Volume 4 - Issue 2

S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
ASSESSMENT OF THE COMMUNITY PHARMACY PRACTICE IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA - BUILDING PLATFORM FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF GOOD PHARMACY PRACTICE
Lidija Petrushevska-Tozi, Kristina Mladenovska, Jasminka Patceva, Th (Dick) Thromb, Kirsten Holme, Nina Sautenkova
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the study was to evaluate the actual status of the community pharmacy practice and quality of services and to identify the gaps and barriers to implement the best pharmacy practice and care. Cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted for the pharmacies/pharmacists where pre-coded multiple choice closed questions were used with response format: activity fully applied, partially applied, applicable or not applicable. Set of 155 indicators was developed covering five essential components: pharmacy structure and practice; patient safety; manufacture practice; staff workflow and competences and quality assurance. The actual score was 64 out of 100. Pharmacy services related to manufacture practice and quality assurance were identified as the areas of highest priority for improvement, followed by the services related to patient safety. Priorities for intervention by key stakeholders (national authorities, academia, professional associations and pharmacists) and recommendations for introducing new and improving the existing roles of the pharmacists were defined.
1-9
2
MODULATION OF NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE AND SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE GENE EXPRESSION BY ALTERED THYROID LEVELS IN ADULT RAT BRAIN
Mariam G. Eshak and Wafaa A. Hassan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The effects of altered thyroid hormones level (through induction of Hypothyroidism or Hyperthyroidism) on oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers as well as on gene expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and superoxide dismutase of adult male rat brain were studied. Hypothyroidism was induced by daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of propylthiouracil (PTU, 10 mg/kg body weight) for 4 weeks. Hyperthyroidism was elicited by daily i.p. injection of L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300 µg/kg body weight) for 3 weeks. In hypo- or hyperthyroid rats, significant increases in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide concentrations associated with significant decreases in reduced glutathione content, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were recorded compared to the controls. Activity of glutathione peroxidase was increased in hypo- and hyperthyroid rats compared to control rats. Augmentation in the gene expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and decline in the gene expression of superoxide dismutase was observed in both hypo- and hyperthyroid rat brain. DNA damage of brain was higher in the two thyroid hormone states compared to the control groups. The random amplified polymorphic DNA- polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis indicated the presence of 48 % new bands (polymorphic) in hypothyroid (PTU) and hyperthyroid (L-T4) treated brain samples and the absence of such bands in the control groups. Marked histopathological alterations were also observed in brain sections of either hypo- or hyperthyroid rats. These results provide evidence that the changes in the oxidative stress and antioxidant status in altered thyroid hormone levels are exerted through modulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and superoxide dismutase gene expression in adult rat brain.
10-23
3
Asthma Inhalers Sale without Medical Prescription in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Cross Sectional Study
Azizah M. AL-Mutairi, Dalia H. AL-Enezi, Areej Algdeer, Mustafa M Altannir, Mohammed Al-Sadoon, Mohammad Chaballout, Ahmed S Qannita , Amin Almardini, Mohamad A Al-Tannir
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study aims to quantify the sale of inhalers without a prescription, describe the degree of difficulty for obtaining these inhalers without a prescription and assess if pharmacists educate patients about the correct use of the inhaler. A cross-sectional study of a quasi-random sample of 252 pharmacies stratified by the five regions of Riyadh. Each pharmacy was visited once by two investigators who used simulated patient methodology with governance of good research principles who simulated having a relative with difficulty of breathing due to airborne dust. Asthma inhalers were dispensed without prescription from 181 pharmacies (72%). Of these, 12% prescribed the inhaler after trying thelevel 1 of demand and 68% after the third level. Only 31 pharmacists(17%) explained how to use the inhalers. Asthma inhaler could be obtained in Riyadh without a medical prescription or an evidence-based indication with disobedience of pharmacists to educate on the appropriate use of inhalers.
24-27
4
CHEMOTHERAPY UTILIZATION OF BREST CANCER IN CANCER CENTER, THAILAND
Chaninun Ketkaew, Kitisuk Thepsuwan, Niyada Kiatying-Angsule
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study aimed to describe chemotherapy utilization situation of breast cancer patients after NHSO cancer protocol version 2010 had been launched. The 3,485 chemotherapy prescriptions of out-patient departments between January to June 2010 were analyzed. The most common prescribed chemotherapy regimens were Fluorouracil+Doxorubicin+Cyclophosphamide or FAC regimen (36.15%, 1,260 prescriptions), Cyclophosphamide+Methotrexate+Fluorouracil or CMF regimen (16.15%, 563 prescriptions), Doxorubicin+Cyclophosphamide or AC regimen (14.84%, 517 prescription), Paclitaxel (12.63%, 440 prescriptions), Capecitabine (7.49% 261 prescriptions) and Docetaxel (4.88%, 170 prescriptions). Each cancer center was significantly different in the utilization pattern due to the incidence of cancer type, hospital formularies and hospital policy (p = 0.00). 92.14% of all chemotherapy prescriptions adhered to NHSO cancer protocol. The highest ratio of adherence to cancer protocol was UC scheme (96.45%) and the lowest one was CSMBS scheme (75.50%). Each health benefit scheme was significantly different in ratio of adherence to protocol (p = 0.00). The total cost of chemotherapy regimen was 20,677,599 Baht. 16,704,514 Baht (80.79%) was the cost of adherence to protocol prescriptions.
