLITAZONE HCl FOR SUSTAINED DRUG DELIVERY
Vankayalu Devendiran Sundar, Nandhakumar Sathyamoorthy, Manam Madhuri, Magharla Dasaratha Dhanaraju
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of this study is to formulate and evaluate ethyl cellulose microspheres of pioglitazone hydrochloride for sustained/controlled drug release. Ethyl cellulose microspheres loaded with pioglitazone hydrochloride were prepared using emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The prepared microspheres were characterized for their average particle size, drug entrapment efficiency, scanning electron microscopy, DSC studies, in-vitro drug release behavior and in-vitro release mechanism. The microspheres were spherical with average particle size of 19 to 31 &mu;m. The microspheres were free flowing smooth and spherical in shape with ideal surface morphology. The DSC endotherm proves the compatibility of drug and polymer. In-vitro release studies reveals that the microspheres formulation prepared with an increasing concentration of polymer exhibits more control release than the formulation prepared with lower concentration. Among all the batches, formulation with higher concentration of polymer shows an extended release and is suitable for formulate as sustained/controlled delivery system.
189-193
30
A NOVEL APPROACH FOR FORMULATION OF ITOPRIDE HCL MUPS SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLET
Biswajit Biswal, Nabin Karna
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
MUPS tablet was prepared to control the release of Itopride Hydrochloride over a prolong period of time as multi unit particulate system are familiar, proven, easy to formulate and economical. The sustained released pellets containing Itopride Hydrochloride were prepared using a Fluidized bed processor technique. Amount of Microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel pH102, Hypromellose 15 cps and Ethyl cellulose 50 cps were taken as the formulation variables for optimizing to keep round shape of pellets and percentage release of drug. The pellets were evaluated for Physical characterization, Assay, Sizing, Aspect ratio, density, SEM, In-vitro drug release and Binder’s concentration tends to very effective pellets shape and size. Percentage release of drug intended to very non-linear with polymer type and percentage of coating on the pellets. In present investigation attempts were made to prepare 8 batches of multi unit particular tablets of Itopride Hydrochloride by using different polymers namely ethyl cellulose 50 cps and HPMC E-6 cps. The prepared tablets were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, percentage drug content, content uniformity, hardness disintegration time, in vitro drug release.
194-203
31
EVALUATION OF IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF COCCULUS HIRSUTUS (L.) DIELS
Mukesh Kumar Meena, Neelam Singh, Vidya Patni
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Plants are a potential source of natural antioxidants. Antioxidants protect from the potentially damaging oxidative stress, which is a result of an imbalance between the formation of ROS (Reactive oxygen species) and the body antioxidant defense. The present study was directed to investigate the antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of different plant parts of Cocculus hirsutus. The antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of in vivo and in vitro plant parts of Cocculus hirsutus was determined on the basis of their scavenging activity of the stable 2, 2- diphenyl- 2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. In the present study, methanolic extracts of the different plant parts and callus of Cocculus hirsutus showed potential free-radical scavenging activity. The methanolic extract of Cocculus hirsutus and Ascorbic acid (standard) showed DPPH free radical scavenging activity in a concentration range of 10-1000 μg/ml and its inhibition ranged from 36.92 - 84.1% and that of standard was 49.68 - 94.60%. Methanolic extracts of callus were found to have maximum IC50 value (151.65 µg/ml) followed by leaf (121.45 µg/ml) and stem (37.83 µg/ml). Standard antioxidant used was Ascorbic acid (1mg/ml) having 24.79 µg/ml IC50 value. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was detected in methanolic extract of stem followed by methanolic extract of leaf and callus respectively. These activities are less than that of standard ascorbic acid. The results of DPPH scavenging activity assay in this study indicates that the methanolic extract of stem was potently active than other plant parts of Cocculus hirsutus and the methanolic extract of the study species is effective in scavenging free radicals and has the potential to be powerful antioxidant.
204-207
32
KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS AND HOUSE OFFICERS REGARDING INFECTION CONTROL IN CLINICAL SETTINGS
Atiquddin Mallick, Sheikh Abdul Khaliq, Muhammad Nasir, Zahid Khan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The rational of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice in regard to standards isolation, precautions among dentistry students in different dental colleges of Karachi so that steps could be taken to enhance the standards of dental practice and reduces the probabilities of cross infection. The main objective of the study was to determine Knowledge, Attitude and Practices in regard to infection control related precautions among the dental students and house officers in the dental colleges of Karachi and to find out association between KMDC (Karachi Medical &amp; Dental College) and other dental colleges for dental hygiene practices. The study has been conducted in five dental collages of Karachi, 409 students of third year, final year and internees were recruited to solve the questionnaire for the duration of December 2011 to January 2012. Sample size is determined, based upon WHO criteria and the statistical analysis was performed for mean, standard deviation and age ranges. Chi Sq. was applied to determine the significance at P value &lt;0.05. Findings of study revealed that majority of students are female in dental colleges of Karachi, among them, 77.70% believe that rate of transmission of Hepatitis-B is high while 12.30% rated AIDS as the highly transmissible infection. During the practice or trainings 24% of students and interns use goggles while 72% use detergents/antiseptics to wash their hands and 8% do not bend the needles after use. Pre dental examinations washing of hands were lacks by 5% of students and internees while almost same proportion (5%) do not get vaccination against Hepatitis-B infection. The study reveals that, it is quite evident that most of the students and internees have good knowledge of infection control in the dental clinics and also using personal procreative equipments. They are practicing the standard infection control methods. The attitude towards infection control was a little poor in some of the respondent. A large number of the respondent did not use goggles for droplet splash in the dental clinic and no significant association was found between KMDC and other dental colleges regarding dental hygiene practices.
208-212
33
COMPARATIVE MODELING OF PLASMODIUM FALCIPARAM DIHYDROPTEROATE SYNTHASE 2 AND DOCKING STUDY AGAINST COMPOUNDS FROM ANTI-MALARIAL PLANT CARCIA PAPAYA AND SWERTIA CHIRATA
Robin Das, Dhrubajyoti Gogoi, Surovi Saikia, Shovonlal Bhoumic, Rajib Lochan Bezbaruah, R.N.S.Yadav
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Malaria parasite Plasmodium falciarum are becoming drug resistant and the present drugs are becoming ineffective towards the disease. The Plasmodium falciparum causes the most malignant form of malaria highly prevalent to North–East India. In this investigation, a study was conducted to search and predict potent anti-malarial lead compounds from two traditionally important anti-malarial plant, Carcia papaya and Swertia chirata. Dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) is an essential enzyme required for the folate biosynthesis in Plasmodium falciparum. Till date, three dimensional (3D) structure of DHPS is not yet elucidated and hence, homology model of DHPS was generated and docked with these plant derived compound. The study identified few phytochemical such as Atovquone, Nitroblue tetrazolium, Caffeic Acid and Kaempferol in terms of least docking and optimum ADME scores as a novel DHPS inhibitor.
213-218
34
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF METFORMIN AND FENOFIBRATE BY RP-HPLC METHOD IN MARKETED FORMULATION
M. Prathyusha, Sujitha, M. Sandhya, V. Uma Maheshwara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new precise, accurate, reliable validated method has been developed by using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) for the determination of Metformin and Fenofibrate in pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation was carried out using mobile phase buffer (0.02M Potassium dihydrogen phosphate): Acetonitrile: Methanol (40:50:10, PH-5.65 adjusted with Orthophosphoric acid) on Hypersil Silica column (250 x 4.6 mm, 5) at a flow rate 1.0ml/min at 30°C. Photodiode array is used as detector and Detection was carried out at 225nm wavelength.The retention times for Metformin and Fenofibrate were 7.436 min and 2.999 min respectively. Both the drugs showed good linearity in the range of 250-750 µg/ml for metformin and 80-240 µg/ml for Fenofibrate. The proposed method has been successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulation and was validated according to ICH guidelines. Method showed good precision with %RSD less than 2%. The percentage recovery for Metformin and Fenofibrate was found between 99.39-100.61% and 100.47-101.43% respectively. And it indicates that the proposed method was accurate and precise.
219-225
35
CHITOSAN-BASED PARTICULATE SYSTEM FOR ORAL VACCINE DELIVERY: A REVIEW
Subrata Biswas, Kalyan Kumar Sen, Debosree Roy, Malay Kumar Saha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Mucosal vaccination is a promising alternative to classical parental vaccination, as it is non-invasive and, in principle, capable of eliciting strong systemic and local immune responses. Chitosan has already gained considerable attentions as vehicles for protein drug delivery due to its excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-toxicity. However, its poor aqueous solubility and loss of penetration-enhancing above pH 6 are major drawbacks for its use as oral vaccine carrier. In recent years, the area of focus has shifted from chitosan to chitosan derivatized polymers for the preparation of nanoparticles due to their vastly improved properties, such as acid resistivity, better drug retention capability, improved permeation, enhanced mucoadhesion and sustained release of therapeutic antigens. Additionally, interaction with counter ions such as sulfates or polyphosphates facilitates its usefulness in the coating or entrapment of antigenic molecules as a vaccine candidate. The current review focuses on the recent advancements in the field of oral vaccine delivery via chitosan-based particulates, describes the various methods used to design and synthesis and discusses about their in vitro and in vivo implications.
226-236
36
SCREENING OF SKELETAL MUSCLE RELAXANT ACTIVITY OF PLANT VICIA FABA
Kalakonda Rajesh, Kadiri Sunil Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The study was designed to investigate the skeletal muscle relaxant activity of vicia faba (400mg/kg, p.o) by using rota rod apparatus. Experiments were carried out on albino mice and the animals were randomly allotted to the different control, test and standard (diazepam 4mg/kg, p.o) groups. The methanolic extract significantly reduced the fall off time (4.33sec) in comparision with the fall off time of control treated animals (11.6 sec). This reduction in fall off time observed in test extract animals placed on rotarod apparatus indicates motor incoordination. As it is evident from phytochemical studies that vicia faba leaf extract possess tannins and hence the observed skeletal muscle relaxant activity may be attributed to tannins.
237-240
37
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF NEWLY SYNTHESISED IMIDAZOLE (2-(2-BENZYLIDENE HYDRAZINYL)-5, 5-DIPHENYL-1, 5-DIHYDRO-4H-IMIDAZOL 4-ONE)
G. E. Suhasini, M. Nirmala, Varalakshmi, Archana Giri, B. Solomon G. Sahitha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The newly synthesized imidazole was evaluated for anti-oxidant activity. Chloro derivative of imidazole was synthesized. In three steps and has significant antidiabetic activity. Antioxidant activity is evaluated by estimating the free radical scavenging activity by DPPH method and nitric oxide method by. Invitro. whereas invivo antioxidant activity is evaluated by estimiating Enzyme catalase which catalyses hydrogen peroxide , lipid peroxidation by TBARS and reduced glutathione levels. Free scavenging activity of the cholro derivative increased with increasing dose. Catalase acitivity and glutathione reduction increased whereas lipid peroxidation decreased. The synthesized Chloro derivative has significant antioxidant activity.
241-246
38
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF OMEPRAZOLE IN BULK AND PHARMACUTICAL FORMULATION
G.V. Sudhakararao, K. Sujana, T. Pedababu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
To develop simple, economical, precise and less time consuming UV method for the estimation of Omeprazole in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on UV spectroscopic technique. Omeprazole shows the maximum absorbance at 301nm in absorption maxima method. Drug followed the linearity in the range of 5- 25µg/ml for this method with correlation coefficient (r2 ) of 0.999. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and recovery studies confirmed the accuracy of the proposed method. The method was validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The proposed method is recommended for routine analysis since it is rapid, simple, accurate and sensitive.
247-251
39
COMPUTATIONAL DRUG DESIGNING AGAINST SALMONELLA TYPHI: A CAUSATIVE AGENT OF TYPHOID
Syed Aun Muhammad, Humaira Nadeem, Ahmad Sadiq
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella typhi, is characterized by gastrointestinal illness and fatal bloody diarrhea. The emerging epidemic cases and resistance of this bacterium to broad spectrum antibiotics demands the development of new anti-typhoid drugs. In this study, oxadiazole has been synthesized with significant anti-Salmonella activity. This compound was structurally characterized through FTIR and NMR. The computational docking studies of oxadiazole with essential target protein (UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine:D-glutamate ligase) of Salmonella typhi showed stable binding affinity with minimum binding energy of -9.9 Kcal/mol. This computational study will add to our understanding of the drug designing and development, and to target these pathogenic bacteria to treat typhoid infections.
252-255
40
AN OVERVIEW ON RECENT ADVANCES AND CURRENT TRENDS IN ORAL MUCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Gorre Manish, Kotha Rajkumar, R. Sainath Goud
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Buccal administration of drugs provides a convenient route of administration for both systemic and local drug actions. The major hindrance for the absorption of a drug taken orally is extensive first pass metabolism or stability problems within the GI environment like instability in gastric pH and complexation with mucosal membrane. In both the stimulation of these types of buccal drugs start info, mucoadhesion of system is a key component. Mucoadhesive polymers make been used beneath lots additional dosage variety beneath work to achieve systemic start on medication on both the buccal mucosa. It is also possible to administer drugs to the patients of subconscious and bless co-operative. In order to prevent accidental swallowing on drugs epoxy mucosal dosage variety were meant for oral start, which included epoxy tablets, movies, greases, other dosage variety with various mixtures of polymers, absorption enhancers. Several methodologies have been considered so far, to design and manipulate the release properties towards the invention of buccal mucosal delivery systems.
256-264
41
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ATENOLOL AND AMLODIPINE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Akki Srivani, Sujitha Hazari and Swathi Malichetti
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new precise, accurate, reliable validated method for the determination of Atenolol and Amlodipine has been developed by using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) in pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation was carried out by using mobile phase 0.02M Potassium dehydrogenate phosphate: acetonitrile (62:38v/v, PH-3.56 adjusted with Orthophosphoric acid) on Hypersil, BDS 150 x 4.6 mm, 5 at a flow rate 0.8ml/min with UV detection at 238nm.The retention times for Atenolol and Amlodipine were 1.998 and 6.093 min respectively and both drugs showed good linearity in the range of 250-750 µg/ml and 25-75 µg/ml. The proposed method has been successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulation and was validated according to ICH guidelines and method showed good precision with percentage relative standard deviation less than 2%. The percentage recovery for Atenolol and Amlodipine was found between 99.06-100.94% and 99.12-100.95% respectively indicating the proposed method was accurate and precise.
265-269
42
URTICA DIOICA (STINGING NETTLE): A REVIEW OF ITS CHEMICAL, PHARMACOLOGICAL, TOXICOLOGICAL AND ETHNOMEDICAL PROPERTIES
Seliya Mamta and Kothiyal Preeti
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Medicinal plants existing even before human being made their appearance on the earth. The raw materials for ayurvedic medicine were mostly obtained from plant sources in the form of crude drugs .There has been a rich heritage of ethnobotanical usage of herbs by various colorful tribal communities in the country. Plants are rich source of many natural products, most of which have been extensively used for human welfare. Owing to rich medicinal properties, Urtica dioica (L) commonly known as stinging nettle of family urticaceae has a long history of use in the home as an herbal remedy since ancient times.Various parts of the plant have been used in ayurvedic preparations by vaidyas for curing various ailments. As a useful first-aid remedy it is used in the treatment of ailments such as bites and stings, burns, hives and breast feeding problems. Nettle is not only a weed but an important medicinal herb and this present review deals with chemical,pharmacological,ethnomedical and toxicological aspects of this medicinal herb and it also provides supportive evidence about the therapeutic effects.
270-277
43
AN UPDATE ON VARIOUS ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES BASED ON UV SPECTROSCOPY USED IN DETERMINATION OF DISSOCIATION CONSTANT
Bebee Pathare, Vrushali Tambe, Shashikant Dhole, Vandana Patil
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
It is well known that the dissociation constant is most important parameter in development and optimization of new compound for effective formulation development. Dissociation constant plays a crucial role in understanding chemical phenomenon of drug because it affects pharmacokinetic behavior like absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME). Solubility, permeability, protein binding of a compound is also influenced by its pKa. There are various techniques available for determination of dissociation constant. Among Photometric techniques available, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry is one of the most frequently employed technique in pharmaceutical analysis for determination of this parameter. In this review the most valuable UV spectroscopic methods such as derivative spectrophotometry, simultaneous equation method, orthogonal polynomial method, multi-wavelength method, molar ratio method, difference spectrophotometry for determining accurate pKa value are presented.
278-285
44
REVIEW ON USE OF PLASMAPHERESIS IN FOGOSELVAGEM
Kiron S.S, Arun Shirwaikar, Yogala C.K, Saritha M
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Fogoselvagem (pemphigus foliaceus) is an endemic form of pemphigus foliaceus and was formerly known as Brazilian pemphigus foliaceus because it was originally observed in specific river valleys of rural Brazil. Plasmapheresis is a therapeutic option in patients with recalcitrant disease. It may decrease autoantibody titers in some patients and favourably influence the clinical outcome, especially in patients with otherwise therapy-resistant pemphigus foliaceus.<br />
286-288
45
FORMULATION AND COMPARITIVE OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPLE LIPID DRUG CARRIERS OF VALSARTAN FOR ORAL CONTROLLED RELEASE
T. L. Vaishnavi, Sowjanya Battu, V. Uma Maheshwara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present study, an attempt was made to formulate, comparatively evaluate and optimize multiple lipid drug carriers of valsartan for oral controlled release. Two lipid drug delivery systems i.e. Niosomes and Liposomes were studied for the delivery of the anti-hypertensive drug valsartan. They were formulated as suspensions.Ether injection and rotary evaporator method were chosen for the formulation of physically and chemically stable niosomes and liposomes of valsartan.In-vitro evaluation studies for the prepared multiple drug delivery carriers of valsartan were performed. The in-vitro evaluation studies performed were evaluation for physical appearance, particle size by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), drug content , entrapment efficiency and in-vitro drug release. Optimization of the best lipid drug delivery system and the best method of preparation was done based on the results of <em>In-Vitro</em> drug release and entrapment efficiency values. Finally, an attempt was made to improve the bioavailabilty of the administered drug, reduce side effects and improve patient compliance by optimizing the best formulation through lipid drug delivery technology.
289-297
46
FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING POTENTIAL OF THE LEAVES OF WITHANIA SOMNIFERA L.: AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT
R A Sharma, Monika Goswami, Ankita Yadav and Richa Bhardwaj
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Withania somnifera L. is a well known plant in Ayurveda and Unani medicine. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of leaves of W.somnifera. The extract was subjected to assess its radical scavenging activities using the systems such as 1, 1–diphenyl, 2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), Superoxide scavenging, 2, 2’–azinobis, 3-ethyl-benzothiozline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), Nitric Oxide and Iron chelating activity. The extract showed best activity in scavenging of ABTS as it showed the lowest IC50 values(42.21 µg/ml) as well as potently scavenged the DPPH radical(44.25 µg/ml). The antioxidant property depends upon concentration and increased with increasing amount of plant fraction. The results of the study showed that leaves of W.somnifera possess significant antioxidant activity. Owning to these results, the plant has the potential to be used as a medicine against free radical associated oxidative damage.
298-303
47
ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF SOME NOVEL TRIAZOLOTHIADIAZOLES
J. Subbarao, S. Vidhyadhara, N. Srinivasulu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A novel series of 1,2,4-triazolo [ 3,4-b] [ 1,3,4 ] thiadiazoles were prepared by treating 4-amino -3-substituted -5- mercapto-1,2,4-triazoles with 2-amino-4-(substituted phenyl)-3-carboethoxy benzopyron. Their chemical structures were confirmed by means of spectral data IR, 1H NMR and Elemental analysis. All the synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity and anti-inflammatory activities. Some of the synthesized compounds have shown very good antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities.
304-308
48
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF FLURBIPROFEN IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY
B. Rajani, B. Bangar Raju and K. Mukkanti
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of Flurbiprofen in pharmaceutical dosage form was developed and validated. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Hypersil BDS (100 x 4.6 mm, 5) column. The mobile phase, 0.01 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer and acetonitrile (52:48) were delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The eluent was monitored using PDA detection at 246 nm. Validation parameters such as system suitability, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), Stability of sample and standard stock solutions and robustness were studied as reported in the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The retention time for Flurbiprofen was 3.1 min. The calibration graph for Flurbiprofen was linear from 12.5 to 75 µg/mL. The interday and intraday precisions (relative standard deviation) were less than 1.0. The method can be employed for routine quality control of Flurbiprofen tablets in quality control laboratories and pharmaceutical industries.
309-312
49
EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF SOME NOVEL DIARYLSULFONYLUREA-CHALCONE HYBRIDS IN CARRAGEENAN–INDUCED PAW EDEMA IN RATS
Bharat Kumar B, SVGK Kaladhar D, Vasudeva Rao A, Divakar NLS, Subhash Y, Amita CMP
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A series of some novel diarylsulfonylurea-chalcone hybrids synthesized in our earlier study as potential 5- lipoxygenase inhibitors were now subjected for the anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan induced rat paw edema method. The compounds 4o, 4q, 4r, 4t and 4y were selected for the study; the rationale behind the selection of these compounds is mainly due to their potential inhibitory activity against 5-lipoxygenase enzyme. Among the compounds tested 4r and 4o have been displayed remarkable percentage reduction of paw volume in comparison with standard drug Aceclofenac.
313-316
50
A VALIDATED UV SPECTROSCOPIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION ANAGRELIDE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORMS
N. Kalyani Reddy, A. Archana, S. Sridhar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, reproducible and cost effective spectroscopic method developed and validated for anagrelide in bulk and tablet dosage form. The drug was determined by using dimethyl sulfoxide and 0.1 N NaOH (1:4) as diluent at 300 nm. Validation was performed as ICH guidelines for linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD and LOQ. The %recovery study for the proposed method is 98-108%w/v indicating no interferences of the tablet excipients. Linearity was obtained in concentration range of 2-10µg/ml for anagrelide with correlation coefficient of 0.999. The detection limit and quantitation limit was found to be 0.0419 and 0.127 respectively.
317-320
51
A NEW STABILITY INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CEFIXIME AND LINEZOLID IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM AND PLASMA SAMPLE
Satyanarayana Battu, Vasudev Pottbathini
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new stability indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of Cefixime and Linezolid in tablet dosage form and spiked plasma sample. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a XTerra RP-18 (150mm x 4.6mm, 5µm) stationary phase maintained at a temperature of 30 ºC with a mobile phase combination of 1% Orthophosphoric acid and Methanol (60:40) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1 and the detection was carried out by using UV detector at 250 nm. The total run time was 8 minutes. The retention time of Cefixime and Linezolid were found to be 3.815 min and 5.665 min respectively. Further forced degradation study of Cefixime and Linezolid has been carried out in various stress conditions. Both compounds were found to be sensitive to all accelerated conditions like acid, base, light, heat and oxidation. The performance of the method was validated according to the present ICH guidelines. Cefixime is found to be linear in the range of 100-300 µg mL-1 and Linezolid is found to be linear in the range of 300-900 µg mL-1 . The limit of detection and limit of quantification was found to be 0.6 µg mL-1 and 2.46 µg mL-1 for Cefixime and 2.01 µg mL-1 and 8.21 µg mL-1 for Linezolid. The proposed method was found to be simple, sensitive, accurate and can be applied for qualitative, quantitative and stability studies
321-329
52
CHIRAL AGP FOR THE RESOLUTION OF ENANTIOMERS - AN OVERVIEW
T. Sirisha, B.M. Gurupadayya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Chiral seperation also called chiral resolution,is a procedure used to seperate the two isomers of a racemic compound. Many Chiral stationary phases(CSP’S) have been manufactured for the seperation of enantiomers.Among them Chiral-AGP is the protein based chiral column . α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is a very stable protein, which tolerates pure organic solvents,high temperatures and high and low pH. The CHIRAL-AGP is a reversed phase column giving many possibilities to affect both the retention and the enantioselectivity. The solutes are retained by three types of forces Ionic binding (charged solutes), Hydrophobic interaction and Hydrogen bonding. Based on the product type, particle size, internal diameter and column length many columns have been manufactured by Chiral Technologies. Chiral AGP has a broad range of applicability and it has been used for the separation of many basic drugs, environmental pollutents,1,4 benzodiazepines. It is also suitable with MS detection of many drugs.
330-334
53
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF ROSUVASTATIN CALCIUM IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
M. Chandra Shekhar, G. Raveendra Babu, S.C. Dinda, P.V. Sonthosh, P. Shwetha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A validated simple, sensitive, specific and precise RP-HPLC method was developed for the determination of Rosuvastatin in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. Method was carried on Symmetry C18 column (100 X 4.6 mm i.d., particle size 3.5um,ACE) using acetontrile: phosphate buffer as mobile phase in the ratio of 60:40v/v/. The detection was carried out at 243nm using Waters (2659) UV-Visible detector.The proposed method obeyed linearity in the range of 20-60 μg/mL and met all specifications as per ICH guidelines. Statistical analysis revealed that this method can be used in routine quality control studies of Rosuvastatin in pure and its pharmaceutical formulations.
