Volume 4 - Issue 4

S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
ASSOCIATION OF INHALED CORTICOSTEROIDS AND OSTEOPOROSIS: ALBERTA PHARMACISTS’ AWARENESS
Hoan Linh Banh, Andrew Cave
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is the standard maintenance therapy in the management of asthma and moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is well recognized that systemic corticosteroid therapy is a risk factor for osteoporosis. There is a dose related increase in risk of fracture with ICS use and an inverse relationship between bone mineral density and duration and cumulative dose of ICS. The objective of the study is to assess Alberta pharmacists’ awareness of ICS and its association with osteoporosis. An online survey was created through Google Document® . The URL link to the survey along with a letter of information was circulated to various pharmacy websites. Total of 104 pharmacists completed the survey. Only 60% of the pharmacists are aware of the risk of osteoporosis associated with high dose ICS (>2 mg inhaled beclomethasone/day or equivalent). Less than 50% of the pharmacists would recommend calcium and vitamin D to patients who are receiving long-term high dose ICS. Pharmacists are the most accessible health care providers and can play a pivotal role in identifying patients on ICS who are at risk of osteoporosis. More education is needed for pharmacists to raise the awareness of the association of ICS with osteoporosis.
1-4
2
COMMUNITY PHARMACISTS INTERVENTION: How a 6-episode of one-on-one intervention changed patients’ attitudes towards their medication and disease self-management
Hana Morrissey, Patrick Ball, David Jackson, Louis Pilloto
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Adherence to medication is reported to be <33%. Most people who suffer chronic conditions require pharmacological intervention; they collect prescription repeats every month creating an opportunity for further regular intervention by the community pharmacist. to investigate if pharmacist intervention in Chronic Disease Management in rural Australia could improve patients’ outcomes through better monitoring of disease markers, selfmanagement skills and medication adherence. This project was a pilot before and after, pragmatic study, which was designed as a foundation to support future definitive studies. The data was analysed in ASReml-R™ using linear mixed models or generalised linear mixed models. Using modified Health Education Impact Questionnaires™, there was 29.65% improvement in patients’ total score from pre and post clinical intervention. Patient education and ongoing interaction between patients and pharmacists enforced the importance of monitoring improving patients’ knowledge and self-management commitment. The use of prescription repeat collections as an opportunity to reinforce disease management messages deserves further investigation.
5-13
3
KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE TOWARDS DISCARDING UNWANTED HOUSEHOLD MEDICINES AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN WESTERN REGION, KSA
Qasem M. A. Abdallah, Mahmoud S. M. Al-Haddad, Omar H. M. Al-Khathami, Omar H. H. Al-Kherish, Khaled M. T. Al-Marri, Mohammaed F. K. Al-Matani, Amjad M. N. Al-Rashed
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Impropriate disposal of medicines can lead to increase security, health and environmental risks. In this study, we evaluated the awareness and pattern of practice regarding drug disposal among university students in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia. A Cross-sectional research design using convenience sampling technique was used in this study. 1446 respondents successfully responded to this study.More than Three quarter (76.9%) of which have had the experience of discarding drugs. Discarding unwanted medicines via household waste baskets was the most popular method followed by disposing drugs via drainage. Only a quarter of respondents have previously received information about how to dispose medicines. Drug dosage form and amount of drug were important factors.Low awareness level of respondents and the lack of systems instructing the re-collection of unwanted household medicines may be the main reasons linked to theirrational method of drug disposal. Not failing the importance of awareness programs, introducing such drug-disposal systems would improve the outcomes.
14-21
4
PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF FICUS GLOMERATA EXTRACT AGAINST BENZO(A)PYRENE-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION ALTERATIONS AND DNA DAMAGE IN MALE MICE
Saleha Y. M. Alakilli
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ficus glomerata Roxb (Branches) is a rich source of phenolic compounds known to possess potential antioxidant activity offering numerous health benefits. The present study evaluated the protective effects of methanol extract of Ficus glomerata at two doses (FG250; 250 mg kg-1 and FG500; 500 mg kg-1 ) against benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induced gene expression changes and DNA damage in male mice. Fifty adult albino male mice allocated in five groups were used in this study. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) administration resulted in significant increase (P ≤ 0.01) in the gene expression of liver cancer-related genes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2B6, CD59, hTRET and P53) in hepatic tissues of male mice. In addition, (BaP) increased the rate of DNA damage in mice blood cells. Extract pretreatment restored genetic alteration parameters toward normalization. FR250 and FR500 decreased the gene expression alterations and rate of DNA damage induced by BaP in male mice. Extract pretreatment, 500 mg kg-1 , was more effective in reducing the genetic toxicity than the extract, 250 mg kg-1 . BaP exposure resulted in pronounced oxidative stress, and administration of Ficus glomerata extract offers significant liver and blood cells protection by inhibiting the changes of gene expression and damage of the DNA through scavenging free radicals.
22-32
5
PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NAPROXEN LOADED MICROEMULSION FORMULATIONS FOR DERMAL APPLICATION
Neslihan Ustundag-Okur, Mehmet Ali Ege, H. Yeşim Karasulu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ficus glomerata Roxb (Branches) is a rich source of phenolic compounds known to possess potential antioxidant activity offering numerous health benefits. The present study evaluated the protective effects of methanol extract of Ficus glomerata at two doses (FG250; 250 mg kg-1 and FG500; 500 mg kg-1 ) against benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induced gene expression changes and DNA damage in male mice. Fifty adult albino male mice allocated in five groups were used in this study. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) administration resulted in significant increase (P ≤ 0.01) in the gene expression of liver cancer-related genes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2B6, CD59, hTRET and P53) in hepatic tissues of male mice. In addition, (BaP) increased the rate of DNA damage in mice blood cells. Extract pretreatment restored genetic alteration parameters toward normalization. FR250 and FR500 decreased the gene expression alterations and rate of DNA damage induced by BaP in male mice. Extract pretreatment, 500 mg kg-1 , was more effective in reducing the genetic toxicity than the extract, 250 mg kg-1 . BaP exposure resulted in pronounced oxidative stress, and administration of Ficus glomerata extract offers significant liver and blood cells protection by inhibiting the changes of gene expression and damage of the DNA through scavenging free radicals.
33-42
6
PERCEPTION, INTEREST, AND BARRIERS TOWARD CONTINUING PHARMACY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM AT WOMAN’S HOSPITAL IN QATAR
Doua AlSaad, Samah ElSalem, Palli Abdulrouf, Afif Ahmed Ali, Moza AlHail
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study is to assess perception, interest, and barriers toward continuing pharmacy development (CPD) at Women\'s Hospital (WH) in Qatar. A web-based anonymous survey was conducted. Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians were included. Survey questions were divided into four sections: socio-demographics, perception about CPD program, interest toward CPD topics, and barriers to attend CPD program. Perception of participants revealed that > 90% agreed the sessions are valuable, and help develop in daily practice and achieve their CPD goals. The highest rated reason to attend CPD sessions was the topic is interesting, and helps in practice (85%), while patient education was the highest rated topic participants interested in (73%). The main barrier to attend CPD sessions was lack of time and busyness of pharmacy (76%). Pharmacy staff at WH has good perception and interest toward CPD sessions. CPD program planners shall work on resolving identified barriers to maximize program benefits.
