Volume 4 - Issue 1

S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
MELATONIN MEDIATES CLASSIC LACTOPEROXIDASES CATALYTIC MECHANISM
Semira Galijasevic, Elvisa Hodzic
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Lactoperoxidase (LPO) found in saliva, tears and airways protects system against bacterial and viral attack. It utilized hydrogen peroxide in the presence of halides or pseudohalide forming hypohalous acid a potent biocidal and virocidal agent. Melatonin is an important biomolecule that controls a number of functions including circadian sleep rhythms, blood pressure, oncogenesis, retinal function, seasonal reproduction, and immunity. Additionally, melatonin is frequently used as a supplement in a variety of medical conditions such as jet lag, shift work, and circadian rhythm sleep disorders, cancer, longevity and antioxidant therapy. Here, we demonstrate that melatonin modulates classic catalytic mechanism of LPO under physiological-like conditions. In the presence of chloride (SCN-), melatonin inactivated LPO classic peroxidase cycle by formation of compound II or two different intermediate compounds that are dead end products of LPO system. This behavior indicates that melatonin modulates the formation of LPO intermediates and their decay rates to the ground state this efficiently slowing down or inhibiting the cycling of the enzyme. Importantly, melatonin-dependent inhibition of LPO depends on hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Thus, the interplay between LPO and melatonin can have a broader implication especially in the cases of supplemental melatonin therapy.
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IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC AND ALKALOIDIC EXTRACTS OF DELPHINIUM STAPHISAGRIA
Bouchra Faridi, Latifa Doudach, Rachad Alnamer, Moulay Abbas Faouzi, FatimaTahiri, Yahia Cherrah and Amina Zellou
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In this study, the in vitro cytotoxicity and antioxidant properties of the ethanolic and alkaloidic extract of Delphinium Staphisagria seeds were assessed. The antioxidant activity of the plant extracts and the standard was assessed on the basis of the radical scavenging effect of the stable 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-free radical activity. The in vitro cytotoxicity was carried out by using the 3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, against two animals cancer cell lines; Vero cell line, initiated from the kidney of a normal, adult African green Monkey and Neuro-2a (N2a) from a spontaneous tumor of a strain A albino mouse. The DPPH scavenging activity of both extracts was concentration-dependent (increasing from 15.62 µg/ml to 500 µg/ml), exhibited considerably (P<0.05) DPPH radical-scavenging activity and was able to inhibit the formation of DPPH radicals with a percentage inhibition of 62.19 and 94 % respectively at the highest concentration. The results showed that the alkaloidic extract (1000-31.25 µg/ml) of Delphinium Staphisagria possesses significant IC50 compared to the drug positive control on all cancer cell lines used. The lower IC50 represent the highest potency of a compound to inhibit the growth of cells and cause toxicity and death of cells. The result obtained in this work demonstrated a high activity at low alkaloids extracts doses (500µg/ml). In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that Delphinium Staphisagria seeds plant have various secondary metabolites and has good quantity of alkaloidic compounds (diterpenoid alkaloids). Plant has potent free radical scavenging activity. Detailed studies on chemical composition, isolation of active constituents and pharmacological evaluation are essential to characterize them as biological antioxidants. The present findings of this study support the view that Delphinium Staphisagria seeds are a promising source of potential antioxidant which can be used in treatment of various ailments.
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WHEN AND FOR HOW LONG SHOULD DEXMEDETOMIDINE BE USED IN THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT
Engi Nakhla, Ehab Daoud, Shyam Gelot
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Dexmedetomidine is a novel sedative that was approved for use in the US at the end of the last century. Currently, the FDA labeling for its use are: sedation in non-intubated patients prior to and during surgical and other procedures, and in intubated and mechanically ventilated patients during treatment in an intensive care setting and to be administered by continuous infusion not to exceed 24 hours. Multiple investigations for other indications and prolonged durations have caused controversies for its use. Given the risks of this medication, strict adherence to guidelines for its use is recommended. The aim of this review is to discuss the approved and the not yet approved indications to use this medication.
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PREVALENCE AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH FUNCTIONAL SECONDARY AMENORRHEA
Huda Kafeel, Ramsha Rukh, Asma Zubair, Ayesha Ghazala, Hira Muzaffar, Hira Raees, Kanwal Riaz, Tania Qudsia, Zunaira Ali
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The main objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence of functional secondary amenorrhea and also to study the different variable factors associated with it with its possible pathological outcome in our community. A retrospective study is conducted in the city of Karachi. Data regarding the occurrence of amenorrhea, specifically functional secondary amenorrhea, their related complications and symptoms were collected together with demographic variables by means of structured questionnaire. Study sample was of 1052 women (age between 13 to 48 years) out of 1258 women approached. (n= 1052 with response rate 83.62%) 12 women out of 1052 (1.14%) gave a history of primary amenorrhea with no onset of menstrual cycle even at the age of 15. Contrary there were 44.77% women having history of no onset of menstrual cycle for more than 3 months duration during the past year. (Secondary amenorrhea).  5.04% was due to established ovarian cause like PCOs and 39.73% was due to functional causes like stress, excessive dieting, exercise or use of medications (like oral contraceptives or sedative hypnotics or SSRI’s) classified as Functional secondary amenorrhea. 11.12% amenorrhea was due to pregnancy. Among different variables studied weight, age, marital status, pregnancy history was found to be significant. A significant correlation between the use of oral contraceptives and secondary amenorrhea was found in about 7.03% of women. Obesity was found to be the most common effect in women having secondary amenorrhea.
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DELIVERY OF WATER-INSOLUBLE DRUGS: CAFFEINE MONOHYDRATE AND SALICYLIC ACID AS MICROCAPSULES USING IRVINGIA GUM AS THE COACERVATING AGENT
Uzondu, Akueyinwa Lovet Esther, Okor, Roland Sydney
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The potential of irvingia gum as a coacervating agent was investigated in the microencapsulation of caffeine and salicylic acid. Irvingia gum was produced according to the methods described by previous workers. Coacervation was achieved by adding ethanolic solution of the drug (6g in 8ml) to the gum mucilage (3g in 100ml of water): i.e, gum: drug ratio 1:2, and allowing to stand for 48h to form a sediment ( coacervate). Also prepared were gum: drug ratios: 1:1 and 2:1. Effects of composition, temperature and pH on coacervate yield and degree of drug entrapment were investigated. Tragacanth gum was used, as reference standard. 1:2 ratio gave the highest yield for both caffeine (78.5±0.02% w/w) and salicylic acid (79±0.00%w/w) coacervates. pH increase of gum mucilage (2.21 to 12.03) increased the yield of irvingia caffeine coacervate but decreased that of irvingia: salicylate coacervates. Raising the temperature (25-600C) decreased both coacervate yields. Both systems (with gum: drug ratio 1:2) gave the highest degree of drug  entrapment. This study, therefore, presents optimal condition for enhancement of yield and degree of drug entrapment in coacervation of poorly-water soluble drugs: caffeine and salicylic acid.
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INCIDENCES, SCREENING AND MANAGEMENT OF PROSTATE CANCER
Sheikh Abdul Khaliq,, Zahid Khan, Atiquddin Mallick, Anab Fatima
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Retrospective study in different ethnic groups determines the burden and patterns of prostate cancer during the last eight years reported in Oncology wards of hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Compares the management pharmacotherapy/chemotherapy/surgery with international guidelines, develops strategies for screening and evidence based pharmacotherapy/chemotherapy/surgery of cases. Every single one male case with histologically and cytologically established prostate cancer was enrolled from January 2003 to December 2010. Data for all patients were collected retrospectively by patient’s file & charts, which represents the population of Karachi, Interior Sindh & Balochistan. 72 male patients investigated for their diagnosis of cancer type, ethnicity, age & gender. The statistical analysis was performed for mean, standard error & proportions. Screening, Pharmacotherapy/Chemotherapy/Surgery employed by the hospitals was compared with international guidelines and evidences. Proportionately major ethnic groups male diagnosed with prostate cancer in total male cases of prostate cancer was Sindhi (43%), Urdu Speaking/Immigrants (24%), Baloch (10%), Pukhtoon (8%), Punjabi (7%), Minorities & others (8%). Mean age at the time of diagnosis was 65.44±10.89 years, SE± 0.227 and RSD 34%. Screening strategies are implemented in <10% targeted population, however pharmacotherapy/chemotherapy/surgery was comparable with international guidelines. The study reveals that prostate cancer incidences are highest among Sindhi Speaking and then Urdu Speakings. Rests of the ethnic groups are in the range of 7-10%. There is a need to implement the screening strategies more extensively to the small/basic/rural health care centers for early diagnosis of the disease and new treatments strategies especially in surgical management like application of cryosurgery, high intensity ultrasound and proton beam radiation therapy are making revolution in the management of prostate cancer.
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Synthesis and Characterization of Polymeric Conjugated Sirolimus on MCF-7(Estrogen Positive) and MDA MB 231(Estrogen Negative) Breast Cancer Cell Lines
Bontha Venkata Subrahmanya Lokesh and Palanirajan Vijayaraj Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Sirolimus (SR) is used as an immunosuppressant drug to prevent organ rejection in kidney transplants. It is chemically a macrolide and isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus in a soil sample. Of recent, it has potent antiproliferative properties and useful in the treatment of certain types of cancer. In our objective of the study, SR is chemically conjugated with Methoxy-polyethylene glycolic acid (mPEG COOH) and Poly(lactic-co glycolic acid)[PLGA]. Two polymeric SR conjugates (mPEG-SR and PLGA-SR) were characterized by UV-spectra, infrared (IR) spectra, 1H NMR spectra, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and HPLC analyses. It was found to be structurally correlated among the chemical structures of SR, mPEG COOH-SR conjugate, PLGA-SR conjugate, PLGA and m-PEG COOH polymers. The MTT assay of mPEG-SR, PLGA conjugates were carried out on specific MCF-7(Estrogen positive) and MDA MB231 (Estrogen negative) breast cancer cell lines using tamoxifen as control. All results were showing the positive effects of mPEG-SR with IC50 values of 15 µg/ml and 1.5 µg/ml more active than tamoxifen with IC50 values of 28 µg/ml and 4.9 µg/ml on MDA-MB 231(estrogen negative) and MCF-7(estrogen positive) breast cancer cell lines in vitro, respectively. Whereas PLGA-SR conjugate was shown high activity on MCF-7(estrogen positive) with IC50 value of 1.2 µg/ml and less activity on MDA MB 231(estrogen negative) with IC50 value of more than 100 µg/ml. Both conjugates have not shown any cytotoxicity activity on 3T3 fibroblast normal cell lines. These results indicate that both conjugates may provide highly potent cytotoxicity activity against specific breast cancer types than SR alone. In conclusion, polymeric conjugation is a useful approach in drug delivery systems. These conjugates are basic precursors to formulate into a novel drug delivery system for better release and with increased good bioavailability with fewer side effects.