335-339
54
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF NEBIVOLOL AND VALSARTAN IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC METHOD
B. Siddartha, I. Sudheer Babu, Ch. Ravichandra Gupta, C. Parthiban
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination nebivolol and valsartan in pharmaceutical dosage form. The using Altima C18 (4.6 x 150mm, 5µ) column in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing phosphate buffer and acetonitrile (52:48 v/v) adjusted to pH 4.8 with dilute ortho phosphoric acid solution. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/ min and effluents were monitored at 282 nm. The retention times of nebivolol and valsartan were found to be 2.325 min and 5.172 min, respectively. The linearity for nebivolol and valsartan were in the range of 2.5-7.5μg/ml and 40-120μg/ml respectively. The recoveries of nebivolol and valsartan were found to be 100.04% to 101.36% and 99.86% to 101.62%, respectively. The proposed method was validated and successfully applied for the estimation of nebivolol and valsartan in combined tablet dosage forms.
340-346
55
COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF FILM FORMING PROPERTIES OF SOME NATURAL POLYMERS
Abhishek Rathi, Anil Pethe
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present work was to formulate and evaluate transdermal films using natural polymers and to check its effectiveness for control of drug release using Ibuprofen as model drug. Study was undertaken to report the film forming properties of the natural polymers and their physicochemical data. Various drug free films with varying quantities of polymers i.e. Pectin (4, 6, 8 %), Locust bean gum (1, 2, 3 %), Chitosan (0.5, 1, 2 %), Shellac (2.5, 5, 7.5 %) and plasticizer i.e. Poly ethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400) in 10, 20, 30 % were formulated using solvent casting method using mercury as a substrate. Initially, the drug free films were formulated and were evaluated for various parameters like folding endurance, uniformity of thickness, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), tensile strength, break force, % elongation. The FTIR study revealed that the drug &amp; polymers were compatible with each other. The film composition which showed significant results were selected and drug loaded films with same composition incorporating 200mg of drug and varying quantity of permeation enhancer i.e. Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) in 5, 10, 15 % were formulated and in-vitro diffusion study using Franz diffusion cell was carried out.&nbsp;
347-356
56
EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF INDIAN HERBS
Kulkarni Chitrarekha Girish, Lohar Bhagwan Namdev, Jadhav Shital Tanaji, Salunkhe Satyajeet Sunil
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Helminthic infections are major cause of chronic ill health among tropical people. Traditional medicines contain several plant products for eliminating helminthic worms. However, standardization of individual ingredients is lacking in many cases. Present investigations are undertaken to ascertain anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Terminalia belerica fruit, Boerrhavia diffusa leaf and Saxifraga granulata root against Pheretima posthuma and Eisenia foetida. Albendazole 20mg/ml is used as a reference standard drug and normal saline as control. The result is expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death. The study indicated significant anthelmintic activity of aqueous as well as ethanolic extracts of Terminalia belerica and Boerrhavia diffusa. &nbsp;Ethanolic extract of Saxifraga granulata &nbsp;at concentration of 50mg/ml showed comparable anthelmintic activity with reference standard against Pheretima posthuma.
357-362
57
POTENTIAL HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT AND ANTIOXIDANT ROLE OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF MORINDA TINCTORIA IN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS
Isha I. Sait, Jyoti Harindran, A. Abdul Vahab, Jeena J. L, Nasli S. Jolly John
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present work examines the protective mechanisms of methanol extract of Morinda tinctoria in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats. Rats are treated with carbon tetrachloride at the dose of 1 ml/kg body weight intraperitonially once every 72 hrs for 14 days. The hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of Morinda tinctoria was evaluated by measuring levels of serum marker enzymes like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The serum levels of total protein and bilirubin were also estimated. The histological studies were also carried out to support the above parameters. Administration of extract (400and 800 mg/kg) significantly (p&lt; 0.05) prevented CCl4-induced elevation of levels of serum GPT, GOT, ALP, and bilirubin. The results are comparable with standard drug silymarin. A comparative histopathological study of liver exhibited almost normal architecture, as compared to CCl4 treated control group. These data suggest that the methanol extract of Morinda tinctoria may act as a hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent.
363-368
58
SYNTHESIS AND ANTIBACTERIAL EVALUATION OF SOME NEW COUMARIN DERIVATIVES OF PHARMACEUTICAL INTEREST
B. Susmitha, P.V. Naveen, G.Jhansi, G.Chaitanya, B. Anupama, KNV Chenchulakshmi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A series of new coumarin derivatives were prepared by condensation of resorcinol and ethyl aceto acetate followed by sulfonation with chlorosulphonic acid and amination with various water soluble primary amines .The synthesised compounds were characterised by physical properties and spectral studies (IR,1HNMR,13CNMR). The compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative organisms with standard benzyl penicillin.
369-373
59
DESIGN, CHARECTERIZATION AND IN-VITRO, IN-VIVO CORRELATION STUDIES FOR ELETRIPTAN LOADED TRANSDERMAL PATCHES
P. Praneetha, Sowjanya Battu, V. Umamaheshwar Rao, A. Ramyasree
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Eletriptan is a 5-HT1D (5-hydroxy tryptamine 1D)-receptor agonist, used in the treatment of migraine and cluster headache. Eletriptan has been shown to have a low oral bioavailability in human volunteers (50%) because of high first pass metabolism. The present investigation is to formulate matrix type transdermal drug delivery system which is loaded with Eletriptan using Hydroxy Propyl methyl cellulose k-4 and k-15 individually as a release controlling polymers, Propylene glycol as permeation enhancer and Dibutylpthalate as a plasticizer. The prepared patches were characterized by diffusion studies with Franz diffusion cell and further correlated with animal studies. The work was aimed to develop the TDDS which controls the release of Eletriptan for 48 hrs. The models used were zero and firstorder equations, Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas models. Based on physicochemical properties and in vitro release studies, patch containing Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose k15(500mg) emerged as a best formulation. Skin irritation studies for the transdermal patches were assessed and were found to be free of irritation.
374-385
60
EVALUATION OF ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PLANT SESBANIA SESBAN
Kumar Sandeep, Bajwa Baljinder Singh and Kumar Narinder
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The genus Sesbania sesban contains about 50 spieces, the majority of which are annuals. The greatest spieces diversity occurs in Africa with 33 spieces. The spieces Sesbania sesban belongs to sub-family Papilionoidea of the family Leguminosae. It is a small perennial tree with woody stems, yellow flowers and linear pods . Sesbania sesban is very common throughout Africa and in asian countries like India, Malaysia, Indonesia and Phillipines. Campesterol, &szlig;-sitosterol, Cyanidine, Delphinidin glycosides, a-Keto glutaric, Oxaloacetic and &nbsp; &nbsp; pyruvic acids, Oleanolic acid, saponins, Palmitic acid, Stearic acid, Oleic acid, Linoleic acid and Linolenic acid are reported in Whole plant. Cyanidin and Delphinidin glycosides, Flavonols are reported in flowers. The plant has been reported to possess various activities such as anti-inflammatory activity, antinociceptive activity, antidiabetic activity, antifertility activity and antioxidant activity. The present study was designed to study the anti-bacterial activity of Sesbania sesban. The extracts of Sesbania sesban stem were prepared. Soxhlet extraction was carried out by petroleum ether (60-80&deg;C), chloroform, hexane, methanol, ethanol and then distilled water. Plant is subjected to antimicrobial study. Chloroform and methanol extracts of stem of Sesbania sesban at a concentration of 25 mg/ml were equally inhibit P. aeruginosa after 48 hrs. Both chloroform and methanol extracts at a concentration of 100 mg/ml were more effective against B. subtilis than other two bacterial strains after 48 hrs. No antibacterial activity was observed for pet ether ethanol and water extracts in a range from 25 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml.
386-396
61
SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME NEW CHALCONES AS POTENTIAL CYTOTOXIC AGENTS
C. Kistayya, N. G. Raghavendra Rao, A. Vasudev Rao, N. Srinath, B. Sanjeeva Nayak, Bhawatha Chawda
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Chalcones, a group of compounds with two aromatic rings connected by a keto-vinyl chain, constitute an important class of naturally occurring flavonoids exhibiting a wide spectrum of biological activities. The presence of a reactive , -unsaturated keto functional group is partly responsible for their activity. The main objective present study is to synthesize and characterize some new chalcones of 4-bromoacetophenone by reaction with various aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes. The structure of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by means of IR, 1HNMR 13C NMR, mass spectra and by elemental analysis. To screen the synthesized chalcones for their cytotoxic activities. Total compounds (B2 to B25) were synthesized. All these compounds are new and the characteristic physical and spectral data was presented separately in detail. All the chalcones exhibited characteristic absorption bands in the IR spectra (cm-1 ), 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra shows standard characteristic absorption bands. The chalcones (B1- B25) have been evaluated for their cytotoxicity against HT-29 (colon cancer), MCF-7 (breast cancer) and DU-145 (prostate cancer) cell lines. Methotrexate was used as the reference standard. The results clearly revealed that most of the compounds possessed cytotoxic activity as evidenced by the IC50 values. Of all the compounds tested against HT-29 cell lines, the compound B22 having a thienyl moiety in its structure showed maximum activity with a IC50 value of 42 µg/mL. This is followed by compounds, B15 having a bromofuran moiety (IC50 67 µg/mL), B5 having a difluoro phenyl moiety (IC50 68 µg/mL), B21 having a pyrrolyl moiety (IC50 73 µg/mL), B1 having a 4-methylphenyl moiety (IC50 76 µg/mL) and B6 having a dichlorophenyl moiety (IC50 80 µg/mL). From this study, it can be concluded that the chalcones were found to have more cytotoxic activities.
397-406
62
FREE RADICAL SCAVANGING ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA
Sharma Ankita, Sati Sushil Chandra, Rawat Suman, Preeti
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study is done on leaves extract of Cinnamomum Camphora. Extraction of leaves of Cinnamomum Camphora yielded 10.12% of Pet.Ether extract, 13.60% of Chloroform extract, 10.59% of Acetone extract and 17.02% of methanol extract. Methanol extract of Cinnamomum camphora leaves showed maximum antioxidant activity in comparison to all extracts using DPPH method. The concentration of 600 &micro;g/ml of methanol extract showed 91.92% anti-oxidant activity in comparison to all extracts. Acetone showed 84.76% . Both Pet.Ether and Chloroform extracts showed weak anti-oxidant activity. Ascorbic acid was used as a standard &nbsp;for comparison to extracts which showed 96% activity.
407-409
63
EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ARISTOLOCHIA KRYSAGATHRA (ARISTOLOCHIACEAE)- AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL HERB
Jegadeeswari P, Nishanthini A, Muthukumarasamy S, Mohan VR
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Antioxidant activity of petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol extracts of the whole plant of Aristolochia krysagathra have been tested using various antioxidant model systems viz, DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, ABTS and reducing power. Methanol extract of Aristolochia krysagathra is found to possess higher DPPH hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Methanol and ethanol extracts of Aristolochia krysagathra exhibited highest ABTS radical cation scavenging activity. Methanol extract of whole plant of Aristolochia krysagathra showed the highest reducing ability. This study indicates significant free radical scavenging potential of Aristolochia krysagathra whole plant which can be exploited for the treatment of various free radical mediated ailments.
410-416
64
IMPROVED RELEASE ORAL DRUG DELIVERY OF METAXALONE
N. Waman, R. Ajage, P. N. Kendre, S.B.Kasture, Veena Kasture
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Metaxalone is BCS class II drug having low solubility and high permeability. The solubility and bioavailability of poorly soluble drug was increased by designing microemulsion based drug delivery system of Metaxalone for oral drug administration. The microemulsion was prepared using Tween 80, PEG-400 as surfactant and cosurfactant, sesame and castor oil and water .The formulation was evaluated for globule size, viscosity, RI, pH, conductance, % transmittance and % drug content. The in-vitro intestinal drug diffusion was carried using Frantz diffusion cell and in-vivo drug activity was measured by using animal model. The microemulsions were transparent; particle size was in the range of 45.39 - 271 nm. The viscosity lies between 88 and 95.5cps, pH was found to be 8.12 - 8.17. The Formulated microemulsion had better drug permeation as compared to the pure drug and its marketed dosage form, had good muscle relaxant activity in mice. Study concluded that Metaxalone in microemulsion form exhibited increased solubility and improved drug release.
417-424
65
IRON OVER LOAD INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF CARICA PAPAYA IN RATS
Balakrishna V, Srikanth G, Ajay kumar Sarabu, Thippani Maneshwar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The leaf extract of Carica papaya have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common disorders like neurodegenerative diseases, cardio vascular diseases, cancer. In the present investigation, the aqueous leaf extract of C.papaya was evaluated for antioxidant activity in iron over load induced liver toxicity. For the evaluation of iron over load liver toxicity method was daily treatment of C.papaya extract on the 5th day iron load was induced. The animals were sacrificed by light ether anesthesia and it was dissected .Tissue homogenate and blood samples were assess the SGOT, ALP, and LPO, Reduced glutathione, Protein & Catalase in normal and iron over load groups. The daily administration of aqueous leaf extract of C.papaya at doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight to iron over load liver toxicity methods were significantly reduced in a dose dependent manner. However, no change observed in the normal animals at all the doses studied. The extract also produced significant reduction of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. The result have shown that the aqueous extract of the Leaf of Carica papaya  possesses antioxidant properties, supported by the decrease in lipid peroxidation and increase in the reduced glutathione and catalase activity in in-vivo method. Such antioxidant activity of Carica papaya might be responsible for its importance in traditional medicine for the treatment of various disorders.
425-430
66
HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF AREAL PARTS (EXCEPT FRUITS) OF CICER ARIETINUM AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS
M. Sri Ramachandra, A. Srinivasa Rao, S. Shobha Rani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of pet ether, methanol and aqueous extracts of aerial parts (except fruites) of Cicer arietinum L against ccl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The phytochemical investigations of these extracts showed presence of carbohydrates, proteins, phenols and flavanoids. LD50 values of all extracts were determined. The extracts did not produce any mortality even at 2000 mg/kg. Hepatotoxicity was induced in wister rats weighing 120-150 gm by oral administration of carbon tetra chloride (CCL4 1ml/kg/day 20days) in 1ml olive oil per day. The plant extracts were administered to the experimental rats (200 and 400 mg/kg/d p.o for 20days). The Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of these extracts was evaluated by liver function biochemical parameters (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione) and histopathological studies of liver. Pre-treatment of the rats with petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous extract prior to CCL4 administration caused a significant reduction in the values of &nbsp;SGOT, SGPT, SALP, LPO, total bilirubin and significant increase in &nbsp; SOD, CAT, GSH (P&lt;0.01) almost comparable to the silymarin. The hepatoprotective activity was confirmed by histopathological examination of the liver tissue of control and treated animals. Histology of liver sections of the animals treated with the extracts showed the presence of normal hepatic cords, absence of necrosis and fatty infiltration which further evidence the hepatoprotective activity.
431-436
67
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF NOVEL ISATIN SUBSTITUTED IMIDAZOLINE DERIVATIVES
T. Maneshwar, N. Vijetha, V. Balakrishna, Ch. Vijay Kumar, M. Suresh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Novel Isatin substituted Imidazole derivatives have been synthesized and screened for anthelmintic activity. Literature revealed that vast majority of Isatin and imidazole compounds are known to possess pharmacologically proven therapeutic potentials.  Isatine substituted 5-Oxo-imidazoline derivatives were synthesized from 1,3-oxazole-5-ones which were synthesized from the  benzoyl glycine by Erlynmayer synthesis. These 5-oxazoline compounds upon condensation with isatine semicarbazide, it formed isatine substituted 5-oxo-imidazoline derivatives (3a-3j). All compounds have been characterised using IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectral data and have been evaluated for their antmelmintic activity and Albendazole was used as a standard drug.
437-441
68
DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF VALSARTAN GASTRORETENTIVE SUSTAINED RELEASED TABLETS
Vishnu P, K. Naveen Babu, M. Sunitha Reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Valsartan, an angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB) widely prescribed in variety of cardiac conditions like hypertension, diabetic nephropathy and heart failure. The biological half-life is 3-6 hours and the maximum absorption is at initial part of gastro intestinal tract. In the present study Valsartan floating tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using non effervescence technique. The tablets were formulated using IPA as granulating fluid with binder PVP-k30 and employing polymers like HPMC K15M, HPMC K100M and EC. The prepared floating tablets were evaluated for various physicochemical parameters. The in-vitro drug release pattern of Valsartan floating tablets was fitted to different kinetic models which showed highest regression for zero order kinetics with Higuchi mechanism. Out of all formulations the one prepared with EC in granulation fluid and combination of different grades of HPMC was optimized (VF11) based on desired sustained release time (12hrs) followed by acceptable swelling and floating properties. The effect of PH on swelling index and floating properties of optimized formulation (VF11) were also investigated, and the study revealed that there are no significant changes on swelling index and floating properties.
442-447
69
ASSESSMENT OF THE COMMUNITY PHARMACY PRACTICE IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA - BUILDING PLATFORM FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF GOOD PHARMACY PRACTICE
Lidija Petrushevska-Tozi, Kristina Mladenovska, Jasminka Patceva, Th (Dick) Thromb, Kirsten Holme, Nina Sautenkova
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the study was to evaluate the actual status of the community pharmacy practice and quality of services and to identify the gaps and barriers to implement the best pharmacy practice and care. Cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted for the pharmacies/pharmacists where pre-coded multiple choice closed questions were used with response format: activity fully applied, partially applied, applicable or not applicable. Set of 155 indicators was developed covering five essential components: pharmacy structure and practice; patient safety; manufacture practice; staff workflow and competences and quality assurance. The actual score was 64 out of 100. Pharmacy services related to manufacture practice and quality assurance were identified as the areas of highest priority for improvement, followed by the services related to patient safety. Priorities for intervention by key stakeholders (national authorities, academia, professional associations and pharmacists) and recommendations for introducing new and improving the existing roles of the pharmacists were defined.
1-9
70
MODULATION OF NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE AND SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE GENE EXPRESSION BY ALTERED THYROID LEVELS IN ADULT RAT BRAIN
Mariam G. Eshak and Wafaa A. Hassan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The effects of altered thyroid hormones level (through induction of Hypothyroidism or Hyperthyroidism) on oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers as well as on gene expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and superoxide dismutase of adult male rat brain were studied. Hypothyroidism was induced by daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of propylthiouracil (PTU, 10 mg/kg body weight) for 4 weeks. Hyperthyroidism was elicited by daily i.p. injection of L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300 µg/kg body weight) for 3 weeks. In hypo- or hyperthyroid rats, significant increases in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide concentrations associated with significant decreases in reduced glutathione content, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were recorded compared to the controls. Activity of glutathione peroxidase was increased in hypo- and hyperthyroid rats compared to control rats. Augmentation in the gene expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and decline in the gene expression of superoxide dismutase was observed in both hypo- and hyperthyroid rat brain. DNA damage of brain was higher in the two thyroid hormone states compared to the control groups. The random amplified polymorphic DNA- polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis indicated the presence of 48 % new bands (polymorphic) in hypothyroid (PTU) and hyperthyroid (L-T4) treated brain samples and the absence of such bands in the control groups. Marked histopathological alterations were also observed in brain sections of either hypo- or hyperthyroid rats. These results provide evidence that the changes in the oxidative stress and antioxidant status in altered thyroid hormone levels are exerted through modulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and superoxide dismutase gene expression in adult rat brain.
10-23
71
Asthma Inhalers Sale without Medical Prescription in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Cross Sectional Study
Azizah M. AL-Mutairi, Dalia H. AL-Enezi, Areej Algdeer, Mustafa M Altannir, Mohammed Al-Sadoon, Mohammad Chaballout, Ahmed S Qannita , Amin Almardini, Mohamad A Al-Tannir
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study aims to quantify the sale of inhalers without a prescription, describe the degree of difficulty for obtaining these inhalers without a prescription and assess if pharmacists educate patients about the correct use of the inhaler. A cross-sectional study of a quasi-random sample of 252 pharmacies stratified by the five regions of Riyadh. Each pharmacy was visited once by two investigators who used simulated patient methodology with governance of good research principles who simulated having a relative with difficulty of breathing due to airborne dust. Asthma inhalers were dispensed without prescription from 181 pharmacies (72%). Of these, 12% prescribed the inhaler after trying thelevel 1 of demand and 68% after the third level. Only 31 pharmacists(17%) explained how to use the inhalers. Asthma inhaler could be obtained in Riyadh without a medical prescription or an evidence-based indication with disobedience of pharmacists to educate on the appropriate use of inhalers.
24-27
72
CHEMOTHERAPY UTILIZATION OF BREST CANCER IN CANCER CENTER, THAILAND
Chaninun Ketkaew, Kitisuk Thepsuwan, Niyada Kiatying-Angsule
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study aimed to describe chemotherapy utilization situation of breast cancer patients after NHSO cancer protocol version 2010 had been launched. The 3,485 chemotherapy prescriptions of out-patient departments between January to June 2010 were analyzed. The most common prescribed chemotherapy regimens were Fluorouracil+Doxorubicin+Cyclophosphamide or FAC regimen (36.15%, 1,260 prescriptions), Cyclophosphamide+Methotrexate+Fluorouracil or CMF regimen (16.15%, 563 prescriptions), Doxorubicin+Cyclophosphamide or AC regimen (14.84%, 517 prescription), Paclitaxel (12.63%, 440 prescriptions), Capecitabine (7.49% 261 prescriptions) and Docetaxel (4.88%, 170 prescriptions). Each cancer center was significantly different in the utilization pattern due to the incidence of cancer type, hospital formularies and hospital policy (p = 0.00). 92.14% of all chemotherapy prescriptions adhered to NHSO cancer protocol. The highest ratio of adherence to cancer protocol was UC scheme (96.45%) and the lowest one was CSMBS scheme (75.50%). Each health benefit scheme was significantly different in ratio of adherence to protocol (p = 0.00). The total cost of chemotherapy regimen was 20,677,599 Baht. 16,704,514 Baht (80.79%) was the cost of adherence to protocol prescriptions.
28-32
73
WOUND HEALING POTENTIAL OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BANANA FLOWER (Musa sapientum, BBB ‘Saba’, Family Musaceae)
Rufo S. Calixtro, Jr., Analiza P. Malalay, Ponciano B. Epino and Lazaro E. Avelino
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The banana flower (Musa sapientum, BBB ‘saba’) ethanolic crude extract was investigated for its wound healing potential in vivo. Circular excision and linear incision wounds were inflicted on male Swiss mice, after which, they were treated with different concentration of banana extract. Betadine was used as the standard treatment. Significantly higher wound contraction is obtained when ethanolic extract was applied on the wound than the control. At ≥ 10% ethanolic extract, significant reduction in wound size is observed than betadine treated wounds. Similarly, a significantly higher tensile strength of the wounded skin of mice is obtained on ethanolic extract treated mice than the control. Tensile strength is significantly better at ≥ 15% ethanolic extract than betadine treated animals. Results indicate that banana flower ethanolic extract has a potential for use in healing wound.
33-37
74
BIOACTIVITY AND GENOTOXICITY OF CENTURIES OLD REMEDY ASPLENIUM SCOLOPENDRIUM L.
Una Glamočlija, Sanin Haverić, Jasmina Čakar, Adaleta Durmić, Anja Haverić, Kasim Bajrović
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Despite the fact that Asplenium scolopendrium L. is a wide spread fern which has been used as a human remedy for centuries, there are very poor or no data about activity and genotoxicity of A. scolopendrium extracts. In this work, vacuum dried water and ethanol extracts of A. scolopendrium fronds were tested for their antimicrobial, cytotoxic and genotoxic potential. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by disk diffusion assay (concentration of extracts 35 mg/ml, 7 mg/ml and 1,4 mg/ml) and there was no inhibition zone for all extracts and for all microorganisms examined (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans). Cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of extracts (70 mg/ml, 7 mg/ml and 0,7 mg/ml) was tested using cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay in human lymphocyte cultures. Ethanol blocked division of cells in negative control so only water extracts were analyzed. Extracts didn’t show genotoxic properties but they showed weak cytotoxic properties. NDI (nuclear division index) decreased with increasing concentration of extracts, but there was no statistical significance when compared to negative control (p=0,055).
38-41
75
LACK OF CORRELATION BETWEEN ADHERENCE MEASUREMENT METHODS IN NEW-ONSET EPILEPSY
Widyati, Soediatmoko, Dian Maria, Zullies Ikawati, Lukman Hakim
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Study aims were (1) to document adherence measurement using 3 different methods. (2) to determine the relationship between each methods. The study wasconducted using cross sectional design. Patients were followed-up for 6 months and adherences weremeasured after 1 and 6 months therapy. The methods used to measure the adherenceswere 1) Patient/parent-self reported ( MMAS-8 questionnaires); 2) Drug level assay and 3) seizure frequency observation. Participants enrolled were 50 patients with new-onset general epilepsy (Mage = 7.2 ± 2.0; 54 % male; 46% female Indonesian). Patient/parent-self reported methods resulted mean overall adherence scores across patients during this 6-months period was 4.07 ± 1.15 (81.4%). Meanwhile phenytoin assay indicated only 18% patients reached therapeutics concentration. Seizure frequency observation revealed 81% improvement in seizure frequency (t= 7.63, P=0.000) after 6 months therapy. Negative correlations were found between Parents/patients-self reporting with drug levels(rho=-0.082, P=0.59); Parents/patients-self reporting with seizure frequency(rho=-0.17, P=0.24). Correlation between seizure frequency with phenytoin level was also proved by Spearman test as no significant (rho=0.12, P=0.42). 7 patients (14%) remain had seizure after 6 months but only 2 patients were having miss dose. There were lack of correlation between the various methods of adherence measurement but it does not necessarily reflect a minimum in adherence.