28-32
5
WOUND HEALING POTENTIAL OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BANANA FLOWER (Musa sapientum, BBB ‘Saba’, Family Musaceae)
Rufo S. Calixtro, Jr., Analiza P. Malalay, Ponciano B. Epino and Lazaro E. Avelino
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The banana flower (Musa sapientum, BBB ‘saba’) ethanolic crude extract was investigated for its wound healing potential in vivo. Circular excision and linear incision wounds were inflicted on male Swiss mice, after which, they were treated with different concentration of banana extract. Betadine was used as the standard treatment. Significantly higher wound contraction is obtained when ethanolic extract was applied on the wound than the control. At ≥ 10% ethanolic extract, significant reduction in wound size is observed than betadine treated wounds. Similarly, a significantly higher tensile strength of the wounded skin of mice is obtained on ethanolic extract treated mice than the control. Tensile strength is significantly better at ≥ 15% ethanolic extract than betadine treated animals. Results indicate that banana flower ethanolic extract has a potential for use in healing wound.
33-37
6
BIOACTIVITY AND GENOTOXICITY OF CENTURIES OLD REMEDY ASPLENIUM SCOLOPENDRIUM L.
Una Glamočlija, Sanin Haverić, Jasmina Čakar, Adaleta Durmić, Anja Haverić, Kasim Bajrović
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Despite the fact that Asplenium scolopendrium L. is a wide spread fern which has been used as a human remedy for centuries, there are very poor or no data about activity and genotoxicity of A. scolopendrium extracts. In this work, vacuum dried water and ethanol extracts of A. scolopendrium fronds were tested for their antimicrobial, cytotoxic and genotoxic potential. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by disk diffusion assay (concentration of extracts 35 mg/ml, 7 mg/ml and 1,4 mg/ml) and there was no inhibition zone for all extracts and for all microorganisms examined (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans). Cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of extracts (70 mg/ml, 7 mg/ml and 0,7 mg/ml) was tested using cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay in human lymphocyte cultures. Ethanol blocked division of cells in negative control so only water extracts were analyzed. Extracts didn’t show genotoxic properties but they showed weak cytotoxic properties. NDI (nuclear division index) decreased with increasing concentration of extracts, but there was no statistical significance when compared to negative control (p=0,055).
38-41
7
LACK OF CORRELATION BETWEEN ADHERENCE MEASUREMENT METHODS IN NEW-ONSET EPILEPSY
Widyati, Soediatmoko, Dian Maria, Zullies Ikawati, Lukman Hakim
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Study aims were (1) to document adherence measurement using 3 different methods. (2) to determine the relationship between each methods. The study wasconducted using cross sectional design. Patients were followed-up for 6 months and adherences weremeasured after 1 and 6 months therapy. The methods used to measure the adherenceswere 1) Patient/parent-self reported ( MMAS-8 questionnaires); 2) Drug level assay and 3) seizure frequency observation. Participants enrolled were 50 patients with new-onset general epilepsy (Mage = 7.2 ± 2.0; 54 % male; 46% female Indonesian). Patient/parent-self reported methods resulted mean overall adherence scores across patients during this 6-months period was 4.07 ± 1.15 (81.4%). Meanwhile phenytoin assay indicated only 18% patients reached therapeutics concentration. Seizure frequency observation revealed 81% improvement in seizure frequency (t= 7.63, P=0.000) after 6 months therapy. Negative correlations were found between Parents/patients-self reporting with drug levels(rho=-0.082, P=0.59); Parents/patients-self reporting with seizure frequency(rho=-0.17, P=0.24). Correlation between seizure frequency with phenytoin level was also proved by Spearman test as no significant (rho=0.12, P=0.42). 7 patients (14%) remain had seizure after 6 months but only 2 patients were having miss dose. There were lack of correlation between the various methods of adherence measurement but it does not necessarily reflect a minimum in adherence.
42-46
8
INVESTIGATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY, AND RELATIONSHIPS AMONG A SET OF CLINICAL ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS ISOLATES USING SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEAT POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (ISSR-PCR)
Batol Imran Dheeb, Saad Mohamed Nada, Yasamin Ali Hadi, Anas Nori Ibrahem, Ghufran Mohamed Hasan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study is an attempt to determine the genetic diversity and relationships among fourteen local isolate isolated from patients with Aspergillosis (Aspergillus fumigatus) by using the simple sequence repeat polymerase chain reaction (ISSR-PCR). Twelve universal primers used in this study produced 94 bands across fourteen isolates. Of these bands, 67 bands or 71.2% were polymorphic. The size of the amplified bands ranged between 100-2,000 bp. The genetic polymorphism value of each primer was determined and ranged between 33-100%. In terms of unique banding patterns, determine the finger print for six isolates the most characteristic banding pattern was for the (AFU1,AFU2,AFU3,AFU4,AFU8 and AFU14) with primer (RP F-16 , RP I-06, RP F-16, RP X-01, RP X-01and OP A-06). Genetic distances ranged from 0.12419 to 0.64404 among A. fumigatus isolates. Cluster analyses were performed to construct a dendrogram among studied A. fumigatus isolates.The cluster analysis places most of the A.fumigatus isolates isolated from patient come from yhe same area into a close relation (subcluster) showing a high level of genetic relatedness and were distinct from isolates from another area (the other subcluster). Interestingly, a number of isolates originating from the same sources did form well defined groups, indicating association between the ISSR patterns and the geographic origin of the isolates. The information generated from this study can be used in the future for controlling of Aspergillosis programs.