43-49
7
TAWAM HOSPITAL IN-PATIENT GLYCEMIC CONTROL: IT’S TIME TO STOP SLIDING
Basma Beiram
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the present work is to develop best practice for enabling targeted glycemic control in the medical and surgical setting considering the multiple factors contributing to hypo/hyperglycemia. A randomized trial comparing the safety and efficacy of a basal-bolus (BB) insulin regimen with glargine insulin once daily and aspart insulin before meals (n = 60) to sliding scale regular insulin (SSI) with regular insulin four times daily (n = 90) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted to the medical and general surgery ward. Outcomes included differences in daily blood glucose, hospital length of stay and hypoglycemia/hyperglycemia occurrences. There was a 27% and 15% reduction in the average length of stay in the medical and surgical wards respectively post implementation of new regimen. Secondly 68% and 902% reductions in the hypoglycemic episodes per 100 patient days in the medical and surgical ward respectively post implementation of the new regimen. Basal-bolus treatment with glargine insulin once daily plus aspart insulin before meals improved glycemic control and reduced hospital complications compared with SSI in general surgery patients. Our study indicates that a basal-bolus insulin regimen is preferred over SSI in the hospital management of medical and surgery patients with type 2 diabetes.
50-56
8
DETOXIFIED JATROPHA CURCAS KERNEL MEAL IMPACT AGAINST BENZENE-INDUCED GENETIC TOXICITY IN MALE RATS
Sabah A. A. Linjawi, Wagdy K. B. Khalil, Lamia M. Salem
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pollution by crude oil is wide spread and a common problem, and particularly endemic in countries whose economies are dependent on the oil industry. Such pollution arises either accidentally or operationally wherever oil is produced, transported, stored, processed or used. Benzene contamination of soil may also occur due to oil production facilities and coastal refineries. This problem arises because most of petrochemicals including benzene and its derivatives are carcinogens and mutagens with the capacity to affect both the structural integrity of DNA and the fidelity of its biologic expression. Jatropha curcas (L.) is a multipurpose and drought resistant tree, widespread throughout the tropics and subtropics. Its seeds are rich in oil and protein. J. curcas can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. Therefore, the objective of this work is to evaluate protective effect of detoxified J. curcas kernel meal (DJKM) against benzene-induced clastogenicity in male rats. Eighty adult male rats were allocated in several groups treated with benzene and/or several concentration of DJKM. The results revealed that low, medium and high doses of DJKM did not increase the DNA fragmentation, incidence of MnPCEs and alterations in the stress related genes (Hsp70a, MT and CYP450 genes) compared with benzene induced high levels of these parameters. The protection effects of DJKM on the genetic toxicity were attributed to its imact on the glutathione peroxidase activity which was increased significantly with DJKM treatment compared to benzene exposure.
57-66
9
PUBLIC PREFERENCES OF WEIGHT LOSS METHODS AND COMMUNITY PHARMACISTS’ ASSISTANCE IN WEIGHT MANAGEMENT
Ezlina Usir, Julia Jalaludin
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pollution by crude oil is wide spread and a common problem, and particularly endemic in countries whose economies are dependent on the oil industry. Such pollution arises either accidentally or operationally wherever oil is produced, transported, stored, processed or used. Benzene contamination of soil may also occur due to oil production facilities and coastal refineries. This problem arises because most of petrochemicals including benzene and its derivatives are carcinogens and mutagens with the capacity to affect both the structural integrity of DNA and the fidelity of its biologic expression. Jatropha curcas (L.) is a multipurpose and drought resistant tree, widespread throughout the tropics and subtropics. Its seeds are rich in oil and protein. J. curcas can also be used for human food, animal feed, fertilizer, fuel and traditional medicine. Therefore, the objective of this work is to evaluate protective effect of detoxified J. curcas kernel meal (DJKM) against benzene-induced clastogenicity in male rats. Eighty adult male rats were allocated in several groups treated with benzene and/or several concentration of DJKM. The results revealed that low, medium and high doses of DJKM did not increase the DNA fragmentation, incidence of MnPCEs and alterations in the stress related genes (Hsp70a, MT and CYP450 genes) compared with benzene induced high levels of these parameters. The protection effects of DJKM on the genetic toxicity were attributed to its imact on the glutathione peroxidase activity which was increased significantly with DJKM treatment compared to benzene exposure.
67-73
10
ENTERAL FEEDING AND FLUOROQUINOLONES
Rania Tarek Malatani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
“When the gut works, use it” is a common expression used to encourage the use of the enteral route for nutrition over the parenteral route in hospitalized patients. The same access device is often used to deliver both the enteral formula and medications without regard to the administration site (gastric versus small bowel). Changes in drug response as well as complications of drug administration may result from delivering enteral nutrition and medication together through the same tube. Currently, there is no standard of practice regarding the administration of specific medications when patients are receiving tube feeding, and if the feeding should be held for a period of time before and after drug administration. This report provides a general review regarding interactions between enteral feeding and the fluoroquinolones antibiotic class.
74-77
11
PREDICTORS OF PHYSICIANS ACCEPTANCE OF CLINICAL PHARMACY RECOMMENDATIONS AT A MILITARY HOSPITAL IN THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Loai M. Saadah, Yazied M Nazzal, Shady I. Abdelmaksoud, Mary K. Nazzal, Eyad L. Abu Sabiha, Ayesha A. Al Qasemi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the present work is to study the effect of a number of factors on acceptance by clinicians for clinical pharmacy recommendations. Clinical Pharmacy team documented their recommendations since June 2010 till March 2013 in a dedicated excel file. We performed univariate analyses to determine the significance of certain variables in predicting physician’s acceptance of recommendations made in 2011. Out of a total 8,451 recommendations documented in our database, 3,871 (45.3%) were made in 2011. Only 1982 (51.2 %) recommendations were fully documented with clinical pharmacist identification and therefore were available for analysis. Overall physician acceptance rate was 81.7%. Factors resulting in a higher acceptance were clinical pharmacy experience of more than 3 years (33% vs. 21%, P < 0.0001), board certification (46% vs. 37%, P = 0.002), doctor of pharmacy degree (33% vs. 21%, P < 0.0001), and post-bachelor professional education (42% vs. 32%, P = 0.001). Specialties associated with a significantly higher acceptance were critical care (21% vs. 14%, 0.002), pediatrics (12% vs. 7%, P = 0.009) and oncology (19% vs. 6%, P < 0.0001). Recommendations to stop medications were significantly more likely to be accepted (25% vs. 20%, P = 0.021). Finally, recommendations concerning antiinfectives were more likely to be accepted (26% vs. 18%, P = 0.002). Clinicians acceptance of clinical pharmacy recommendations can be predicted by variables of education, experience, specialty, medication class and type of recommendation. We recommend investing more in clinical pharmacy in the areas of critical care, pediatrics, oncology, and infectious diseases.