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FIXED DOSE COMBINATION: UNDERSTANDING OF IMMINENT PHARMACIST
Riffat Yasmin, Sadia Shakeel, Wajiha Iffat, Madiha Fatima Sana
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was conducted to evaluate the awareness of pharmacy students’ about prescribing fixed dose combination (FDC) in pharmacy institutions in Karachi. A cross sectional study was conducted during July-Sep, 2013. Participants’ overall response towards the importance of the FDCs was found positive. Out of 600 students, 511 pharmacy students (85.16%) responded the questionnaire, belonging to public and private institutes of Karachi. 47.7% of the respondents were aware of the practice for prescribing FDCs. Only 29.15% students were informed about the standard protocol for prescribing FDCs. 65.75% of the students agreed that patient compliance can be improved by using simpler dosage schedule of FDCs. On the other hand 49.9% of the students claimed that FDCs may lead to alteration of therapeutic effect due to possible drug-drug interaction. It is concluded that pharmacy students’ awareness of prescribing FDC is the demand of modern medicine to improve the patient compliance, ease in drug administration, safe and successful use of drugs.
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A RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW OF ANTIBIOTIC UTILIZATION IN ADULT MEDICAL WARDS OF A PRIMARY CARE HOSPITAL IN ETHIOPIA
Zenaw Tessema, Chalachew Teshale, Segewkal Hawaze
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Inappropriate antibiotic use results emergence of resistance, preventable morbidity and mortality and resource wastage. Institution based retrospective cross sectional study was conducted using patient cards and prescription registration books to assess antibiotics utilization pattern in adult medical wards of Finote Selam Hospital (FSH). 30 cases per quarter were selected from the documented cards, based on Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Organizations (JCAHO) sample size recommendation. Out of 130 cards reviewed, ceftriaxone (31.02%), amoxicillin (14.29%) and gentamicin (13.88%) were commonly prescribed. Combined antibiotics were used in 17.50% of cases and 18.77% of prescribed antibiotics were inappropriately indicated. 53.88% of prescribed antibiotics were administered through the intravenous route. Average number of antibiotics per encounter was 1.22 and 97.1% of antibiotics were prescribed with generic name. 58% of antibiotics were prescribed from Essential Drug List (EDL). Correct frequency and duration were specified in 88.16% and 42.04% of the antibiotics respectively. Duration, dosage form, route and frequency were not specified in 57.96%, 10.20%, 8.57% and 6.53% of antibiotics respectively. Not specifying dosage form, route, and duration; prescription habit deviating from EDL and improper indication were problems identified. Good generic prescription habit, low level poly-pharmacy and specifying frequency were the good practices observed.
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SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF CEFPODOXIME USING 2-HYDROXY NAPHTHALDEHYDE AS A DERIVATIZING REAGENT
M. L. Maheshwari, U. R. Mughal, Muhammad Ali Ghoto, Abdullah Dayo, Naheed Memon Mudassar Iqbal Arain, Abbas Ali
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The optimum experimental parameters for the reactions have been studied. The validity of the procedure was assessed and did not show any change in absorbance up to 24 hrs at room temperature. Statistical analysis of the result has been carried out revealing high accuracy, good precision and suitability for quality control application. The developed procedure is used for the determination of cefpodoxime in pharmaceutical formulations including tablets and suspensions. A good agreement is observed with labeled values Relative standard deviation (RSD) within 1% and recovery of the drug from pharmaceutical preparations was calculated within 95- 99.5% .
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DOCKING STUDIES OF SWINE FLU NEURAMINIDASE WITH HERBAL COMPOUNDS
Jayasree Ganugapati , Archana Battu, Aishwarya Aare
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Swine Flu is a seasonal viral infectious disease caused due to H1N1. The aim of the present study is to identify natural compounds found in dietary resources that can inhibit neuraminidase, a protein that plays a crucial role in the H1N1 infection and invasion into the human host tissues. The X-Ray Crystallographic structure of the protein Neuraminidase was retrieved from RCSB -PDB and 3D structures of the selected ligands were obtained from NCBI PubChem in SDF format. Lipinski Rule was analyzed using Mol inspiration. Docking studies were performed using ARGUSLAB, AUTODOCK 4.0 and AUTODOCK VINA to study the interactions of the protein with the ligands. The compounds having affinity towards the protein’s active site region were identified. Docking results indicate that all the six compounds interact with neuraminidase with varied binding energies. From our observations It can be concluded that the six compounds selected for analysis bind with neuraminidase and our further studies suggest that the activity of neuraminidase can be inhibited by Curcumin and Gingerol since they have a better binding energy and interact with active site residues.
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ROLE OF SHORT TERM CAMPAIGNS IN BOOSTING UP SALES, WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON INDIAN PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET
Aravinda Pai, G.K.Sudhakar, Venkatesh Kamath, Vasudev Pai
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In recent years, strategic marketing has played an important role in the process of pharmaceutical marketing. Due to increase in the number of pharmaceutical companies as well as rapidly growing product portfolio, it is essential to look for innovative strategies periodically to ensure competitiveness in the market place. Strategies may look different for different segments of markets because some segments may depend only on concept selling. Nowadays, particularly in the Indian pharmaceutical market, we see more than 100 brands competing for a single drug and price also playing an important role. Since patient is an indirect customer for a pharmaceutical company, it is the discretion of a physician to select particular brand for a drug (1). In this scenario, short term campaigns can be effective in brand conversions and to boost up sales. In the present article a brief overview will be given on short term campaigns conducted by different pharmaceutical companies and the output in the form of incremental sales.
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A SENSITIVE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY–TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRIC ASSAY FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ARTEMETHER AND ITS ACTIVE METABOLITE DIHYDROARTEMISININ IN HUMAN PLASMA
Bhanu Prakash Tummuru, Nageswara Rao Pilli, Babu Rao Bhukya and Gowri Shankar D
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This paper describes a simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography / tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) assay method for the simultaneous quantification of artemether and its active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin in human plasma samples. Nevirapine was used as an internal standard. Analytes and the internal standard were extracted from 200 µL of human plasma via liquid-liquid extraction technique using tert-butyl methyl ether. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column by using a mixture of methanol and 5mM ammonium acetate buffer (90:10, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.85 mL/min. The calibration curve obtained were linear (r 2 >= 0.99) over the concentration range of 1.00-204.50 ng/mL for artemether and 0.51-161.52 ng/mL for dihydroartemisinin. Method validation was performed as per US FDA guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. A run time of 3.5 min for each sample made it possible to analyze more number of plasma samples per day. The proposed method can be applicable to clinical studies in humans.
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ISOLATION, QUANTIFICATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF PHYTOSTEROLS FROM DIFFERENT PARTS OF CASSIA PUMILA LAMK
Ankita Yadav, Richa Bhardwaj and R. A. Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cassia species have been of keen interest in phytochemical and pharmacological research due to their excellent medicinal values. Aim of this study is to identify and characterize the bioactive principles from the different parts of Cassia pumila. Four compounds were isolated and purified and the structures were determined as β-sitosterol, lanosterol, campersterol, stigmasterol by analysis of physical, chemical and spectral characterstics (IR,NMR). Present study shows the presence of various concentrations of phytosterols in different plant parts of C. pumila. The higher level of total phytosterols was measured in pods of C. pumila (1.15 mg/g dw) and lowest in flowers (0.38mg/gdw).The highest level of β-sitosterol and lanosterol, was found highest in pods(0.23mg/gdw) and 0.24mg/gdw) respectively, whereas highest level of campersterol was found in leaves(0.24mg/gdw). The isolated phytosterols were effective against all test bacteria and fungi. β-sitosterol was more active against fungi and bacteria and their MIC value was recorded 2 X 103 mg/disc while the MIC value of 3X 103 mg/disc was recorded for lanosterol, Campersterol and Stigmasterol.
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PREPARATION OF NANOPARTICLES OF CANDESARTAN CILEXETIL BY IONOTROPIC GELATION TECHNIQUE AND THEIR EVALUATION
Shilpa Bhilegaonkar, Ram Gaud
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Candesartan cilexetil is a poorly soluble antihypertensive agent with low bioavailability. It is a prodrug which converts into active drug candesartan with hydrolysis in GIT.Ion gelation technique is utilized for delivery of protein and peptide drug and involves formation of nanoparticles by means of electrostatic interactions between the positively charged chitosan chains and polyanions employed as cross linkers. The most extensively used polyanion is the tripolyphosphate (TPP). As chitosan is soluble in acidic pH and reduction in particle size was required to enhance solubility and dissolution of candesartan cilexetil, nanoparticles of candesartan cilexetil were prepared by ionotropic gelation technique and evaluated for particle size , surface morphology, saturation solubility and multimedia dissolution. The technique was found to be effective for candesartan cilexetil with particle size in the range of 324 nm with a smooth surface. Percentage entrapment efficiency was in between 45-54%. Rise in solubility and dissolution as compared to pure drug was seen with little slow release in acidic and buffer media.