47-52
9
DERMAL TOXICITY STUDY OF AN ANTIDERMATOPHYTIC OIL-MOISTENED DICHLOROMETHANE-METHANOL (1:1 V/V) STEM BARK EXTRACT OF POLYSCIAS FULVA HIERN (ARALIACEAE) IN GUINEA PIGS ANIMAL MODEL
Guy Sedar Singor Njateng, Donatien Gatsing, Raymond Simplice Mouokeu, Jules-Roger Kuiate
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Polyscias fulva, a medium size tree which grows in the tropical forests of West and Central Africa, is a popular medicinal plant used to treat malaria, mental illness, venereal infections, pulmonary tuberculosis as well as dermatoses. To the best of our knowledge there is no documented evidence corroborating its safety. Thus this work aimed to determine dermal toxicity profile of the antidermatophytic oil-moistened dichloromethane-methanol (1:1 v/v) stem bark extract of Polyscias fulva. Guinea pig (male and female) animal model was used for both acute and sub-acute dermal toxicity studies. For acute toxicity, single doses (0.5, 4.25 and 8 g/kg body weight) of oilmoistened plant extract were administered to animals while in sub-acute dermal toxicity, doses (13, 256.5 and 500 mg/kg bw) of plant extract were administered daily during 28 days. The possible toxic effect of the plant extract was assessed based on the animal behaviors, the organ morphology and histology, the hematological and biochemical parameters. The single and repeated dermal toxicity tests on guinea pigs did not show any overt sign of toxicity on growth patterns. The lethal dose fifty (LD50) of the oil-moistened extract was higher than 8000 mg/kg. Moreover, the hematological and biochemical parameters, liver and kidney histopathology analysis collectively indicate that dermal application of the oil-moistened extract from the stem bark of Polyscias fulva is not associated with any toxicologically relevant effects in neither male nor female guinea pigs. The overall results of this study indicate that the oil-moistened dichloromethane-methanol (1:1 v/v) stem bark extract of Polyscias fulva could provide satisfactory preclinical evidence of safety to launch a clinical trial on a standardized formulation of the plant extracts.
53-60
10
SUB-ACUTE (28 DAYS) TOXICITY STUDY OF METHANOL LEAVES EXTRACT OF CLINACANTHUS NUTANS IN RATS
Jin Han Chin, Gabriel Akyirem Akowuah, Mandumpal Chacko Sabu, Shaik Ibrahim Khalivulla
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Clinacanthus nutans (Family: Acanthaceae) or locally known as “Sabah snake grass” in Malaysia, is used for the treatment of herpes simplex infection, herpes zoster infection, diabetes mellitus, skin rash, dysuria and cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of methanol leaves extract of C. nutans by sub-acute 28-day (repeated doses) oral administration to male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. First group was orally treated with distilled water and served as control (n=6), whereas the remaining treatment groups (n=6) were orally treated with a single dose daily of 300 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg of C. nutans extract, respectively for 28 days. Cage-side observations were done daily. The animal body weight, food consumption and water intake were recorded weekly. Blood was collected via cardiac puncture on day-29 and used to perform biochemical analyses, i.e. liver function tests, kidney function tests, total protein, glucose, lipid profile and haematology evaluation. The relative organ weights were also measured. All results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analysed using Dunnett’s test. From the results obtained, repeated oral administration of methanol leaves extract of C. nutans (300 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg) for 28 days did not cause mortality or adverse effects in rats. No significant change was observed in the body weight changed, water and food intake between the treatment group and control group. However, significant increase in serum total proteins (p<0.01), albumin/globulins ratio (p<0.01) and relative liver weight (p<0.01) were observed in male rats after 28 days treatment with 900 mg/kg of C. nutans. In conclusion, 28 days oral administration of methanol leaves extract of C. nutans up to 900 mg/kg was safe in male SD rats without causing any adverse effects. The Non-Observable-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) for sub-acute (28 days) effects of methanol leave extract of C. nutans in male SD rats was 900 mg/kg bw.
61-69
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IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND IN VIVO ANTI-NOCICEPTIVE AND NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF MIMOSA PUDICA
Tanjida Ahmed, Rumana Akter, Shahjabeen Sharif, Mohammad Shahriar, Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Mimosa pudica is the herb that shows sensation on touch. It has been identified as Lajjalu in Ayurveda and has been found to have anti-asthmatic, aphrodisiac, analgesic, anti- inflammatory and antidepressant activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate in-vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo biological activity considering anti-nociceptive assessment & neuropharmacological study include open field and swimming test. There is no scientific report on analgesic activity and neuropharmacological activity of Mimosa pudica, therefore the present study was undertaken to examine the possible in-vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts of Mimosa pudica was performed using DPPH free radical scavenging, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, total antioxidant capacity, total phenol and total flavonoid content determination assays. The result of tests for in-vitro antioxidant activity indicates that petroleum ether extract shows maximum antioxidant activity. This plants leaf extracts also exhibit significant anti-nociceptive activity and neuropharmacological activity.