42-46
76
INVESTIGATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY, AND RELATIONSHIPS AMONG A SET OF CLINICAL ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS ISOLATES USING SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEAT POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (ISSR-PCR)
Batol Imran Dheeb, Saad Mohamed Nada, Yasamin Ali Hadi, Anas Nori Ibrahem, Ghufran Mohamed Hasan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study is an attempt to determine the genetic diversity and relationships among fourteen local isolate isolated from patients with Aspergillosis (Aspergillus fumigatus) by using the simple sequence repeat polymerase chain reaction (ISSR-PCR). Twelve universal primers used in this study produced 94 bands across fourteen isolates. Of these bands, 67 bands or 71.2% were polymorphic. The size of the amplified bands ranged between 100-2,000 bp. The genetic polymorphism value of each primer was determined and ranged between 33-100%. In terms of unique banding patterns, determine the finger print for six isolates the most characteristic banding pattern was for the (AFU1,AFU2,AFU3,AFU4,AFU8 and AFU14) with primer (RP F-16 , RP I-06, RP F-16, RP X-01, RP X-01and OP A-06). Genetic distances ranged from 0.12419 to 0.64404 among A. fumigatus isolates. Cluster analyses were performed to construct a dendrogram among studied A. fumigatus isolates.The cluster analysis places most of the A.fumigatus isolates isolated from patient come from yhe same area into a close relation (subcluster) showing a high level of genetic relatedness and were distinct from isolates from another area (the other subcluster). Interestingly, a number of isolates originating from the same sources did form well defined groups, indicating association between the ISSR patterns and the geographic origin of the isolates. The information generated from this study can be used in the future for controlling of Aspergillosis programs.
47-52
77
DERMAL TOXICITY STUDY OF AN ANTIDERMATOPHYTIC OIL-MOISTENED DICHLOROMETHANE-METHANOL (1:1 V/V) STEM BARK EXTRACT OF POLYSCIAS FULVA HIERN (ARALIACEAE) IN GUINEA PIGS ANIMAL MODEL
Guy Sedar Singor Njateng, Donatien Gatsing, Raymond Simplice Mouokeu, Jules-Roger Kuiate
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Polyscias fulva, a medium size tree which grows in the tropical forests of West and Central Africa, is a popular medicinal plant used to treat malaria, mental illness, venereal infections, pulmonary tuberculosis as well as dermatoses. To the best of our knowledge there is no documented evidence corroborating its safety. Thus this work aimed to determine dermal toxicity profile of the antidermatophytic oil-moistened dichloromethane-methanol (1:1 v/v) stem bark extract of Polyscias fulva. Guinea pig (male and female) animal model was used for both acute and sub-acute dermal toxicity studies. For acute toxicity, single doses (0.5, 4.25 and 8 g/kg body weight) of oilmoistened plant extract were administered to animals while in sub-acute dermal toxicity, doses (13, 256.5 and 500 mg/kg bw) of plant extract were administered daily during 28 days. The possible toxic effect of the plant extract was assessed based on the animal behaviors, the organ morphology and histology, the hematological and biochemical parameters. The single and repeated dermal toxicity tests on guinea pigs did not show any overt sign of toxicity on growth patterns. The lethal dose fifty (LD50) of the oil-moistened extract was higher than 8000 mg/kg. Moreover, the hematological and biochemical parameters, liver and kidney histopathology analysis collectively indicate that dermal application of the oil-moistened extract from the stem bark of Polyscias fulva is not associated with any toxicologically relevant effects in neither male nor female guinea pigs. The overall results of this study indicate that the oil-moistened dichloromethane-methanol (1:1 v/v) stem bark extract of Polyscias fulva could provide satisfactory preclinical evidence of safety to launch a clinical trial on a standardized formulation of the plant extracts.
53-60
78
SUB-ACUTE (28 DAYS) TOXICITY STUDY OF METHANOL LEAVES EXTRACT OF CLINACANTHUS NUTANS IN RATS
Jin Han Chin, Gabriel Akyirem Akowuah, Mandumpal Chacko Sabu, Shaik Ibrahim Khalivulla
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Clinacanthus nutans (Family: Acanthaceae) or locally known as “Sabah snake grass” in Malaysia, is used for the treatment of herpes simplex infection, herpes zoster infection, diabetes mellitus, skin rash, dysuria and cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of methanol leaves extract of C. nutans by sub-acute 28-day (repeated doses) oral administration to male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. First group was orally treated with distilled water and served as control (n=6), whereas the remaining treatment groups (n=6) were orally treated with a single dose daily of 300 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg of C. nutans extract, respectively for 28 days. Cage-side observations were done daily. The animal body weight, food consumption and water intake were recorded weekly. Blood was collected via cardiac puncture on day-29 and used to perform biochemical analyses, i.e. liver function tests, kidney function tests, total protein, glucose, lipid profile and haematology evaluation. The relative organ weights were also measured. All results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analysed using Dunnett’s test. From the results obtained, repeated oral administration of methanol leaves extract of C. nutans (300 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg) for 28 days did not cause mortality or adverse effects in rats. No significant change was observed in the body weight changed, water and food intake between the treatment group and control group. However, significant increase in serum total proteins (p<0.01), albumin/globulins ratio (p<0.01) and relative liver weight (p<0.01) were observed in male rats after 28 days treatment with 900 mg/kg of C. nutans. In conclusion, 28 days oral administration of methanol leaves extract of C. nutans up to 900 mg/kg was safe in male SD rats without causing any adverse effects. The Non-Observable-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) for sub-acute (28 days) effects of methanol leave extract of C. nutans in male SD rats was 900 mg/kg bw.
61-69
79
IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND IN VIVO ANTI-NOCICEPTIVE AND NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF MIMOSA PUDICA
Tanjida Ahmed, Rumana Akter, Shahjabeen Sharif, Mohammad Shahriar, Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Mimosa pudica is the herb that shows sensation on touch. It has been identified as Lajjalu in Ayurveda and has been found to have anti-asthmatic, aphrodisiac, analgesic, anti- inflammatory and antidepressant activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate in-vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo biological activity considering anti-nociceptive assessment & neuropharmacological study include open field and swimming test. There is no scientific report on analgesic activity and neuropharmacological activity of Mimosa pudica, therefore the present study was undertaken to examine the possible in-vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts of Mimosa pudica was performed using DPPH free radical scavenging, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, total antioxidant capacity, total phenol and total flavonoid content determination assays. The result of tests for in-vitro antioxidant activity indicates that petroleum ether extract shows maximum antioxidant activity. This plants leaf extracts also exhibit significant anti-nociceptive activity and neuropharmacological activity.
70-78
80
SYNTHESIS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME NEW PYRAZOLE DERIVATIVES
Khalid Karrouchi, Latifa Doudach, Laila Chemlal, Mohamed Karim, Jamal Taoufik, Yahia Cherrah, Smaail Radi, My El Abbes Faouzi and M’hammed Ansar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new series of pyrazole derivatives have been synthesized by the reaction of substituted pyrazole carbohydrazide and functionalized aromatic aldehydes. All the compounds have been characterized by IR, 1H-NMR and mass spectroscopy. The analgesic activity of the synthesized compound was assessed by tail flick method (for central action) in rat, acetic acid-induced writhing test (for peripheral action) in mice. The effect of the synthesized compounds N’-(2,4-dichlorobenzylidene)-5-methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-carbohydrazide (5a), N\'-(2,4-dichlorobenzylidene)-2-(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)acetohydrazide(9), N’-(4-dimethylaminobenzyli-dene)-5-phenyl-1H-pyrazol -3-carbohydrazide (5b) and N’-(2,4-dichlorobenzylidene) -5-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3-carbohydrazide (5c) was also investigated in a battery of behavioural models in mice to assess their sedative effect. Among them, 5b was found more potent in comparison to 150 mg/kg of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) with 44.83% of inhibition. In radiant heat tail-flick test the synthesized compounds 5a, 9, 5b and 5c produced 11.06%, 9.73%, 8.38% and 19.31% (p<0.01) elongation of tail flicking time 30 minutes after oral doses of 100 mg/Kg body weight respectively. Further compounds after 60 min, the inhibition of pain were 8.27%, 8.97%, 6% and 12.98% respectively. The synthesized compounds at doses of 50 mg/Kg body weight tested were insignificant when compared with the control. Furthermore the oral administration in mice of compounds at 50 and 100 mg / kg, induces strong sedative effect compared to reference substance Nesdonal and significantly reduced in both the reestablishment time and number of head dips during the traction and hole-board tests, in the rotarod test the pyrazole derivatives significantly reduced the motor coordination of the tested animals. From the results the pyrazole derivatives exhibited antinociceptive activity by central and peripheral mechanism(s) and possess potent sedative effect.
79-87
81
STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA) IN INTRA-ABDOMINAL INFECTIONS: RESISTANCE PATTERN AGAINST DIFFERENT ANTIBIOTICS
Samiullah Burki, Zeba Gul Burki, Izhar Ahmed, Javeid Iqbal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Intra-abdominal infections (IAI’s) a common cause of sever sepsis in the world and is caused by methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which include pancreatitis, appendicitis, peritonitis and cholecystitis. The aim of current work was to study resistance of MRSA against various antibiotics. A total of 14 clinical isolates of IAI’s patients were collected from public hospitals conformed using catalase and coagulase positive tests. Those isolates were evaluated for their resistance level against different antibacterial using agar dilution method. At concentration of 8 mg/l MRSA exhibited 100 % and 92.86 %sensitivity to linezolid and tobramycin while meropenem achieve this level at 128 mg/l (p<0.05) Tetracycline and cefuroxime give similar sensitivity levels against MRSA 128 mg/l and 8 mg/l .The mean sensitivity of MRSA at different concentrations of Linezolid was effective than levofloxacin while tobramycin also represent ~90 % mean sensitivity. MIC90 of linezolid and levofloxacin was ≥ 4mgl-1 and7mgl-1 respectively. Tobramycin and cefuroxime shows appropriate MIC’s of ≥ 6mg- 1 and 5.5mgl-1 (P<0.01).The finding suggest that potency of antimicrobials against multidrug resistant MRSA of IAI’s was linezolid> tobramycin >cefuroxime >levofloxacin>>…>Meropenem >tetracycline. IAI’s can be effectively manage with above study drugs.
88-94
82
A RAPID LC–MS/MS ASSAY FOR PITAVASTATIN IN HUMAN PLASMA BY USING SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE AND ITS APPLICATION TO A PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY
Boligarla Gopi Kalyan Kumar, Nageswara Rao Pilli, Babu Rao Bhukya and N. Y. Sreedhar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric (LC–MS/MS) assay method has been developed and fully validated for the quantitative determination of pitavastatin in human plasma. A pitavastatin stable labeled isotope (pitavastatin d4) was used as an internal standard. Analyte and the internal standard were extracted from human plasma via solid phase extraction technique. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column by using a mixture of acetonitrile–0.1% formic acid (90:10, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.85 mL/min. The calibration curve obtained was linear (r 2 0.99) over the concentration range of 0.05–160 ng/mL. Method validation was performed as per FDA guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. A run time of 1.5 min for each sample made it possible to analyze more than 450 plasma samples per day. The proposed method was found to be applicable to clinical studies.
95-105
83
EVALUATION OF IN-VITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, THROMBOLYTIC AND CYTOTOXIC PROPERTIES OF LABLAB NIGER LEAVES
Md. Reyad-ul-Ferdous, Hasnin Rahman Jisha, Md. Golam Azam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was undertaken to investigate anti-inflammatory, thrombolytic and cytotoxic activities of methanol extracts of Lablab niger leaves and its different fractions. In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the L. niger leaves was evaluated by heat and hypotonic solution induced membrane stabilization method. Thrombolytic activity was evaluated using blood clot lysis model and cytotoxicity test was carried out by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The crude methanolic extract and all tested fractions of L. niger leaves significantly (p< 0.005) protected erythrocyte membrane lysis comparable to standard aspirin, demonstrating its strong anti-inflammatory activity. In thrombolytic study, the crude methanolic extract and its different fractions demonstrated moderate to strong thrombolytic activity (25.62-40.88% lysis of human blood clot), in comparison to 66.75 % clot lysis by standard streptokinase. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, methanolic extract and its different fractions of L. niger leaves showed significant lethality with LC50 =value of 1.171-8.15 μg/mL, compared with vincristine sulphate (LC50=0.451 μg/mL). These finding indicate that L. niger leaves could be a potential source of natural anti-inflammatory, thrombolytic and cytotoxic agents.
106-109
84
TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF CASSIA PETERSIANA BOLLE (CAESALPINIACEAE), AN ANTITYPHOID MEDICINAL PLANT
Donatien Gatsing and Godwin I. Adoga
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Typhoid fever continues to be a serious health problem in developing countries. In our search for therapeutic agents from natural sources with potential for the treatment of typhoid fevers, an anti-typhoid aqueous extract was obtained from the leaves of Cassia petersiana and tested for possible toxicity risks. Toxicological study was done in mice and rats using both acute and sub-chronic techniques. Results obtained showed that, at high doses, the extract may have a depressant effect on the central nervous system, and may induce hypersensitiveness. The LD50 (lethal dose 50) values of the extract were 20 g/kg and 22 g/kg, for male and female mice, respectively. Rats administered C. petersiana extract showed significantly increased kidneys and liver to body weight ratios, increased serum total protein, and a decrease in total protein titre of the liver at high doses. Also, significant increases in serum transaminase (ALT and AST) activities were observed at high doses. Significant decreases in serum total protein and urinary protein were seen in male and female rats administered the extract at 75 mg/kg. However, urinary protein showed a significant increase in male rats treated at 4800 mg/kg. Significant increases in haematocrit values were observed in male and female rats receiving the dose 300 mg/kg. These data suggest that this extract, at moderate doses, may be used without any toxicity risk, and besides may have strengthening effects on the liver and kidneys. However, at high doses, it may create injury to the liver and kidneys.
110-119
85
COMPARISON OF INTRATHECAL BUPIVACAINE WITH ROPIVACAINE IN TWO DIFFERENT STRENGTHS FOR QUALITY OF ANAESTHESIA AND POST OPERATIVE ANALGESIA IN LOWER ABDOMEN HERNIA SURGERY
A.R. Bhure, Prasad Ingley, Ramkrishna, Neelakshi Kalita
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Subarachnoid block techniques are widely used for lower abdominal surgeries and offer several benefits compared to general anesthesia.We wanted to investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of Ropivacaine in two strengths as compared to Hyperbaric Bupivacaine for spinal anaesthesia. 90 patients ASA I & II scheduled for elective lower abdomen hernia surgery were randomly divided into 3 groups of 30 each to receive 3.4 ml of isobaric Ropivacaine 0.5% or 3.4 ml of isobaric Ropivacaine 0.75% compared with control group receiving 3.4 ml of Hyperbaric 0.5% Bupivacaine. Subarachnoid block was achieved in L3-L4 space with 23G Quincke’s spinal needle. The onset of surgical anesthesia at L1 was delayed with both the Ropivacaine groups as compared to Bupivacaine group. The total duration of analgesia was comparable in Bupivacaine and Ropivacaine 0.75% groups.The total duration of motor block was much longer with Bupivacaine group than Ropivacaine groups. To conclude intrathecal Ropivacaine in the 0.75% strength was found to be a good alternative to 0.5% Hyperbaric Bupivacaine in the terms of less haemodynamic changes, faster regression of both motor and sensory block, and for early mobilization of patient.The patients can be mobilized more quickly,as in patients of daycare surgery.
120-125
86
Cytotoxicity Assay of Nickel and Cobalt (II) Complexes of 5-(4-Nitro Phenyl)-4-Amino-3-Mercapto Propenyl-1,2,4-Triazole on HepG2 Cell Line
Mahasin Alias, Ameena N. Seewan, Carolin Shakir, Farooq I. Mohammad
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Two new complexes with formula [M(NMP.TRZ)(H2O)3](NO3)2.3EtOH (where M is Ni and Co(II) ions respectively, NMP.TRZ is (5-(4-Nitro Phenyl)-4-Amino-3-Mercapto Propenyl-1,2,4-Triazole) have been synthesized by conventional method. These complexes have been characterized by spectroscopic methods such as (ultraviolet- visible and infrared), as well as to thermal gravimetric, metal analyses, microanalyses, conductivity, magnetic moment and molar ratio method. To measure the biologic activity and potential anticancer efficacy of these compounds, they have been compared with cisplatin on human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cell lines in different eight concentrations (2000, 1000, 500, 250, 125, 62.5, 31.25 and 15.625 μg/ml) respectively, in the time of exposure 72 hrs. The results exhibit that the three prepared complexes i.e. ligand (NMP.TRZ) and its metal complexes have shown higher ratios cytotoxicities compared to cisplatin against HepG2 cell lines in most selected concentrations. Based on the obtained results of biological test, these compounds may be potentially being considered as good anticancer candidates for further pharmacological studies.
126-132
87
ERADICATION FAILURE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI IS RELATED TO THE NATIONALITY OF THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES RESIDENTS IN AL AIN
Ghalia Khoder
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the main cause of gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric cancer and MALTlymphoma. H. pylori eradication has been shown to have a prophylactic effect against gastric cancer. However, the most challenging point in eradicating H. pylori is the antibiotic resistance. In the United Arab Emirates, eradication of H. pylori is based on a triple therapy regimen comprising a proton pump inhibitor and two antibiotic drugs. The aim of our study is to evaluate the eradication rate of H. pylori using this therapy regimen in infected patients (n=1000) from Hospitals and Medical centers in al Ain, United Arab Emirates during 2012. Analysis of the results using the Urea Breath Test shows a 15% eradication failure. Interestingly, Sudanese resident patients in al Ain seem to have the highest eradication failure while Filipino residents patients have a 100 % eradication success. Further studies are needed to explore the antibiotic resistance of H. pylori in the United Arab Emirates in order to cure the peptic ulcer and to avoid the progression of the infection to severe carcinogenic disease such as gastric cancer and MALT lymphoma.
133-137
88
QUALITY BY DESIGN (QBD): AN EMERGING PARADIGM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF PHARMACEUTICALS
Rakesh A. Chaudhari, Ashok P. Pingle, Chetan S. Chaudhari, Chetan Yewale, Kantilal A. Patil
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Quality by Design (QbD) refers to a holistic approach for development of quality pharmaceutical products, it is an essential part of the modern approach to pharmaceutical quality, QbD is a major challenge to the Pharmaceutical industry whose processes are fixed in time, despite inherent process and material variability, under this concept of QbD throughout designing and development of a product, it is essential to define desire product performance profile [Target product Profile (TPP), Quality Target Product Profile (QTPP)] and identify critical quality attributed (CQA). On the basis of this we can design the product formulation and process to meet the product attributes. This leads to recognise the impact of raw materials [critical material attributes (CMA)], critical process parameters (CPP) on the CQAs and identification and control sources of variability. This paper discusses the pharmaceutical QbD and describes how it can be used to develop the pharmaceutical products well within the specified period of time.
138-146
89
ANTIDIARRHOEAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF THE PENTADESMA BUTYRACEA STEM BARK METHANOLIC EXTRACT
Sylvie Lea Wansi, Idrice Kamtchouing, Jules Roger Kuiate, Telesphore Benoît Nguelefack, Hippolyte K. wabo, Albert Kamanyi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pentadesma butyracea Sabine (Clusiaceae) is a medicinal plant used in Cameroon to cure ailments such as gastrointestinal disorders. This study was aimed at investigating the antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extract from the stem bark of P. butyracea (MEPB). Plant extract was prepared by maceration in methanol. Its oral antidiarrhoeal effects were evaluated in vivo on castor oil (10ml/kg bw) and magnesium sulfate (3g/kg bw) induced diarrhea. Diarrheic rats were treated with 125, 250, and 500mg/kg extract or loperamide 2.5mg/kg. The frequency of defecation, the latency time and water content of stool were assessed. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity against 10 bacterial strains: Enterococcus feacalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Shigella flexneri, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella thiphymurium et Proteus mirabilis. In vivo antimicrobial activity of the extract was assessed using an S. flexneri-infected rat model. P. butyracea extract significantly and dose dependently increased the time of appearance of the first stools and decreased the frequency of defecation and the water content of stool. It also showed relatively good antimicrobial activity against all the tested microorganisms (MIC 64 – 256 µg/ml) and MBC (256 – 1024 µg/ml); with Enterococcus feacalis being the most sensitive. At dose 500 mg/ml, P. butyracea significantly reduced shigella flexneri density (80.37%). Results suggest that Pentadesma butyracea possesses antidiarrheic and antimicrobial properties and attest its usefulness in traditional treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea, and the treatment of some bacterial infections as shigellosis.
147-154
90
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENINGS, MEMBRANE STABILIZING ACTIVITY, THROMBOLYTIC ACTIVITY AND CYTOTOXIC PROPERTIES OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF MIMOSA PUDICA
Mohammad Shahriar, Tanjida Ahmed, Shahjabeen Sharif, Rumana Akter and Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In this present study, the leaf extracts of Mimosa pudica were subjected to a comparative evaluation of the membrane stabilization, thrombolytic and cytotoxic activity to brine shrimps (Artemia salina). The thrombolytic and membrane stabilizing activities were assessed by using human erythrocyte and the results were compared with standard streptokinase (SK) and standard anti-inflammatory drug, acetyl salicylic acid (ASA), respectively. The extracts demonstrated significant toxicity to A. salina with LC50 values ranging from 1.58 to 3.38 μg/ml as compared to standard vincristine sulphate (VS, LC50value 0.92 μg/ml). Preliminary phytochemical investigation suggested the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides and steroids.
155-158
91
AWARENESS AND ATTITUDE OF PHARMACY UNDERGRADUATES AND GENERAL PUBLIC TOWARDS FIBROMYALGIA, A MISJUDGED SYNDROME
Sadia Zafar, Syeda Rabab Hassan, Sarah Ahmed, Rutaba Masroor, Zainab Abdul Qadir
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of this study was to compare the level of awareness and attitude of Pharmacy Undergraduates and General public towards fibromyalgia and to observe the impact of Fibromyalgia on people’s daily routine. A retrospective study conducted to generate awareness, resolve misconceptions and motivate physicians for necessary measures. A cross sectional survey was conducted by using self administered questionnaire in July, 2013. The data of 200 sample population was then thoroughly analyzed and evaluated. The gender wise high prevalence was found in females and majority belonged to age group 18-25 yrs. Although only 8.5% of total respondents ever attended any informational session about Fibromyalgia. However, 86% of Pharmacy undergraduates had knowledge about Fibromyalgia, It was observed 57% of respondents experienced muscular pain especially in shoulder region. Pain killers were commonly used self medication or prescribed by physicians whereas, antidepressants were the 2nd most opted class of drugs used to treat symptoms. Non seriousness of patients (76%) was observed in following physician’s advice.
159-164
92
DETERMINATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, NITRATE AND NITRITE IN IRAQI VEGETABLES BY HPLC AND UV/VIS SPECTROPHOTOMETER
Abdal-Jabbar A. Ali, Khalil I. Hussain, Amera H. Hamed, Abood H. Moslah, Riyadh R. Neama
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This research deals with analytical methods for (16) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrate and nitrite determination in Iraqi vegetables. Some PAHs are of proven carcinogenic activity; consequently, they exceed the limits of concentrations which approved by the European Food Safety Authority. Nitrate and nitrite also determined in Iraqi vegetables compared with the European specifications. There is no recommendations for the allowable limits of nitrate and Nitric in the fresh vegetables. The analytical determination for PAHs is carried out by high performance liquid chromatography, with ultraviolet (UV) detector, while the analytical determination for nitrate and nitrite is carried out by UV/Vis. Spectrometer.
165-171
93
STUDY OF WHOLE PLANT OF VERNONIA CINEREA LESS. FOR IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY
Edison Dalmeida Daffodil, Packia Lincy and Veerabahu Ramasamy Mohan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In vitro antioxidant activity of petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol extracts of whole plant of Vernonia cinerea Less. have been tested using various antioxidant model system viz, DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, ABTS and reducing power. Methanol extract of V. cinerea is found to possess higher DPPH radical scavenging activity. Petroleum ether extract of V. cinerea exhibited highest hydroxyl, superoxide and ABTS radical cation scavenging activity. Petroleum ether extract of V. cinerea showed the highest reducing ability. This study indicates significant free radical scavenging potential of V. cinerea which can be exploited for the treatment of various free radical mediated ailments.