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QUALITATIVE SCREENINGS OF PHYTOCHEMICAL AND GC-MS ANALYSIS OF CEROPEGIA BULBOSA- AN ENDANGERED TUBEROUS PLANT
Riddhu Palawat and Payal Lodha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ceropegia bulbosa is a medicinal herb, this is useful in curing many disease like kidney stone and deafness. Ethno botanical study showed that the plant has good medicinal value for tribe of Rajasthan The preliminary phytochemical studies of Ceropegia bulbosa tuber and leaf extracts revealed the presence of&nbsp; steroids, glycosides, flavonoids alkaloids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids and potassium salt. Gas chromatography mass spectroscopic investigation of methanolic extract of Ceropegia bulbosa &ndash; a annual land plant is investigated by GCMS technique while the mass spectra of the compounds found in the extract are matched with the standard library of NIST. Maximum % area are found for 2H-Azepin-2-one, 3-(dimethylamino) hexahydro is present in maximum amount (9.09.%) with RT=8.913min, followed by 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z) (8.16% )with RT=16.165min in the methanolic extract of leaves of C.bulbosa. 2H-Azepin-2-one, 3-(dimethylamino)hexahydro is present in maximum amount (43.58%) with RT=8.955min, followed by 2-Amino-9-(3,4-Dihydroxy-5-Hydroxymethyl-(16.08%) with RT=9.543min in the methanolic extract of tuber of C.bulbosa.
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PRACTICES OF STERILIZATION TECHNIQUES AT DENTAL CLINICS OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
Atiquddin Mallick, Sheikh Abdul Khaliq , Muhammad Nasir , Rehan Qureshi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The main objective of the study was to determine of practices of sterilization techniques at private dental clinics of Karachi, Pakistan. 150 dental clinics of the town were selected, owned and run by qualified dentists. The purpose of the study was explained to the owners /practitioners verbal consent was taken. Author designed the questionnaire by close ended questions in order to get information for sterilization method and infection control. The survey was completed in two weeks while five house officers of Karachi Medical &amp; Dental College participated to in filling of questionnaire. The sample size of the study was 150 with 95% confidence interval. Sample selection criteria: (Inclusion) Dentists, Dental hygienists and Dental assistants who are responsible or oversee the sterilization procedure from dental clinics of District Central Karachi. Exclusion: Reception staff, dental technicians. The result shows that 121 (81%) out of 150 clinics used autoclave as the method of sterilization and 15(10%) of the clinics used dry heat as the method of sterilization. While 14(9.3%) still employ the boiling and chemical as method of sterilization. The result shows that the 65.3% were the owner of the clinic and 34.7 % were dentist among the respondents. It is worth noting that 115(76.7) were female and 35(23.3%) male were among respondent. Among the dentist who answered the questioner 79.3% were BDS and 20.7% were postgraduates. From the results of the study it is quite evident that the Infection control measures taken in dental clinics were quite satisfactory. It is worth noting that almost 81% of the clinics used autoclaving method of sterilization. Internationally, the method used for sterilization is autoclaving for the sterilization of instruments in the private dental clinics. Some of the dental clinics used, chemical and dry heat sterilizer for the sterilizations of instruments. However, PMDC (Pakistan Medical &amp; Dental Council) or any other government organization did not set any legal bindings for the quality and standards of dental practice in Pakistan.
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PREPARATION AND COMPARITIVE EVAULATION OF NIZATIDINE LOADED SUPER POROUS FLOATING HYDROGELS
K.B.V. Yasaswi, Sowjanya Battu, V. Umamaheswara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the present investigation is to formulate Nizatidine loaded superporous floating hydrogel tablets. In the present study Nizatidine floating tablets were prepared by effervescence method using sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent. The tablets were formulated using direct compression technology by employing polymers like chitosan, carbopol 934p and ethyl cellulose. The prepared superporous floating hydrogel tablets were evaluated for pre compression, post compression and in-vitro drug release. The in-vitro drug release pattern of Nizatidine loaded superporus floating hydrogel tablets was fitted in different kinetic models which showed highest regression for zero order kinetics with higuchi’s type of drug release mechanism. Among all the formulations, F18 which is acombination of chitosan,carbopol 934p and ethyl cellulose was optimized based on desired sustained release time (18hrs) followed by acceptable swelling and floating properties.
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DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LISINOPRIL AND AMLODIPINE BESYLATE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
B. Prathap, Akalanka Dey, G.H. Srinivasa Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, specific, precise, and accurate reversed-phase HPLC method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of lisinopril and amlodipine besylate in tablet dosage forms. The separation was achieved by Hypersil ODS-BP C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5.0 µm) using methanol: phosphate buffer at pH 6 adjusted with orthophosphoric acid (30: 70, v/v) as eluent, at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Detection was carried out at wavelength 212 nm. The retention times of lisinopril and amlodipine besylate were 3.88 min and 2.716 min, respectively. The linearity was established over the concentration ranges of 20–80 µg/mL and 20–80 µg/mL with correlation coefficients (r2) 0.9999 and 0.9993 for lisinopril and amlodipine besylate respectively. The mean recoveries were found to be in the ranges of 98.33–101.37% and 98.90–100.70% for lisinopril and amlodipine besylate respectively. The proposed method has been validated as per ICH guidelines and successfully applied to the estimation of lisinopril and amlodipine besylate in their combined tablet dosage form.
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ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED HERBAL EXTRACTS AGAINST MULTI DRUG RESISTANT ORAL PATHOGENS ISOLATED FROM LEPROSY PATIENTS
Divya VV and Umamaheswari S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Many systemic diseases reflect the poor oral health of an individual. Leprosy patients are functionally dependent and present enormous oral malformation which helps the colonization of pathogens. Oral health of leprosy patients were assessed based on the prevalence of the load of oral isolates from fifty volunteer patients. Pseudomonas sp. was found to be more prevalent in all patients which expressed a higher rate of co aggregation with other isolates (Neisseria sp., Pseudomonas sp., Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp., Candida albicans and C. tropicalis). All bacterial and fungal isolates were subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity test using antibiotics and antifungal drugs recommended for oral infection (Amoxicillin, Clindamycin, Erythromycin, Penicillin G, Amphotericin B and Fluconazole) and aqueous extracts of five different herbs(Berberis aristata, Cyminum cuminum, Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Zingiber officinale). Berberis aristata exhibited highest antifungal activity and Syzygium aromaticum exerted highest anti bacterial activity. Hence we&nbsp; recommend the use of herbs for the preparation of choorna or oral rinse which can effectively control the colonization of multi drug resistant pathogens in the oral cavity.<br />
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FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLET OF TINIDAZOLE
Dwivedi Rohit, Mahajan Ritu Priya, Mahajan SC
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Tinidazole mouth dissolving tablet were prepared to achieve quick onset of action and for maximum bioavalability. The purpose of the present research work was to compare the efeect of different superdisintegrants on the mouth dissolving property of tinidazole tablets. Mouth dissolving tablet of tinidazole were prepared using crospovidone, crosscarmellose, and sodium starch glycolate as superdisintegrants by direct compression technique. Prepared tablet were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, content uniformity, wetting time, in vitro dispersion time, in vitro disintegration time and dissolution studies. Disintegration time of all prepared formulation was found to be in order: M9
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DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF METFORMIN AND PIOGLITAZONE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Swathi Malichetti, Sujitha Hazari and Akki Srivani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new precise, accurate, reliable validated method for the determination of Metformin and Pioglitazone has been developed by using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) in pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation was carried out by using mobile phase 0.02M Potassium dihydrogen ortho phosphate: acetonitrile (55:45v/v, PH-5.64 adjusted with Orthophosphoric acid) on Agilent Thermo Scientific Hypersil, C18 (250 x 4.6 mm, 5m at a flow rate 1.0ml/min with UV detection at 228nm.The retention times for Metformin and Pioglitazone were 2.579 and 5.633 min respectively and both drugs showed good linearity in the range of 500-2000 µg/ml and 30-120 µg/ml. The proposed method has been successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulation and was validated according to ICH guidelines and method showed good precision with percentage relative standard deviation less than 2%. The percentage recovery for Metformin and Pioglitazone was found between 99.48-100.85% and 99.48-100.89% respectively indicating the proposed method was accurate and precise.
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EVALUATION OF DIURETIC AND ANTIUROLITHIATIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF BASELLA ALBA
K. Sridevi, K. Ravishankar and G.V.N Kiranmayi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic and antiurolithiatic activities of ethanolic leaf extract of Basella alba in Albino rats. Ethanolic leaf extract was administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg (each p.o). Furosemide (5mg/kg) was used as a standard. The diuretic effect of the extract was evaluated by measuring the urine volume and determining sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate contents. Urolithiasis was induced in male rats by administering ethylene glycol (0.75%) in drinking water to groups II-V except normal control (Group I) for 28 days. Groups I, II and III served as normal control, positive control (hyperurolithiatic), and standard (cystone 750mg/kg), respectively, Groups IV and V served as curative regimen. Oxalate, calcium, phosphate were monitored in urine. Serum calcium, creatinine and uric acid were also recorded. The extract of Basella alba was safe and exhibited no gross behavioral changes in the rats. A significant diuretic effect was observed from the experimental animals treated with extract of Basella alba individually compared to the control. The results obtained suggest potential usefulness of extract of Basella alba leaf as an antiurolithiatic agent.
145-149
24
ENHANCEMENT OF SOLUBILITY AND DISSOLUTION RATE OF EFAVIRENZ USING LIQUI SOLID COMPACT TECHNIQUE
Jagan Mohan Vatyam, Ch. S. Vijaya Vani, V. Umamaheshwara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the present investigation is to formulate Liqui-Solid tablets of Efavirenz. In the present study Efavirenz immediate release tablets were prepared by using aid of non-volatile solvents like polyethylene glycol (PEG) and propylene glycol (PG), in which the poorly soluble drug is dissolved and thereby increasing its solubility and in turn dissolution rate. The tablets were formulated using direct compression technology by employing super disintegrants like cross povidone and sodium starch glycolate. The prepared liquid-solid compact tablets were evaluated for pre compression, post compression and in-vitro drug release. The in-vitro drug release pattern of liquisolid tablets of Efavirenz was fitted in kinetic model which showed highest regression i.e. for zero order kinetics. Among all the formulations, LS-12 which is a combination of Propylene glycol, Ratio (R) =2 and cross povidone- 4% was optimized based on desired immediate release time (10mins) followed by acceptable disintegration and drug release properties.