78-85
12
A METAANALYSIS OF TAXANES, ANTITUMOR ANTIBIOTICS AND PLATINUM CONTAINING CHEMOTHERAPY REGIMENS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF METASTATIC BREAST CANCER
Soumadip Das, Rajat Rana, Aravinda Swami, Doreen Pon, C K Dhanapal, Sandra Leal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of present work is to compare Taxanes, antitumor antibiotics and platinum containing chemotherapy regimens in the management of metastatic breast cancer in terms of overall survival, objective response rate and time to progression. Cochrane Breast Cancer Group specialized register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and WHO International Clinical Registry platform were searched using the appropriate search strategy Selection criteria. Randomised trials comparing the Taxanes, antitumor antibiotics and platinum containing chemotherapy for either recurrent or newly diagnosed women with Metastatic Breast Cancer were included. Data were collected from published trials. Studies were assessed for eligibility and quality, and data were extracted by two independent reviewers. Hazard Ratios (HRs) were derived from time-to-event outcomes where possible, and a fixed effect model was used for meta-analysis. Response rates were analysed as dichotomous variables. 35 trials were included with sample size of 16272 patients with Advanced Metastatic Breast Cancer treated with either Antitumor Antibiotics or Platinum Regimens or Taxanes. The observed overall survival derived for a sample size of 2710 exposed to chemotherapy where as a comparator group of 2591 exposed other therapies. The overall risk ratio was 0.98(M-H, fixed, 95% CI; 0.95 to 1.01). Time to Progression for a sample size of 2613 exposed to chemotherapy in comparison to the comparator group of 2370 exposed to other therapies. The overall risk ratio was 1.01(M-H, fixed, 95% CI; 0.98 to 1.03). Tumor Response Rate derived for a sample size of 3037 exposed to chemotherapy in comparison to the comparator group of 2951 exposed to other therapies. The overall risk ratio was 1.15(M-H, fixed, 95% CI; 1.08 to 1.22). This study confirms several benefits of chemotherapy especially Taxanes, antitumor antibiotics and platinum regimen in metastatic breast cancer, but the selection of drug therapy must be based upon the presentation of the case.
86-94
13
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UV SPECTROSCOPIC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF KETOCONAZOLE IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
Olga Popovska, Zoran Kavrakovski, Vesna Rafajlovska
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A UV spectroscopic method which is simple, accurate and rapid is developed for the determination of ketoconazole in pharmaceutical formulations as active substance in tablets, shampoos and cream. The absorption maxima of ketoconazole solutions in methanol are recorded at 244 nm and 296 nm. The linearity for ketoconazole in methanol with correlation coefficient values higher than 0.999 is found in the range of 0.005–0.025 mg/ml at 244 nm, R 2 = 0.9996 and 0.05–0.25 mg/ml at 296 nm, R 2 = 0.9996. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) accounts to 0.000597 mg/ml and 0.00181 mg/ml at 244 nm and 0.00647 mg/ml and 0.01963 mg/ml at 296 nm, respectively. The intra– and inter–day assay is within 2% relative standard deviation. The obtained results for tablets, cream and shampoos are in good agreement with their respective product, label claims. The developed method can be successfully applied for the purpose routine analysis of ketoconazole in pharmaceutical formulations.
95-101
14
PHARMACOKINETIC EVALUATION OF AMOXICILLIN ALONE AND SIMULTANEOUS ADMINISTRATION OF ANTACID
Anab Fatima, Syed Baqir Naqvi, Iyad Naeem Mohammed, Shaheen Perveen, Iqbal Nasiri and Sheikh Abdul Khaliq
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Various antibiotics whenever given orally along with antacid show significant pharmacokinetic interactions. During the present single dose, cross over, randomized study pharmacokinetic interaction between oral combination of amino penicillin i.e. 250 mg amoxicillin with an antacid(10 ml) containing aluminium, magnesium hydroxide and simethicone were evaluated. The study was conducted on ten healthy male volunteers. The study was performed on Pakistani population and data obtained was used to compare pharmacokinetic parameters of amoxicillin alone and with simultaneous administration of antacid in an open one compartmental model. Initially Physico-chemical test were performed for amoxicillin to check the quality of product. Plasma concentrations of amoxicillin were determined by validated high performance liquid chromatography techniques and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated for both treatments. The analysis showed significant difference(P< 0.05,SPSS 16.0) when amoxicillin used along with antacid in various pharmacokinetic parameters. The values of mean Cmax of amoxicillin alone and with antacid found to be 8.88±0.09 and 7.84 ± 0.06 µg/ml at Tmax of 2 ±0.00 hrs and 3 ± 0.00 hrs with the values of AUC0-t(AUClast) and AUC 0-∞ were 33.33±0.70 and 37.89±0.70 alone and 36.25±0.43 and 41.64±1.15mg/ml.hr with antacid. Likewise significant difference in other pharmacokinetic parameters was observed between treatment groups (the values of Clearance(CL),Vd, absorption, distribution and elimination rate constants, MRT and AUMC).No serious adverse event observed during study period. The study demonstrated that oral absorption of amoxicillin may be affected by the presence of antacid therefore it must be recommended to avoid the combination of amoxicillin and antacid or to make a dose adjustment or close monitoring of patients.
102-107
15
REFORMING SUPPORTIVE SUPERVISION OF MEDICINES MANAGEMENT WITH AN AUDIT TOOL IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE FACILITIES: A CASE STUDY OF BAHI DISTRICT, TANZANIA
Ntuli Kapologwe, Amani Thomas Mori, Fiona Chilunda, Menoris Meshack, Albino Kalolo, Karin Wiedenmayer
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Stock-out of essential medicines is a common problem in primary health facilities of Tanzania. Alternative approaches such as the use of auditing tools have been proposed in order to strengthen the generally weak supportive supervision in medicines management. A cross-sectional study was conducted in ten primary health facilities in Bahi District in Dodoma region-Tanzania between October and December, 2013. Standardized auditing tools and indicators were used to assess the availability of ten essential tracer medicines, timeliness and correctness of ordering, record keeping, documentation and financial management. Analysis was done by using MS Excel spreadsheet (Microsoft Excel® , Microsoft Corporation). Mean availability of tracer medicines was 84%. Rapid Diagnostic Tests for malaria, artemether-lumefantrine, amoxicillin syrup and amoxicillin capsules were mostly found to be out of stock. Nine of the ten facilities submitted their ordering forms on time but only six of the ten facilities filled their ordering forms correctly. In five facilities, financial records did not balance with bank statements and receipt books. Medicines audits represent a feasible approach to strengthen medicines management at primary health facilities. The study validated standardized and simple tools that can be used to reform routine supportive supervision methodology.