172-178
94
ANALGESIC AND NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA
Mir Muhammad Nasir Uddin, Md. Ruhul Amin, Amitabh Basak, Mohammad Shahriar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was designed to evaluate the analgesic and neurophramacological investigations of leaf extract of Sesbania grandiflora in Swiss albino mice following oral administration. In-vivo analgesic activity test was evaluated by acetic acid induced writhing method and tail immersion test. In-vivo neurophramacological investigations was determined by open field and hole cross test. In-vivo analgesic activity test shows that methanolic extract (250 & 500 mg/kg b.w.) performed good activity in mice comparing to the standard drug diclofenac Na. Methanolic extract of Sesbania grandiflora displayed a significant and dose dependent analgesic activity, the percent inhibition was 68.13%, 85.56% respectively in the test group (250 & 500 mg/kg b.w.).
179-182
95
A VALIDATED RP HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF ESOMEPRAZOLE SODIUM INJECTION
Saminathan kayarohanam, Bino Kingsley, Sivaramakrishnan and G. Nagarajan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Esomeprazole is chemically bis (5methoxy-2-[(S)-[(4-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-2-pyridinyl) methyl]sulfinyl]- 1Hbenzimidazole-1-yl). It is a gastric proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) used in treatment of gastric-acid related diseases. A Simple, sensitive, selective and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) methods were developed, estimated and validated for the analysis of Esomeprazole sodium in bulk and injection forms. The chromatographic separation was performed by the using C8, column having 250 x 4.6mm 5μm. Using mobile phase containing Acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (58:42v/v) adjusted to PH 7.6 with phosphoric acid. The analysis was run at a flow rate of 1.5ml/min and injection volume was 20 µL. The detection was monitored at 280nm. The retention time of Esomeprazole was 2.93 min. The developed method was validated for precision, intermediate precision (ruggedness), linearity, specificity, accuracy, and stability. Recovery of Esomeprazole in formulations was found to be in the range of 99.08%, 100.86%, and 101.52% respectively. And the correlation coefficient was 0.999. Hence, it was concluded that the developed method is suitable for routine analysis due to its less analysis time.
183-188
96
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF PROCESS RELATED IMPURITIES FROM NIMODIPINE BULK AND FORMULATION
Kasture V.S., Pawar S.S., Patil P.P., Musmade D.S., Ajage R. K. and Gehlot Ganjendra
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The process related impurity of Nimodipine diethyl 1, 4-dihydro-2, 6-dimethyl pyridine 3, 5 dicarboxylate in bulk and formulations was synthesized, characterized and the RP-HPLC method was developed according to ICH Q2B guidelines for quantitation of impurity in bulk and formulations. The synthesis of intermediate was carried out by Hantzch process using m-nitrobenzaldehyde, ethylacetoacetate, in presence of ammonia and methanol as catalyst. The percentage yield was found to be 75%. The impurity was recrystallized and purified. The preliminary evaluation was done on lab scale viz. melting point, TLC and elemental analysis. The melting point of impurity was found to be 1560C. The TLC of impurity was carried by using Benzene and Methanol (6:1) and the Rf was found to be 0.80. The confirmation of structure of synthesized impurity was carried out by using sophisticated instrument viz, FT-IR, NMR, GC-MS etc. Finally, the RP-HPLC method was developed to identify and quantify the impurity in Nimodipine bulk and formulation as per ICH Q2B guidelines. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. The method was found to be linear, precise, accurate, robust and rugged. Finally diethyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl pyridine 3,5 dicarboxylate impurity was quantified from bulk Nimodipine and its marketed tablet formulation. It was revealed that the amount of impurity present in tablet batch I and II was found to be 0.28% and 0.33% respectively and the bulk was found to be negligible. As per the ICH limit the amount of impurity more than 0.1% indicates that the impurity found in tablet formulations is potential impurity.
189-195
97
MATHEMATIC MODEL OF PHARMACEUTICAL CARE TO ENCOURAGE CLIENT TO BE RATIONAL IN USE NSAIDs BY SELF MEDICATION
Liza Pristianty, Fasich, Soemiati
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pharmaceutical care is a practice-oriented pharmacy services to clients, in self medication expected to provide appropriate solutions to the problems faced by clients in order to achieve a therapeutic effect optimal.Now self medication more done by individuals to relieve health problem. There are many actions self medication done in the community , but not many people are aware the rational treatment. Self medication behavior is determined by intention to perform self medication behave determined by attitude, subjective norms and perceived control. The drugs widely used in self medication is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This study wanted to build a mathematics model of pharmaceutical care that may be achieved rational self medication. Research will be conducted on clients who come to the pharmacy by self medication in Surabaya. Research methods are observational, data collection through surveys from 455 pharmacy clients through 89 pharmacies, prospective cross sectional study. The data were analysis by structured equation model. The results showed that pharmaceutical care is to build the attitude, subjective norm and perceived control by estimated value of 0.251; 0.530; and 0.493. behavior in self medication NSAIDs rational is not significantly influenced by client intence the estimated value of -0.03 , but can be formed through pharmaceutical care by pharmacist and client’s attitude with estimated value 0.280 and 0,211. The conclusion of this study is pharmaceutical care should be carried out intensively in the service of NSAIDs self-medication by a pharmacist in pharmacy.
196-202
98
ANALGESIC AND NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF WITHANIA SOMNIFERA ROOT
Mohammad Shahriar, Fariha Alam and Mir Muhammad Nasir Uddin
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was designed to evaluate the analgesic and neurophramacological investigations of root extracts of Withania somnifera in Swiss albino mice following oral administration. In-vivo analgesic activity test was evaluated by acetic acid induced writhing method and tail immersion test. In-vivo neurophramacological investigations were determined by open field and swimming test. There is no scientific report on analgesic activity and neuropharmacological activity of Withania somnifera, therefore the present study was undertaken to examine the possible in-vivo analgesic activity and neuropharmacological activity of this plant extracts. In-vivo analgesic activity test showed that methanol, ethanol and chloroform extract inhibited writhes in a dose dependent manner. But ethanol extract at 150 mg/kg showed highest inhibition (70.56%) which is even higher than the standard drug (25.55%). And in case of tail immersion test the basal reaction time was more for standard drug when compared to plant extracts. The ethanol extracts showed more reaction time and that is recovered after 120 min the order of potency in 60 min after dose administration is diclofenac Na > ethanol > chloroform > methanol > control. This plants root extracts also exhibit significant neuropharmacological activity.
203-208
99
THE EFFECT OF SINGLE DRUG THERAPY VERSUS COMBINATION DRUG THERAPY IN INDIAN POPULATION WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS
Tamboli P, Tekade A, Kuchake V, Ingale P
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Their complimentary mechanisms of action suggest that a combination of pioglitazone hydrochloride and metformin may have clinically beneficial effects in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. This study was undertaken to assess the safety and efficacy Pioglitazone, metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pioglitazone, metformin lower HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. We compared the effects of these two drugs, used as monotherapy and in combination. This was a 24-weeks, observational, open-ended, openlabel study. Patients were receiving once-daily pioglitazone 30 mg, metformin 1000 mg and combination of pioglitazone 30 mg with metformin 1000 mg. Patients receiving combination had statistically significant mean decreases in HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels compared with monotherapy. The incidence of adverse events was similar in all groups. No evidence of drug-induced hepatotoxicity or drug-induced elevations in serum ALT was observed. In this study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, combination of pioglitazone with metformin significantly improved HbA1c and FPG levels, with positive effects on serum lipid levels compared with metformin and pioglitazone alone and no evidence of drug-induced hepatotoxicity. These effects were maintained for >24 weeks.
209-213
100
REVERSE PHASE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ACETYLCYSTEINE AND ASCORBIC ACID IN SACHETS
Vania Maslarska, Lily Peikova
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
REVERSE PHASE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ACETYLCYSTEINE AND ASCORBIC ACID IN SACHETS
214-218
101
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A STABILITY-INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PAROXETINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND CLONAZEPAM IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
Geetharam Yanamadala, Praveen Srikumar.P
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The study describes development and subsequent validation of a stability indicating reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous estimation of Paroxetine hydrochloride and clonazepam in tablet dosage forms. A reversed-phase Kromasil ,C18, (150mm x 4.6 mm, particle size) column with mobile phase consisting of Acetonitrile and 0.1 % Orthophosphoric acid buffer 60:40 (v/v) was used. The flow rate was 1.2 mL min-1 and effluents were monitored at 260 nm. The retention times (tR) of Paroxetine and clonazepam were found to be 3.46 min and 4.55 min, respectively. The method was validated in terms of linearity, range, specificity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ). The linearity for both the drugs was found in the range of 125-750 µg/ml and 2.5-15 µg/ml for Paroxetine and clonazepam. The % recoveries of Paroxetine hydrochloride and clonazepam were found to be 99.4 -100.6 and 98.1-101.0 respectively. The utility of the procedure is verified by its application to marketed formulations that were subjected to accelerated degradation studies. The method distinctly separated the drug and degradation products even in actual samples. The products formed in marketed tablet dosage forms are similar to those formed during stress studies.
448-457
102
A VALIDATED STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF ALOGLIPTINE AND PIOGLITAZONE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
B. Neelima, P. Ravi Kumar, V. Hima Bindu and Y. Rajendra Prasad
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The proposed study, a new stability- indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed for estimation of Alogliptin and Pioglitazone in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. The present method was a sensitive, precise, and accurate RP-HPLC method for the analysis of Alogliptin and Pioglitazone. To optimize the mobile phase, various combinations of buffer and organic solvents were used on Hypersil BDS C18 column. Then the mobile phase containing a mixture of Phosphate Buffer: Acetonitrile in the ratio of 45:55 % v/v was selected at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min for developing the method and the peaks with good shape and resolution were found resulting in short retention time, baseline stability and minimum noise. The retention times of Alogliptine and Pioglitazone were found to be 3.42 and 5.24 min respectively. Quantitative linearity was obeyed in the concentration range of 31-187 and 75-450 µg/mL of Alogliptin and Pioglitazone respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.399 µg/mL and 1.21µg/mL (ALO); 0.516 µg/ mL and 1.565 µg/mL (PIO) respectively, which indicates the sensitivity of the method. The high percentage recovery indicates that the proposed method is highly accurate. No interfering peaks were found in the chromatogram indicating that excipients used in tablet formulations did not interfere with the estimation of the drugs by the proposed HPLC method.
458-464
103
Innovative training program for pharmacists in the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University
Hoan Linh Banh, Ping Xu, Da Xiong Xiang, Andrew Cave
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pharmacists are one of the most accessible health care providers in many parts of the world, including China. To better prepare pharmacists to provide pharmaceutical care and comprehensive care, often they are sent to train in a developed countries such as Canada. Because the health care systems are completely different between the countries, most of the pharmacists have difficulties applying their newly acquired skills and knowledge to their own health care. As a result, the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University agreed to second a Faculty Member/pharmacist for 8 months. The Faculty member will be at the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University to implement a pharmacy clinical program and a structured training program for pharmacists.
1-4
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Stability indicating HPLC method for the determination of Dacarbazine in pharmaceutical dosage form
M.L. Lal Prasanth, Sridhar Siddiraju
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, rapid, and precise stability indicating HPLC method is developed for the quantitative determination of dacarbazine in pharmaceutical dosage form. The chromatographic separation of dacarbazine was achieved with an agilent eclipse XDB C18, 150 x 4.6 mm, 5m particle size analytical column using buffer and acetonitrile taken in 96:4%v/v and the response was detected at 323nm by using PDA detector. The retention time was found to be 4.333. Dacarbazine drug substance was exposed to thermal, photolytic, hydrolytic, and oxidative stress conditions, and the stressed samples were analyzed by the proposed method. Peak homogeneity data of dacarbazine is obtained by photodiode array detector in the stressed sample chromatograms, demonstrating the specificity of the method for its estimation in presence of degradation product. The described method shows excellent linearity over a range of 25–150 μg/mL. The correlation coefficient for dacarbazine was found to be 0.9999. The relative standard deviation for six measurements in two sets of dacarbazine in injection is always less than 2%. The proposed method was found to be suitable and accurate for quantitative determination and stability study of dacarbazine in pharmaceutical preparations.
5-12
105
Pharmacokinetics study of ethyl acetate extract of cylicodiscus gabunensis (mimosaceae) after oral administration and its effect on the eradication of shigella dysenteriae infection on rats
Laure Brigitte Mabeku Kouitcheu , Joseph Lebel Tamesse and Oyono Essame Jean Louis
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cylicodiscus gabunensis (CG) is a tropical plant traditionally known for its medicinal use. The plant has also been investigated for a number of pharmacological activities. However kinetic studies are lacking for this. Hence to better elucidate the effects of the body on this plant preparation, this study was planned. Sixty Wistar albino rats were giving orally a single dose of 500 mg/kg of plant extract. Blood samples were then collected in EDTA coated tubes prior to plant extract administration and at 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320, 640, 960 and 1280 minutes after. Plasma obtained was analyzed to measure concentration of plant extract using its anti-shigellosis properties. Various kinetic parameters were then calculated from the plasma concentrations. For the in vivo anti-shigellosis activity of the plant extract, a suspension of Shigella dysenteriae type I (sd1) was orally administered to thirty rats. The diarrheic rats were then divided into the control group and four others received 125, 250, 500 mg/kg of the plant extract and ciprofloxacin (20 mg/kg) respectively for 7 days. The frequency and weight of normal and diarrheic faeces emitted was recorded. The presence of stools containing mucus or blood and the number of sd1 in faeces were also recorded. The peak plasma levels (81.937 mg/ml) of CG were reached at 10.66 h. The concentration declined with a mean elimination half life of 6.61 ± 0.97 h. The AUC0-∞ was 1367.7 mg h/ml. CG reduces the frequency faeces released and sd1 density from 100% (diarrheic rats) to 50.79 and 45.33% (500 mg/kg) respectively. We concluded that CG extract is effectively absorbed though the intestinal wall. The elimination half life suggests that the drug needs to be given orally at the interval of seven hours. These parameters provide a baseline for the further exploration of what the body does to the drug and justify the pharmacodynamic correlation.
13-21
106
Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB): A lethal risk in Benghazi City, Libya
Mohamed F. Abbar; Yousef M. Sherif; Heba J. Majbri; Makarim Elfadil M. Osman and Emadeldin Hassan E. Konozy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance is a major public health problem that threatens TB treatment progress made in the inhabitants of countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, and the America. A retrospective study for the pulmonary TB cases admitted to Quefia Chest Hospital Benghazi, Libya, from 1/1/2009 till 1/6/2010 showed that 4 cases out of 430 TB patients were positive for sensitivity culture and didn\'t respond to the first line anti-TB therapy and therefore were diagnosed as Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB). One of these patients was Libyan while others were aliens. The 2nd line anti-TB drugs were given in the form of Amikacin injection, cycloserine, moxifloxacin and pyrazinamide for the first 6 months followed by 18 months therapy with moxifloxacin, cycloserine and pyrazinamide. Follow-up with the patients exhibited clinical-radiological and microbiological improvement.
22-27
107
Hypolipidemic efficacy of hyphaene thebaica (doum) in experimental nephrotic syndrome
Dawoud Fakhry Habib, Helana Naguib Michael, Josline Yehia Salib, Nadia Mohammed Ahmed, and Mervat Harvi Agaibyi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The water extract of the fruits of Hyphaene thebaica were given orally to male albino rats for 30 days to evaluate its effect on serum cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoproteins: HDL - LDL & VLDL (high - low and very low density lipoprotein) and apolipoproteins (A-1 & B). Our findings exhibited a highly significant decrease (p < 0. 05) in all parameters except for HDL which showed insignificant decrease when compared to control group. Thus the water extract can reduce hyperlipidemia in nephrotic syndrome and leads to decrease the risk of glomerulosclerosis atherosclerosis and consequently the natural, safe and non-toxic Hyphaene thebaica fruit could be of great merit for use as hypolipidemic drug. Further, the phytochemical analysis of the potent water extract indicated the distribution of 14 polyphenolic compounds to which its activity maybe attributed. Among the isolated compounds tricin 5-O-rutinoside, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside and rhamnazin 3-O-rutinoside were isolated, purified and identified from the fruit for the first time. The structure elucidation was based on 1H and 13C NMR.
28-34
108
In-Vitro Activities of Linezolid and Co-Trimoxazole against Isolates of Diverticulitis: Breakpoint Determinations
Samiullah Burki, Zeba Gul Burki, Javeid Iqbal, Ahmad Khan, Muhammad Nadeem
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Diverticulitis is a common colon disease with pouch like projection which leads to morbidity and mortality commonly cause by E.coli and P. aeruginosa.15 isolates of MDR E.coli and P. aeruginosa derived from patient of diverticulitis were identified using biochemical tests and EMB media. Their susceptibility, resistance, and MIC values were calculated using standard agar dilution method against Linezolid (linz) and co-trimoxazole (co-tri). Results revealed that at different concentrations (conc.) 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16mgl–1, 1, 2, 4, 16, 32, and 64mgl–1 of linz and co-tri respectively. Linz and co-triMIC90 against E.coli was achieved ≥ 16mgl–1 and >64mgl–1(P<0.01)respectively while against P.aeruginosaMIC90wasachieved at 2.25mgl–1 and > 64mgl–1 respectively (P<0.01). At maximum conc. of 16mgl–1 and 64mgl–1 of linz and co-tri87.5 % and 75 % pathogens of E.coli were susceptible. P .aeruginosa at similar conc. gives 100 % and 71.42 % susceptibility (P<0.01).It is conclude that linz against current multidrug resistance (MDR) pathogens of diverticulitis was potent than co-tri.
35-39
109
Investigation of essential oil of melissa officinalis for acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity
Amina Bounihi, Rachad Alnamer, Ghizlane Hajjaj, Yahia Cherrah, and Amina Zellou
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study is aimed at determining the acute and Sub-chronic oral toxicity of Melissa officinalis essential oil and to serve as criteria to recommend the ethno pharmacological uses of the plant. In the acute toxicity test, oral administration of 300 and 2000mg/kg of the Melissa officinalis essential oil was evaluated in mice. Sub-chronic toxicity was studied by daily oral dose of 100 and 200mg/kg for three month. On day 0, 30, 60 and 90, blood samples collected from retro-orbital sinus of the eye rats were used for evaluation of serum biochemistry, hematology and histopathological examination of the heart, lungs, liver, kidney and spleen. The acute toxicity oral study revealed no observable signs of toxicity. In rats, the examination of signs, animal behavior and the changes in body and organs weights showed no abnormalities in the test groups as compared to the controls. There were no significant variations in the hematological parameters of both Melissa officinalis essential oil treated and untreated rats. However, biochemical parameters showed significant decrease in blood sugar. Melissa officinalis essential oil significantly (p<0.05) increased serum urea suggesting degenerative changes in the kidney. We can conclude that, Melissa officinalis essential oil is well tolerated in short term therapies but may have long term toxic effects on the kidney.
40-46
110
Chemical and photochemical behavior of progesterone hybrids with antiviral activity
Manal M.T. El-Saidi, Maher A. El-Hashash, Nahid Y. Khaireldin
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The reaction of progesterone 1 with different aromatic aldehydes refluxed in absolute ethanol in the presence of sodium hydroxide afforded new progesterone chalcone hybrids (2a-e). Chalcone progesterone 2b reacted with (cyclohexyl amine, o-anisidine and p-toluidine) in boiling absolute ethanol to yield the corresponding adducts (3, 4 and 5). Treatment of 2b with (2-aminothiophenol) gave the adduct 6. Hetero-aryl chalcones (2d,e) were exposed to UV lamp (125w) in the presence of benzene yielded cyclobutane derivatives (7a,b). Compound 2d,e were irradiated in ethanol a pinacol dimeric products were obtained 8a,b. The antiviral of some newly products were examined.
47-56
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Evaluation of in vitro antibacterial activity of Mentha Longifolia extracts
Muhammad Ibrar, Hina Nazir, Kosar Tammana, Jehangir Khan, Palwasha, Aiman Zafar, Ume Roman, Imran Aman, Muhammad Akif, Abid Hussain, Azam Hayat, Mujaddad-ur-rehman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the current study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of Mentha Longifolia extract against commonly encountered pathogenic bacteria. The principle focus is on naturally occurring substance and their derivatives especially flavonoids present in plants which are reported to possess good antibacterial activity. The extracts were tested for antibacterial activity against different selected bacteria by disk diffusion method. The results showed that the cold water flower extract exhibited a relatively strong antimicrobial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria tested. The ethanolic extract of M. Longifolia also showed good antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative. E. coli was the most sensitive bacteria among all and E. faecalis was recorded as most resistant bacteria. Present study reveals significantly higher broad-spectrum antibacterial activity of M. Longifolia and such findings could be considered a valuable support in the treatment of UTI and respiratory tract infections.
57-61
112
Adverse drug reaction following mass drug administration during the program to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in banke district, Nepal
Upreti AR, Joshi D, Rijal B, Bharati L, Regmi BM
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study aimed to find out types of adverse drug reaction following mass drug administration during the program to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in Banke distict of Nepal.The retrospective study of the prescription of the patient with the history of adverse drug reaction was done .The totals of 602 patient were reported to have adverse drug reactions after intake of medication against filariasis under mass drug administration program. Nausea, Vomiting, Abdominal pain, Fever, Diarrhoea, Malaise, Asthenia ,Angioedema , Dermatitis, Hydrocoel , Itching, Dyspnoea , Syncope, Convulsion, Anxiety were different types of adverse drug reactions reported during my study. Ethnic variation in adverse drug reactions was also studied which shows disadvantage non dalit terai caste group had highest reported cases of adverse drug reactions followed by religious minorities.
62-67
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Antitumor activity of Moringa Oleifera leaf extract against Ehrlich solid tumor
Wagdy K. B. Khalil, Inas S. Ghaly, Kawthar A. E. Diab, Aida I. ELmakawy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) is promising plant for biomedicine applications because it has an impressive range of medicinal purposes with high nutritional value. Therefore, we investigated the therapeutic effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MOLE) on Ehrlich\'s solid tumor implanted mice (EST-mice). Swiss male albino mice were implanted intramuscularly with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). Three doses of MOLE extract (125, 250 and 500mg kg-1 ) were administrated to EST-mice for 14 days. The standard drug vincristine (VCR) was i.p injected (0.1 mg kg1- ) after the implantation of EST. The antitumor activity of MOLE was assessed using several tumor markers. Modulating activity of MOLE against EST was evaluated using comet assay, micronucleus test and morphological apoptotic changes as well as DNA fragmentation assay. The expression analysis of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and apoptosis related genes (p53, p21 and bcl2) were evaluated. Treatment of EST-mice with the highest dose of MOLE exhibited inhibition of tumor growth and the tumor markers in solid tumor. MOLE inhibited the apoptotic/necrotic cells, decrease of micronucleus formation and DNA damage in EST-mice. Expression of iNOS, VEGF, p53 mutation, p21 and bcl2 genes in EST-mice were significantly over-expressed compared with control group. These observations were markedly inhibited with the highest dose of extract. Moringa oleifera leaf extract revealed antitumor, antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic activities in EST-mice. The biological activities of Moringa oleifera leaf extract were discussed
68-82
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Social Networking Experiences on Facebook pertaining to Accountability and E-Professionalism: A future perspective
Wajiha Iffat, Sadia Shakeel, Saima Naseem, Abdur Rasheed
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was planned to investigate students‘ Facebook activity and opinions regarding accountability and e-professionalism. A cross sectional study was conducted from Oct‘2013 till Jan‘2014. The study population includes the students enrolled in MBBS, BDS and Pharm.D program belonging to different institutes of Karachi. Descriptive statistics were determined to illustrate participant‘s characteristics and their response to the questionnaire items, following a presentation regarding potential e-professionalism issues with Facebook. Logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association of gender, institute and bachelor program of students with their response. It revealed that 84.2% of the students were aware of the privacy settings available in Face book and 81.8% uses them to limit public access to their information. Male students belonging to private sector are more likely aware of privacy settings available in Facebook. It is necessitating for young generation to be more aware of online professionalism for gearing up their careers as healthcare providers.
83-88
115
Assessment of drug prescription practice using who prescribing indicators in Felege Hiwot referral hospital (FHRH) outpatient department, North Ethiopia
Laychiluh Bantie
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Drug therapy is the most commonly used method of any disease treatment in general practice. However, the patterns of drug prescription are often inappropriate and the need for registration and evaluation of these patterns is essential in an effort to improve prescription standards. Cross sectional retrospective study was used. Prescriptions were selected by using simple random sampling technique from accumulated prescriptions over a period of six months (May 2013 to October 2013). The Data was evaluated using standardized World Health Organization prescription indicators for studies of rational drug use. Data was collected from prescriptions by using pre-prepared data collection tool. The average number of drugs per encounter was 1.83; with 97.4% drugs prescribed by generic names. 38% & 10.8% of the prescriptions contained encounters with antibiotics and injections use respectively. 100% of drugs prescribed were from the essential drugs list of Ethiopia. It is concluded from the study that the number of drugs prescribed per encounter, prescribing practices for injections, generic prescribing and prescribing from essential drug list are encouraging, whereas prescribing practices for antibiotic need to be regulated closely since study shows deviation from the standard recommended by World Health Organization guideline.