70-78
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SYNTHESIS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME NEW PYRAZOLE DERIVATIVES
Khalid Karrouchi, Latifa Doudach, Laila Chemlal, Mohamed Karim, Jamal Taoufik, Yahia Cherrah, Smaail Radi, My El Abbes Faouzi and M’hammed Ansar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new series of pyrazole derivatives have been synthesized by the reaction of substituted pyrazole carbohydrazide and functionalized aromatic aldehydes. All the compounds have been characterized by IR, 1H-NMR and mass spectroscopy. The analgesic activity of the synthesized compound was assessed by tail flick method (for central action) in rat, acetic acid-induced writhing test (for peripheral action) in mice. The effect of the synthesized compounds N’-(2,4-dichlorobenzylidene)-5-methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-carbohydrazide (5a), N\'-(2,4-dichlorobenzylidene)-2-(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)acetohydrazide(9), N’-(4-dimethylaminobenzyli-dene)-5-phenyl-1H-pyrazol -3-carbohydrazide (5b) and N’-(2,4-dichlorobenzylidene) -5-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3-carbohydrazide (5c) was also investigated in a battery of behavioural models in mice to assess their sedative effect. Among them, 5b was found more potent in comparison to 150 mg/kg of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) with 44.83% of inhibition. In radiant heat tail-flick test the synthesized compounds 5a, 9, 5b and 5c produced 11.06%, 9.73%, 8.38% and 19.31% (p<0.01) elongation of tail flicking time 30 minutes after oral doses of 100 mg/Kg body weight respectively. Further compounds after 60 min, the inhibition of pain were 8.27%, 8.97%, 6% and 12.98% respectively. The synthesized compounds at doses of 50 mg/Kg body weight tested were insignificant when compared with the control. Furthermore the oral administration in mice of compounds at 50 and 100 mg / kg, induces strong sedative effect compared to reference substance Nesdonal and significantly reduced in both the reestablishment time and number of head dips during the traction and hole-board tests, in the rotarod test the pyrazole derivatives significantly reduced the motor coordination of the tested animals. From the results the pyrazole derivatives exhibited antinociceptive activity by central and peripheral mechanism(s) and possess potent sedative effect.
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STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA) IN INTRA-ABDOMINAL INFECTIONS: RESISTANCE PATTERN AGAINST DIFFERENT ANTIBIOTICS
Samiullah Burki, Zeba Gul Burki, Izhar Ahmed, Javeid Iqbal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Intra-abdominal infections (IAI’s) a common cause of sever sepsis in the world and is caused by methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which include pancreatitis, appendicitis, peritonitis and cholecystitis. The aim of current work was to study resistance of MRSA against various antibiotics. A total of 14 clinical isolates of IAI’s patients were collected from public hospitals conformed using catalase and coagulase positive tests. Those isolates were evaluated for their resistance level against different antibacterial using agar dilution method. At concentration of 8 mg/l MRSA exhibited 100 % and 92.86 %sensitivity to linezolid and tobramycin while meropenem achieve this level at 128 mg/l (p<0.05) Tetracycline and cefuroxime give similar sensitivity levels against MRSA 128 mg/l and 8 mg/l .The mean sensitivity of MRSA at different concentrations of Linezolid was effective than levofloxacin while tobramycin also represent ~90 % mean sensitivity. MIC90 of linezolid and levofloxacin was ≥ 4mgl-1 and7mgl-1 respectively. Tobramycin and cefuroxime shows appropriate MIC’s of ≥ 6mg- 1 and 5.5mgl-1 (P<0.01).The finding suggest that potency of antimicrobials against multidrug resistant MRSA of IAI’s was linezolid> tobramycin >cefuroxime >levofloxacin>>…>Meropenem >tetracycline. IAI’s can be effectively manage with above study drugs.
88-94
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A RAPID LC–MS/MS ASSAY FOR PITAVASTATIN IN HUMAN PLASMA BY USING SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE AND ITS APPLICATION TO A PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY
Boligarla Gopi Kalyan Kumar, Nageswara Rao Pilli, Babu Rao Bhukya and N. Y. Sreedhar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric (LC–MS/MS) assay method has been developed and fully validated for the quantitative determination of pitavastatin in human plasma. A pitavastatin stable labeled isotope (pitavastatin d4) was used as an internal standard. Analyte and the internal standard were extracted from human plasma via solid phase extraction technique. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column by using a mixture of acetonitrile–0.1% formic acid (90:10, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.85 mL/min. The calibration curve obtained was linear (r 2 0.99) over the concentration range of 0.05–160 ng/mL. Method validation was performed as per FDA guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. A run time of 1.5 min for each sample made it possible to analyze more than 450 plasma samples per day. The proposed method was found to be applicable to clinical studies.
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EVALUATION OF IN-VITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, THROMBOLYTIC AND CYTOTOXIC PROPERTIES OF LABLAB NIGER LEAVES
Md. Reyad-ul-Ferdous, Hasnin Rahman Jisha, Md. Golam Azam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was undertaken to investigate anti-inflammatory, thrombolytic and cytotoxic activities of methanol extracts of Lablab niger leaves and its different fractions. In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the L. niger leaves was evaluated by heat and hypotonic solution induced membrane stabilization method. Thrombolytic activity was evaluated using blood clot lysis model and cytotoxicity test was carried out by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The crude methanolic extract and all tested fractions of L. niger leaves significantly (p< 0.005) protected erythrocyte membrane lysis comparable to standard aspirin, demonstrating its strong anti-inflammatory activity. In thrombolytic study, the crude methanolic extract and its different fractions demonstrated moderate to strong thrombolytic activity (25.62-40.88% lysis of human blood clot), in comparison to 66.75 % clot lysis by standard streptokinase. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, methanolic extract and its different fractions of L. niger leaves showed significant lethality with LC50 =value of 1.171-8.15 μg/mL, compared with vincristine sulphate (LC50=0.451 μg/mL). These finding indicate that L. niger leaves could be a potential source of natural anti-inflammatory, thrombolytic and cytotoxic agents.