108-114
16
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF REVERSE PHASE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF TIROFIBAN IN SERUM
Marija Darkovska Serafimovska, Emilija Janevik-Ivanovska, Zorica Arsova-Sarafinovska, Icko Djorgoski, Nenad Ugresic
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A specific, sensitive and rapid RP-HPLC method has been developed for the determination of Tirofiban in serum. The chromatographic separation was realized using reverse phase LiChrospher® 100 RP-18 column (4.0 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm) and mobile phase consisting the mixture of 0.1 M KH2PO4 (pH 5.2, adjusted with 1.0 N sodium hydroxide solution) and acetonitrile, with the ratio of 70:30% (v/v) and flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The detection was carried out at 274 nm. The response was linear over the range of 0.03 – 0.18 mgmL-1 in mobile phase and serum samples. The limit of detection (LOD) for Tirofiban was 1.84, 13.8 and 14.6 μg mL-1 in methanol, spiked rat serum and spiked human serum, respectively. The described method can be quickly and routinely applied, without any interference from endogenous substances, for therapeutic monitoring of levels of Tirofiban in the serum samples.
115-120
17
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF N-HEXANE EXTRACT OF GARCINIA KOLA HECKEL [BITTER KOLA] SEED
Uzondu Akueyinwa Lovet Esther, Utoh-Nedosa Uchechukwu Anastasia and Anowi Chinedu Fredrick
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The patented flavonoid extract of Garcinia kola seeds for the treatment of liver disorders has been shown to have anti-oxidant and scavenging properties. This study, therefore, evaluated the phytochemical composition of Garcinia kola seed and antimicrobial activity of the N-hexane extract of Garcinia kola seed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Staphylococcus aureus; Bacillus subtilis; Escherichia coli; Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans. The zones of inhibition of the N-hexane extract concentrations (100mg, 50mg and 25mg) against the growth of the organisms were determined by the cup-plate agar method. A Marcfarland Standard of each of the bacteria was used to seed sterile molten nutrient agar medium maintained at 450 C and Sabourand dextrose agar plate was seeded with Candida albicans. Results of phytochemical screening tests showed that Garcinia kola seed powder contained starch, protein, glycosides, flavonoids, tannin, saponins, sterols and triterpenoids. The antibacterial activity of 100mg extract was highest and was in the order: action on Bacillus subtilis > Pseudomonas aeruginosae >Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae with zones of inhibition of 10.66mm, 9.66mm, 9mm, 9mm, respectively while that of the 50mg concentration was of the order: Bacillus subtilis> Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus >> Krebsiella pneumoniae with zones of inhibition of 8.33mm, 8. 33mm, 8.33mm and 4.66mm, respectively. The 100mg, 50mg and 25mg concentrations of the extract were all poorly inhibitory to Candida albicans and were resisted by Eshcerichia coli. The triterpenoids found in the extract (possibly in conjunction with the glycosides) are suggested to be responsible for the anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity of the N-hexane extract of Garcina kola seed obtained in this study.
121-127
18
THE IN VITRO PHARMACEUTICAL EQUIVALENCE STUDIES OF LOSARTAN TABLETS OF DIFFERENT MANUFACTURERS AVAILABLE IN BANGLADESH
Rehana Begum, Md. Zakir Sultan, Asma Rahman, Md. Akter Hossain and Md. Shah Amran
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The study was aimed to assess the pharmaceutical equivalence of some losartan potassium tablets of different manufacturers marketed in Bangladesh using in vitro dissolution study. The dissolution was carried out using the apparatus II according to USP guidelines. Other general quality assessment tests like hardness, friability, disintegration time were also determined. All brands complied with the official specification for hardness, friability and disintegration time. The dissolution profiles showed inter brand and intra brand variability. All samples attained more than 85% dissolution within 30 minutes. The results were subjected to statistical analysis to compare the dissolution profiles. A model independent approach of similarity factor (f2) was employed. The data indicated that only two brands may be used interchangeably.
128-132
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HPLC PROFILING OF POLYPHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND FREE RADICAL ASSAY OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ANNONA RETICULATA GROWING IN BANGLADESH
Ismet Ara Jahan, Hemayet Hossain, Shaikh Emdadur Rahman, Shirin Sultana, Proity Nayeeb Akbar, Sabina Yeasmin, Tanzir Ahmed Khan, Md. Mahfuzur Rahman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study investigates the HPLC profiling of phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activities of Annona reticulata. Through HPLC assay, high levels of rutin hydrate (603.88 mg/100 g extract) and moderate amount of catechin, epicatechin, and p-coumeric acid were determined (99.00, 78.19, 85.38 mg/100 g extract, respectively). Some amount of vanillic acid, ellagic acid, and quercetin were also detected (19.80, 31.56, 8.83 mg/100 g extract, respectively). Antioxidant activity tests such as, ABTS radical scavenging activity, reducing power, total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and flavanoid content determination, were also performed. At 250 μg/ml, the percentage inhibition value of Annona reticulata for ABTS scavenging was 99.93 μg/ml, and the maximum absorbance for reducing power assay was 0.195. The total antioxidant capacity, and phenolic and flavonoid contents were calculated to be 419.20 mg of ascorbic acid/g, 120.07 mg/g of gallic acid, and 90.05 mg/g of quercetin equivalent, respectively. These results suggested that polyphenolic compounds in Annona reticulata might be responsible for their antioxidant activities.
133-139
20
COMMUNICATION ON SANITARY CRISIS SITUATION: CASE OF PANDEMIC INFLUENZA A/H1N1 (2009)
Naoual Laaroussi, Soufiane Derraji, Abdelghani Drhimeur, Abdelaziz Barkia
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study deals with the theme of communication in a health crisis. It was conducted at the university hospital Ibn Sina in Rabat (CHIS) and was undertaken to describe the communication implemented for the benefit of health professionals before, during and after the crisis of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (2009). The problem started from an personal irritation and from a statement approved by stakeholders who are sharing the same irritation. The literature review has identified elements describing of the communication during the three phases of the evolution of a crisis on the scale of a pandemic which formed the conceptual framework used to develop different parts descriptive of this work. Data collection was conducted through a questionnaire survey and by semi-structured interviews. Quantitative Analysis of the results obtained clearly showed a lack in communication especially during the pre and post crisis phases. Nevertheless, several communication actions have been deployed by CHIS using even developed technological means (website…) to inform and educate its staff during the pandemic. However, the media were the main source of information for these health professionals. This leads to uncertainty and installation of rumors among them.