89-94
116
Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of naproxen sodium and esomeprazole magnesium in pharmaceutical tablet dosage form
Srinivas Ampati, SunithaLagishetti, Agaiah Goud Bairi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
An isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the Simultaneous estimation of Naproxen sodium and Esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate in Pharmaceutical tablet dosage form. The separation was achieved by using a reversed-phase C18column(Thermo eletrole, ODS, 250mm × 4.6 mm i.d, 5μm) at ambient temperature with mobile phase consisting of Phosphate buffer (pH adjust to 3.8using OPA): Acetonitrile : Methanol (30:50:20v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min. Detection was carried out at a wavelength of 220 nm. Retention time of Naproxen sodium and Esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate were found tobe2.417 and 3.903min respectively. The proposed method was validated for selectivity, precision, linearity and accuracy. The assay method was found to be linear from 75-175µg/ml and 3-7µg/ml for Naproxen sodium and Esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate respectively. All validation parameters were within the acceptable range. The developed method was successfully applied to estimate the amount of Naproxen sodium and Esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate in Pharmaceutical tablet dosage form.
95-104
117
Formulation and evaluation of fairness serum using polyherbal extracts
Shan Sasidharan, Pyarry Joseph, Junise
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cosmetic Serum is a highly concentrated product based on water or oil. When using concentrates we get not only a quick cosmetic effect, but also psychological satisfaction after the treatment because the result will be seen practically immediately. Serum has a property of rapid absorption and ability to penetrate into the deeper layers of the skin, together with its non-greasy finish and intensive formula with a very high concentration of active substances. Based on these properties, the aim of this work was to formulate a fairness serum using poly herbal extracts. The objective was to carry out extraction, and to study the phyto-constituents responsible for the fairness action in the poly herbal extract and to evaluate various physicochemical and biological properties of the formulation. The fairness Serum has a super-special blend of active natural ingredients to penetrate skin‟s epidermis and color cells, resulting in fair complexion and skin tone in addition. It has skin smoothing ingredients to improve skin texture and leaves skin soft, fair and silky smooth. It is made of extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Crocus sativus, Rice branand olive oil in addition. The variousphysical, chemical and biological evaluations were done. The formulationwas found to be of good spreadability and was free from heavy metals. Skin irritation studies proved that it was non-sensitizing and free to use. It is intended to provide fairness action within a week.
105-112
118
Formulation and evaluation of simvastatin buccal adhesive tablets
Revathy Krishnan, T.N.K Suriyaprakash, Sheron Joseph
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the study was to develop buccal adhesive tablets of Simvastatin using mucoadhesive polymers. Simvastatin has short biological half-life (3hr), high first-pass metabolism and poor oral bioavailability (5%), hence an ideal candidate for buccal delivery system. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique using xanthan gum, guar gum, chitosan and aloe gum. Aloe gum was extracted from Aloe Barbadensis miller leaves. Formulations were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, swelling studies, determination of mucoadhesive strength and in vitro release studies. FTIR studies show no evidence on interaction between drug, polymers and other excipients. In vitro drug release studies revealed that release of Simvastatin from different formulations varies with characteristics and composition of polymers. Formulation F3 selected as optimized formulation based on physicochemical parameters, and in vitro release rates and follows zero order drug release. Chitosan and guar gum were helpful for controlling the drug release in better way when used in proper combinations. The results indicate that suitable bioadhesive buccal tablets for Simvastatin with controlled drug delivery could be prepared.
113-122
119
Synthesis and evaluation of 2-substituted thiadiazole Schiff bases
Chaitanya G, Jhansi G, Susmitha B, P.V. Naveen, K. N. V. Chenchu Lakshmi, B. Anupama
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A series of 1, 3, 4-thiadiazole schiff bases were synthesized and characterized by IR and 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectral data. The compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Insilico screening was carried aiming to present potential selective activities as enzyme inhibitors and kinase inhibitors. These activities were suggested by the score values using molinspiration cheminformatics program.
123-131
120
Synthesis and evaluation of quinazolinthione derivatives as antibacterial agents
Indubhushan, Alka N. Choudhary, Preeti Kothiyal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Quinazolinthione is a heterocyclic compound with a unique place in the field of medicinal chemistry. The comprehensive study summaries the different derivative of quinazolinthione derivative along with their chemistry, evaluated for their antibacterial activity. The structures of all newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by FTIR, Mass spectroscopy, 1HNMR spectral data. The synthesized compound were screened for antibacterial activities (500 μg,1000µg) against (both Gram +ve and Gram –ve) Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
132-135
121
Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of naproxen sodium and esomeprazole magnesium in pharmaceutical tablet dosage form
T. Rupini, V. Uma Maheshwara Rao and Muhammad Rafi Shaik
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, rapid, specific, accurate and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Telmisartan and Indapamide in tablet dosage form. An XBridge C18 column having (100x4.6mm, 5µ) in Isocratic mode with mobile phase containing Acetonitrile:Buffer(65:35) was used. The flow rate was 1.0mL / min and eluents were monitored at 210 nm. The retention times of Telmisartan and Indapamide were 5.268min and 2.366min respectively. The calibration curves were linear over a concentration range from 100-600 ppm for Telmisartan and over a concentration range from 3.75-22.5 ppm for Indapamide. Limit of detection (LOD) and Limit of quantification (LOQ) were 2.23 and 6.77 for Telmisartan and 0.32 and 0.98 for Indapamide respectively. The developed method was fast, accurate, precise and successfully applied to estimate the amount of Telmisartan and Indapamide in bulk sample and tablet dosage form so it can be used for regular quality control of the drug..
136-140
122
Interaction between clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors: A clinical overview
Jinesh B. Nagavi*, B.M. Gurupadayya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Most proton pump inhibitors inhibit the bioactivation of clopidogrel to its active metabolite. The clinical significance of this drug interaction is unknown. Over recent years there has been much debate about whether some or all proton pump inhibitors might reduce the effectiveness of clopidogrel because of a drug interaction at the cytochrome P450 2C19 enzyme. Clopidogrel is a prodrug that is metabolized to an active form, and this process occur primarily via cytochrome P450 2C19. Proton pump inhibitors inhibit cytochrome P450 enzyme to varying degrees, and the studies showed that the combined use of clopidogrel with omeprazole or lansoprazole leads to reduction in activity of clopidogrel as measured by platelet aggregation and associated biomarkers. This suggests that there is a potentially important pharmacokinetic interaction between these drugs when used at therapeutic doses. Evidence to date has been conflicting; some studies have observed an increased risk of vascular events in patients receiving clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors, while others, including an underpowered randomized trial, found no increased risk.
141-143
123
Evaluation of Antidepressant Activity of Bacopa Monnieri in Mice
Pabba Sindhu, Mukta N. Chowta, Nishith RS, Seema Rai, Akash Gadgade, Rajeshwari S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was planned with the objective of evaluating antidepressant activity Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi), a traditional Ayurvedic medicine, in two experimental models of depression in mice. Adult Albino Mice (Swiss Strain) of either sex randomly assigned to four groups of six mice each. Group 1 received distilled water and group 2 received imipramine 10mg/kg orally. Group 3 & 4 received B. monnieri extract at a dose of 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg respectively (orally). Mice were subjected to forced swim test and tail suspension test. Drugs were given one hour before the experiment in acute study whereas for chronic study drugs were given for 10 days. The decrease in immobility period in the group pretreated with imipramine as compared to control was highly significant in both acute and chronic study with forced swim test. Comparison of both the doses of Bacopa monneiri with control group also showed very high statistical significance in acute as well as chronic study. In tail suspension test, the decrease in immobility period in the group pretreated with imipramine as compared to control was significant in both acute and chronic study. Comparison of Bacopa monneiri 50mg/kg with control group did not show statistical significance in acute study, but the significant difference was demonstrated in chronic study. Comparison of Bacopa monneiri 100mg/kg with control group also showed statistical significance in acute as well as chronic study. Bacopa monneiri has demonstrated significant antidepressant activity in both the models and the effect is dose dependent. Its antidepressant effect is comparable with imipramine especially at 100mg/kg dose.
144-148
124
Evaluation of antioxidant activity in fruit extracts of Avicennia Marina L and Avicennia Officinalis L
N. Sharief Mohammad, A.Srinivasulu, P. Satya Veni and Uma Maheswara Rao V
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Antioxidant activity of Avicenni marina L and Avicennia officinalis L fruit extracts in ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and ethanol were studied by ABTS, CrO5 and FRAP method. All the extracts possessed significant amount of the antioxidant activity, extracts in methanol and ethanol was demonstrated convincingly higher antioxidant activity by all the three methods. Whereas, the ethyl acetate exhibited less antioxidant activity. The present study reveals the potential of fruit extracts of Avicennia marina L and Avicennia officinalis L with antioxidant principles.
149-153
125
In vivo studies of (Z)-1-benzhydryl-4- cinnamylpiperazines as anti-inflammatory and analgesics
S Shivaprakash, Anaxee Burman, Latha Diwakar and G. Chandrasekara Reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Benzhydryl cinnamyl piperazine drugs such as cinnarizine, flunarizine and clocinizine are being used as antihistamines and as calcium channel antagonists but possess E-geometry. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of (Z)-1-benzhydryl-4- cinnamylpiperazine derivatives (2a-c) with their E counterparts in-vivo using Swiss-albino mice. The results of the present study revealed that the Z-isomers have showed moderate to significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory action in a dose dependent manner. However, Z-counterpart of flunarizine exhibited remarkable analgesic property and also showed prolonged antiinflammatory activity compared to flunarizine.
154-157
126
Methotrexate induced hepatitis-A case report
Dinesh R, SreeNagavalli K, Moulya M.V, Languluri Reddenna, Yogananda R, Bharathi DR
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Methotrexate is a folic acid antagonist with cytotoxic and immunosuppressant activity. Drug-induced liver injury is greatly variable in the nature of reactions seen and individual patient susceptibility. Here we report a case of hepatitis which was induced by methotrexate, have been rarely implicated in the causation of hepatitis. 55 years old man was visited to dermatology with pain in the mouth, throat, and abdomen of 2 days duration leading to a diagnosis of drug induced hepatitis. The differential diagnosis (psoriasis) was found in the documents provided by the patient, he was prescribed methotrexate. Cutaneous examination showed skin lesions over the scalf, abdomen, upper & lower limbs. He was administered intravenous fluids, folic acid, antibiotic, ondansetron, paracetamol, Syp. Muconine Gel. This adverse reaction is dose-related and can be labeled as Type-A class of adverse effect. Most drug hepatotoxicity is facilitated by a phase I toxic metabolite, but glutathione depletion, barring inactivation of harmful compounds by glutathione S-transferase, can contribute as well. The magnitude of the elevations and the enzymes involved depend on the offending agent and the severity and stage of the liver damage. The most important step that can be taken in a suspected clinically significant drug-induced liver injury is discontinuation of the offending agent.
158-159
127
Anti-angiogenic activity of natural flavonoid myricetin on chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) in-vivo
Thamilarashi A.N, Mangalagowri A, Winkins Santosh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Myricetin is a natural flavonol, it possesses anti-oxidative, anti- proliferative and anti- inflammatory effects. The anti-angiogenic activity of Myricetin was studied using Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM) in-vivo. The Chick embryos were treated with Myricetin, upto 100µM of concentration there was no morphological changes. Higher than 100µM of concentration inhibited the formation of blood vessles but the concentration of 200µM caused lethality. Myricetin inhibited the neovascularisation in a dose-dependent manner in in-vivo. Histological crosssections of Myricetin treated CAM revealed reduced large and small newly synthesized blood vessels. Treated embryos with Myricetin (100µM, 150µM and 200µM) significantly down- regulated the expression of VEGF-A with Real time PCR method. Our result showed that Myricetin inhibited the growth of newly formed blood vessels in chicken embryos and down regulated the expression of VEGF-A. This study reveals that the potential antiangiogenic effect of Myricetin proves its role as a therapeutic agent against proliferative like cancer.
160-165
128
Formulation & evaluation of muccoadhesive buccal patches for delivery of atenolol
Neha krishnarth, Navneet verma, Basant Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Mucoadhesive buccal patches of Atenolol for local delivery of the drug to the oral cavity were formulated by Solvent casting technique. Mucoadhesive polymer, namely sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) of different grade were incorporated into the patches to modify their mucoadhesive properties as well as the rate of drug release, using glycerol as plasticizer. Different concentrations of polymer were used for the preparation of patches. The patches were evaluated on the basis of their physical characteristics like surface pH, folding endurance, mucoadhesive performance, and release rate. The in-vitro drug release was carried out in Franz diffusion cell, with commercially available dialysis membrane. Formulation P-10 (10 % Sodium carboxy Methyl Cellulose (NaCMC), 5 % glycerol and 2 % Atenolol) showed sustained release upto 10 hours.
166-170
129
Role of statistics in quality by design product development for pharmaceutical industry: a review
S. A. Kale, Dr. V. H. Bajaj
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pharmaceutical industry is showing a positive approach towards Quality by Design (QbD) for discovery, development, and commercial manufacturing of biopharmaceutical products. Regulatory agencies are providing various guidelines for pharmaceutical industry to build quality, safety and efficacy into their new biopharmaceutical products. Such concept became known as Quality by Design. To assess the Quality by Design (QbD) product development till robust quality manufacturing, several statistical tools may used. This paper outlines the role of statistics in monitoring, evaluation, optimization and improvement of Quality by Design Product Development for Pharmaceutical Industry.
171-173
130
Formulation and In Vitro Evaluation for Sun Protection Factor of Cosmos Sulphurus Flowers (Asteraceae) Extract Sunscreen Cream
Shantanu kale, Kapil Kulkarni, Khanderao Jadhav
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cosmos Sulphurus(Asteraceae) flowers commonly known as Sonkusum flowers were explored to find flavonoids, so, thin layer chromatography was performed and some of the flavonoids were identified.The reported flavonoids were known to have sunscreen activity and hence SPF factor of the dried flower extract (aqueous) was incorporated in topical formulation and evaluated in vitro with the help of Optometric Model-290 SPF.. The aqueous extract prepared from flower of cosmos sulphurus was used for Thin Layer Chromatography and then into topical formulation. In vitro determination of SPF was done with the help of method specified by The Comité de Liaison de la Parfumerie in Europe (COLIPA). The SPF was found to be 1.93 and Boots Star rating as 3, indicating that Cosmos Sulphurus(Asteraceae) flower extract (aqueous) can be considered as good candidate for Sunscreen or as an additive in any other sunscreen formulation.
174-181
131
A sensitive dual-run hptlc technique for simultaneous estimation of metformin hydrochloride, glimepiride and voglibose in combined dosage form
S. M. Sandhya, U. Fathima Beevi, G. Babu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A sensitive, selective, and precise high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) based on dual-run technique has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of metformin (MET), glimepiride (GLI), and voglibose (VOG) in combined dosage form. Chromatographic separation was performed on aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60 F254 as the stationary phase. A dual run technique was adopted for better resolution amongst all three drugs with solvent system initially toluene-methanol-ethyl acetate-formic acid (3:4:3:0.5, v/v/v/v) for separation of metformin. The plates were dried and developed again using another mobile phase system consisting of toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid (5:5:1, v/v/v) for glimepiride and voglibose. Densitometric scanning was carried out in the absorbance mode at 254 nm. The linear regression data for calibration plots showed good linear relationship in the concentration range of 200-1200 ng/band for MET, 20-120 ng/band for GLI and VOG. The method was validated for precision, accuracy, robustness and recovery as per ICH guidelines and applied for quantification in their available combined pharmaceutical dosage form. Consider the merits of dual-run mode and sensitivity, the proposed method would be novel for the determination of MET, GLI and VOG.
182-188
132
A novel drug delivery system designed for modulating the release kinetics of anti-tubercular drugs
B. Prasanthi, D. Prasanthi, B. Bhavani, J. Vijaya Ratna
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The major clinical issue with TB therapy is the poor oral bioavailability of rifampicin in the presence of isoniazid in acidic medium. The present work was undertaken to develop a novel solid dosage form (tablet and capsule in capsule) comprising a immediate release rifampicin tablet, effervescent gastro retentive rifampicin tablet and an enteric coated isoniazid capsule that can differentiately release rifampicin in a controlled manner in the stomach and isoniazid in the intestine. Rifampicin GRDDS was formulated using different concentrations of HPMCK4M and HPMCK100M as matrixing agent. Enteric coated isoniazid capsule was formulated using eudragit L100-55. Drug release and drug degradation of the novel dosage form was compared with R-Cinex. About 42% of rifampicin was degraded to 3FRSV from R-Cinex at the end of 60 mins whereas only 10% of rifampicin degraded in case of novel dosage form. Hence, the minimization of contact between rifampicin and isoniazid by sustaining the release of rifampicin can alleviate its degradation to a certain extent.
189-196
133
Formulation and evaluation of bilayered gastro retentive floating tablets containing metformin HCl and glipizide
M. Chandrakala, P. Naga Haritha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Bilayer tablets of Metformin hydrochloride and Glipizide were formulated. Glipizide is a poor water soluble (BCS class 2) antidiabetic drug. The present study aims to increase the solubility of Glipizide by solid dispersion technique using sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone as super disintegrants. Metformin hydrochloride was formulated by using Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose as the matrix forming polymer and was directly compressed. The compressed bilayer tablets were evaluated for all required parameters. It was found that the optimized formulation showed 99% release for Metformin hydrochloride in 24 hours. However, Glipizide released 97% at the end of 60 minutes. The IR spectrum studies revealed that there is no disturbance in the principal peaks of pure drugs alone as well as with the excipients. The stability studies were carried out for the optimized batch for three months and it showed acceptable results. The kinetic studies of the formulations revealed that diffusion is the predominant mechanism of drug and release follows Korsemeyer- peppas diffusion model.
197-211
134
Novel polymers for mucoadhesive drug delivery
Abdul Malik, Nayyar Parvez, Pramod Kumar Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of current article focuses on polymers used in mucoadhesive drug delivery system. The term “mucoadhesive” is defined as the “attachment of drug elongated with asuitable carrier like natural or synthetic polymer to mucus and/or an epithelial surface”. It is a popular novel drug delivery system because relatively permeable of mucous membranes, and mucus have higher blood flow therefore allowing rapidly uptake of a drug into the systemic circulation. It avoid the first pass metabolism. Mucoadhesive polymers are used in various dosage forms to obtained systemic delivery of therapeutics agent through the different mucosa. The dosage forms which involve in mucoadhesive drug delivery system are tablets, semisolids patches, powders, tapes and films. The mucoadhesive polymers which are used in various dosage form are PEG, Tragacanth, Guargum, HPMC, MC, sodiumCMC, CMC and Sodium alginate etc. and having mucoadhesive property. The ideal characteristics of a mucoadhesive polymer matrix is to adhere rapidly to the mucosal layer without founding any change in the physical property of the delivery matrix. The matrix have minimum interference to the release of the therapeutic agent and should be biodegradable without producing any toxic byproducts. The polymer matrix have a capability to inhibit the enzymes which is present at the delivery site and enhance the penetration of the therapeutics agent.The objective of this reviewarticle is to design improved drug delivery systems and to study about the novel mucoadhesive polymers used in mucoadhesive drug delivery system.
212-220
135
Development and validation of rp-hplc method for the estimation of fingolimod in bulk and tablet dosage form
J. Raghuram and N. Appalaraju
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, precise, rapid and accurate reverse phase HPLC method was developed for the estimation of Fingolimod in tablet dosage form.ZobraxEclipseXDB-C18, 150x4.6 mm 5 μm partical size, with mobile phase consisting of water: acetonitrile in the ratio of 60:40 v/v was used. The flow rate was 0.8 ml/min and the effluents were monitored at 215 nm. The retention time& Recovery time was 20.0min&3.273. The detector response was linear in the concentration of 60-360 mcg/ml. The respective linear regression equation being Y= 41219.363x+65555.8. The limit of detection and limit of quantification was 0.15mcg and 0.45mcg/ml respectively. The percentage assay of Fingolimod was 99.72 %. The method was validated by determining its accuracy, precision and system suitability. The results of the study showed that the proposed RP-HPLC method is simple, rapid, precise and accurate, which is useful for the routine determination of Fingolimod in bulk drug and in its pharmaceutical dosage form.
221-225
136
Formulation and evaluation of polyherbal formulation as hair colorant
Ealumalai Vadivel and Yeshwant T. Kandolkar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Herbal cosmetics formulated by using various coloring ingredients as the base, in which one or more coloring ingredients are used to provide defined cosmetic benefits, are termed as “Herbal Cosmetics”. The need of herbal medicines is increasing rapidly due to their lack of side effects. Herbal drugs constitute a major part in all the traditional systems of medicine. Hence, an attempt has been made to review the use of natural products obtained from plant sources to replace the synthetic dyes. The composition of natural hair dye consisting of amla, bhringraj, henna, mandara, indigo, ratanjot , sariva, curry leaves and methi seed powders are blended with urea and the mixture is soaked to obtain a dye. The plant samples have been standardized by physico-chemical parameters such as total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and extractive value of different solvents. The formulated hair dye have been characterized by pH, microscopic study, effect of sunlight, effect of detergent, effect of three time coating and patch test. Result of the present studies shows that out of 17 hair colorant formulations four formulations, F2, IF2, BAF3 and KM2 have better activity. The studies have also shown that there is no hair damage or scalp irritation on dyeing the human hair. Hence this formulation proves to be a key alternative for modern synthetic hair dyes.
226-233
137
Multi unit drug delivery system. A brief review of pelletization technique
Anwar Khan*, Rishabha Malviya, Pramod K Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
At present time pharmaceutical research and development showing its interest on drug delivery. Which enhances therapeutic action while minimizing side effect. Use of multi-particulate is the gift of that research which achieve delayed or controlled release with low risk of dose dumping, flexibility of blending to attain different release pattern as well as reproducible and short gastric residence time. Pelletization is a novel approach for the formation of spherical beads or pellets from fine powder or blend in order to develop site specific drug delivery system. Different techniques of pelletization such as suspension/solution layering, extrusion and spheronisation, cryopelletization etc. can be used for the formation of multi particulate drug delivery system. In order to provide extended or delayed release formulation, thus extending the frontier of future pharmaceutical development.
234-237
138
Effects of cyanoacrylate adhesives and their occupational hazards in prosthodontics - A review~
N. Nilofer Nisha, Jafar Abdulla Mohamed Usman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The application of cyanoacrylate adhesives in dentistry has served a boon for many dentists, dental students and dental technicians. Cyanoacrylates have been widely used in various applications in dentistry particularly in the field of Prosthodontics as a repair adhesive and sealing glue. Its biocompatibility and histotoxicity has increased concerns regarding its potential toxic nature among the dental personals. The working room or area should be maintained with more levels of relative humidity, sufficient room airflow and appropriate ventilation to minimize the dental professionals and technicians from exposing to the volatile toxicity of cyanoacrylate adhesives. This article discusses the potential occupational hazard due to cyanoacrylates in the field of Prosthodontics.
238-240
139
Studies on formulation development of gastroretentive drug delivery system for pioglitazone hydrochloride
Swetha Duggi , Narendra Chary T
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pioglitazone HCl is used for the management of type-2 diabetes. It is an absorption window limited drug, whose solubility decreases with increase in the pH and has a short half life of 3-7 h. Here an attempt is made to developed the floating matrix tablets, which design in way that after oral administration the GI resistant time is prolonged and thus to give sustained action with increase in the bioavailability of the drug. Pioglitazone HCl showed maximum absorption at wavelength 269 nm in 0.1N HCl. various formulations were developed by using release rate controlling and gel forming polymers like HPMC, Xanthan gum,guar gum & combinations by direct compression method with the incorporation of sodium bicarbonate as gas generating agent. The prepared tablets were characteristics by drug content, floating property, swelling and in vitro dissolution test using USP dissolution test apparatus Type – II (paddle method) in dissolution medium of 0.1 N HCl. The in vitro dissolution results of all tablets were computed by using dissolution software. The prepared tablets were found to be good hardness, diameter, weight variation, thickness, friability drug content, floating property and in vitro drug release. Drugpolymer compatibility studies by FTIR gave conformation about drug purity and showed no interaction between drug and selected polymers. All the formulations had floating lag time below 4 minutes and constantly floated on dissolution medium for more than 12 h. Swelling studies indicated significant water uptake and contributed in drug release. From among all the developed formulations, as F2 prolonged the drug release (95.86 %) for longer period of time (12 hrs.); they were selected as best formulations. Thus, selected formulations satisfied floating time, swelling index and in vitro drug release profile requirements for a floating drug delivery system.Tablets of Pioglitazone HCl prepared with HPMC K4M, HPMC 15M,HPMC K100M,Xanthan gum,Guar gum and Chitosan were found to be acceptable floating property, water uptake and in vitro drug release.