106-109
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TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF CASSIA PETERSIANA BOLLE (CAESALPINIACEAE), AN ANTITYPHOID MEDICINAL PLANT
Donatien Gatsing and Godwin I. Adoga
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Typhoid fever continues to be a serious health problem in developing countries. In our search for therapeutic agents from natural sources with potential for the treatment of typhoid fevers, an anti-typhoid aqueous extract was obtained from the leaves of Cassia petersiana and tested for possible toxicity risks. Toxicological study was done in mice and rats using both acute and sub-chronic techniques. Results obtained showed that, at high doses, the extract may have a depressant effect on the central nervous system, and may induce hypersensitiveness. The LD50 (lethal dose 50) values of the extract were 20 g/kg and 22 g/kg, for male and female mice, respectively. Rats administered C. petersiana extract showed significantly increased kidneys and liver to body weight ratios, increased serum total protein, and a decrease in total protein titre of the liver at high doses. Also, significant increases in serum transaminase (ALT and AST) activities were observed at high doses. Significant decreases in serum total protein and urinary protein were seen in male and female rats administered the extract at 75 mg/kg. However, urinary protein showed a significant increase in male rats treated at 4800 mg/kg. Significant increases in haematocrit values were observed in male and female rats receiving the dose 300 mg/kg. These data suggest that this extract, at moderate doses, may be used without any toxicity risk, and besides may have strengthening effects on the liver and kidneys. However, at high doses, it may create injury to the liver and kidneys.
110-119
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COMPARISON OF INTRATHECAL BUPIVACAINE WITH ROPIVACAINE IN TWO DIFFERENT STRENGTHS FOR QUALITY OF ANAESTHESIA AND POST OPERATIVE ANALGESIA IN LOWER ABDOMEN HERNIA SURGERY
A.R. Bhure, Prasad Ingley, Ramkrishna, Neelakshi Kalita
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Subarachnoid block techniques are widely used for lower abdominal surgeries and offer several benefits compared to general anesthesia.We wanted to investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of Ropivacaine in two strengths as compared to Hyperbaric Bupivacaine for spinal anaesthesia. 90 patients ASA I & II scheduled for elective lower abdomen hernia surgery were randomly divided into 3 groups of 30 each to receive 3.4 ml of isobaric Ropivacaine 0.5% or 3.4 ml of isobaric Ropivacaine 0.75% compared with control group receiving 3.4 ml of Hyperbaric 0.5% Bupivacaine. Subarachnoid block was achieved in L3-L4 space with 23G Quincke’s spinal needle. The onset of surgical anesthesia at L1 was delayed with both the Ropivacaine groups as compared to Bupivacaine group. The total duration of analgesia was comparable in Bupivacaine and Ropivacaine 0.75% groups.The total duration of motor block was much longer with Bupivacaine group than Ropivacaine groups. To conclude intrathecal Ropivacaine in the 0.75% strength was found to be a good alternative to 0.5% Hyperbaric Bupivacaine in the terms of less haemodynamic changes, faster regression of both motor and sensory block, and for early mobilization of patient.The patients can be mobilized more quickly,as in patients of daycare surgery.
120-125
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Cytotoxicity Assay of Nickel and Cobalt (II) Complexes of 5-(4-Nitro Phenyl)-4-Amino-3-Mercapto Propenyl-1,2,4-Triazole on HepG2 Cell Line
Mahasin Alias, Ameena N. Seewan, Carolin Shakir, Farooq I. Mohammad
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Two new complexes with formula [M(NMP.TRZ)(H2O)3](NO3)2.3EtOH (where M is Ni and Co(II) ions respectively, NMP.TRZ is (5-(4-Nitro Phenyl)-4-Amino-3-Mercapto Propenyl-1,2,4-Triazole) have been synthesized by conventional method. These complexes have been characterized by spectroscopic methods such as (ultraviolet- visible and infrared), as well as to thermal gravimetric, metal analyses, microanalyses, conductivity, magnetic moment and molar ratio method. To measure the biologic activity and potential anticancer efficacy of these compounds, they have been compared with cisplatin on human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cell lines in different eight concentrations (2000, 1000, 500, 250, 125, 62.5, 31.25 and 15.625 μg/ml) respectively, in the time of exposure 72 hrs. The results exhibit that the three prepared complexes i.e. ligand (NMP.TRZ) and its metal complexes have shown higher ratios cytotoxicities compared to cisplatin against HepG2 cell lines in most selected concentrations. Based on the obtained results of biological test, these compounds may be potentially being considered as good anticancer candidates for further pharmacological studies.