150-156
25
PRODUCTION, OPTIMIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL COMPOUND FROM ASPERGILLUS SP
Daljit Singh Arora, Harpreet kaur , Jemimah Gesare Onsare and Vishal Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Fungi have been reported to be active producers of secondary metabolites. In this study, a fungal isolate (Aspergillus sp) isolated from soil has been evaluated for its antimicrobial activity. The activity was studied under various physio-chemical parameters, such as pH, temperature, incubation period, carbon and nitrogen sources. The best antimicrobial activity was observed in the production medium having pH 5-7, on fifth day of incubation at 25 ºC when grown as static culture. Starch was the most promising carbon source, while yeast extract and soyabean meal acted as best nitrogen sources. Butanolic extract was comparable to standard antibiotics in contrast to aqueous extract. Response surface analysis showed that the antimicrobial activity was enhanced by 1.25 folds in S.aureus, 1.28 folds (S.epidermidis), 1.6 folds (K.pneumoniae 1), 1.37 folds (C.albicans), 1.38 folds (MRSA). Characterization of the purified compound responsible for antimicrobial activity was carried out by various analytical procedures i.e. TLC, HPLC, NMR and IR. MIC of the butanolic extract ranged from (0.016mg/ml-18mg/ml) while purified compound exhibited lower MIC value of 6µg/ml, 20 µg/ml and 20 µg/ml respectively for S.epidermidis, C.albicans and MRSA. VCC (Viable cell count) studies revealed E.coli to be the most sensitive and demonstrated 100% killing at 0 hr. Butanolic extract (crude) and the purified compound were found to be neither cytotoxic nor mutagenic.
157-171
26
DENTAL PROBLEMS IN THE PATIENTS OF DIABETES MELLITUS
Safia Abidi, Fatima Ramzan Ali, Sheikh Abdul Khaliq, Manzar Raza, Iqbal Azhar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The progression of oral disease is affected by chronic metabolic disorder known as diabetes. Dental health is an integral part of the general health and oral cavity is considered as a mirror of the rest of the body. The most common dental problem of diabetic patients is periodontal disease, and it along with dental caries can damage the whole tooth. The aim of the study is to determine the dental problems in diabetic patients of Karachi, Pakistan. A survey form comprising of issues regarding dental problems was filled by dentists of 94 diabetic patients. The data was entered and analyzed by SPSS 19 software. Out of 94 diabetic patients, the male female ratio is almost same i.e. 51.1% and 48.9%, respectively. Majority of patients had periodontal problems (97.8%). Other common dental problems were endodontitis (45.25), surgery (64.5%), debris in mouth (77.45), loose or carious tooth (50.55%), and inflamed, swollen or bleeding gum (74.2%). 47.3% patients lost their natural teeth. Diabetic patients usually suffer from dental problems and special care must be taken to avoid or manage these problems.
172-174
27
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF LAMIVUDINE AND TINOFOVIR BY RP-HPLC METHOD
Avinash Vajrapu, Dhanalaxmi K, G. Nagarjuna Reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Lamivudine and Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in pharmaceutical dosage form. The method was based on RP-HPLC. Chromatographic separation was performed on Symmetry C18 (4.6 x 150mm, 5m, Make: Waters) or equivalent ,column using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of KH2PO4 buffer (pH 2.5 with dilute ortho-phosphoric acid): Methanol: phosphate Buffer (700%v/v) in an isocratic mode. The following system conditions were maintained throughout development and validation i.e., flow rate 1.0 mL/min, column was maintained at room temperature and the detected by a UV-wave length at 260nm. The Lamivudine and Tinofovir were well resolved on the stationary phase and the retention times were 2.464 and 3.746 minutes respectively. The method was validated; both the drugs were shown to be linear over a range of 300 μg/mL. Precision Intermediate Precision/Ruggedness Accuracy linearity Limit of detection Limit of quantification Robustness was determined to validate the method.
175-182
28
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF FOSINOPRIL SODIUM, HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC
K. Priyanka, A. Ajitha, M. Sandhya Mamindla, V. Uma Maheswara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, precise, rapid, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for simultaneous estimation of Fosinopril Sodium (FOS) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation was performed on X-terra(C8) (4.6mm x 150mm, 3.5m) column, with mobile phase comprising of mixture of buffer (pH 6.0, adjusted with ortho phosphoric acid), acetonitrile and methanol&nbsp; in the ratio of 80:10:10v/v, at the flow rate 0.8 ml/min. The detection was carried out at 226 nm. The retention times of FOS and HCTZ were found to be 2.1 and 3.3 mins respectively with a run time of 6 mins, theoretical levels for FOS and HCTZ were 2015 and 4034 respectively, with a resolution of 5.42. As per ICH guidelines the method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantitation, robustness and ruggedness. Linearity of FOS was found in the range of 10-50 &micro;g/mL and that for HCTZ was found to be 6.25-31.35 &micro;g/mL. The correlation coefficient for FOS and HCTZ were 0.9992 and 0.9991 respectively. The LOD values for FOS and HCTZ were 0.88 and 1.11 &micro;g/mL respectively. The LOQ values for FOS and HCTZ were and 2.96 and 3.7 &micro;g/mL respectively. This demonstrates that the developed method is simple, precise, rapid, selective, accurate and reproducible for simultaneous estimation of FOS and HCTZ tablet dosage form.<br />
183-188
29
PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF ETHYL CELLULOSE MICROSPHERES OF PIOGLITAZONE HCl FOR SUSTAINED DRUG DELIVERY
Vankayalu Devendiran Sundar, Nandhakumar Sathyamoorthy, Manam Madhuri, Magharla Dasaratha Dhanaraju
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of this study is to formulate and evaluate ethyl cellulose microspheres of pioglitazone hydrochloride for sustained/controlled drug release. Ethyl cellulose microspheres loaded with pioglitazone hydrochloride were prepared using emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The prepared microspheres were characterized for their average particle size, drug entrapment efficiency, scanning electron microscopy, DSC studies, in-vitro drug release behavior and in-vitro release mechanism. The microspheres were spherical with average particle size of 19 to 31 &mu;m. The microspheres were free flowing smooth and spherical in shape with ideal surface morphology. The DSC endotherm proves the compatibility of drug and polymer. In-vitro release studies reveals that the microspheres formulation prepared with an increasing concentration of polymer exhibits more control release than the formulation prepared with lower concentration. Among all the batches, formulation with higher concentration of polymer shows an extended release and is suitable for formulate as sustained/controlled delivery system.
189-193
30
A NOVEL APPROACH FOR FORMULATION OF ITOPRIDE HCL MUPS SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLET
Biswajit Biswal, Nabin Karna
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
MUPS tablet was prepared to control the release of Itopride Hydrochloride over a prolong period of time as multi unit particulate system are familiar, proven, easy to formulate and economical. The sustained released pellets containing Itopride Hydrochloride were prepared using a Fluidized bed processor technique. Amount of Microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel pH102, Hypromellose 15 cps and Ethyl cellulose 50 cps were taken as the formulation variables for optimizing to keep round shape of pellets and percentage release of drug. The pellets were evaluated for Physical characterization, Assay, Sizing, Aspect ratio, density, SEM, In-vitro drug release and Binder’s concentration tends to very effective pellets shape and size. Percentage release of drug intended to very non-linear with polymer type and percentage of coating on the pellets. In present investigation attempts were made to prepare 8 batches of multi unit particular tablets of Itopride Hydrochloride by using different polymers namely ethyl cellulose 50 cps and HPMC E-6 cps. The prepared tablets were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, percentage drug content, content uniformity, hardness disintegration time, in vitro drug release.
194-203
31
EVALUATION OF IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF COCCULUS HIRSUTUS (L.) DIELS
Mukesh Kumar Meena, Neelam Singh, Vidya Patni
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Plants are a potential source of natural antioxidants. Antioxidants protect from the potentially damaging oxidative stress, which is a result of an imbalance between the formation of ROS (Reactive oxygen species) and the body antioxidant defense. The present study was directed to investigate the antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of different plant parts of Cocculus hirsutus. The antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of in vivo and in vitro plant parts of Cocculus hirsutus was determined on the basis of their scavenging activity of the stable 2, 2- diphenyl- 2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. In the present study, methanolic extracts of the different plant parts and callus of Cocculus hirsutus showed potential free-radical scavenging activity. The methanolic extract of Cocculus hirsutus and Ascorbic acid (standard) showed DPPH free radical scavenging activity in a concentration range of 10-1000 μg/ml and its inhibition ranged from 36.92 - 84.1% and that of standard was 49.68 - 94.60%. Methanolic extracts of callus were found to have maximum IC50 value (151.65 µg/ml) followed by leaf (121.45 µg/ml) and stem (37.83 µg/ml). Standard antioxidant used was Ascorbic acid (1mg/ml) having 24.79 µg/ml IC50 value. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was detected in methanolic extract of stem followed by methanolic extract of leaf and callus respectively. These activities are less than that of standard ascorbic acid. The results of DPPH scavenging activity assay in this study indicates that the methanolic extract of stem was potently active than other plant parts of Cocculus hirsutus and the methanolic extract of the study species is effective in scavenging free radicals and has the potential to be powerful antioxidant.
204-207
32
KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS AND HOUSE OFFICERS REGARDING INFECTION CONTROL IN CLINICAL SETTINGS
Atiquddin Mallick, Sheikh Abdul Khaliq, Muhammad Nasir, Zahid Khan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The rational of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice in regard to standards isolation, precautions among dentistry students in different dental colleges of Karachi so that steps could be taken to enhance the standards of dental practice and reduces the probabilities of cross infection. The main objective of the study was to determine Knowledge, Attitude and Practices in regard to infection control related precautions among the dental students and house officers in the dental colleges of Karachi and to find out association between KMDC (Karachi Medical &amp; Dental College) and other dental colleges for dental hygiene practices. The study has been conducted in five dental collages of Karachi, 409 students of third year, final year and internees were recruited to solve the questionnaire for the duration of December 2011 to January 2012. Sample size is determined, based upon WHO criteria and the statistical analysis was performed for mean, standard deviation and age ranges. Chi Sq. was applied to determine the significance at P value &lt;0.05. Findings of study revealed that majority of students are female in dental colleges of Karachi, among them, 77.70% believe that rate of transmission of Hepatitis-B is high while 12.30% rated AIDS as the highly transmissible infection. During the practice or trainings 24% of students and interns use goggles while 72% use detergents/antiseptics to wash their hands and 8% do not bend the needles after use. Pre dental examinations washing of hands were lacks by 5% of students and internees while almost same proportion (5%) do not get vaccination against Hepatitis-B infection. The study reveals that, it is quite evident that most of the students and internees have good knowledge of infection control in the dental clinics and also using personal procreative equipments. They are practicing the standard infection control methods. The attitude towards infection control was a little poor in some of the respondent. A large number of the respondent did not use goggles for droplet splash in the dental clinic and no significant association was found between KMDC and other dental colleges regarding dental hygiene practices.