241-254
140
Qsar modeling studies on 2,4-thiazolidinediones as potential α-glucosidase inhibitors
Ch. Prasad, Bhavani Boddeda, S. Kottiah and A. Vasudeva Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A linear quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model is presented for modeling and predicting the α- glucosidase inhibitory activity. The model was produced by using the multiple linear regression (MLR) technique on a twenty one compound database that consists of newly discovered 2,4-thiazolidinediones. The major conclusion of this study is that molecular weight, wiener index, andrews affinity and polar surface area affect significantly the α- glucosidase inhibitory activity by 2,4-thiazolidinediones. The selected QSAR descriptors serve as a primary guidance for the design of novel and selective α-glucosidase inhibitors.
255-259
141
A review on bio-availability enhancement techniques of poorly soluble drug
Anwar Khan, Rishabha Malviya, Pramod K Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Solubility is the process of dissolution of solid in liquid phase to give a homogenous system and is one of the important parameter to achieve desired concentration of drug in systemic circulation for pharmacological response. Dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs is rate limiting step for its bioavailability so increase in bioavailability is the major challenging task in drug development. Because only 8% of new drug candidates have both high solubility and permeability. For BCS class II drugs, enhancement of Solubility and hence bioavailability is important parameter before formulation of dosage form. Hydrophobic drugs often require high doses in order to reach therapeutic plasma concentrations after oral administration. Therapeutic effectiveness of a drug depends upon the bioavailability and ultimately upon the solubility of drug molecules. Various techniques are used for the improvement of the aqueous solubility, dissolution rate, and bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs include size reduction, chemical modification, pH adjustment, solid dispersion, complexation, co‐solvency, hydrotropy etc. the main emphasis of review article is to describe the techniques of solubilisation for the attainment of effective absorption with improved bioavailability.
260-266
142
Analytical method development and validation of simultaneous estimation of dosulepin and methylcobalamin in tablet dosage form by RP-HPLC
Aruna P, A. Ajitha, V. Uma Maheshwar Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A sensitive, selective and precise high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Dosulepin and Methylcobalamin in tablet dosage form. The method employed waters xterra C8 column (150 x 4.6 mm , 5 μm particle size) as the stationary phase while Acetonitrile, 0.1 M H3PO4 (70:30,v/v) was used as mobile phase. The Retention time of Dosulepin and Methylcobalamin were observed to be 1.89and 2.85 minutes, respectively. The flow rate was found to be 1ml/min and effluents were monitored at 222 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed a good linear relationship for Dosulepin and Methylcobalamin over a concentration range of 150-450 μg/ml and 3-9 μg/ml respectively with correlation co-efficient of 0.999 for Dosulepin and 0.999 for methylcobalamin. The LOQ was found to be 9.23 and 9.57 μg/ml respectively for Dosulepin and Methylcobalamin. The method was validated as per ICH guideline and it was found to be accurate, precise and robust. Marketed formulation was analyzed successfully
267-274
143
A review on controlled drug delivery system
A Hariom Prakash Rao, V.T. Iswariya , V Lokeswara Babu and A Srinivasa Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Controlled-release systems are used to control the plasma concentration of the drug after administration by various possible routes. These are the systems in which the drug is released in a predetermined pattern over a fixed period of time. The release kinetics is usually zero-order. Ideally the release rate from the dosage form should be the ratedetermining step for the absorption of the drug and in fact for the drug concentration in the plasma and target site. The controlled release formulations will reduces the dosing frequency required for daily. This article provides an ideal requirements, advantages, properties and different approaches involved in the development of controlled release formulations for the better delivery of drugs.
275-282
144
Preparation of 5-florouracil microspheres for colonic drug delivery
Sangeeta Mohanty, Amit kumar Panigrahi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
5-Fluorouracil is widely used anticancer drug,which are effective during the S-phase of cellcycle. Since It has poor bioavailability so targeting of 5-Fluorouracil at site of action is of great beneficial. Attempt has been made to develop a stable microparticulate formulation of 5-Fluorouracil to be administered orally to target colon. Here, chitosan was chosen as polymer. Chitosan microspheres were coated with eudragit s-100.The Cross linked chitosan microspheres containing 5-Fluorouracil were prepared by emulsification method using glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent and characterized for %Yield, ParticleSize, Surface properties and Morphology, Entrapment Efficiency and DSC. InVitro release studies of coated and uncoated chitosan microspheres was performed in pH progression medium at 37 ± 0.5 0C ,in simulated gastric fluid, simulated intestinal fluid. As compared to chitosan microspheres, coated microspheres(1: 5 ) showed about 7.88% drug release after 6 hours and rest of drug releases upto 24 hours. When the core:coat ratio is 1: 10 , release does not occur. Hence, we can conclude that eudragit coated chitosan microspheres prevents drug release in stomach, small intestine, targets colon only; thus avoiding systemic side-effects associated with 5-Fluorouracil.
283-296
145
Formulation and evaluation of bilayered floating tablets of cefuroxime axetil
K. Geetha, D. Prasad, M. Sudhakar, M. Yasmin Begum
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Study aims to design a Gastro retentive Drug Delivery System of Cefuroxime axetil (CA). CA is a broad spectrum beta lactam type of antibiotic. More specifically, it is a second-generation cephalosporin. CA has site specific absorption from upper gastro intestinal tract and in intestine it undergoes hydrolysis to cefuroxime having poor absorption. Unabsorbed drug causes high concentration of antibiotic entering into colon and contributes to side effects colitis. Therefore a gastro-retentive drug delivery system is required to ensure controlled drug delivery within drug absorbable region. Bilayer tablet, each layer containing half the dose of the drug was formulated with Immediate Release Layer (IRL) and Floating Matrix Layer (FML). The present research describes formulation of bilayered floating tablets of Cefuroxime axetil using HPMC polymers like HPMC K4M, HPMC K15M, HPMC K100M and Sodium alginate. All formulations showed acceptable specifications for weight variation, thickness, hardness and friability. The formulations containing HPMC K4M, HPMC K15M provides a better option for Controlled release than HPMC K100M and Sodium alginate
297-306
146
ASSOCIATION OF INHALED CORTICOSTEROIDS AND OSTEOPOROSIS: ALBERTA PHARMACISTS’ AWARENESS
Hoan Linh Banh, Andrew Cave
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is the standard maintenance therapy in the management of asthma and moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is well recognized that systemic corticosteroid therapy is a risk factor for osteoporosis. There is a dose related increase in risk of fracture with ICS use and an inverse relationship between bone mineral density and duration and cumulative dose of ICS. The objective of the study is to assess Alberta pharmacists’ awareness of ICS and its association with osteoporosis. An online survey was created through Google Document® . The URL link to the survey along with a letter of information was circulated to various pharmacy websites. Total of 104 pharmacists completed the survey. Only 60% of the pharmacists are aware of the risk of osteoporosis associated with high dose ICS (>2 mg inhaled beclomethasone/day or equivalent). Less than 50% of the pharmacists would recommend calcium and vitamin D to patients who are receiving long-term high dose ICS. Pharmacists are the most accessible health care providers and can play a pivotal role in identifying patients on ICS who are at risk of osteoporosis. More education is needed for pharmacists to raise the awareness of the association of ICS with osteoporosis.
1-4
147
COMMUNITY PHARMACISTS INTERVENTION: How a 6-episode of one-on-one intervention changed patients’ attitudes towards their medication and disease self-management
Hana Morrissey, Patrick Ball, David Jackson, Louis Pilloto
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Adherence to medication is reported to be <33%. Most people who suffer chronic conditions require pharmacological intervention; they collect prescription repeats every month creating an opportunity for further regular intervention by the community pharmacist. to investigate if pharmacist intervention in Chronic Disease Management in rural Australia could improve patients’ outcomes through better monitoring of disease markers, selfmanagement skills and medication adherence. This project was a pilot before and after, pragmatic study, which was designed as a foundation to support future definitive studies. The data was analysed in ASReml-R™ using linear mixed models or generalised linear mixed models. Using modified Health Education Impact Questionnaires™, there was 29.65% improvement in patients’ total score from pre and post clinical intervention. Patient education and ongoing interaction between patients and pharmacists enforced the importance of monitoring improving patients’ knowledge and self-management commitment. The use of prescription repeat collections as an opportunity to reinforce disease management messages deserves further investigation.
5-13
148
KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE TOWARDS DISCARDING UNWANTED HOUSEHOLD MEDICINES AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN WESTERN REGION, KSA
Qasem M. A. Abdallah, Mahmoud S. M. Al-Haddad, Omar H. M. Al-Khathami, Omar H. H. Al-Kherish, Khaled M. T. Al-Marri, Mohammaed F. K. Al-Matani, Amjad M. N. Al-Rashed
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Impropriate disposal of medicines can lead to increase security, health and environmental risks. In this study, we evaluated the awareness and pattern of practice regarding drug disposal among university students in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia. A Cross-sectional research design using convenience sampling technique was used in this study. 1446 respondents successfully responded to this study.More than Three quarter (76.9%) of which have had the experience of discarding drugs. Discarding unwanted medicines via household waste baskets was the most popular method followed by disposing drugs via drainage. Only a quarter of respondents have previously received information about how to dispose medicines. Drug dosage form and amount of drug were important factors.Low awareness level of respondents and the lack of systems instructing the re-collection of unwanted household medicines may be the main reasons linked to theirrational method of drug disposal. Not failing the importance of awareness programs, introducing such drug-disposal systems would improve the outcomes.
14-21
149
PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF FICUS GLOMERATA EXTRACT AGAINST BENZO(A)PYRENE-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION ALTERATIONS AND DNA DAMAGE IN MALE MICE
Saleha Y. M. Alakilli
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ficus glomerata Roxb (Branches) is a rich source of phenolic compounds known to possess potential antioxidant activity offering numerous health benefits. The present study evaluated the protective effects of methanol extract of Ficus glomerata at two doses (FG250; 250 mg kg-1 and FG500; 500 mg kg-1 ) against benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induced gene expression changes and DNA damage in male mice. Fifty adult albino male mice allocated in five groups were used in this study. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) administration resulted in significant increase (P ≤ 0.01) in the gene expression of liver cancer-related genes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2B6, CD59, hTRET and P53) in hepatic tissues of male mice. In addition, (BaP) increased the rate of DNA damage in mice blood cells. Extract pretreatment restored genetic alteration parameters toward normalization. FR250 and FR500 decreased the gene expression alterations and rate of DNA damage induced by BaP in male mice. Extract pretreatment, 500 mg kg-1 , was more effective in reducing the genetic toxicity than the extract, 250 mg kg-1 . BaP exposure resulted in pronounced oxidative stress, and administration of Ficus glomerata extract offers significant liver and blood cells protection by inhibiting the changes of gene expression and damage of the DNA through scavenging free radicals.
22-32
150
PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NAPROXEN LOADED MICROEMULSION FORMULATIONS FOR DERMAL APPLICATION
Neslihan Ustundag-Okur, Mehmet Ali Ege, H. Yeşim Karasulu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ficus glomerata Roxb (Branches) is a rich source of phenolic compounds known to possess potential antioxidant activity offering numerous health benefits. The present study evaluated the protective effects of methanol extract of Ficus glomerata at two doses (FG250; 250 mg kg-1 and FG500; 500 mg kg-1 ) against benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induced gene expression changes and DNA damage in male mice. Fifty adult albino male mice allocated in five groups were used in this study. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) administration resulted in significant increase (P ≤ 0.01) in the gene expression of liver cancer-related genes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2B6, CD59, hTRET and P53) in hepatic tissues of male mice. In addition, (BaP) increased the rate of DNA damage in mice blood cells. Extract pretreatment restored genetic alteration parameters toward normalization. FR250 and FR500 decreased the gene expression alterations and rate of DNA damage induced by BaP in male mice. Extract pretreatment, 500 mg kg-1 , was more effective in reducing the genetic toxicity than the extract, 250 mg kg-1 . BaP exposure resulted in pronounced oxidative stress, and administration of Ficus glomerata extract offers significant liver and blood cells protection by inhibiting the changes of gene expression and damage of the DNA through scavenging free radicals.
33-42
151
PERCEPTION, INTEREST, AND BARRIERS TOWARD CONTINUING PHARMACY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM AT WOMAN’S HOSPITAL IN QATAR
Doua AlSaad, Samah ElSalem, Palli Abdulrouf, Afif Ahmed Ali, Moza AlHail
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study is to assess perception, interest, and barriers toward continuing pharmacy development (CPD) at Women\'s Hospital (WH) in Qatar. A web-based anonymous survey was conducted. Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians were included. Survey questions were divided into four sections: socio-demographics, perception about CPD program, interest toward CPD topics, and barriers to attend CPD program. Perception of participants revealed that > 90% agreed the sessions are valuable, and help develop in daily practice and achieve their CPD goals. The highest rated reason to attend CPD sessions was the topic is interesting, and helps in practice (85%), while patient education was the highest rated topic participants interested in (73%). The main barrier to attend CPD sessions was lack of time and busyness of pharmacy (76%). Pharmacy staff at WH has good perception and interest toward CPD sessions. CPD program planners shall work on resolving identified barriers to maximize program benefits.
43-49
152
TAWAM HOSPITAL IN-PATIENT GLYCEMIC CONTROL: IT’S TIME TO STOP SLIDING
Basma Beiram
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the present work is to develop best practice for enabling targeted glycemic control in the medical and surgical setting considering the multiple factors contributing to hypo/hyperglycemia. A randomized trial comparing the safety and efficacy of a basal-bolus (BB) insulin regimen with glargine insulin once daily and aspart insulin before meals (n = 60) to sliding scale regular insulin (SSI) with regular insulin four times daily (n = 90) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted to the medical and general surgery ward. Outcomes included differences in daily blood glucose, hospital length of stay and hypoglycemia/hyperglycemia occurrences. There was a 27% and 15% reduction in the average length of stay in the medical and surgical wards respectively post implementation of new regimen. Secondly 68% and 902% reductions in the hypoglycemic episodes per 100 patient days in the medical and surgical ward respectively post implementation of the new regimen. Basal-bolus treatment with glargine insulin once daily plus aspart insulin before meals improved glycemic control and reduced hospital complications compared with SSI in general surgery patients. Our study indicates that a basal-bolus insulin regimen is preferred over SSI in the hospital management of medical and surgery patients with type 2 diabetes.
50-56
153
DETOXIFIED JATROPHA CURCAS KERNEL MEAL IMPACT AGAINST BENZENE-INDUCED GENETIC TOXICITY IN MALE RATS
Sabah A. A. Linjawi, Wagdy K. B. Khalil, Lamia M. Salem
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pollution by crude oil is wide spread and a common problem, and particularly endemic in countries whose economies are dependent on the oil industry. Such pollution arises either accidentally or operationally wherever oil is produced, transported, stored, processed or used. Benzene contamination of soil may also occur due to oil production facilities and coastal refineries. This problem arises because most of petrochemicals including benzene and its derivatives are carcinogens and mutagens with the capacity to affect both the structural integrity of DNA and the fidelity of its biologic expression. Jatropha curcas (L.) is a multipurpose and drought resistant tree, widespread throughout the tropics and subtropics. Its seeds are rich in oil and protein. J. curcas can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. Therefore, the objective of this work is to evaluate protective effect of detoxified J. curcas kernel meal (DJKM) against benzene-induced clastogenicity in male rats. Eighty adult male rats were allocated in several groups treated with benzene and/or several concentration of DJKM. The results revealed that low, medium and high doses of DJKM did not increase the DNA fragmentation, incidence of MnPCEs and alterations in the stress related genes (Hsp70a, MT and CYP450 genes) compared with benzene induced high levels of these parameters. The protection effects of DJKM on the genetic toxicity were attributed to its imact on the glutathione peroxidase activity which was increased significantly with DJKM treatment compared to benzene exposure.
57-66
154
PUBLIC PREFERENCES OF WEIGHT LOSS METHODS AND COMMUNITY PHARMACISTS’ ASSISTANCE IN WEIGHT MANAGEMENT
Ezlina Usir, Julia Jalaludin
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pollution by crude oil is wide spread and a common problem, and particularly endemic in countries whose economies are dependent on the oil industry. Such pollution arises either accidentally or operationally wherever oil is produced, transported, stored, processed or used. Benzene contamination of soil may also occur due to oil production facilities and coastal refineries. This problem arises because most of petrochemicals including benzene and its derivatives are carcinogens and mutagens with the capacity to affect both the structural integrity of DNA and the fidelity of its biologic expression. Jatropha curcas (L.) is a multipurpose and drought resistant tree, widespread throughout the tropics and subtropics. Its seeds are rich in oil and protein. J. curcas can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. Therefore, the objective of this work is to evaluate protective effect of detoxified J. curcas kernel meal (DJKM) against benzene-induced clastogenicity in male rats. Eighty adult male rats were allocated in several groups treated with benzene and/or several concentration of DJKM. The results revealed that low, medium and high doses of DJKM did not increase the DNA fragmentation, incidence of MnPCEs and alterations in the stress related genes (Hsp70a, MT and CYP450 genes) compared with benzene induced high levels of these parameters. The protection effects of DJKM on the genetic toxicity were attributed to its imact on the glutathione peroxidase activity which was increased significantly with DJKM treatment compared to benzene exposure.
67-73
155
ENTERAL FEEDING AND FLUOROQUINOLONES
Rania Tarek Malatani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
“When the gut works, use it” is a common expression used to encourage the use of the enteral route for nutrition over the parenteral route in hospitalized patients. The same access device is often used to deliver both the enteral formula and medications without regard to the administration site (gastric versus small bowel). Changes in drug response as well as complications of drug administration may result from delivering enteral nutrition and medication together through the same tube. Currently, there is no standard of practice regarding the administration of specific medications when patients are receiving tube feeding, and if the feeding should be held for a period of time before and after drug administration. This report provides a general review regarding interactions between enteral feeding and the fluoroquinolones antibiotic class.
74-77
156
PREDICTORS OF PHYSICIANS ACCEPTANCE OF CLINICAL PHARMACY RECOMMENDATIONS AT A MILITARY HOSPITAL IN THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Loai M. Saadah, Yazied M Nazzal, Shady I. Abdelmaksoud, Mary K. Nazzal, Eyad L. Abu Sabiha, Ayesha A. Al Qasemi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the present work is to study the effect of a number of factors on acceptance by clinicians for clinical pharmacy recommendations. Clinical Pharmacy team documented their recommendations since June 2010 till March 2013 in a dedicated excel file. We performed univariate analyses to determine the significance of certain variables in predicting physician’s acceptance of recommendations made in 2011. Out of a total 8,451 recommendations documented in our database, 3,871 (45.3%) were made in 2011. Only 1982 (51.2 %) recommendations were fully documented with clinical pharmacist identification and therefore were available for analysis. Overall physician acceptance rate was 81.7%. Factors resulting in a higher acceptance were clinical pharmacy experience of more than 3 years (33% vs. 21%, P < 0.0001), board certification (46% vs. 37%, P = 0.002), doctor of pharmacy degree (33% vs. 21%, P < 0.0001), and post-bachelor professional education (42% vs. 32%, P = 0.001). Specialties associated with a significantly higher acceptance were critical care (21% vs. 14%, 0.002), pediatrics (12% vs. 7%, P = 0.009) and oncology (19% vs. 6%, P < 0.0001). Recommendations to stop medications were significantly more likely to be accepted (25% vs. 20%, P = 0.021). Finally, recommendations concerning antiinfectives were more likely to be accepted (26% vs. 18%, P = 0.002). Clinicians acceptance of clinical pharmacy recommendations can be predicted by variables of education, experience, specialty, medication class and type of recommendation. We recommend investing more in clinical pharmacy in the areas of critical care, pediatrics, oncology, and infectious diseases.
78-85
157
A METAANALYSIS OF TAXANES, ANTITUMOR ANTIBIOTICS AND PLATINUM CONTAINING CHEMOTHERAPY REGIMENS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF METASTATIC BREAST CANCER
Soumadip Das, Rajat Rana, Aravinda Swami, Doreen Pon, C K Dhanapal, Sandra Leal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of present work is to compare Taxanes, antitumor antibiotics and platinum containing chemotherapy regimens in the management of metastatic breast cancer in terms of overall survival, objective response rate and time to progression. Cochrane Breast Cancer Group specialized register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and WHO International Clinical Registry platform were searched using the appropriate search strategy Selection criteria. Randomised trials comparing the Taxanes, antitumor antibiotics and platinum containing chemotherapy for either recurrent or newly diagnosed women with Metastatic Breast Cancer were included. Data were collected from published trials. Studies were assessed for eligibility and quality, and data were extracted by two independent reviewers. Hazard Ratios (HRs) were derived from time-to-event outcomes where possible, and a fixed effect model was used for meta-analysis. Response rates were analysed as dichotomous variables. 35 trials were included with sample size of 16272 patients with Advanced Metastatic Breast Cancer treated with either Antitumor Antibiotics or Platinum Regimens or Taxanes. The observed overall survival derived for a sample size of 2710 exposed to chemotherapy where as a comparator group of 2591 exposed other therapies. The overall risk ratio was 0.98(M-H, fixed, 95% CI; 0.95 to 1.01). Time to Progression for a sample size of 2613 exposed to chemotherapy in comparison to the comparator group of 2370 exposed to other therapies. The overall risk ratio was 1.01(M-H, fixed, 95% CI; 0.98 to 1.03). Tumor Response Rate derived for a sample size of 3037 exposed to chemotherapy in comparison to the comparator group of 2951 exposed to other therapies. The overall risk ratio was 1.15(M-H, fixed, 95% CI; 1.08 to 1.22). This study confirms several benefits of chemotherapy especially Taxanes, antitumor antibiotics and platinum regimen in metastatic breast cancer, but the selection of drug therapy must be based upon the presentation of the case.
86-94
158
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UV SPECTROSCOPIC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF KETOCONAZOLE IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
Olga Popovska, Zoran Kavrakovski, Vesna Rafajlovska
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A UV spectroscopic method which is simple, accurate and rapid is developed for the determination of ketoconazole in pharmaceutical formulations as active substance in tablets, shampoos and cream. The absorption maxima of ketoconazole solutions in methanol are recorded at 244 nm and 296 nm. The linearity for ketoconazole in methanol with correlation coefficient values higher than 0.999 is found in the range of 0.005–0.025 mg/ml at 244 nm, R 2 = 0.9996 and 0.05–0.25 mg/ml at 296 nm, R 2 = 0.9996. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) accounts to 0.000597 mg/ml and 0.00181 mg/ml at 244 nm and 0.00647 mg/ml and 0.01963 mg/ml at 296 nm, respectively. The intra– and inter–day assay is within 2% relative standard deviation. The obtained results for tablets, cream and shampoos are in good agreement with their respective product, label claims. The developed method can be successfully applied for the purpose routine analysis of ketoconazole in pharmaceutical formulations.
95-101
159
PHARMACOKINETIC EVALUATION OF AMOXICILLIN ALONE AND SIMULTANEOUS ADMINISTRATION OF ANTACID
Anab Fatima, Syed Baqir Naqvi, Iyad Naeem Mohammed, Shaheen Perveen, Iqbal Nasiri and Sheikh Abdul Khaliq
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Various antibiotics whenever given orally along with antacid show significant pharmacokinetic interactions. During the present single dose, cross over, randomized study pharmacokinetic interaction between oral combination of amino penicillin i.e. 250 mg amoxicillin with an antacid(10 ml) containing aluminium, magnesium hydroxide and simethicone were evaluated. The study was conducted on ten healthy male volunteers. The study was performed on Pakistani population and data obtained was used to compare pharmacokinetic parameters of amoxicillin alone and with simultaneous administration of antacid in an open one compartmental model. Initially Physico-chemical test were performed for amoxicillin to check the quality of product. Plasma concentrations of amoxicillin were determined by validated high performance liquid chromatography techniques and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated for both treatments. The analysis showed significant difference(P< 0.05,SPSS 16.0) when amoxicillin used along with antacid in various pharmacokinetic parameters. The values of mean Cmax of amoxicillin alone and with antacid found to be 8.88±0.09 and 7.84 ± 0.06 µg/ml at Tmax of 2 ±0.00 hrs and 3 ± 0.00 hrs with the values of AUC0-t(AUClast) and AUC 0-∞ were 33.33±0.70 and 37.89±0.70 alone and 36.25±0.43 and 41.64±1.15mg/ml.hr with antacid. Likewise significant difference in other pharmacokinetic parameters was observed between treatment groups (the values of Clearance(CL),Vd, absorption, distribution and elimination rate constants, MRT and AUMC).No serious adverse event observed during study period. The study demonstrated that oral absorption of amoxicillin may be affected by the presence of antacid therefore it must be recommended to avoid the combination of amoxicillin and antacid or to make a dose adjustment or close monitoring of patients.