140-145
21
PRECLINICAL LIPID PROFILE STUDIES OF A CLASSICAL AYURVEDIC PREPARATION “ARJUNARISTA” AFTER CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION TO MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS
Marjana Khalil, Swagata Sarker Lopa, Md. Rakib Hasan, Md. Mahmudur Rahman Mamun, Paritosh Chakma, Arjyabrata Sarkar, Mohammed Motaher Hossain Chowdhury and M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Arjunarista (RJN) is an Ayurvedic preparation used as a traditional medicine in the south Asian countries for the treatment of cardiac diseases. We were eager to know the effect of chronic administration of RJN on the lipid profile test. To find out the effect of chronic administration of RJN on the lipid profile it was administered chronically to the male Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 40 ml/Kg. After 28 days of chronic administration of the RJN preparation, the following effects on the lipid profile were noted. There was a very highly significant increase in LDL Cholesterol (p=0.001). A very highly significant (0.001) decrease was noticed in triglyceride (TG), VLDL-C & HDL-C level; thus leading to a statistically very highly significant (p=0.001) increase in Cardiac Risk Ratio (CRR) (TC/HDL-C), Castelli’s Risk Index-II (CRI-II) (HDL-C/LDL-C) and Atherogenic Coefficient (AC) [(TC/HDL-C)/HDL-C)], but a statistically significant (p=0.033) decrease in case of Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) (log (TG/HDL-C)).
146-150
22
A REVIEW ON MEDICINAL PLANTS POSSESSING ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY
Muhammad kifayatullah, Mohd.Shahimi Mustafa, SatheeshbaboNatrajan, Arindam Das, MashoodAhamad Shah
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Medical plants have a wide range of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, immunological, antiviral, hypoglycemic, antifungal, antihepatic, antiphlogistic cardiovascular and central nervous effect especially in developing countries where resources are meager. About 80% of the remote area populations rely on the traditional medicines for their health. In literature approximately 500 plants with medicinal use are mentioned and around 800 plants have been used in indigenous systems of medicine. Because of side effect of synthetic drugs, there is an increasing interest towards natural product remedies with a basic approach towards the nature. The inflammatory drug from plants in present clinical use and their similar mechanism of action of medicinal components are preferred mainly due to low cost and lesser side effects. A number of side effects like gastrointestinal bleeding, mucosal erosion, hepatotoxicity, renal toxicity and nephropathy are associated with the use of Anti-inflammatory drugs. Cycoloxygenase-1 enzyme is present throughout the body and their functions is to maintains the  normal gastric mucosa and influencing renal blood flow and platelet aggregation and Cyclooxygenase-2 mediates inflammatory responses. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit both enzymes; inhibition of Cox2 is directly implicated in ameliorating inflammation, whereas the inhibition of cyclooxygenase - 1 causes adverse effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Meanwhile, in order to avoid from side effect, there are development and introduction of new antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents that compete with Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The use of natural remedies for the treatment of inflammatory and painful condition has long history starting with Ayurvedic treatment, extends to the European and other systems of traditional medicines. The present review focus on the some of the medicinal plants and their medicinal uses which have been shown experimentally. The profiles presented include information about the scientific name, family, methodology used and the degree of anti-inflammatory activity. WHO has pointed out this prevention of inflammatory diseases and its complications is not only a major challenge for the future, but essential if health for all is to attain. Therefore, in recent years, considerable attention has been directed towards identification of plants with anti-inflammatory activity that may be used for human consumption.
151-155
23
DRUG UTILIZATION PATTERN IN PREGNANCY- A SCOPE FOR IMPROVEMENT IN THE CURRENT PRESCRIBING PRACTICES
Md.Ilyaz, Dr.RoyaRozati, Fatima Hafeez, Fatima Tahniyath, Hasbeen Sultana, Md. Ashfaq Hussain
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">The purpose of this study is to evaluate the pattern of drug (prescription, OTC) utilization in pregnant women attending the Antenatal OPD at a Tertiary care hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 400 pregnant women attending Antenatal Out Patient Department. Out of 400 women majority (40%) were in the third trimester. The average drugs prescribed were 6.25 per prescription. Iron, Folic acid and Calcium were the main drug of choice during pregnancy, either alone or in combination with other drugs. Mostly, the drugs were of US FDA risk category B and none of the category X drugs was prescribed. Self medication was more in higher socio economic population. The study revealed prescribing behaviour to pregnant women under Antenatal care and determines the extent of prescription of drugs to provide optimum health care to improve the overall health of the mother and baby in community.</div>
156-167
24
PRECLINICAL ANEMIA PANEL STUDIES OF “ROHITAKARISTA” AFTER CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION TO MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS
K. N. Roy Niyati, Md. Rakib Hasan, Swagata Sarker Lopa, Ishtiaque Ahmed Chowdhury, Marjana Khalil, Maksud Hassan Binoy, M Salahuddin Bhuiya and M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Rohitakarista (RHT) is an Ayurvedic preparation used as a traditional medicine in the South Asian countries for the treatment of liver disorders, splenomegaly and other spleen related problems. The effect of chronic administration of Rohitakarista on the hematological parameters and serum iron profile was studied in this experiment. The acute toxicity test of RHT recorded no death, even at the highest dose of 80 ml/Kg body weight. The animals were divided into two groups. The first group was given RHT preparation at a dose of 40 ml/Kg body weight for 28 days while the second group that served as the control received water for the same period. After 28 days chronic administration of the RHT preparation to the male Sprague-Dawley rats the following hematological changes were noted. There were a statistically significant decrease in total red blood cell (RBC) count (p=0.03) and Hemoglobin content of the blood (p=0.04) whereas a highly significant decrease (p=0.01) in case of Hematocrit level of the blood. The erythrocytic indices such as mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and red cell volume distribution width (RDW) did not change significantly. A significant decrease was noted in case of serum Iron level (p=0.044) whereas a statistically significant (p=0.039) increase was noticed in serum Ferritin level.</div>
168-174
25
INCLUSION COMPLEXATION BY CYCLODEXTRIN : A NOVEL APPROACH TO IMPROVE SOLUBILITY AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF POORLY WATER SOLUBLE DRUG
Bhopate Sapana B, Dhole Shashikant N