208-212
33
COMPARATIVE MODELING OF PLASMODIUM FALCIPARAM DIHYDROPTEROATE SYNTHASE 2 AND DOCKING STUDY AGAINST COMPOUNDS FROM ANTI-MALARIAL PLANT CARCIA PAPAYA AND SWERTIA CHIRATA
Robin Das, Dhrubajyoti Gogoi, Surovi Saikia, Shovonlal Bhoumic, Rajib Lochan Bezbaruah, R.N.S.Yadav
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Malaria parasite Plasmodium falciarum are becoming drug resistant and the present drugs are becoming ineffective towards the disease. The Plasmodium falciparum causes the most malignant form of malaria highly prevalent to North–East India. In this investigation, a study was conducted to search and predict potent anti-malarial lead compounds from two traditionally important anti-malarial plant, Carcia papaya and Swertia chirata. Dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) is an essential enzyme required for the folate biosynthesis in Plasmodium falciparum. Till date, three dimensional (3D) structure of DHPS is not yet elucidated and hence, homology model of DHPS was generated and docked with these plant derived compound. The study identified few phytochemical such as Atovquone, Nitroblue tetrazolium, Caffeic Acid and Kaempferol in terms of least docking and optimum ADME scores as a novel DHPS inhibitor.
213-218
34
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF METFORMIN AND FENOFIBRATE BY RP-HPLC METHOD IN MARKETED FORMULATION
M. Prathyusha, Sujitha, M. Sandhya, V. Uma Maheshwara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new precise, accurate, reliable validated method has been developed by using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) for the determination of Metformin and Fenofibrate in pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation was carried out using mobile phase buffer (0.02M Potassium dihydrogen phosphate): Acetonitrile: Methanol (40:50:10, PH-5.65 adjusted with Orthophosphoric acid) on Hypersil Silica column (250 x 4.6 mm, 5) at a flow rate 1.0ml/min at 30°C. Photodiode array is used as detector and Detection was carried out at 225nm wavelength.The retention times for Metformin and Fenofibrate were 7.436 min and 2.999 min respectively. Both the drugs showed good linearity in the range of 250-750 µg/ml for metformin and 80-240 µg/ml for Fenofibrate. The proposed method has been successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulation and was validated according to ICH guidelines. Method showed good precision with %RSD less than 2%. The percentage recovery for Metformin and Fenofibrate was found between 99.39-100.61% and 100.47-101.43% respectively. And it indicates that the proposed method was accurate and precise.
219-225
35
CHITOSAN-BASED PARTICULATE SYSTEM FOR ORAL VACCINE DELIVERY: A REVIEW
Subrata Biswas, Kalyan Kumar Sen, Debosree Roy, Malay Kumar Saha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Mucosal vaccination is a promising alternative to classical parental vaccination, as it is non-invasive and, in principle, capable of eliciting strong systemic and local immune responses. Chitosan has already gained considerable attentions as vehicles for protein drug delivery due to its excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-toxicity. However, its poor aqueous solubility and loss of penetration-enhancing above pH 6 are major drawbacks for its use as oral vaccine carrier. In recent years, the area of focus has shifted from chitosan to chitosan derivatized polymers for the preparation of nanoparticles due to their vastly improved properties, such as acid resistivity, better drug retention capability, improved permeation, enhanced mucoadhesion and sustained release of therapeutic antigens. Additionally, interaction with counter ions such as sulfates or polyphosphates facilitates its usefulness in the coating or entrapment of antigenic molecules as a vaccine candidate. The current review focuses on the recent advancements in the field of oral vaccine delivery via chitosan-based particulates, describes the various methods used to design and synthesis and discusses about their in vitro and in vivo implications.
226-236
36
SCREENING OF SKELETAL MUSCLE RELAXANT ACTIVITY OF PLANT VICIA FABA
Kalakonda Rajesh, Kadiri Sunil Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The study was designed to investigate the skeletal muscle relaxant activity of vicia faba (400mg/kg, p.o) by using rota rod apparatus. Experiments were carried out on albino mice and the animals were randomly allotted to the different control, test and standard (diazepam 4mg/kg, p.o) groups. The methanolic extract significantly reduced the fall off time (4.33sec) in comparision with the fall off time of control treated animals (11.6 sec). This reduction in fall off time observed in test extract animals placed on rotarod apparatus indicates motor incoordination. As it is evident from phytochemical studies that vicia faba leaf extract possess tannins and hence the observed skeletal muscle relaxant activity may be attributed to tannins.
237-240
37
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF NEWLY SYNTHESISED IMIDAZOLE (2-(2-BENZYLIDENE HYDRAZINYL)-5, 5-DIPHENYL-1, 5-DIHYDRO-4H-IMIDAZOL 4-ONE)
G. E. Suhasini, M. Nirmala, Varalakshmi, Archana Giri, B. Solomon G. Sahitha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The newly synthesized imidazole was evaluated for anti-oxidant activity. Chloro derivative of imidazole was synthesized. In three steps and has significant antidiabetic activity. Antioxidant activity is evaluated by estimating the free radical scavenging activity by DPPH method and nitric oxide method by. Invitro. whereas invivo antioxidant activity is evaluated by estimiating Enzyme catalase which catalyses hydrogen peroxide , lipid peroxidation by TBARS and reduced glutathione levels. Free scavenging activity of the cholro derivative increased with increasing dose. Catalase acitivity and glutathione reduction increased whereas lipid peroxidation decreased. The synthesized Chloro derivative has significant antioxidant activity.
241-246
38
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF OMEPRAZOLE IN BULK AND PHARMACUTICAL FORMULATION
G.V. Sudhakararao, K. Sujana, T. Pedababu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
To develop simple, economical, precise and less time consuming UV method for the estimation of Omeprazole in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on UV spectroscopic technique. Omeprazole shows the maximum absorbance at 301nm in absorption maxima method. Drug followed the linearity in the range of 5- 25µg/ml for this method with correlation coefficient (r2 ) of 0.999. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and recovery studies confirmed the accuracy of the proposed method. The method was validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The proposed method is recommended for routine analysis since it is rapid, simple, accurate and sensitive.
247-251
39
COMPUTATIONAL DRUG DESIGNING AGAINST SALMONELLA TYPHI: A CAUSATIVE AGENT OF TYPHOID
Syed Aun Muhammad, Humaira Nadeem, Ahmad Sadiq
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella typhi, is characterized by gastrointestinal illness and fatal bloody diarrhea. The emerging epidemic cases and resistance of this bacterium to broad spectrum antibiotics demands the development of new anti-typhoid drugs. In this study, oxadiazole has been synthesized with significant anti-Salmonella activity. This compound was structurally characterized through FTIR and NMR. The computational docking studies of oxadiazole with essential target protein (UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine:D-glutamate ligase) of Salmonella typhi showed stable binding affinity with minimum binding energy of -9.9 Kcal/mol. This computational study will add to our understanding of the drug designing and development, and to target these pathogenic bacteria to treat typhoid infections.
252-255
40
AN OVERVIEW ON RECENT ADVANCES AND CURRENT TRENDS IN ORAL MUCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Gorre Manish, Kotha Rajkumar, R. Sainath Goud
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Buccal administration of drugs provides a convenient route of administration for both systemic and local drug actions. The major hindrance for the absorption of a drug taken orally is extensive first pass metabolism or stability problems within the GI environment like instability in gastric pH and complexation with mucosal membrane. In both the stimulation of these types of buccal drugs start info, mucoadhesion of system is a key component. Mucoadhesive polymers make been used beneath lots additional dosage variety beneath work to achieve systemic start on medication on both the buccal mucosa. It is also possible to administer drugs to the patients of subconscious and bless co-operative. In order to prevent accidental swallowing on drugs epoxy mucosal dosage variety were meant for oral start, which included epoxy tablets, movies, greases, other dosage variety with various mixtures of polymers, absorption enhancers. Several methodologies have been considered so far, to design and manipulate the release properties towards the invention of buccal mucosal delivery systems.
256-264
41
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ATENOLOL AND AMLODIPINE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Akki Srivani, Sujitha Hazari and Swathi Malichetti
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new precise, accurate, reliable validated method for the determination of Atenolol and Amlodipine has been developed by using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) in pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation was carried out by using mobile phase 0.02M Potassium dehydrogenate phosphate: acetonitrile (62:38v/v, PH-3.56 adjusted with Orthophosphoric acid) on Hypersil, BDS 150 x 4.6 mm, 5 at a flow rate 0.8ml/min with UV detection at 238nm.The retention times for Atenolol and Amlodipine were 1.998 and 6.093 min respectively and both drugs showed good linearity in the range of 250-750 µg/ml and 25-75 µg/ml. The proposed method has been successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulation and was validated according to ICH guidelines and method showed good precision with percentage relative standard deviation less than 2%. The percentage recovery for Atenolol and Amlodipine was found between 99.06-100.94% and 99.12-100.95% respectively indicating the proposed method was accurate and precise.
265-269
42
URTICA DIOICA (STINGING NETTLE): A REVIEW OF ITS CHEMICAL, PHARMACOLOGICAL, TOXICOLOGICAL AND ETHNOMEDICAL PROPERTIES
Seliya Mamta and Kothiyal Preeti
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Medicinal plants existing even before human being made their appearance on the earth. The raw materials for ayurvedic medicine were mostly obtained from plant sources in the form of crude drugs .There has been a rich heritage of ethnobotanical usage of herbs by various colorful tribal communities in the country. Plants are rich source of many natural products, most of which have been extensively used for human welfare. Owing to rich medicinal properties, Urtica dioica (L) commonly known as stinging nettle of family urticaceae has a long history of use in the home as an herbal remedy since ancient times.Various parts of the plant have been used in ayurvedic preparations by vaidyas for curing various ailments. As a useful first-aid remedy it is used in the treatment of ailments such as bites and stings, burns, hives and breast feeding problems. Nettle is not only a weed but an important medicinal herb and this present review deals with chemical,pharmacological,ethnomedical and toxicological aspects of this medicinal herb and it also provides supportive evidence about the therapeutic effects.