102-107
160
REFORMING SUPPORTIVE SUPERVISION OF MEDICINES MANAGEMENT WITH AN AUDIT TOOL IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE FACILITIES: A CASE STUDY OF BAHI DISTRICT, TANZANIA
Ntuli Kapologwe, Amani Thomas Mori, Fiona Chilunda, Menoris Meshack, Albino Kalolo, Karin Wiedenmayer
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Stock-out of essential medicines is a common problem in primary health facilities of Tanzania. Alternative approaches such as the use of auditing tools have been proposed in order to strengthen the generally weak supportive supervision in medicines management. A cross-sectional study was conducted in ten primary health facilities in Bahi District in Dodoma region-Tanzania between October and December, 2013. Standardized auditing tools and indicators were used to assess the availability of ten essential tracer medicines, timeliness and correctness of ordering, record keeping, documentation and financial management. Analysis was done by using MS Excel spreadsheet (Microsoft Excel® , Microsoft Corporation). Mean availability of tracer medicines was 84%. Rapid Diagnostic Tests for malaria, artemether-lumefantrine, amoxicillin syrup and amoxicillin capsules were mostly found to be out of stock. Nine of the ten facilities submitted their ordering forms on time but only six of the ten facilities filled their ordering forms correctly. In five facilities, financial records did not balance with bank statements and receipt books. Medicines audits represent a feasible approach to strengthen medicines management at primary health facilities. The study validated standardized and simple tools that can be used to reform routine supportive supervision methodology.
108-114
161
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF REVERSE PHASE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF TIROFIBAN IN SERUM
Marija Darkovska Serafimovska, Emilija Janevik-Ivanovska, Zorica Arsova-Sarafinovska, Icko Djorgoski, Nenad Ugresic
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A specific, sensitive and rapid RP-HPLC method has been developed for the determination of Tirofiban in serum. The chromatographic separation was realized using reverse phase LiChrospher® 100 RP-18 column (4.0 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm) and mobile phase consisting the mixture of 0.1 M KH2PO4 (pH 5.2, adjusted with 1.0 N sodium hydroxide solution) and acetonitrile, with the ratio of 70:30% (v/v) and flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The detection was carried out at 274 nm. The response was linear over the range of 0.03 – 0.18 mgmL-1 in mobile phase and serum samples. The limit of detection (LOD) for Tirofiban was 1.84, 13.8 and 14.6 μg mL-1 in methanol, spiked rat serum and spiked human serum, respectively. The described method can be quickly and routinely applied, without any interference from endogenous substances, for therapeutic monitoring of levels of Tirofiban in the serum samples.
115-120
162
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF N-HEXANE EXTRACT OF GARCINIA KOLA HECKEL [BITTER KOLA] SEED
Uzondu Akueyinwa Lovet Esther, Utoh-Nedosa Uchechukwu Anastasia and Anowi Chinedu Fredrick
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The patented flavonoid extract of Garcinia kola seeds for the treatment of liver disorders has been shown to have anti-oxidant and scavenging properties. This study, therefore, evaluated the phytochemical composition of Garcinia kola seed and antimicrobial activity of the N-hexane extract of Garcinia kola seed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Staphylococcus aureus; Bacillus subtilis; Escherichia coli; Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans. The zones of inhibition of the N-hexane extract concentrations (100mg, 50mg and 25mg) against the growth of the organisms were determined by the cup-plate agar method. A Marcfarland Standard of each of the bacteria was used to seed sterile molten nutrient agar medium maintained at 450 C and Sabourand dextrose agar plate was seeded with Candida albicans. Results of phytochemical screening tests showed that Garcinia kola seed powder contained starch, protein, glycosides, flavonoids, tannin, saponins, sterols and triterpenoids. The antibacterial activity of 100mg extract was highest and was in the order: action on Bacillus subtilis > Pseudomonas aeruginosae >Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae with zones of inhibition of 10.66mm, 9.66mm, 9mm, 9mm, respectively while that of the 50mg concentration was of the order: Bacillus subtilis> Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus >> Krebsiella pneumoniae with zones of inhibition of 8.33mm, 8. 33mm, 8.33mm and 4.66mm, respectively. The 100mg, 50mg and 25mg concentrations of the extract were all poorly inhibitory to Candida albicans and were resisted by Eshcerichia coli. The triterpenoids found in the extract (possibly in conjunction with the glycosides) are suggested to be responsible for the anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity of the N-hexane extract of Garcina kola seed obtained in this study.
121-127
163
THE IN VITRO PHARMACEUTICAL EQUIVALENCE STUDIES OF LOSARTAN TABLETS OF DIFFERENT MANUFACTURERS AVAILABLE IN BANGLADESH
Rehana Begum, Md. Zakir Sultan, Asma Rahman, Md. Akter Hossain and Md. Shah Amran
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The study was aimed to assess the pharmaceutical equivalence of some losartan potassium tablets of different manufacturers marketed in Bangladesh using in vitro dissolution study. The dissolution was carried out using the apparatus II according to USP guidelines. Other general quality assessment tests like hardness, friability, disintegration time were also determined. All brands complied with the official specification for hardness, friability and disintegration time. The dissolution profiles showed inter brand and intra brand variability. All samples attained more than 85% dissolution within 30 minutes. The results were subjected to statistical analysis to compare the dissolution profiles. A model independent approach of similarity factor (f2) was employed. The data indicated that only two brands may be used interchangeably.
128-132
164
HPLC PROFILING OF POLYPHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND FREE RADICAL ASSAY OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ANNONA RETICULATA GROWING IN BANGLADESH
Ismet Ara Jahan, Hemayet Hossain, Shaikh Emdadur Rahman, Shirin Sultana, Proity Nayeeb Akbar, Sabina Yeasmin, Tanzir Ahmed Khan, Md. Mahfuzur Rahman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study investigates the HPLC profiling of phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activities of Annona reticulata. Through HPLC assay, high levels of rutin hydrate (603.88 mg/100 g extract) and moderate amount of catechin, epicatechin, and p-coumeric acid were determined (99.00, 78.19, 85.38 mg/100 g extract, respectively). Some amount of vanillic acid, ellagic acid, and quercetin were also detected (19.80, 31.56, 8.83 mg/100 g extract, respectively). Antioxidant activity tests such as, ABTS radical scavenging activity, reducing power, total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and flavanoid content determination, were also performed. At 250 μg/ml, the percentage inhibition value of Annona reticulata for ABTS scavenging was 99.93 μg/ml, and the maximum absorbance for reducing power assay was 0.195. The total antioxidant capacity, and phenolic and flavonoid contents were calculated to be 419.20 mg of ascorbic acid/g, 120.07 mg/g of gallic acid, and 90.05 mg/g of quercetin equivalent, respectively. These results suggested that polyphenolic compounds in Annona reticulata might be responsible for their antioxidant activities.
133-139
165
COMMUNICATION ON SANITARY CRISIS SITUATION: CASE OF PANDEMIC INFLUENZA A/H1N1 (2009)
Naoual Laaroussi, Soufiane Derraji, Abdelghani Drhimeur, Abdelaziz Barkia
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study deals with the theme of communication in a health crisis. It was conducted at the university hospital Ibn Sina in Rabat (CHIS) and was undertaken to describe the communication implemented for the benefit of health professionals before, during and after the crisis of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (2009). The problem started from an personal irritation and from a statement approved by stakeholders who are sharing the same irritation. The literature review has identified elements describing of the communication during the three phases of the evolution of a crisis on the scale of a pandemic which formed the conceptual framework used to develop different parts descriptive of this work. Data collection was conducted through a questionnaire survey and by semi-structured interviews. Quantitative Analysis of the results obtained clearly showed a lack in communication especially during the pre and post crisis phases. Nevertheless, several communication actions have been deployed by CHIS using even developed technological means (website…) to inform and educate its staff during the pandemic. However, the media were the main source of information for these health professionals. This leads to uncertainty and installation of rumors among them.
140-145
166
PRECLINICAL LIPID PROFILE STUDIES OF A CLASSICAL AYURVEDIC PREPARATION “ARJUNARISTA” AFTER CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION TO MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS
Marjana Khalil, Swagata Sarker Lopa, Md. Rakib Hasan, Md. Mahmudur Rahman Mamun, Paritosh Chakma, Arjyabrata Sarkar, Mohammed Motaher Hossain Chowdhury and M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Arjunarista (RJN) is an Ayurvedic preparation used as a traditional medicine in the south Asian countries for the treatment of cardiac diseases. We were eager to know the effect of chronic administration of RJN on the lipid profile test. To find out the effect of chronic administration of RJN on the lipid profile it was administered chronically to the male Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 40 ml/Kg. After 28 days of chronic administration of the RJN preparation, the following effects on the lipid profile were noted. There was a very highly significant increase in LDL Cholesterol (p=0.001). A very highly significant (0.001) decrease was noticed in triglyceride (TG), VLDL-C & HDL-C level; thus leading to a statistically very highly significant (p=0.001) increase in Cardiac Risk Ratio (CRR) (TC/HDL-C), Castelli’s Risk Index-II (CRI-II) (HDL-C/LDL-C) and Atherogenic Coefficient (AC) [(TC/HDL-C)/HDL-C)], but a statistically significant (p=0.033) decrease in case of Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) (log (TG/HDL-C)).
146-150
167
A REVIEW ON MEDICINAL PLANTS POSSESSING ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY
Muhammad kifayatullah, Mohd.Shahimi Mustafa, SatheeshbaboNatrajan, Arindam Das, MashoodAhamad Shah
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Medical plants have a wide range of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, immunological, antiviral, hypoglycemic, antifungal, antihepatic, antiphlogistic cardiovascular and central nervous effect especially in developing countries where resources are meager. About 80% of the remote area populations rely on the traditional medicines for their health. In literature approximately 500 plants with medicinal use are mentioned and around 800 plants have been used in indigenous systems of medicine. Because of side effect of synthetic drugs, there is an increasing interest towards natural product remedies with a basic approach towards the nature. The inflammatory drug from plants in present clinical use and their similar mechanism of action of medicinal components are preferred mainly due to low cost and lesser side effects. A number of side effects like gastrointestinal bleeding, mucosal erosion, hepatotoxicity, renal toxicity and nephropathy are associated with the use of Anti-inflammatory drugs. Cycoloxygenase-1 enzyme is present throughout the body and their functions is to maintains the  normal gastric mucosa and influencing renal blood flow and platelet aggregation and Cyclooxygenase-2 mediates inflammatory responses. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit both enzymes; inhibition of Cox2 is directly implicated in ameliorating inflammation, whereas the inhibition of cyclooxygenase - 1 causes adverse effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Meanwhile, in order to avoid from side effect, there are development and introduction of new antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents that compete with Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The use of natural remedies for the treatment of inflammatory and painful condition has long history starting with Ayurvedic treatment, extends to the European and other systems of traditional medicines. The present review focus on the some of the medicinal plants and their medicinal uses which have been shown experimentally. The profiles presented include information about the scientific name, family, methodology used and the degree of anti-inflammatory activity. WHO has pointed out this prevention of inflammatory diseases and its complications is not only a major challenge for the future, but essential if health for all is to attain. Therefore, in recent years, considerable attention has been directed towards identification of plants with anti-inflammatory activity that may be used for human consumption.
151-155
168
DRUG UTILIZATION PATTERN IN PREGNANCY- A SCOPE FOR IMPROVEMENT IN THE CURRENT PRESCRIBING PRACTICES
Md.Ilyaz, Dr.RoyaRozati, Fatima Hafeez, Fatima Tahniyath, Hasbeen Sultana, Md. Ashfaq Hussain
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">The purpose of this study is to evaluate the pattern of drug (prescription, OTC) utilization in pregnant women attending the Antenatal OPD at a Tertiary care hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 400 pregnant women attending Antenatal Out Patient Department. Out of 400 women majority (40%) were in the third trimester. The average drugs prescribed were 6.25 per prescription. Iron, Folic acid and Calcium were the main drug of choice during pregnancy, either alone or in combination with other drugs. Mostly, the drugs were of US FDA risk category B and none of the category X drugs was prescribed. Self medication was more in higher socio economic population. The study revealed prescribing behaviour to pregnant women under Antenatal care and determines the extent of prescription of drugs to provide optimum health care to improve the overall health of the mother and baby in community.</div>
156-167
169
PRECLINICAL ANEMIA PANEL STUDIES OF “ROHITAKARISTA” AFTER CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION TO MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS
K. N. Roy Niyati, Md. Rakib Hasan, Swagata Sarker Lopa, Ishtiaque Ahmed Chowdhury, Marjana Khalil, Maksud Hassan Binoy, M Salahuddin Bhuiya and M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Rohitakarista (RHT) is an Ayurvedic preparation used as a traditional medicine in the South Asian countries for the treatment of liver disorders, splenomegaly and other spleen related problems. The effect of chronic administration of Rohitakarista on the hematological parameters and serum iron profile was studied in this experiment. The acute toxicity test of RHT recorded no death, even at the highest dose of 80 ml/Kg body weight. The animals were divided into two groups. The first group was given RHT preparation at a dose of 40 ml/Kg body weight for 28 days while the second group that served as the control received water for the same period. After 28 days chronic administration of the RHT preparation to the male Sprague-Dawley rats the following hematological changes were noted. There were a statistically significant decrease in total red blood cell (RBC) count (p=0.03) and Hemoglobin content of the blood (p=0.04) whereas a highly significant decrease (p=0.01) in case of Hematocrit level of the blood. The erythrocytic indices such as mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and red cell volume distribution width (RDW) did not change significantly. A significant decrease was noted in case of serum Iron level (p=0.044) whereas a statistically significant (p=0.039) increase was noticed in serum Ferritin level.</div>
168-174
170
INCLUSION COMPLEXATION BY CYCLODEXTRIN : A NOVEL APPROACH TO IMPROVE SOLUBILITY AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF POORLY WATER SOLUBLE DRUG
Bhopate Sapana B, Dhole Shashikant N
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides which have recently been recognized as useful pharmaceutical excipients. The outer surface of these doughnut-shaped molecules is hydrophilic, but they possess an axial open cavity, which is of hydrophobic character and capable of including other apolar molecules in case of geometric compatibility. This is the essence of molecular encapsulation by inclusion complex formation. Low solubility compounds show dissolution rate limited absorption and hence poor absorption, distribution and target organ delivery. Improvement of aqueous solubility in such a case is valuable goal to improve therapeutic efficacy. Complexation with CDs by different methods like physical mixing, kneading, spray drying, freeze drying, etc., has been reported to enhance the solubility, dissolution rate and bioavability of poorly water soluble drugs. This review aims to assess the use of cyclodextrins as complexing agents to enhance the solubility of poorly soluble drugs and hence to resolve the many issues associated with developing and commercializing poorly water soluble drugs.&nbsp;</div>
175-188
171
PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND IN VITRO - IN VIVO EVALUATION OF GLICLAZIDE LOADED POLYMERIC MICROSPHERES
Mohammad Sofiqur Rahman, Amit Kumar Chaurasiya, Sazia Afreen Rahee, Ikramul Hasan, Mohammad Shahriar, Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan and Md. Selim Reza
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disease which involves both defective insulin secretion and peripheral insulin resistance. Despite the availability of other agents for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus gliclazide, is preferred in diabetic therapy because of its selective inhibitory activity towards pancreatic K+-ATP channels, antioxidant property, low incidence of producing severe hypoglycemia and other haemobiological effects. In the present study gliclazide microspheres were prepared using combination of Ethyl cellulose (20 cps), Methocel K4M, Methocel K15M and Eudragit-RSPO by solvent evaporation method. They were evaluated for their microencapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, and surface morphology, compatibility between drug and polymers and in vivo anti-diabetic study. The microspheres were almost spherical and slightly rough. The encapsulation efficiency was in the range of 68-92%. The drug release was also found to be slow which extended for almost 8 hours. FTIR and DSC analysis indicated the good compatibility between the dug and polymers. In vivo study of the gliclazide microspheres in albino rats demonstrated significant antidiabetic effect of gliclazide. In case of gliclazide microspheres the hypoglycemic effect obtained was for more than 10 hours whereas pure gliclazide produce antidiabetic effect for only 4-5 hours suggesting that microspheres of gliclazide may be a potential candidate for safe and effective controlled drug delivery for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.</div><div style="text-align: justify"><br /></div>
189-198
172
PLASMA PROTEIN BINDING STUDY OF METAXALONE WITH HUMAN PLASMA BY RP-HPLC
Kasture Veena S, Mhaske Sharayu D, Pathan Mallika A, Waman Nitesh, Ajage Rohit K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">The HPLC method was developed and validated to quantify Metaxalone binding with human plasma. Metaxalone was extracted from spiked plasma by simple protein precipitation with methanol. The seperation was performed on RP-C18 column with mobile phase of HPLC grade methanol at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The peak of Metaxalone was monitored at 272 nm with UV-VIS detector. &nbsp;The calibration curve was found to be linear at concentration range of 1-8 &micro;g/ml. Regression was found to be 0.995 . The interday and intraday precisions SD and RSD were 0.576 and 0.515, 1.851% and 1.648%. respectively. The &nbsp;recovery of Metaxalone from formulation was 96.97&plusmn;2.14% and from plasma was found to be 84%. Plasma protein binding was found to be 16.90&plusmn;1.67. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines.The simple, rapid, sensitive and reproducible HPLC method was developed for estimation of Metaxalone plasma protein binding.. The proposed method can be used for the pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies of Metaxalone.</div>
199-203
173
PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS: PRESCRIBING PATTERN IN PSYCHIATRY OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT OF A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL
Monalisa Jena, Swati Mishra, Suvendu Narayan Mishra, Sudhanshu Sekhar Mishra
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">The aim of present work is to study the pattern of prescription of psychotropic drugs in psychiatry outpatient department of a tertiary care teaching hospital. This was a cross-sectional observational study of one year in patients diagnosed according to DSM- IV criteria (4800 patients). Psychotic disorders 23.95 % were most common followed by Anxiety disorders. Prevalence of male patients was more than female. Prevalent age group in our study was more than 30 years of age. A total of 8338 drugs prescribed, among which 90.64% drugs were used orally and 9.35%drugs were given as parenteral formulations. &nbsp;Among antipsychotics, Olanzepine (28.98%) was prescribed more commonly followed by Risperidone, among antidepressants; Escitalopram (45.42%) was prescribed more frequently followed by Des &ndash; Venlaflaxine, the anxiolytic group; Clonazepam (39.50%) followed by Nitrazepam, among mood stabilizer;Valproate (55.91%) was used followed by Ox carbazepine, &nbsp;among anticholinergics; frequency of administration of Trihexyphenydyl (66.82%) was more than Procyclidine whereas among anticonvulsant; &nbsp;Sodium valproate(57.30%) followed by Ox carbazepine).</div>
204-208
174
ANTIPROTOZOAL AND MOLLUSCICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF PELARGONIUM GRAVEOLENS
Eman Al-Sayed , Hoda Abdel Hamid , Hanaa M. Abu El Einin, Eman Ali, Zeinab Fahmy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">In this study, the ethanol extract of Pelargonium graveolens (PGE) exhibited a strong molluscicidal against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, as well as a strong biocidal activity against the larval stages of Schistosoma &nbsp;mansoni (miracidia and cercariae). Treatment of the snails with the LC25 (59.7 ppm) of PGE induced a remarkable decrease in the protein levels in the snail tissues and hemolymph by 18 and 29%, respectively. A significant increase in the levels of the transaminases ALT (143%) and AST (161%) in the hemolymph was observed. Alkaline phosphatase was significantly increased by 124% in the snail tissues, while ACP was significantly increased by 76% in the hemolymph. PGE conferred the same inhibitory activity as metronidazole on Blastocystis hominis at a concentration of &nbsp;200 &micro;g/ml. The % mortality was 50, 60 and 70% after 24, 72 and 144 h incubation with PGE. The present study is the first report to provide evidence that PGE has a potent molluscicidal, biocidal and anti-Blastocystis effects.&nbsp;</div>
209-214
175
SHISHA SMOKING TREND: CURRENT SCENARIO IN KARACHIITES
Fakhsheena Anjum, Sadia Shakeel, Sana Ghayas, Wajiha Iffat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">The objective of the present work is to study the awareness and causes of shisha (waterpipe) smoking among adolescents in Karachi, Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the youth aged 16-25 years in various shisha bars/cafes of Karachi, based on convenient sampling. A total of 145 respondents i.e. males (n =107, 73.79%) and females (n = 38, 26.2%), participated in the study. More than 40% of the participants started shisha smoking at the age of 16-18 years and around 70% smoked shisha occasionally. One of the interesting and leading facts observed during study that were associated with initiation of shisha smoking were curiosity for shisha smoking (23%), followed by hanging out with friends (21%), pleasure-seeking (18%), peer pressure (13%) and boredom (12%). Among 145 participants who had ever smoked shisha, the majority (61.8%) were current smokers. Majority (59.43%) of respondents thought that shisha is less harmful than cigarettes and contains less nicotine than cigarettes (62.75%). More than 50% agreed that Shisha smoking is an efficient stress-coping strategy and their family knew about this habit. Shisha smoking is quite popular among Pakistani adolescents and awareness regarding its dangers is alarmingly low. Policy makers should play a key role in reducing the spread of shisha smoking.</div>
215-219
176
ION EXCHANGE RESIN AS A POTENTIAL TECHNOLOGY ON FOR TASTE MASKING: A REVIEW
Rupa Gupta, P.K Sharma, Ashish Arora, Rishabha malviya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Taste masking is a gold standard technology &nbsp;to mask the unpleasant taste of bitter active pharmaceutical ingredient. Therefore, it becomes a potential tool to improve the patient compliance &amp; drug bioavailability. Taste masking of bitter drug using Ion exchange resin (IER) is one of the popular approaches. Ion exchange resin are cross-linked synthetic high molecular weight insoluble organic polymer having ionizable functional group. As being high molecular weight, the resin are not absorbed by the body &amp; are therefore inert. In past few years, Ion exchange resin have since been extensively used in the drug delivery technologies included; site specific drug delivery system, Modified release dosage form, Fast dissolving tablet, clinical medicine &amp; Biomedical application etc. The purpose of writing this review to explore the importance &amp; application of Ion exchange resin because of their versatile properties as a taste masking technologies.</div>
220-225
177
PREVALENCE OF THYROID DYSFUNCTIONS AND DYSLIPIDEMIA AMONG PATIENTS WITH HIV INFECTION: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY FROM EASTERN INDIA
Dolonchampa Modak, Subhasish Kamal Guha, Bibhuti Saha and Sumi Mukhopadhyay
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions and dyslipidemia among patients living with HIV and to investigate the associated factors. This cross sectional comparative group study was conducted between Feb 2013 to Jan 2014 at a single centre. The enrolled subjects were grouped in three categories, Group A (n= 42) comprising of ART na&iuml;ve HIV patients at baseline, Group B (n= 48) comprising of HIV patients starting ART at baseline, Group C (n= 19) comprising of HIV patients at baseline and after 6 months follow-up. Study population included 109 (59 males, 50 females) HIV patients with a mean age of 35.59 &plusmn; 10.2 years. Taken together, in Group A and B, 20% had hypothyroidism. Further, 1 patient each from both the groups had hyperthyroidism. In the present study, 12 % of HIV patients with CD4&lt;200 Cells/mm3 had thyroid dysfunctions whereas 2% with CD4 200-350 Cells/mm3 and 7 % patients with CD4&gt;350 Cells/mm3 had abnormal thyroid profile. In the follow up Group C, 2 patients developed Thyroid dysfunctions after 6 months on ART. Additionally, hypertriglyceridemia was found prevalent among HIV subjects with hypothyroidism in all the groups. Current National AIDS Control organization (NACO), India guidelines doesn&rsquo;t recommend mandatory monitoring of thyroid function tests (TFT) in asymptomatic HIV patients. Considering the prevalence of Thyroid dysfunctions among HIV patients, TFT along with other blood investigations is suggested. However, larger population based study is required for proper validation.&nbsp;</div>
226-230
178
EVALUATION OF WOUND HEALING POTENTIAL OF AERIAL PARTS OF CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM LINN
P. Udaya Chandrika, A. Srinivas Rao, M. Sri Rama Chandra, NVBLA Baby kambampati
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Cardiospermum halicacabum (Linn) popularly called as balloon wine belongs to Sapindaceae family. Phytochemical constituents such as flavones, apigenin, triterpenoidal glycosides fatty acids and volatile ester have been reported in C. halicacabum. In the present study the aerial parts of C. halicacabum were studied for wound healing activity by incorporating extract in simple ointment base B.P. in concentration of &nbsp;2% (w/w) and 4% (w/w) and studied in three types of model in rats viz. excision, incision and burn wound model. The statistical data indicated that the wound with ointment containing 4% w/w alcoholic extract exhibited significant (P &lt; 0.001) wound contracting ability and period of epithelization. Significant tensile strength was observed with both the ointment formulations 2% w/w and 4% w/w. The experimental data demonstrated that C. halicacabum displayed remarkable wound healing activity.</div>
231-235
179
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOME WILD EDIBLE TUBEROUS PLANTS
Swati Deshmukh and Varsha Jadhav (Rathod)
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">The antioxidant properties of three wild edible tuberous plants viz. Brachystelma edulis Coll. and Helmls, Ceropegia bulbosa var. bulbosa Roxb. and Ceropegia hirsuta Weight and Arn. were determined by using polyphenols, ascorbic acid, carotenoid, enzyme peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase assay. The total phenol content varied from 448.1&plusmn;0.81 mg/100g FW (Leaves) to 131.4&plusmn;0.86g/100g FW (Tuber) of C. bulbosa. &nbsp;Among all these tubers, B. edulis showed the highest antioxidant capacity. The result indicates that could be utilized as potential source of natural antioxidant in the food or in pharmaceutical industry.</div>
236-239
180
NUTRACEUTICALS STRIDE IN MEDICINAL ARENA