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides which have recently been recognized as useful pharmaceutical excipients. The outer surface of these doughnut-shaped molecules is hydrophilic, but they possess an axial open cavity, which is of hydrophobic character and capable of including other apolar molecules in case of geometric compatibility. This is the essence of molecular encapsulation by inclusion complex formation. Low solubility compounds show dissolution rate limited absorption and hence poor absorption, distribution and target organ delivery. Improvement of aqueous solubility in such a case is valuable goal to improve therapeutic efficacy. Complexation with CDs by different methods like physical mixing, kneading, spray drying, freeze drying, etc., has been reported to enhance the solubility, dissolution rate and bioavability of poorly water soluble drugs. This review aims to assess the use of cyclodextrins as complexing agents to enhance the solubility of poorly soluble drugs and hence to resolve the many issues associated with developing and commercializing poorly water soluble drugs.&nbsp;</div>
175-188
26
PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND IN VITRO - IN VIVO EVALUATION OF GLICLAZIDE LOADED POLYMERIC MICROSPHERES
Mohammad Sofiqur Rahman, Amit Kumar Chaurasiya, Sazia Afreen Rahee, Ikramul Hasan, Mohammad Shahriar, Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan and Md. Selim Reza
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disease which involves both defective insulin secretion and peripheral insulin resistance. Despite the availability of other agents for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus gliclazide, is preferred in diabetic therapy because of its selective inhibitory activity towards pancreatic K+-ATP channels, antioxidant property, low incidence of producing severe hypoglycemia and other haemobiological effects. In the present study gliclazide microspheres were prepared using combination of Ethyl cellulose (20 cps), Methocel K4M, Methocel K15M and Eudragit-RSPO by solvent evaporation method. They were evaluated for their microencapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, and surface morphology, compatibility between drug and polymers and in vivo anti-diabetic study. The microspheres were almost spherical and slightly rough. The encapsulation efficiency was in the range of 68-92%. The drug release was also found to be slow which extended for almost 8 hours. FTIR and DSC analysis indicated the good compatibility between the dug and polymers. In vivo study of the gliclazide microspheres in albino rats demonstrated significant antidiabetic effect of gliclazide. In case of gliclazide microspheres the hypoglycemic effect obtained was for more than 10 hours whereas pure gliclazide produce antidiabetic effect for only 4-5 hours suggesting that microspheres of gliclazide may be a potential candidate for safe and effective controlled drug delivery for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.</div><div style="text-align: justify"><br /></div>
189-198
27
PLASMA PROTEIN BINDING STUDY OF METAXALONE WITH HUMAN PLASMA BY RP-HPLC
Kasture Veena S, Mhaske Sharayu D, Pathan Mallika A, Waman Nitesh, Ajage Rohit K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">The HPLC method was developed and validated to quantify Metaxalone binding with human plasma. Metaxalone was extracted from spiked plasma by simple protein precipitation with methanol. The seperation was performed on RP-C18 column with mobile phase of HPLC grade methanol at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The peak of Metaxalone was monitored at 272 nm with UV-VIS detector. &nbsp;The calibration curve was found to be linear at concentration range of 1-8 &micro;g/ml. Regression was found to be 0.995 . The interday and intraday precisions SD and RSD were 0.576 and 0.515, 1.851% and 1.648%. respectively. The &nbsp;recovery of Metaxalone from formulation was 96.97&plusmn;2.14% and from plasma was found to be 84%. Plasma protein binding was found to be 16.90&plusmn;1.67. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines.The simple, rapid, sensitive and reproducible HPLC method was developed for estimation of Metaxalone plasma protein binding.. The proposed method can be used for the pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies of Metaxalone.</div>
199-203
28
PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS: PRESCRIBING PATTERN IN PSYCHIATRY OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT OF A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL
Monalisa Jena, Swati Mishra, Suvendu Narayan Mishra, Sudhanshu Sekhar Mishra
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">The aim of present work is to study the pattern of prescription of psychotropic drugs in psychiatry outpatient department of a tertiary care teaching hospital. This was a cross-sectional observational study of one year in patients diagnosed according to DSM- IV criteria (4800 patients). Psychotic disorders 23.95 % were most common followed by Anxiety disorders. Prevalence of male patients was more than female. Prevalent age group in our study was more than 30 years of age. A total of 8338 drugs prescribed, among which 90.64% drugs were used orally and 9.35%drugs were given as parenteral formulations. &nbsp;Among antipsychotics, Olanzepine (28.98%) was prescribed more commonly followed by Risperidone, among antidepressants; Escitalopram (45.42%) was prescribed more frequently followed by Des &ndash; Venlaflaxine, the anxiolytic group; Clonazepam (39.50%) followed by Nitrazepam, among mood stabilizer;Valproate (55.91%) was used followed by Ox carbazepine, &nbsp;among anticholinergics; frequency of administration of Trihexyphenydyl (66.82%) was more than Procyclidine whereas among anticonvulsant; &nbsp;Sodium valproate(57.30%) followed by Ox carbazepine).</div>
204-208
29
ANTIPROTOZOAL AND MOLLUSCICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF PELARGONIUM GRAVEOLENS
Eman Al-Sayed , Hoda Abdel Hamid , Hanaa M. Abu El Einin, Eman Ali, Zeinab Fahmy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">In this study, the ethanol extract of Pelargonium graveolens (PGE) exhibited a strong molluscicidal against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, as well as a strong biocidal activity against the larval stages of Schistosoma &nbsp;mansoni (miracidia and cercariae). Treatment of the snails with the LC25 (59.7 ppm) of PGE induced a remarkable decrease in the protein levels in the snail tissues and hemolymph by 18 and 29%, respectively. A significant increase in the levels of the transaminases ALT (143%) and AST (161%) in the hemolymph was observed. Alkaline phosphatase was significantly increased by 124% in the snail tissues, while ACP was significantly increased by 76% in the hemolymph. PGE conferred the same inhibitory activity as metronidazole on Blastocystis hominis at a concentration of &nbsp;200 &micro;g/ml. The % mortality was 50, 60 and 70% after 24, 72 and 144 h incubation with PGE. The present study is the first report to provide evidence that PGE has a potent molluscicidal, biocidal and anti-Blastocystis effects.&nbsp;</div>
209-214
30
SHISHA SMOKING TREND: CURRENT SCENARIO IN KARACHIITES
Fakhsheena Anjum, Sadia Shakeel, Sana Ghayas, Wajiha Iffat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">The objective of the present work is to study the awareness and causes of shisha (waterpipe) smoking among adolescents in Karachi, Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the youth aged 16-25 years in various shisha bars/cafes of Karachi, based on convenient sampling. A total of 145 respondents i.e. males (n =107, 73.79%) and females (n = 38, 26.2%), participated in the study. More than 40% of the participants started shisha smoking at the age of 16-18 years and around 70% smoked shisha occasionally. One of the interesting and leading facts observed during study that were associated with initiation of shisha smoking were curiosity for shisha smoking (23%), followed by hanging out with friends (21%), pleasure-seeking (18%), peer pressure (13%) and boredom (12%). Among 145 participants who had ever smoked shisha, the majority (61.8%) were current smokers. Majority (59.43%) of respondents thought that shisha is less harmful than cigarettes and contains less nicotine than cigarettes (62.75%). More than 50% agreed that Shisha smoking is an efficient stress-coping strategy and their family knew about this habit. Shisha smoking is quite popular among Pakistani adolescents and awareness regarding its dangers is alarmingly low. Policy makers should play a key role in reducing the spread of shisha smoking.</div>