270-277
43
AN UPDATE ON VARIOUS ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES BASED ON UV SPECTROSCOPY USED IN DETERMINATION OF DISSOCIATION CONSTANT
Bebee Pathare, Vrushali Tambe, Shashikant Dhole, Vandana Patil
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
It is well known that the dissociation constant is most important parameter in development and optimization of new compound for effective formulation development. Dissociation constant plays a crucial role in understanding chemical phenomenon of drug because it affects pharmacokinetic behavior like absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME). Solubility, permeability, protein binding of a compound is also influenced by its pKa. There are various techniques available for determination of dissociation constant. Among Photometric techniques available, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry is one of the most frequently employed technique in pharmaceutical analysis for determination of this parameter. In this review the most valuable UV spectroscopic methods such as derivative spectrophotometry, simultaneous equation method, orthogonal polynomial method, multi-wavelength method, molar ratio method, difference spectrophotometry for determining accurate pKa value are presented.
278-285
44
REVIEW ON USE OF PLASMAPHERESIS IN FOGOSELVAGEM
Kiron S.S, Arun Shirwaikar, Yogala C.K, Saritha M
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Fogoselvagem (pemphigus foliaceus) is an endemic form of pemphigus foliaceus and was formerly known as Brazilian pemphigus foliaceus because it was originally observed in specific river valleys of rural Brazil. Plasmapheresis is a therapeutic option in patients with recalcitrant disease. It may decrease autoantibody titers in some patients and favourably influence the clinical outcome, especially in patients with otherwise therapy-resistant pemphigus foliaceus.<br />
286-288
45
FORMULATION AND COMPARITIVE OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPLE LIPID DRUG CARRIERS OF VALSARTAN FOR ORAL CONTROLLED RELEASE
T. L. Vaishnavi, Sowjanya Battu, V. Uma Maheshwara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present study, an attempt was made to formulate, comparatively evaluate and optimize multiple lipid drug carriers of valsartan for oral controlled release. Two lipid drug delivery systems i.e. Niosomes and Liposomes were studied for the delivery of the anti-hypertensive drug valsartan. They were formulated as suspensions.Ether injection and rotary evaporator method were chosen for the formulation of physically and chemically stable niosomes and liposomes of valsartan.In-vitro evaluation studies for the prepared multiple drug delivery carriers of valsartan were performed. The in-vitro evaluation studies performed were evaluation for physical appearance, particle size by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), drug content , entrapment efficiency and in-vitro drug release. Optimization of the best lipid drug delivery system and the best method of preparation was done based on the results of <em>In-Vitro</em> drug release and entrapment efficiency values. Finally, an attempt was made to improve the bioavailabilty of the administered drug, reduce side effects and improve patient compliance by optimizing the best formulation through lipid drug delivery technology.
289-297
46
FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING POTENTIAL OF THE LEAVES OF WITHANIA SOMNIFERA L.: AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT
R A Sharma, Monika Goswami, Ankita Yadav and Richa Bhardwaj
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Withania somnifera L. is a well known plant in Ayurveda and Unani medicine. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of leaves of W.somnifera. The extract was subjected to assess its radical scavenging activities using the systems such as 1, 1–diphenyl, 2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), Superoxide scavenging, 2, 2’–azinobis, 3-ethyl-benzothiozline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), Nitric Oxide and Iron chelating activity. The extract showed best activity in scavenging of ABTS as it showed the lowest IC50 values(42.21 µg/ml) as well as potently scavenged the DPPH radical(44.25 µg/ml). The antioxidant property depends upon concentration and increased with increasing amount of plant fraction. The results of the study showed that leaves of W.somnifera possess significant antioxidant activity. Owning to these results, the plant has the potential to be used as a medicine against free radical associated oxidative damage.
298-303
47
ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF SOME NOVEL TRIAZOLOTHIADIAZOLES
J. Subbarao, S. Vidhyadhara, N. Srinivasulu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A novel series of 1,2,4-triazolo [ 3,4-b] [ 1,3,4 ] thiadiazoles were prepared by treating 4-amino -3-substituted -5- mercapto-1,2,4-triazoles with 2-amino-4-(substituted phenyl)-3-carboethoxy benzopyron. Their chemical structures were confirmed by means of spectral data IR, 1H NMR and Elemental analysis. All the synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity and anti-inflammatory activities. Some of the synthesized compounds have shown very good antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities.
304-308
48
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF FLURBIPROFEN IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY
B. Rajani, B. Bangar Raju and K. Mukkanti
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of Flurbiprofen in pharmaceutical dosage form was developed and validated. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Hypersil BDS (100 x 4.6 mm, 5) column. The mobile phase, 0.01 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer and acetonitrile (52:48) were delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The eluent was monitored using PDA detection at 246 nm. Validation parameters such as system suitability, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), Stability of sample and standard stock solutions and robustness were studied as reported in the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The retention time for Flurbiprofen was 3.1 min. The calibration graph for Flurbiprofen was linear from 12.5 to 75 µg/mL. The interday and intraday precisions (relative standard deviation) were less than 1.0. The method can be employed for routine quality control of Flurbiprofen tablets in quality control laboratories and pharmaceutical industries.
309-312
49
EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF SOME NOVEL DIARYLSULFONYLUREA-CHALCONE HYBRIDS IN CARRAGEENAN–INDUCED PAW EDEMA IN RATS
Bharat Kumar B, SVGK Kaladhar D, Vasudeva Rao A, Divakar NLS, Subhash Y, Amita CMP
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A series of some novel diarylsulfonylurea-chalcone hybrids synthesized in our earlier study as potential 5- lipoxygenase inhibitors were now subjected for the anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan induced rat paw edema method. The compounds 4o, 4q, 4r, 4t and 4y were selected for the study; the rationale behind the selection of these compounds is mainly due to their potential inhibitory activity against 5-lipoxygenase enzyme. Among the compounds tested 4r and 4o have been displayed remarkable percentage reduction of paw volume in comparison with standard drug Aceclofenac.
313-316
50
A VALIDATED UV SPECTROSCOPIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION ANAGRELIDE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORMS
N. Kalyani Reddy, A. Archana, S. Sridhar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, reproducible and cost effective spectroscopic method developed and validated for anagrelide in bulk and tablet dosage form. The drug was determined by using dimethyl sulfoxide and 0.1 N NaOH (1:4) as diluent at 300 nm. Validation was performed as ICH guidelines for linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD and LOQ. The %recovery study for the proposed method is 98-108%w/v indicating no interferences of the tablet excipients. Linearity was obtained in concentration range of 2-10µg/ml for anagrelide with correlation coefficient of 0.999. The detection limit and quantitation limit was found to be 0.0419 and 0.127 respectively.
317-320
51
A NEW STABILITY INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CEFIXIME AND LINEZOLID IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM AND PLASMA SAMPLE
Satyanarayana Battu, Vasudev Pottbathini
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new stability indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of Cefixime and Linezolid in tablet dosage form and spiked plasma sample. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a XTerra RP-18 (150mm x 4.6mm, 5µm) stationary phase maintained at a temperature of 30 ºC with a mobile phase combination of 1% Orthophosphoric acid and Methanol (60:40) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1 and the detection was carried out by using UV detector at 250 nm. The total run time was 8 minutes. The retention time of Cefixime and Linezolid were found to be 3.815 min and 5.665 min respectively. Further forced degradation study of Cefixime and Linezolid has been carried out in various stress conditions. Both compounds were found to be sensitive to all accelerated conditions like acid, base, light, heat and oxidation. The performance of the method was validated according to the present ICH guidelines. Cefixime is found to be linear in the range of 100-300 µg mL-1 and Linezolid is found to be linear in the range of 300-900 µg mL-1 . The limit of detection and limit of quantification was found to be 0.6 µg mL-1 and 2.46 µg mL-1 for Cefixime and 2.01 µg mL-1 and 8.21 µg mL-1 for Linezolid. The proposed method was found to be simple, sensitive, accurate and can be applied for qualitative, quantitative and stability studies
321-329
52
CHIRAL AGP FOR THE RESOLUTION OF ENANTIOMERS - AN OVERVIEW
T. Sirisha, B.M. Gurupadayya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Chiral seperation also called chiral resolution,is a procedure used to seperate the two isomers of a racemic compound. Many Chiral stationary phases(CSP’S) have been manufactured for the seperation of enantiomers.Among them Chiral-AGP is the protein based chiral column . α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is a very stable protein, which tolerates pure organic solvents,high temperatures and high and low pH. The CHIRAL-AGP is a reversed phase column giving many possibilities to affect both the retention and the enantioselectivity. The solutes are retained by three types of forces Ionic binding (charged solutes), Hydrophobic interaction and Hydrogen bonding. Based on the product type, particle size, internal diameter and column length many columns have been manufactured by Chiral Technologies. Chiral AGP has a broad range of applicability and it has been used for the separation of many basic drugs, environmental pollutents,1,4 benzodiazepines. It is also suitable with MS detection of many drugs.
330-334
53
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF ROSUVASTATIN CALCIUM IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
M. Chandra Shekhar, G. Raveendra Babu, S.C. Dinda, P.V. Sonthosh, P. Shwetha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A validated simple, sensitive, specific and precise RP-HPLC method was developed for the determination of Rosuvastatin in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. Method was carried on Symmetry C18 column (100 X 4.6 mm i.d., particle size 3.5um,ACE) using acetontrile: phosphate buffer as mobile phase in the ratio of 60:40v/v/. The detection was carried out at 243nm using Waters (2659) UV-Visible detector.The proposed method obeyed linearity in the range of 20-60 μg/mL and met all specifications as per ICH guidelines. Statistical analysis revealed that this method can be used in routine quality control studies of Rosuvastatin in pure and its pharmaceutical formulations.