126-132
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ERADICATION FAILURE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI IS RELATED TO THE NATIONALITY OF THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES RESIDENTS IN AL AIN
Ghalia Khoder
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the main cause of gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric cancer and MALTlymphoma. H. pylori eradication has been shown to have a prophylactic effect against gastric cancer. However, the most challenging point in eradicating H. pylori is the antibiotic resistance. In the United Arab Emirates, eradication of H. pylori is based on a triple therapy regimen comprising a proton pump inhibitor and two antibiotic drugs. The aim of our study is to evaluate the eradication rate of H. pylori using this therapy regimen in infected patients (n=1000) from Hospitals and Medical centers in al Ain, United Arab Emirates during 2012. Analysis of the results using the Urea Breath Test shows a 15% eradication failure. Interestingly, Sudanese resident patients in al Ain seem to have the highest eradication failure while Filipino residents patients have a 100 % eradication success. Further studies are needed to explore the antibiotic resistance of H. pylori in the United Arab Emirates in order to cure the peptic ulcer and to avoid the progression of the infection to severe carcinogenic disease such as gastric cancer and MALT lymphoma.
133-137
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QUALITY BY DESIGN (QBD): AN EMERGING PARADIGM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF PHARMACEUTICALS
Rakesh A. Chaudhari, Ashok P. Pingle, Chetan S. Chaudhari, Chetan Yewale, Kantilal A. Patil
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Quality by Design (QbD) refers to a holistic approach for development of quality pharmaceutical products, it is an essential part of the modern approach to pharmaceutical quality, QbD is a major challenge to the Pharmaceutical industry whose processes are fixed in time, despite inherent process and material variability, under this concept of QbD throughout designing and development of a product, it is essential to define desire product performance profile [Target product Profile (TPP), Quality Target Product Profile (QTPP)] and identify critical quality attributed (CQA). On the basis of this we can design the product formulation and process to meet the product attributes. This leads to recognise the impact of raw materials [critical material attributes (CMA)], critical process parameters (CPP) on the CQAs and identification and control sources of variability. This paper discusses the pharmaceutical QbD and describes how it can be used to develop the pharmaceutical products well within the specified period of time.
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ANTIDIARRHOEAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF THE PENTADESMA BUTYRACEA STEM BARK METHANOLIC EXTRACT
Sylvie Lea Wansi, Idrice Kamtchouing, Jules Roger Kuiate, Telesphore Benoît Nguelefack, Hippolyte K. wabo, Albert Kamanyi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pentadesma butyracea Sabine (Clusiaceae) is a medicinal plant used in Cameroon to cure ailments such as gastrointestinal disorders. This study was aimed at investigating the antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities of the methanolic extract from the stem bark of P. butyracea (MEPB). Plant extract was prepared by maceration in methanol. Its oral antidiarrhoeal effects were evaluated in vivo on castor oil (10ml/kg bw) and magnesium sulfate (3g/kg bw) induced diarrhea. Diarrheic rats were treated with 125, 250, and 500mg/kg extract or loperamide 2.5mg/kg. The frequency of defecation, the latency time and water content of stool were assessed. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity against 10 bacterial strains: Enterococcus feacalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Shigella flexneri, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella thiphymurium et Proteus mirabilis. In vivo antimicrobial activity of the extract was assessed using an S. flexneri-infected rat model. P. butyracea extract significantly and dose dependently increased the time of appearance of the first stools and decreased the frequency of defecation and the water content of stool. It also showed relatively good antimicrobial activity against all the tested microorganisms (MIC 64 – 256 µg/ml) and MBC (256 – 1024 µg/ml); with Enterococcus feacalis being the most sensitive. At dose 500 mg/ml, P. butyracea significantly reduced shigella flexneri density (80.37%). Results suggest that Pentadesma butyracea possesses antidiarrheic and antimicrobial properties and attest its usefulness in traditional treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea, and the treatment of some bacterial infections as shigellosis.
147-154
22
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENINGS, MEMBRANE STABILIZING ACTIVITY, THROMBOLYTIC ACTIVITY AND CYTOTOXIC PROPERTIES OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF MIMOSA PUDICA
Mohammad Shahriar, Tanjida Ahmed, Shahjabeen Sharif, Rumana Akter and Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In this present study, the leaf extracts of Mimosa pudica were subjected to a comparative evaluation of the membrane stabilization, thrombolytic and cytotoxic activity to brine shrimps (Artemia salina). The thrombolytic and membrane stabilizing activities were assessed by using human erythrocyte and the results were compared with standard streptokinase (SK) and standard anti-inflammatory drug, acetyl salicylic acid (ASA), respectively. The extracts demonstrated significant toxicity to A. salina with LC50 values ranging from 1.58 to 3.38 μg/ml as compared to standard vincristine sulphate (VS, LC50value 0.92 μg/ml). Preliminary phytochemical investigation suggested the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides and steroids.
155-158
23
AWARENESS AND ATTITUDE OF PHARMACY UNDERGRADUATES AND GENERAL PUBLIC TOWARDS FIBROMYALGIA, A MISJUDGED SYNDROME
Sadia Zafar, Syeda Rabab Hassan, Sarah Ahmed, Rutaba Masroor, Zainab Abdul Qadir
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of this study was to compare the level of awareness and attitude of Pharmacy Undergraduates and General public towards fibromyalgia and to observe the impact of Fibromyalgia on people’s daily routine. A retrospective study conducted to generate awareness, resolve misconceptions and motivate physicians for necessary measures. A cross sectional survey was conducted by using self administered questionnaire in July, 2013. The data of 200 sample population was then thoroughly analyzed and evaluated. The gender wise high prevalence was found in females and majority belonged to age group 18-25 yrs. Although only 8.5% of total respondents ever attended any informational session about Fibromyalgia. However, 86% of Pharmacy undergraduates had knowledge about Fibromyalgia, It was observed 57% of respondents experienced muscular pain especially in shoulder region. Pain killers were commonly used self medication or prescribed by physicians whereas, antidepressants were the 2nd most opted class of drugs used to treat symptoms. Non seriousness of patients (76%) was observed in following physician’s advice.