215-219
31
ION EXCHANGE RESIN AS A POTENTIAL TECHNOLOGY ON FOR TASTE MASKING: A REVIEW
Rupa Gupta, P.K Sharma, Ashish Arora, Rishabha malviya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Taste masking is a gold standard technology &nbsp;to mask the unpleasant taste of bitter active pharmaceutical ingredient. Therefore, it becomes a potential tool to improve the patient compliance &amp; drug bioavailability. Taste masking of bitter drug using Ion exchange resin (IER) is one of the popular approaches. Ion exchange resin are cross-linked synthetic high molecular weight insoluble organic polymer having ionizable functional group. As being high molecular weight, the resin are not absorbed by the body &amp; are therefore inert. In past few years, Ion exchange resin have since been extensively used in the drug delivery technologies included; site specific drug delivery system, Modified release dosage form, Fast dissolving tablet, clinical medicine &amp; Biomedical application etc. The purpose of writing this review to explore the importance &amp; application of Ion exchange resin because of their versatile properties as a taste masking technologies.</div>
220-225
32
PREVALENCE OF THYROID DYSFUNCTIONS AND DYSLIPIDEMIA AMONG PATIENTS WITH HIV INFECTION: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY FROM EASTERN INDIA
Dolonchampa Modak, Subhasish Kamal Guha, Bibhuti Saha and Sumi Mukhopadhyay
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions and dyslipidemia among patients living with HIV and to investigate the associated factors. This cross sectional comparative group study was conducted between Feb 2013 to Jan 2014 at a single centre. The enrolled subjects were grouped in three categories, Group A (n= 42) comprising of ART na&iuml;ve HIV patients at baseline, Group B (n= 48) comprising of HIV patients starting ART at baseline, Group C (n= 19) comprising of HIV patients at baseline and after 6 months follow-up. Study population included 109 (59 males, 50 females) HIV patients with a mean age of 35.59 &plusmn; 10.2 years. Taken together, in Group A and B, 20% had hypothyroidism. Further, 1 patient each from both the groups had hyperthyroidism. In the present study, 12 % of HIV patients with CD4&lt;200 Cells/mm3 had thyroid dysfunctions whereas 2% with CD4 200-350 Cells/mm3 and 7 % patients with CD4&gt;350 Cells/mm3 had abnormal thyroid profile. In the follow up Group C, 2 patients developed Thyroid dysfunctions after 6 months on ART. Additionally, hypertriglyceridemia was found prevalent among HIV subjects with hypothyroidism in all the groups. Current National AIDS Control organization (NACO), India guidelines doesn&rsquo;t recommend mandatory monitoring of thyroid function tests (TFT) in asymptomatic HIV patients. Considering the prevalence of Thyroid dysfunctions among HIV patients, TFT along with other blood investigations is suggested. However, larger population based study is required for proper validation.&nbsp;</div>
226-230
33
EVALUATION OF WOUND HEALING POTENTIAL OF AERIAL PARTS OF CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM LINN
P. Udaya Chandrika, A. Srinivas Rao, M. Sri Rama Chandra, NVBLA Baby kambampati
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Cardiospermum halicacabum (Linn) popularly called as balloon wine belongs to Sapindaceae family. Phytochemical constituents such as flavones, apigenin, triterpenoidal glycosides fatty acids and volatile ester have been reported in C. halicacabum. In the present study the aerial parts of C. halicacabum were studied for wound healing activity by incorporating extract in simple ointment base B.P. in concentration of &nbsp;2% (w/w) and 4% (w/w) and studied in three types of model in rats viz. excision, incision and burn wound model. The statistical data indicated that the wound with ointment containing 4% w/w alcoholic extract exhibited significant (P &lt; 0.001) wound contracting ability and period of epithelization. Significant tensile strength was observed with both the ointment formulations 2% w/w and 4% w/w. The experimental data demonstrated that C. halicacabum displayed remarkable wound healing activity.</div>
231-235
34
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOME WILD EDIBLE TUBEROUS PLANTS
Swati Deshmukh and Varsha Jadhav (Rathod)
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">The antioxidant properties of three wild edible tuberous plants viz. Brachystelma edulis Coll. and Helmls, Ceropegia bulbosa var. bulbosa Roxb. and Ceropegia hirsuta Weight and Arn. were determined by using polyphenols, ascorbic acid, carotenoid, enzyme peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase assay. The total phenol content varied from 448.1&plusmn;0.81 mg/100g FW (Leaves) to 131.4&plusmn;0.86g/100g FW (Tuber) of C. bulbosa. &nbsp;Among all these tubers, B. edulis showed the highest antioxidant capacity. The result indicates that could be utilized as potential source of natural antioxidant in the food or in pharmaceutical industry.</div>
236-239
35
NUTRACEUTICALS STRIDE IN MEDICINAL ARENA
Bindiya Patel, Om Bagade, Riddhi Patel, Varsha Awasarkar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Nutraceutical &nbsp;is &nbsp;term coined to describe substances which are not traditionally recognized nutrients but which have positive physiological effects on the human body. The concept of nutraceuticals was started from the survey in U.K., Germany and France which concluded that diet is rated more highly by consumers than exercise or hereditary factors for achieving good health. Nutraceuticals are food product that provides health as well as medical benefits including the prevention and treatment of disease without any risk of toxicity or adverse effects. Such products range from dietary supplements to genetically engineered foods, herbal products and processed foods. The main aim of this article is to explore and discuss the role of nutraceuticalsin the prevention or treatment of &nbsp;underlying causes of disease.</div>
240-245
36
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CONTROLLED POROSITY OSMOTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE
Usha Sri T , Rajesh Vooturi, Vishnu P, Naveen Babu K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Controlled porosity osmotic tablet of Metoprolol succinate prepared and evaluated in this study. Metoprolol succinate is very low soluble drug. So it is difficult to formulate osmotic tablet of Metoprolol succinate which gives drug release up to 24 hr at zero order. To get desired dissolution profile various formulation parameters like osmogen concentration, level of weight gain and level of pore former concentration were studied. Final optimized formulation was studied for effect of pH of dissolution media, agitation. There is no effect of pH of dissolution media and agitation intensity on dissolution. There is significant effect of osmotic pressure on dissolution confirms that prepared metoprolol succinate tablet gives drug release with osmotic mechanism.&nbsp;</div>
246-255
37
RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF EMTRICITABINE, RILPIVIRINE AND TENOFOVIR EMPLOYING RESPONSE SURFACE DESIGN
T.Sudha, P.Shanmugasundram