335-339
54
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF NEBIVOLOL AND VALSARTAN IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC METHOD
B. Siddartha, I. Sudheer Babu, Ch. Ravichandra Gupta, C. Parthiban
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination nebivolol and valsartan in pharmaceutical dosage form. The using Altima C18 (4.6 x 150mm, 5µ) column in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing phosphate buffer and acetonitrile (52:48 v/v) adjusted to pH 4.8 with dilute ortho phosphoric acid solution. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/ min and effluents were monitored at 282 nm. The retention times of nebivolol and valsartan were found to be 2.325 min and 5.172 min, respectively. The linearity for nebivolol and valsartan were in the range of 2.5-7.5μg/ml and 40-120μg/ml respectively. The recoveries of nebivolol and valsartan were found to be 100.04% to 101.36% and 99.86% to 101.62%, respectively. The proposed method was validated and successfully applied for the estimation of nebivolol and valsartan in combined tablet dosage forms.
340-346
55
COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF FILM FORMING PROPERTIES OF SOME NATURAL POLYMERS
Abhishek Rathi, Anil Pethe
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present work was to formulate and evaluate transdermal films using natural polymers and to check its effectiveness for control of drug release using Ibuprofen as model drug. Study was undertaken to report the film forming properties of the natural polymers and their physicochemical data. Various drug free films with varying quantities of polymers i.e. Pectin (4, 6, 8 %), Locust bean gum (1, 2, 3 %), Chitosan (0.5, 1, 2 %), Shellac (2.5, 5, 7.5 %) and plasticizer i.e. Poly ethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400) in 10, 20, 30 % were formulated using solvent casting method using mercury as a substrate. Initially, the drug free films were formulated and were evaluated for various parameters like folding endurance, uniformity of thickness, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), tensile strength, break force, % elongation. The FTIR study revealed that the drug &amp; polymers were compatible with each other. The film composition which showed significant results were selected and drug loaded films with same composition incorporating 200mg of drug and varying quantity of permeation enhancer i.e. Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) in 5, 10, 15 % were formulated and in-vitro diffusion study using Franz diffusion cell was carried out.&nbsp;
347-356
56
EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF INDIAN HERBS
Kulkarni Chitrarekha Girish, Lohar Bhagwan Namdev, Jadhav Shital Tanaji, Salunkhe Satyajeet Sunil
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Helminthic infections are major cause of chronic ill health among tropical people. Traditional medicines contain several plant products for eliminating helminthic worms. However, standardization of individual ingredients is lacking in many cases. Present investigations are undertaken to ascertain anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Terminalia belerica fruit, Boerrhavia diffusa leaf and Saxifraga granulata root against Pheretima posthuma and Eisenia foetida. Albendazole 20mg/ml is used as a reference standard drug and normal saline as control. The result is expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death. The study indicated significant anthelmintic activity of aqueous as well as ethanolic extracts of Terminalia belerica and Boerrhavia diffusa. &nbsp;Ethanolic extract of Saxifraga granulata &nbsp;at concentration of 50mg/ml showed comparable anthelmintic activity with reference standard against Pheretima posthuma.
357-362
57
POTENTIAL HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT AND ANTIOXIDANT ROLE OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF MORINDA TINCTORIA IN CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS
Isha I. Sait, Jyoti Harindran, A. Abdul Vahab, Jeena J. L, Nasli S. Jolly John
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present work examines the protective mechanisms of methanol extract of Morinda tinctoria in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats. Rats are treated with carbon tetrachloride at the dose of 1 ml/kg body weight intraperitonially once every 72 hrs for 14 days. The hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of Morinda tinctoria was evaluated by measuring levels of serum marker enzymes like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The serum levels of total protein and bilirubin were also estimated. The histological studies were also carried out to support the above parameters. Administration of extract (400and 800 mg/kg) significantly (p&lt; 0.05) prevented CCl4-induced elevation of levels of serum GPT, GOT, ALP, and bilirubin. The results are comparable with standard drug silymarin. A comparative histopathological study of liver exhibited almost normal architecture, as compared to CCl4 treated control group. These data suggest that the methanol extract of Morinda tinctoria may act as a hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent.
363-368
58
SYNTHESIS AND ANTIBACTERIAL EVALUATION OF SOME NEW COUMARIN DERIVATIVES OF PHARMACEUTICAL INTEREST
B. Susmitha, P.V. Naveen, G.Jhansi, G.Chaitanya, B. Anupama, KNV Chenchulakshmi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A series of new coumarin derivatives were prepared by condensation of resorcinol and ethyl aceto acetate followed by sulfonation with chlorosulphonic acid and amination with various water soluble primary amines .The synthesised compounds were characterised by physical properties and spectral studies (IR,1HNMR,13CNMR). The compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative organisms with standard benzyl penicillin.
369-373
59
DESIGN, CHARECTERIZATION AND IN-VITRO, IN-VIVO CORRELATION STUDIES FOR ELETRIPTAN LOADED TRANSDERMAL PATCHES
P. Praneetha, Sowjanya Battu, V. Umamaheshwar Rao, A. Ramyasree
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Eletriptan is a 5-HT1D (5-hydroxy tryptamine 1D)-receptor agonist, used in the treatment of migraine and cluster headache. Eletriptan has been shown to have a low oral bioavailability in human volunteers (50%) because of high first pass metabolism. The present investigation is to formulate matrix type transdermal drug delivery system which is loaded with Eletriptan using Hydroxy Propyl methyl cellulose k-4 and k-15 individually as a release controlling polymers, Propylene glycol as permeation enhancer and Dibutylpthalate as a plasticizer. The prepared patches were characterized by diffusion studies with Franz diffusion cell and further correlated with animal studies. The work was aimed to develop the TDDS which controls the release of Eletriptan for 48 hrs. The models used were zero and firstorder equations, Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas models. Based on physicochemical properties and in vitro release studies, patch containing Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose k15(500mg) emerged as a best formulation. Skin irritation studies for the transdermal patches were assessed and were found to be free of irritation.
374-385
60
EVALUATION OF ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PLANT SESBANIA SESBAN
Kumar Sandeep, Bajwa Baljinder Singh and Kumar Narinder
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The genus Sesbania sesban contains about 50 spieces, the majority of which are annuals. The greatest spieces diversity occurs in Africa with 33 spieces. The spieces Sesbania sesban belongs to sub-family Papilionoidea of the family Leguminosae. It is a small perennial tree with woody stems, yellow flowers and linear pods . Sesbania sesban is very common throughout Africa and in asian countries like India, Malaysia, Indonesia and Phillipines. Campesterol, &szlig;-sitosterol, Cyanidine, Delphinidin glycosides, a-Keto glutaric, Oxaloacetic and &nbsp; &nbsp; pyruvic acids, Oleanolic acid, saponins, Palmitic acid, Stearic acid, Oleic acid, Linoleic acid and Linolenic acid are reported in Whole plant. Cyanidin and Delphinidin glycosides, Flavonols are reported in flowers. The plant has been reported to possess various activities such as anti-inflammatory activity, antinociceptive activity, antidiabetic activity, antifertility activity and antioxidant activity. The present study was designed to study the anti-bacterial activity of Sesbania sesban. The extracts of Sesbania sesban stem were prepared. Soxhlet extraction was carried out by petroleum ether (60-80&deg;C), chloroform, hexane, methanol, ethanol and then distilled water. Plant is subjected to antimicrobial study. Chloroform and methanol extracts of stem of Sesbania sesban at a concentration of 25 mg/ml were equally inhibit P. aeruginosa after 48 hrs. Both chloroform and methanol extracts at a concentration of 100 mg/ml were more effective against B. subtilis than other two bacterial strains after 48 hrs. No antibacterial activity was observed for pet ether ethanol and water extracts in a range from 25 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml.
386-396
61
SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME NEW CHALCONES AS POTENTIAL CYTOTOXIC AGENTS
C. Kistayya, N. G. Raghavendra Rao, A. Vasudev Rao, N. Srinath, B. Sanjeeva Nayak, Bhawatha Chawda
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Chalcones, a group of compounds with two aromatic rings connected by a keto-vinyl chain, constitute an important class of naturally occurring flavonoids exhibiting a wide spectrum of biological activities. The presence of a reactive , -unsaturated keto functional group is partly responsible for their activity. The main objective present study is to synthesize and characterize some new chalcones of 4-bromoacetophenone by reaction with various aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes. The structure of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by means of IR, 1HNMR 13C NMR, mass spectra and by elemental analysis. To screen the synthesized chalcones for their cytotoxic activities. Total compounds (B2 to B25) were synthesized. All these compounds are new and the characteristic physical and spectral data was presented separately in detail. All the chalcones exhibited characteristic absorption bands in the IR spectra (cm-1 ), 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra shows standard characteristic absorption bands. The chalcones (B1- B25) have been evaluated for their cytotoxicity against HT-29 (colon cancer), MCF-7 (breast cancer) and DU-145 (prostate cancer) cell lines. Methotrexate was used as the reference standard. The results clearly revealed that most of the compounds possessed cytotoxic activity as evidenced by the IC50 values. Of all the compounds tested against HT-29 cell lines, the compound B22 having a thienyl moiety in its structure showed maximum activity with a IC50 value of 42 µg/mL. This is followed by compounds, B15 having a bromofuran moiety (IC50 67 µg/mL), B5 having a difluoro phenyl moiety (IC50 68 µg/mL), B21 having a pyrrolyl moiety (IC50 73 µg/mL), B1 having a 4-methylphenyl moiety (IC50 76 µg/mL) and B6 having a dichlorophenyl moiety (IC50 80 µg/mL). From this study, it can be concluded that the chalcones were found to have more cytotoxic activities.
397-406
62
FREE RADICAL SCAVANGING ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA
Sharma Ankita, Sati Sushil Chandra, Rawat Suman, Preeti
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study is done on leaves extract of Cinnamomum Camphora. Extraction of leaves of Cinnamomum Camphora yielded 10.12% of Pet.Ether extract, 13.60% of Chloroform extract, 10.59% of Acetone extract and 17.02% of methanol extract. Methanol extract of Cinnamomum camphora leaves showed maximum antioxidant activity in comparison to all extracts using DPPH method. The concentration of 600 &micro;g/ml of methanol extract showed 91.92% anti-oxidant activity in comparison to all extracts. Acetone showed 84.76% . Both Pet.Ether and Chloroform extracts showed weak anti-oxidant activity. Ascorbic acid was used as a standard &nbsp;for comparison to extracts which showed 96% activity.