159-164
24
DETERMINATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, NITRATE AND NITRITE IN IRAQI VEGETABLES BY HPLC AND UV/VIS SPECTROPHOTOMETER
Abdal-Jabbar A. Ali, Khalil I. Hussain, Amera H. Hamed, Abood H. Moslah, Riyadh R. Neama
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This research deals with analytical methods for (16) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrate and nitrite determination in Iraqi vegetables. Some PAHs are of proven carcinogenic activity; consequently, they exceed the limits of concentrations which approved by the European Food Safety Authority. Nitrate and nitrite also determined in Iraqi vegetables compared with the European specifications. There is no recommendations for the allowable limits of nitrate and Nitric in the fresh vegetables. The analytical determination for PAHs is carried out by high performance liquid chromatography, with ultraviolet (UV) detector, while the analytical determination for nitrate and nitrite is carried out by UV/Vis. Spectrometer.
165-171
25
STUDY OF WHOLE PLANT OF VERNONIA CINEREA LESS. FOR IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY
Edison Dalmeida Daffodil, Packia Lincy and Veerabahu Ramasamy Mohan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In vitro antioxidant activity of petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol extracts of whole plant of Vernonia cinerea Less. have been tested using various antioxidant model system viz, DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, ABTS and reducing power. Methanol extract of V. cinerea is found to possess higher DPPH radical scavenging activity. Petroleum ether extract of V. cinerea exhibited highest hydroxyl, superoxide and ABTS radical cation scavenging activity. Petroleum ether extract of V. cinerea showed the highest reducing ability. This study indicates significant free radical scavenging potential of V. cinerea which can be exploited for the treatment of various free radical mediated ailments.
172-178
26
ANALGESIC AND NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA
Mir Muhammad Nasir Uddin, Md. Ruhul Amin, Amitabh Basak, Mohammad Shahriar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was designed to evaluate the analgesic and neurophramacological investigations of leaf extract of Sesbania grandiflora in Swiss albino mice following oral administration. In-vivo analgesic activity test was evaluated by acetic acid induced writhing method and tail immersion test. In-vivo neurophramacological investigations was determined by open field and hole cross test. In-vivo analgesic activity test shows that methanolic extract (250 & 500 mg/kg b.w.) performed good activity in mice comparing to the standard drug diclofenac Na. Methanolic extract of Sesbania grandiflora displayed a significant and dose dependent analgesic activity, the percent inhibition was 68.13%, 85.56% respectively in the test group (250 & 500 mg/kg b.w.).
179-182
27
A VALIDATED RP HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF ESOMEPRAZOLE SODIUM INJECTION
Saminathan kayarohanam, Bino Kingsley, Sivaramakrishnan and G. Nagarajan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Esomeprazole is chemically bis (5methoxy-2-[(S)-[(4-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-2-pyridinyl) methyl]sulfinyl]- 1Hbenzimidazole-1-yl). It is a gastric proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) used in treatment of gastric-acid related diseases. A Simple, sensitive, selective and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) methods were developed, estimated and validated for the analysis of Esomeprazole sodium in bulk and injection forms. The chromatographic separation was performed by the using C8, column having 250 x 4.6mm 5μm. Using mobile phase containing Acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (58:42v/v) adjusted to PH 7.6 with phosphoric acid. The analysis was run at a flow rate of 1.5ml/min and injection volume was 20 µL. The detection was monitored at 280nm. The retention time of Esomeprazole was 2.93 min. The developed method was validated for precision, intermediate precision (ruggedness), linearity, specificity, accuracy, and stability. Recovery of Esomeprazole in formulations was found to be in the range of 99.08%, 100.86%, and 101.52% respectively. And the correlation coefficient was 0.999. Hence, it was concluded that the developed method is suitable for routine analysis due to its less analysis time.
183-188
28
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF PROCESS RELATED IMPURITIES FROM NIMODIPINE BULK AND FORMULATION
Kasture V.S., Pawar S.S., Patil P.P., Musmade D.S., Ajage R. K. and Gehlot Ganjendra
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The process related impurity of Nimodipine diethyl 1, 4-dihydro-2, 6-dimethyl pyridine 3, 5 dicarboxylate in bulk and formulations was synthesized, characterized and the RP-HPLC method was developed according to ICH Q2B guidelines for quantitation of impurity in bulk and formulations. The synthesis of intermediate was carried out by Hantzch process using m-nitrobenzaldehyde, ethylacetoacetate, in presence of ammonia and methanol as catalyst. The percentage yield was found to be 75%. The impurity was recrystallized and purified. The preliminary evaluation was done on lab scale viz. melting point, TLC and elemental analysis. The melting point of impurity was found to be 1560C. The TLC of impurity was carried by using Benzene and Methanol (6:1) and the Rf was found to be 0.80. The confirmation of structure of synthesized impurity was carried out by using sophisticated instrument viz, FT-IR, NMR, GC-MS etc. Finally, the RP-HPLC method was developed to identify and quantify the impurity in Nimodipine bulk and formulation as per ICH Q2B guidelines. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. The method was found to be linear, precise, accurate, robust and rugged. Finally diethyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl pyridine 3,5 dicarboxylate impurity was quantified from bulk Nimodipine and its marketed tablet formulation. It was revealed that the amount of impurity present in tablet batch I and II was found to be 0.28% and 0.33% respectively and the bulk was found to be negligible. As per the ICH limit the amount of impurity more than 0.1% indicates that the impurity found in tablet formulations is potential impurity.