Bindiya Patel, Om Bagade, Riddhi Patel, Varsha Awasarkar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Nutraceutical &nbsp;is &nbsp;term coined to describe substances which are not traditionally recognized nutrients but which have positive physiological effects on the human body. The concept of nutraceuticals was started from the survey in U.K., Germany and France which concluded that diet is rated more highly by consumers than exercise or hereditary factors for achieving good health. Nutraceuticals are food product that provides health as well as medical benefits including the prevention and treatment of disease without any risk of toxicity or adverse effects. Such products range from dietary supplements to genetically engineered foods, herbal products and processed foods. The main aim of this article is to explore and discuss the role of nutraceuticalsin the prevention or treatment of &nbsp;underlying causes of disease.</div>
240-245
181
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CONTROLLED POROSITY OSMOTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE
Usha Sri T , Rajesh Vooturi, Vishnu P, Naveen Babu K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Controlled porosity osmotic tablet of Metoprolol succinate prepared and evaluated in this study. Metoprolol succinate is very low soluble drug. So it is difficult to formulate osmotic tablet of Metoprolol succinate which gives drug release up to 24 hr at zero order. To get desired dissolution profile various formulation parameters like osmogen concentration, level of weight gain and level of pore former concentration were studied. Final optimized formulation was studied for effect of pH of dissolution media, agitation. There is no effect of pH of dissolution media and agitation intensity on dissolution. There is significant effect of osmotic pressure on dissolution confirms that prepared metoprolol succinate tablet gives drug release with osmotic mechanism.&nbsp;</div>
246-255
182
RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF EMTRICITABINE, RILPIVIRINE AND TENOFOVIR EMPLOYING RESPONSE SURFACE DESIGN
T.Sudha, P.Shanmugasundram
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">A high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and optimized for the simultaneous determination of emtricitabine, rilpivirine and tenofovir in bulk and in tablet dosage form. In this work, multiple response simultaneous optimization using Derringer&rsquo;s desirability function was employed for the development. The ranges of three experimental factors used for the optimization were acetonitrile concentration (50 -60%), buffer pH (2.5-3.5) and flow rate (0.8-1.2ml/min). The influence of these independent variables on the output responses such as capacity factor of the first peak (k1), resolution (Rs 2,3) and retention time (Rt) were evaluated. The experimental responses were fitted into a second order polynomial equation. The optimized assay conditions were acetonitrile: phosphate buffer (69.7: 30.3%v/v) (pH 2.5) as the mobile phase and flow rate at 1.2 ml/min. While using this optimum condition, the total run time was less than 7 min were achieved. The optimized assay condition was validated according to ICH guidelines to confirm specificity, linearity accuracy and precision.</div>
256-264
183
NEW VALIDATED METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ANALYSIS OF METHYLPARABEN & PROPYLPARABEN IN POLYHERBAL FORMULATION (ORAL LIQUID DOSAGE FORM)
Somia Gul, Kashifa Khanum and Nusrat Mujtaba
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">An isocratic reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of methylparaben and propylparaben in poly herbal formulation at 254nm. Chromatographic separation was achieved on C18 WP, 100A column (250mm x 4.6 mm, 5 &micro;m) column using mobile phase, methanol: water: acetonitrile (40:40:20 v/v/v) having flow rate of 1.2 mL min -1 at room temperature. Calibration curves were linear over range of 40 &ndash; 60.2 &micro;g mL -1 of methylparaben with a correlation coefficient &plusmn; 0.99 and 7.9 &ndash; 11.9 &micro;g mL -1 of Propylparaben with coefficient correlation &plusmn; 0.99. &nbsp;Method is rapid, accurate, precise and specific for the routine quality control analysis of preservative content in poly herbal oral liquid dosage form.&nbsp;</div>
265-270
184
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SAXAGLIPTIN AND METFORMIN IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Asiya Begum, Shilpa K, A. Ajitha, V. Uma Maheshwar Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">A sensitive selective and precise stability indicating-high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for Saxagliptin and Metformin in Tablet dosage form. An isocratic separation was carried out using Zorbax C18 (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 &micro;m) column and Potassium dihydrogen Phosphate: Methanol (60:40 v/v) as mobile phase.With quantification carried out at a wavelength of 248nm. The stability studies under stress condition of hydrolysis (acid, base), oxidation, photolysis and thermal degradation were also carried out for Saxagliptin and Metformin.The Retention time of Saxagliptin and Metformin were observed to be 3.241and 2.191 minutes, respectively with theoretical plate count and asymmetry as per the ICH limits. The % assay of Saxagliptin and Metformin were 99.640% and 99.021%. The flow rate was found to be 1ml/min .The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed a good linear relationship for Saxagliptin and Metformin over a concentration range of 50-1500 &micro;g/ml with correlation co-efficient of 0.999 for Saxagliptin and 0.999 for Metformin. The limit of detection and Quantitation were found to be &nbsp;2.857,2.918&amp; 9.52,9.72&micro;g/ml, respectively.the method was validated as per ICH guidelines and it was found to be acccurate, precise and selective stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) &nbsp;for the determination of Saxagliptin and Metformin in tablet dosage form.&nbsp;</div>
271-279
185
ROLE OF CARISSA CARANDAS IN MEDICINE - A REVIEW
Ambika chauhan and Intelli
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Carissa carandas is one of the most common species of the genus &ldquo;Carissa&rdquo;and used as a traditional medicine which has received scientific awareness for its general ethnomedicinal applications. Present study focused on its &nbsp;nutritional composition, phytochemical compounds, therapeutic action and ethnopharmacological uses (cardioprotective effect, anti- diabetic activity, anti- carcinogenic, anti-pyretic, hepatoprotective activity) .</div>
280-282
186
USE OF TRADITIONAL PLANTS IN DIABETES MELLITUS: A REVIEW
Sheemah Kazi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder resulting from either insulin insufficiency or deficient. Scientific reports revealed that diabetes cannot be cured completely. The rapid increase in diabetes mellitus is becoming a serious threat to mankind in all parts of the world. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred more due to lesser side effects. Here in this review we discuss the traditional plants which help in lowering the blood sugar level and are effective as anti diabetic agent.</div>
283-289
187
A REVIEW – ORAL DISPERSIBLE TABLETS
Sharda kumari, P.K Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Drug delivery systems are becoming increasingly sophisticated as pharmaceutical scientists acquire a better understanding of the physicochemical and biochemical parameters pertinent to their performance. Over the three decades, orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) have gained considerable attention as a preferred alternative to conventional tablets and capsules due to better patient compliance. ODTs are solid dosage forms containing medicinal substances which disintegrate rapidly, usually in a matter of seconds, when placed on the tongue. Products of ODT technologies entered the market in the 1980s, have grown steadily in demand, and their product pipelines are rapidly expanding. New ODT technologies address many pharmaceutical and patient needs, ranging from enhanced life-cycle management to convenient dosing for paediatric, geriatric, and psychiatric patients with dysphagia. This has encouraged both academia and industry to generate new orally disintegrating formulations and technological approaches in this field. The aim of this article is to review the development of ODTs, challenges in formulation, new ODT technologies and evaluation methodologies, suitability of drug candidates, and future prospects.</div>
290-296
188
BUCCAL PATCHES- A Review
Ramteke K.H, Dighe P.A, Kharat A. R, Patil S.V
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Transmucosal drug delivery is an alternative method of systemic delivery of the drug which offers different advantages over existing methods by enhancing the bioavailability of drug due to rich in blood supply in mucosal surface and prolongs residence time at the site of application to permit once or twice daily dosing. Buccal route is an attractive and easy transmucosal route of administration for systemic drug delivery. Delivery of the drug via buccal route leads direct access to the systemic circulation through the internal jugular vein bypasses drugs from hepatic first pass metabolism leading to higher bioavailability. Buccal bioadhesive patches, releases topical drugs in the oral cavity at a slow and predetermined rate and provides advantages over traditional dosage forms for treatment of many diseases and disorders. The objective of this article is to review buccal patches by discussing their composition, method of preparation and evaluation.</div>
297-308
189
EVALUATION OF APHRODISIAC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF Cicer arietinum SEEDS IN SEXUALLY SLUGGISH MALE ALBINO RATS
Ravindra Babu Sajja, Venkatesh V, Suneetha B, Srinivas N
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was designed to evaluate the potential aphrodisiac effect of seeds of methanolic extract of Cicer airetinum (MECA) in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Sexual behavioral parameters like mount frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF),ejaculation frequency (EF), ejaculation latency (EL), mount latency(ML) and intromission latencies (IL) were observed in male rats. The male serum cholesterol and testosterone concentrations were also recorded. Oral administration of MECA at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight&nbsp; significantly increased the MF, IF, EF and EL (P &lt; 0.05)in comparison to control groups. ML and IL significantly&nbsp; decreased (p&lt;0.05). The extract also significantly (p&lt;0.05) increased the serum cholesterol and testosterone levels. From these effects the MECA posses significant increase in the sexual activity in male rats.The augmented sexual behavior in male rats might be due to the presence of alkaloids, saponins and flavonoids&nbsp; found in MECA.
309-313
190
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM AND ENALAPRIL MALEATE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC
Sindu Yada, A. Ajitha, V. Uma Maheshwara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Losartan potassium and Enalapril maleate in tablet dosage form.&nbsp; The using Agilent C8 (4.6 x 150mm, 3.5mm) column in Isocratic mode, in mobile phase containing Acetonitrile phosphate buffer (50:50) and adjusted Ph. 6.5with ortho phosphoric acid, the flow rate was 2ml/min. The detection was carried out at wavelength 256nm. The retention times of Losartan potassium and Enalapril maleate were found to be 3.537 and 2.109 min respectively. The linearity for Losartan potassium and Enalapril maleate were in the range of 25-125&micro;g/ml and 5-25&micro;g/ml&nbsp; respectively .The recoveries of Losartan potassium and Enalapril maleate were found to be 99.7%and99.2%,respectively. The LOD values for&nbsp; and LOQ values are found to be within acceptance criteria. The LOD values were found to be 2.97 and 2.95 for Losartan potassium and Enalapril maleate respectively and LOQ values were found to be 9.91 and 9.95 for Losartan potassium and Enalapril maleate respectively.&nbsp; The proposed method was validated and successfully applied for the estimation of Losartan potassium and Enalapril maleate in combined tablet dosage forms.
314-319
191
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE AND OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL BY RP-HPLC IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
E. Mamatha rani*, K. Shilpa, A. Ajitha, V. Umamaheswararao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate and precised method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of hydrochlorthiazide and olmesartan medoxomil in formulation by RP-HPLC method. Buffer in this method was 0.01N Na2HPO4 of pH 4 used with the combination of acetonitrile in the ratio of 45:55 as mobile phase. 10µl of sample was injected and the mobile phase was run for 7min with flow rate of 1ml/min through BDS 250mm column maintained at 30°C. Wavelength optimized was 257nm. Hydrochlorthiazide and olmesartan were eluted with good resolution of 7.11. Retention times of hydrochlorthiazide and olmesartan were 2.4min and 3.8min respectively. Other system suitability parameters like tailing factor and plate count were within the limits. According to the ICH guidelines this method was validated. There was no placebo interference observed resulting that this method was specific, %RSD obtained for hydrochlorthiazide and olmesartan were 0.6% and 0.7%. On plotting the linearity graph for hydrochlorthiazide and olmesartan linearity equations obtained were y = 12341x + 864.8 and y = 11251x + 1599 respectively. Correlation coefficient was 0.999. % Average recovery was calculate and fount to be 100.05% for hydrochlorthiazide and 100.02% for olmesartan. % Labled amount of both drugs were found to be 99.77% and 99.96% for hydrochlorthiazide and olmesartan. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines. As run time was decreased this is economical and simple method that can be used in the regular analysis.
320-325
192
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FLOATING CAPSULES OF PROPRANOLOL HCl USING MODIFIED PULSINCAP TECHNIQUE
GSN Koteswara Rao, KV Ramana Murthy, GSV Subrahmanyam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In our present investigation an attempt was made to apply modified pulsincap technique to develop floating capsules of propranolol HCl using PEO WSR 301. The formulation mixture was hand filled into the hardened body (formaldehyde exposed) and covered with unhardened cap. All the formulations with varying ratios of drug:polymer and varying time periods of exposure to formaldehyde vapors were evaluated for residual formaldehyde content, weight variation, drug content, in-vitro buoyancy, drug release pattern, compatibility studies etc. The formulations F2.3 with drug-polymer ratio of 1:0.75 prepared by using 2 h exposed capsule body was found as the optimized formulation as it has satisfied the buoyancy characteristics, shown controlled release of 100% in 12 h as per USP criteria and utilized less polymer concentration among all formulations in addition to all other parameters assessed. Hence modified pulsincap technique can be successfully used for the development of floating capsules of propranolol HCl using PEO WSR 301.
465-472
193
SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ATAZANAVIR AND RITONAVIR IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY HPTLC METHOD
Madhusudhanareddy Induri, Bhagavan Raju Mantripragada and Rajendra Prasad Yejella
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, sensitive and rapid high performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of atazanavir and ritonavir in pharmaceutical formulations. The chromatographic development was carried out on HPTLC plates pre-coated with silica gel 60G F254 using a mixture of toluene: ethyl acetate: 0.1% formic acid in the ratio of 6.0:4.0:1.0 v/v as mobile phase. The calibration curve was found to be linear over the concentration range of 150-900 ng/spot for ATV and 50-300 ng/spot for RTV with a regression coefficient for both analytes were greater than 0.999. The %RSD values for intra-day and inter-day variation were not more than 2.0. The method has demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity. The method is new, simple and economic for routine estimation of atazanavir and ritonavir in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation to help the industries as well as researchers for their sensitive determination of atazanavir and ritonavir rapidly at low cost in routine analysis.
219-224
194
STABILITY INDICATING METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF AZILSARTAN MEDOXOMIL AND CHLORTHALIDONE BY RP-HPLC IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
B. Sahithi Chowdary, M. Prasada Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study aims to develop a simple economical method for estimation of Azilsartan and chlorthalidone combined dosage form by RP-HPLC technique. Buffer used in this method was 0.1% OPA buffer of pH 2.5 used in the ratio of 40B:60A run through C18 BDS 250mm column with a flow rate of 1ml/min for 7min run time. The column was maintained at 30°C temperature and optimized wavelength was 220nm. Azilsartan eluted at 2.5min and Chlorthalidone at 3.5min retention time with 5.2 resolution. System suitability parameters like plate count and tailing factors were passed according to ICH guidelines. Repeatability of Azilsartan and chlorthalidone was found to be 0.4 and 0.34 respectively. Percentage recovery of azilsartan was 99.81% and of chlorthalidone was 99.71%. Linearity performed with range of 40-240µg/ml for azilsartan and 25-150µg/ml for chlorthalidone and correlation coefficient obtained was 0.999. Robustness was found to be within the limits i.e., less than 2. Stability studies were done and degraded was with the limits. A simple method was developed for estimation of Azilsartan and chlorthalidone. All the validation parameters were succeeded and were within the range. This method can be used in the regular analysis of Azilsartan and chlorthalidone combination dosage form.
326-332
195
ENHANCEMENT OF DISSOLUTION OF POORLY SOLUBLE RITONAVIR DRUG USING SYNTHETIC POLYMERS
A. Surendra, M. Jhansirani, R. Aruna, A.M.S. Sudhakar babu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Development of solid dispersions of poorly water soluble drugs is one of the most widely used approaches to enhance the solubility as well as dissolution rate. In the current investigation, Ritonavir is selected as model drug to improve the solubility and dissolution rate by solid dispersion method. Solid dispersions were prepared using fusion method by incorporating carriers like polyethylene glycol 20000, Soluplus and Plasdone. Each carriers in different ratios (1:1, 1:2 and1:3) and evaluated for solubility studies, drug-carrier compatibility studies and in vitro dissolution studies. Based on the solubility and drug release studies, among all 10 formulations F10 formulation showed better drug release of 100% drug release at the end of 150th minute compared to other 8 formulations and plain Ritonavir formulation. So F10 (containing 1:3 ratio of PEG 20000) is the optimized formulation. In each case tablets prepared employing carriers gave higher dissolution rates as compared to the tablets prepared using pure drug. Hence solid dispersion in polymers can be used for enhancing the solubility and dissolution of Ritonavir.

333-339
196
A REVIEW ON DRIED NANOSUSPENSIONS- A NOVEL FORMULATION TO ENHANCE SOLUBILITY OF POORLY AQUEOUS SOLUBLE DRUGS
S Raja Shekhar and P Vijaya Lakshmi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Solubility is most important and crucial factor for drug effectiveness. Large proportions of newly discovered drugs are water insoluble, and therefore poorly bioavailable. Nanosuspensions are one of the promising drug delivery systems proved to be very effective in eliminating the solubility problems and increasing the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Nanosuspensions are very finely colloid, biphasic, dispersed, solid drug particles in an aqeous vehicle. These are prepared by using wet mill, high pressure homogenizer, emulsion-solvent evaporation, melt emulsification method and super critical fluid techniques. The most recent advancement in Nanosuspensions is Dried Nanosuspension which is prepared by freeze drying or spray drying of the formulated Nanosuspensions. It has higher stability and solubility properties than nanosuspensions. These can be delivered by oral, parenteral, pulmonary and ocular routes. Nanosuspensions can also be used for targeted drug delivery when incorporated in the ocular inserts and mucoadhesive hydrogels.

340-344
197
QUANTIFICATION OF OLMESARTAN AND ROSUVASTATIN BY STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
A.Nagavalli, M. Prasada Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The objective of the study is to develop an economical and simple and validated method for the simultaneous estimation of the olmesartan and rosuvastatin by RP-HPLC technique. In this method the 10µl of standard working solution containing both olmesartan and rosuvastatin was injected in to the mobile phase line composing of 45B and 55A, pumped through the column Altima 150mm length column containing particle of size 5µ with a flow rate of 1ml/min. the temperature of the column was maintained at 30°C. Both the drugs have their optimum absorbance at 241nm wavelength. The method was optimized based on the all system suitable parameters passed their limits as per ICH guidelines. The retention time found was 2.2min of olmesartan and 3.0min of rosuvastatin and the resolution between the peaks was 4.8. This method was set for validation as per ICH guidelines and observed to be very specific without any interference by the constituents of formulations and diluents. The method was precisied and %RSD found to be 0.56 of olmesartan and 0.42 of rosuvastatin. % recover of olmesartan was 100.09% and 99.79% for rosuvastatin. Linearity was performed with six concentrations and response was observed to be linear to the concentration. Correlation coefficient obtained was 0.999. The developed method was robust as the %RSD was within the range and without effecting system suitability parameters. The developed method passed all the parameters of the validation, the run time was decreased effectively so the method was very simple and economical that can be used in the regular analysis of the Olmesartan and rosuvastatin in marketed formulation.       

345-351
198
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ROSUVASTATIN NANOSUSPENSIONS
S Raja Shekhar and P Vijaya Lakshmi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The objective of the present study was to formulate and evaluate nanosuspensions of rosuvastatin, a poorly soluble drug in order to enhance its solubility and dissolution chatacteristics. Rosuvastatin is a Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) Class II drug having very low solubility therefore low oral bioavailability. In this study rosuvastatin nanosuspensions were prepared by precipitation technique followed by high frequency sonication by using a combination of stabilizers like PVP K90 and LUTROL F127 in different ratios. The formulated nanosuspensions were characterised by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and FTIR. The formulations were evaluated for drug content, entrapment efficacy, Zetapotential and In-Vitro dissolution. SEM results showed the particle size of the formulated nanosuspensions in nanosize. FTIR spectrum revealed that there are no interactions between drug and carriers. The effect of particle size was found to be significant on the saturation solubility of the drug and in-vitro drug release studies showed significant increase in the dissolution rate of nanosuspensions as compared with pure drug.

352-358
199
RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF BALSALAZIDE IN BULK AND CAPSULE DOSAGE FORM
G. Parimala, D. Narasimharao, M. Prasadarao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

A RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of  Balsalazide in bulk and Capsule dosage form and the method was proposed for the validation for the parameters like accuracy, precision, linearity, range, robustness, ruggedness, % of recovery and limit of detection and limit of quantitation. Still now there were number of analytical methods were developed for the estimation and validation of Balsalazide alone and in combined dosage form like UV-Visible spectroscopy, fluorimetry and RP-HPLC method but compared to those methods the present study was a simple and selective LC method for the quantitative estimation of Balsalazide in capsule dosage form. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a c18 column using Inertsil ODS 3V column, C18 (250x4.6 ID) mobile phase consisting of a mixture of KH2PO4:ACN:MEOH (50:30:20 v/v/v %)PH: 4.5 with detection of 304 nm. The retention time was found to be 2.487 min and linearity was observed in the range 90-210µg /ml for Balsalazide. The method was found to be precise as indicated by the repeatability analysis, showing %RSD less than 2.

359-364
200
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ZOLMITRIPTAN FAST DISSOLVING TABLET USING SYNTHETIC SUPERDISINTEGRANTS
Ch. Saidulu, M. Jhansirani, R. Aruna, A.M.S. Sudhakar babu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

In recent decades, a variety of pharmaceutical research has been conducted to develop new dosage forms. Among them, the fast disintegrating tablet (FDTs) is one of the most widely employed commercial products to facilitate ease of medication. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disperse in the mouth in the absence of additional water and the active pharmaceutical ingredients are readily released from the dosage form. In present study Zolmitriptan tablets were formulated by using synthetic superdisintegrant namely Amberlite, Sodium starch glycolate and Indion in different ratio then compared with marketed Zolmitriptan tablets were prepared namely F1 to F10 formulation and these are characterized by hardness, thickness, weight variation, friability, wettability time and dissolution studies. Fast dissolving tablets can be prepared by direct compression method using synthetic superdisintegrant. The values obtained from the evaluation studies indicate that all the parameters within the standard limits. In vitro disintegration studies showed that fast dissolving tablets from F9 (Indion 1:3 ratio) showed the best disintegration time with in 32sec. In vitro dissolution studies showed that the formulation F9 gave the maximum percentage drug release (100%) with in 7min.

365-370
201
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF OMEPRAZOLE AND DICYCLOMINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN COMBINED TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Ch.Nikhila, M. Prasadarao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The main objective of the work is to develop a new, simple and economical method for the simultaneous estimation of omeprazole and dicyclomine hcl by using RP-HPLC technique In this method mobile phase of composition Phosphate buffer 0.02M,pH6.5 and acetonitrile in the ratio of 65:35 was pumped with a flow rated of 1ml/min through C18 250mm column which was maintained at 25°C temperature. The wavelength 223nm was optimized as the both drugs have optimum absorbance. Volume of injection was 10µl. The retention time of the omeprazole and dicyclomine hcl was 2.02min and 9.93min respectively with appreciable resolution of 9.15. Using the above method the run was performed and the system suitability parameters were calculated and were within the limits. So the method was set for validation, the method was found to be specific in the determination of drug without any interference. The method was observed to be precisied as the %RSD was 0.59 and 0.63 for omeprazole and dicyclomine hcl respectively. Recovery studies were performed and found to be 99.45% for omeprazole and 100.35% for dicyclomine hcl. Calibration curve was plote and correlation coefficient was 0.999. The method was also found to be robust. The method was valid as all the parameters were passed. This method was precise, accurate and accurate, this method can be used in the regular assay of the formulations.

371-376
202
ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM STEM BARK ATTENUATES GENTAMICIN-INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN RATS
Karra Geetha , Nadendla Rama rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Objective: To study the nephroprotective, nephrocurative effect of Alangium salvifolium ethanolic stem bark extract in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. Materials and methods: Nephrotoxicity was induced in wistar male rats by intraperitoneal administration of gentamicin at 40mg/kg b.wt /day for 7 days. Alangium salvifolium was selected to check the effect by using ethanolic bark extract with different doses (250,500,750 mg/kg body weight respectively), was given by oral route. Serum parameters (serum creatinine, serum proteins and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)), other parameters like body weight, in vivo antioxidants catalase, Superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and Lipid peroxidase level were determined on 22nd day in wistar male rats. Histopathological study of kidney was studied. Results: The three doses of the extracts produced significant nephroprotective, nephrocurative activities with increased doses. The increased actions of nephroprotective, nephrocurative activity in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity models as evident by decrease in serum creatinine, serum urea, serum proteins, BUN levels and lipid peroxidation (MDA).The increased glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) activities when compared to gentamicin control group which was further confirmed by histopathological study. Conclusion: The study revealed that ethanolic bark extract of Alangium salvifolium (EBAS) recovered the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin experimental animals. 

377-383