407-409
63
EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ARISTOLOCHIA KRYSAGATHRA (ARISTOLOCHIACEAE)- AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL HERB
Jegadeeswari P, Nishanthini A, Muthukumarasamy S, Mohan VR
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Antioxidant activity of petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol extracts of the whole plant of Aristolochia krysagathra have been tested using various antioxidant model systems viz, DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, ABTS and reducing power. Methanol extract of Aristolochia krysagathra is found to possess higher DPPH hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Methanol and ethanol extracts of Aristolochia krysagathra exhibited highest ABTS radical cation scavenging activity. Methanol extract of whole plant of Aristolochia krysagathra showed the highest reducing ability. This study indicates significant free radical scavenging potential of Aristolochia krysagathra whole plant which can be exploited for the treatment of various free radical mediated ailments.
410-416
64
IMPROVED RELEASE ORAL DRUG DELIVERY OF METAXALONE
N. Waman, R. Ajage, P. N. Kendre, S.B.Kasture, Veena Kasture
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Metaxalone is BCS class II drug having low solubility and high permeability. The solubility and bioavailability of poorly soluble drug was increased by designing microemulsion based drug delivery system of Metaxalone for oral drug administration. The microemulsion was prepared using Tween 80, PEG-400 as surfactant and cosurfactant, sesame and castor oil and water .The formulation was evaluated for globule size, viscosity, RI, pH, conductance, % transmittance and % drug content. The in-vitro intestinal drug diffusion was carried using Frantz diffusion cell and in-vivo drug activity was measured by using animal model. The microemulsions were transparent; particle size was in the range of 45.39 - 271 nm. The viscosity lies between 88 and 95.5cps, pH was found to be 8.12 - 8.17. The Formulated microemulsion had better drug permeation as compared to the pure drug and its marketed dosage form, had good muscle relaxant activity in mice. Study concluded that Metaxalone in microemulsion form exhibited increased solubility and improved drug release.
417-424
65
IRON OVER LOAD INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF CARICA PAPAYA IN RATS
Balakrishna V, Srikanth G, Ajay kumar Sarabu, Thippani Maneshwar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The leaf extract of Carica papaya have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common disorders like neurodegenerative diseases, cardio vascular diseases, cancer. In the present investigation, the aqueous leaf extract of C.papaya was evaluated for antioxidant activity in iron over load induced liver toxicity. For the evaluation of iron over load liver toxicity method was daily treatment of C.papaya extract on the 5th day iron load was induced. The animals were sacrificed by light ether anesthesia and it was dissected .Tissue homogenate and blood samples were assess the SGOT, ALP, and LPO, Reduced glutathione, Protein & Catalase in normal and iron over load groups. The daily administration of aqueous leaf extract of C.papaya at doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight to iron over load liver toxicity methods were significantly reduced in a dose dependent manner. However, no change observed in the normal animals at all the doses studied. The extract also produced significant reduction of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. The result have shown that the aqueous extract of the Leaf of Carica papaya  possesses antioxidant properties, supported by the decrease in lipid peroxidation and increase in the reduced glutathione and catalase activity in in-vivo method. Such antioxidant activity of Carica papaya might be responsible for its importance in traditional medicine for the treatment of various disorders.
425-430
66
HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF AREAL PARTS (EXCEPT FRUITS) OF CICER ARIETINUM AGAINST CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS
M. Sri Ramachandra, A. Srinivasa Rao, S. Shobha Rani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of pet ether, methanol and aqueous extracts of aerial parts (except fruites) of Cicer arietinum L against ccl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The phytochemical investigations of these extracts showed presence of carbohydrates, proteins, phenols and flavanoids. LD50 values of all extracts were determined. The extracts did not produce any mortality even at 2000 mg/kg. Hepatotoxicity was induced in wister rats weighing 120-150 gm by oral administration of carbon tetra chloride (CCL4 1ml/kg/day 20days) in 1ml olive oil per day. The plant extracts were administered to the experimental rats (200 and 400 mg/kg/d p.o for 20days). The Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of these extracts was evaluated by liver function biochemical parameters (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione) and histopathological studies of liver. Pre-treatment of the rats with petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous extract prior to CCL4 administration caused a significant reduction in the values of &nbsp;SGOT, SGPT, SALP, LPO, total bilirubin and significant increase in &nbsp; SOD, CAT, GSH (P&lt;0.01) almost comparable to the silymarin. The hepatoprotective activity was confirmed by histopathological examination of the liver tissue of control and treated animals. Histology of liver sections of the animals treated with the extracts showed the presence of normal hepatic cords, absence of necrosis and fatty infiltration which further evidence the hepatoprotective activity.
431-436
67
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF NOVEL ISATIN SUBSTITUTED IMIDAZOLINE DERIVATIVES
T. Maneshwar, N. Vijetha, V. Balakrishna, Ch. Vijay Kumar, M. Suresh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Novel Isatin substituted Imidazole derivatives have been synthesized and screened for anthelmintic activity. Literature revealed that vast majority of Isatin and imidazole compounds are known to possess pharmacologically proven therapeutic potentials.  Isatine substituted 5-Oxo-imidazoline derivatives were synthesized from 1,3-oxazole-5-ones which were synthesized from the  benzoyl glycine by Erlynmayer synthesis. These 5-oxazoline compounds upon condensation with isatine semicarbazide, it formed isatine substituted 5-oxo-imidazoline derivatives (3a-3j). All compounds have been characterised using IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectral data and have been evaluated for their antmelmintic activity and Albendazole was used as a standard drug.
437-441
68
DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF VALSARTAN GASTRORETENTIVE SUSTAINED RELEASED TABLETS
Vishnu P, K. Naveen Babu, M. Sunitha Reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Valsartan, an angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB) widely prescribed in variety of cardiac conditions like hypertension, diabetic nephropathy and heart failure. The biological half-life is 3-6 hours and the maximum absorption is at initial part of gastro intestinal tract. In the present study Valsartan floating tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using non effervescence technique. The tablets were formulated using IPA as granulating fluid with binder PVP-k30 and employing polymers like HPMC K15M, HPMC K100M and EC. The prepared floating tablets were evaluated for various physicochemical parameters. The in-vitro drug release pattern of Valsartan floating tablets was fitted to different kinetic models which showed highest regression for zero order kinetics with Higuchi mechanism. Out of all formulations the one prepared with EC in granulation fluid and combination of different grades of HPMC was optimized (VF11) based on desired sustained release time (12hrs) followed by acceptable swelling and floating properties. The effect of PH on swelling index and floating properties of optimized formulation (VF11) were also investigated, and the study revealed that there are no significant changes on swelling index and floating properties.
442-447
69
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A STABILITY-INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PAROXETINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND CLONAZEPAM IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
Geetharam Yanamadala, Praveen Srikumar.P
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The study describes development and subsequent validation of a stability indicating reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous estimation of Paroxetine hydrochloride and clonazepam in tablet dosage forms. A reversed-phase Kromasil ,C18, (150mm x 4.6 mm, particle size) column with mobile phase consisting of Acetonitrile and 0.1 % Orthophosphoric acid buffer 60:40 (v/v) was used. The flow rate was 1.2 mL min-1 and effluents were monitored at 260 nm. The retention times (tR) of Paroxetine and clonazepam were found to be 3.46 min and 4.55 min, respectively. The method was validated in terms of linearity, range, specificity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ). The linearity for both the drugs was found in the range of 125-750 µg/ml and 2.5-15 µg/ml for Paroxetine and clonazepam. The % recoveries of Paroxetine hydrochloride and clonazepam were found to be 99.4 -100.6 and 98.1-101.0 respectively. The utility of the procedure is verified by its application to marketed formulations that were subjected to accelerated degradation studies. The method distinctly separated the drug and degradation products even in actual samples. The products formed in marketed tablet dosage forms are similar to those formed during stress studies.
448-457
70
A VALIDATED STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF ALOGLIPTINE AND PIOGLITAZONE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
B. Neelima, P. Ravi Kumar, V. Hima Bindu and Y. Rajendra Prasad
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The proposed study, a new stability- indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed for estimation of Alogliptin and Pioglitazone in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. The present method was a sensitive, precise, and accurate RP-HPLC method for the analysis of Alogliptin and Pioglitazone. To optimize the mobile phase, various combinations of buffer and organic solvents were used on Hypersil BDS C18 column. Then the mobile phase containing a mixture of Phosphate Buffer: Acetonitrile in the ratio of 45:55 % v/v was selected at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min for developing the method and the peaks with good shape and resolution were found resulting in short retention time, baseline stability and minimum noise. The retention times of Alogliptine and Pioglitazone were found to be 3.42 and 5.24 min respectively. Quantitative linearity was obeyed in the concentration range of 31-187 and 75-450 µg/mL of Alogliptin and Pioglitazone respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.399 µg/mL and 1.21µg/mL (ALO); 0.516 µg/ mL and 1.565 µg/mL (PIO) respectively, which indicates the sensitivity of the method. The high percentage recovery indicates that the proposed method is highly accurate. No interfering peaks were found in the chromatogram indicating that excipients used in tablet formulations did not interfere with the estimation of the drugs by the proposed HPLC method.
458-464
71
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FLOATING CAPSULES OF PROPRANOLOL HCl USING MODIFIED PULSINCAP TECHNIQUE
GSN Koteswara Rao, KV Ramana Murthy, GSV Subrahmanyam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In our present investigation an attempt was made to apply modified pulsincap technique to develop floating capsules of propranolol HCl using PEO WSR 301. The formulation mixture was hand filled into the hardened body (formaldehyde exposed) and covered with unhardened cap. All the formulations with varying ratios of drug:polymer and varying time periods of exposure to formaldehyde vapors were evaluated for residual formaldehyde content, weight variation, drug content, in-vitro buoyancy, drug release pattern, compatibility studies etc. The formulations F2.3 with drug-polymer ratio of 1:0.75 prepared by using 2 h exposed capsule body was found as the optimized formulation as it has satisfied the buoyancy characteristics, shown controlled release of 100% in 12 h as per USP criteria and utilized less polymer concentration among all formulations in addition to all other parameters assessed. Hence modified pulsincap technique can be successfully used for the development of floating capsules of propranolol HCl using PEO WSR 301.
465-472