189-195
29
MATHEMATIC MODEL OF PHARMACEUTICAL CARE TO ENCOURAGE CLIENT TO BE RATIONAL IN USE NSAIDs BY SELF MEDICATION
Liza Pristianty, Fasich, Soemiati
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pharmaceutical care is a practice-oriented pharmacy services to clients, in self medication expected to provide appropriate solutions to the problems faced by clients in order to achieve a therapeutic effect optimal.Now self medication more done by individuals to relieve health problem. There are many actions self medication done in the community , but not many people are aware the rational treatment. Self medication behavior is determined by intention to perform self medication behave determined by attitude, subjective norms and perceived control. The drugs widely used in self medication is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This study wanted to build a mathematics model of pharmaceutical care that may be achieved rational self medication. Research will be conducted on clients who come to the pharmacy by self medication in Surabaya. Research methods are observational, data collection through surveys from 455 pharmacy clients through 89 pharmacies, prospective cross sectional study. The data were analysis by structured equation model. The results showed that pharmaceutical care is to build the attitude, subjective norm and perceived control by estimated value of 0.251; 0.530; and 0.493. behavior in self medication NSAIDs rational is not significantly influenced by client intence the estimated value of -0.03 , but can be formed through pharmaceutical care by pharmacist and client’s attitude with estimated value 0.280 and 0,211. The conclusion of this study is pharmaceutical care should be carried out intensively in the service of NSAIDs self-medication by a pharmacist in pharmacy.
196-202
30
ANALGESIC AND NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF WITHANIA SOMNIFERA ROOT
Mohammad Shahriar, Fariha Alam and Mir Muhammad Nasir Uddin
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was designed to evaluate the analgesic and neurophramacological investigations of root extracts of Withania somnifera in Swiss albino mice following oral administration. In-vivo analgesic activity test was evaluated by acetic acid induced writhing method and tail immersion test. In-vivo neurophramacological investigations were determined by open field and swimming test. There is no scientific report on analgesic activity and neuropharmacological activity of Withania somnifera, therefore the present study was undertaken to examine the possible in-vivo analgesic activity and neuropharmacological activity of this plant extracts. In-vivo analgesic activity test showed that methanol, ethanol and chloroform extract inhibited writhes in a dose dependent manner. But ethanol extract at 150 mg/kg showed highest inhibition (70.56%) which is even higher than the standard drug (25.55%). And in case of tail immersion test the basal reaction time was more for standard drug when compared to plant extracts. The ethanol extracts showed more reaction time and that is recovered after 120 min the order of potency in 60 min after dose administration is diclofenac Na > ethanol > chloroform > methanol > control. This plants root extracts also exhibit significant neuropharmacological activity.
203-208
31
THE EFFECT OF SINGLE DRUG THERAPY VERSUS COMBINATION DRUG THERAPY IN INDIAN POPULATION WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS
Tamboli P, Tekade A, Kuchake V, Ingale P
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Their complimentary mechanisms of action suggest that a combination of pioglitazone hydrochloride and metformin may have clinically beneficial effects in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. This study was undertaken to assess the safety and efficacy Pioglitazone, metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pioglitazone, metformin lower HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. We compared the effects of these two drugs, used as monotherapy and in combination. This was a 24-weeks, observational, open-ended, openlabel study. Patients were receiving once-daily pioglitazone 30 mg, metformin 1000 mg and combination of pioglitazone 30 mg with metformin 1000 mg. Patients receiving combination had statistically significant mean decreases in HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels compared with monotherapy. The incidence of adverse events was similar in all groups. No evidence of drug-induced hepatotoxicity or drug-induced elevations in serum ALT was observed. In this study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, combination of pioglitazone with metformin significantly improved HbA1c and FPG levels, with positive effects on serum lipid levels compared with metformin and pioglitazone alone and no evidence of drug-induced hepatotoxicity. These effects were maintained for >24 weeks.
209-213
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REVERSE PHASE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ACETYLCYSTEINE AND ASCORBIC ACID IN SACHETS
Vania Maslarska, Lily Peikova
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
REVERSE PHASE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ACETYLCYSTEINE AND ASCORBIC ACID IN SACHETS
214-218
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SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ATAZANAVIR AND RITONAVIR IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY HPTLC METHOD
Madhusudhanareddy Induri, Bhagavan Raju Mantripragada and Rajendra Prasad Yejella
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, sensitive and rapid high performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of atazanavir and ritonavir in pharmaceutical formulations. The chromatographic development was carried out on HPTLC plates pre-coated with silica gel 60G F254 using a mixture of toluene: ethyl acetate: 0.1% formic acid in the ratio of 6.0:4.0:1.0 v/v as mobile phase. The calibration curve was found to be linear over the concentration range of 150-900 ng/spot for ATV and 50-300 ng/spot for RTV with a regression coefficient for both analytes were greater than 0.999. The %RSD values for intra-day and inter-day variation were not more than 2.0. The method has demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity. The method is new, simple and economic for routine estimation of atazanavir and ritonavir in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation to help the industries as well as researchers for their sensitive determination of atazanavir and ritonavir rapidly at low cost in routine analysis.
219-224