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">A high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and optimized for the simultaneous determination of emtricitabine, rilpivirine and tenofovir in bulk and in tablet dosage form. In this work, multiple response simultaneous optimization using Derringer&rsquo;s desirability function was employed for the development. The ranges of three experimental factors used for the optimization were acetonitrile concentration (50 -60%), buffer pH (2.5-3.5) and flow rate (0.8-1.2ml/min). The influence of these independent variables on the output responses such as capacity factor of the first peak (k1), resolution (Rs 2,3) and retention time (Rt) were evaluated. The experimental responses were fitted into a second order polynomial equation. The optimized assay conditions were acetonitrile: phosphate buffer (69.7: 30.3%v/v) (pH 2.5) as the mobile phase and flow rate at 1.2 ml/min. While using this optimum condition, the total run time was less than 7 min were achieved. The optimized assay condition was validated according to ICH guidelines to confirm specificity, linearity accuracy and precision.</div>
256-264
38
NEW VALIDATED METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ANALYSIS OF METHYLPARABEN & PROPYLPARABEN IN POLYHERBAL FORMULATION (ORAL LIQUID DOSAGE FORM)
Somia Gul, Kashifa Khanum and Nusrat Mujtaba
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">An isocratic reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of methylparaben and propylparaben in poly herbal formulation at 254nm. Chromatographic separation was achieved on C18 WP, 100A column (250mm x 4.6 mm, 5 &micro;m) column using mobile phase, methanol: water: acetonitrile (40:40:20 v/v/v) having flow rate of 1.2 mL min -1 at room temperature. Calibration curves were linear over range of 40 &ndash; 60.2 &micro;g mL -1 of methylparaben with a correlation coefficient &plusmn; 0.99 and 7.9 &ndash; 11.9 &micro;g mL -1 of Propylparaben with coefficient correlation &plusmn; 0.99. &nbsp;Method is rapid, accurate, precise and specific for the routine quality control analysis of preservative content in poly herbal oral liquid dosage form.&nbsp;</div>
265-270
39
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SAXAGLIPTIN AND METFORMIN IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Asiya Begum, Shilpa K, A. Ajitha, V. Uma Maheshwar Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">A sensitive selective and precise stability indicating-high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for Saxagliptin and Metformin in Tablet dosage form. An isocratic separation was carried out using Zorbax C18 (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 &micro;m) column and Potassium dihydrogen Phosphate: Methanol (60:40 v/v) as mobile phase.With quantification carried out at a wavelength of 248nm. The stability studies under stress condition of hydrolysis (acid, base), oxidation, photolysis and thermal degradation were also carried out for Saxagliptin and Metformin.The Retention time of Saxagliptin and Metformin were observed to be 3.241and 2.191 minutes, respectively with theoretical plate count and asymmetry as per the ICH limits. The % assay of Saxagliptin and Metformin were 99.640% and 99.021%. The flow rate was found to be 1ml/min .The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed a good linear relationship for Saxagliptin and Metformin over a concentration range of 50-1500 &micro;g/ml with correlation co-efficient of 0.999 for Saxagliptin and 0.999 for Metformin. The limit of detection and Quantitation were found to be &nbsp;2.857,2.918&amp; 9.52,9.72&micro;g/ml, respectively.the method was validated as per ICH guidelines and it was found to be acccurate, precise and selective stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) &nbsp;for the determination of Saxagliptin and Metformin in tablet dosage form.&nbsp;</div>
271-279
40
ROLE OF CARISSA CARANDAS IN MEDICINE - A REVIEW
Ambika chauhan and Intelli
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Carissa carandas is one of the most common species of the genus &ldquo;Carissa&rdquo;and used as a traditional medicine which has received scientific awareness for its general ethnomedicinal applications. Present study focused on its &nbsp;nutritional composition, phytochemical compounds, therapeutic action and ethnopharmacological uses (cardioprotective effect, anti- diabetic activity, anti- carcinogenic, anti-pyretic, hepatoprotective activity) .</div>
280-282
41
USE OF TRADITIONAL PLANTS IN DIABETES MELLITUS: A REVIEW
Sheemah Kazi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder resulting from either insulin insufficiency or deficient. Scientific reports revealed that diabetes cannot be cured completely. The rapid increase in diabetes mellitus is becoming a serious threat to mankind in all parts of the world. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred more due to lesser side effects. Here in this review we discuss the traditional plants which help in lowering the blood sugar level and are effective as anti diabetic agent.</div>
283-289
42
A REVIEW – ORAL DISPERSIBLE TABLETS
Sharda kumari, P.K Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Drug delivery systems are becoming increasingly sophisticated as pharmaceutical scientists acquire a better understanding of the physicochemical and biochemical parameters pertinent to their performance. Over the three decades, orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) have gained considerable attention as a preferred alternative to conventional tablets and capsules due to better patient compliance. ODTs are solid dosage forms containing medicinal substances which disintegrate rapidly, usually in a matter of seconds, when placed on the tongue. Products of ODT technologies entered the market in the 1980s, have grown steadily in demand, and their product pipelines are rapidly expanding. New ODT technologies address many pharmaceutical and patient needs, ranging from enhanced life-cycle management to convenient dosing for paediatric, geriatric, and psychiatric patients with dysphagia. This has encouraged both academia and industry to generate new orally disintegrating formulations and technological approaches in this field. The aim of this article is to review the development of ODTs, challenges in formulation, new ODT technologies and evaluation methodologies, suitability of drug candidates, and future prospects.</div>
290-296
43
BUCCAL PATCHES- A Review
Ramteke K.H, Dighe P.A, Kharat A. R, Patil S.V
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
<div style="text-align: justify">Transmucosal drug delivery is an alternative method of systemic delivery of the drug which offers different advantages over existing methods by enhancing the bioavailability of drug due to rich in blood supply in mucosal surface and prolongs residence time at the site of application to permit once or twice daily dosing. Buccal route is an attractive and easy transmucosal route of administration for systemic drug delivery. Delivery of the drug via buccal route leads direct access to the systemic circulation through the internal jugular vein bypasses drugs from hepatic first pass metabolism leading to higher bioavailability. Buccal bioadhesive patches, releases topical drugs in the oral cavity at a slow and predetermined rate and provides advantages over traditional dosage forms for treatment of many diseases and disorders. The objective of this article is to review buccal patches by discussing their composition, method of preparation and evaluation.</div>
297-308
44
EVALUATION OF APHRODISIAC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF Cicer arietinum SEEDS IN SEXUALLY SLUGGISH MALE ALBINO RATS
Ravindra Babu Sajja, Venkatesh V, Suneetha B, Srinivas N
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was designed to evaluate the potential aphrodisiac effect of seeds of methanolic extract of Cicer airetinum (MECA) in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Sexual behavioral parameters like mount frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF),ejaculation frequency (EF), ejaculation latency (EL), mount latency(ML) and intromission latencies (IL) were observed in male rats. The male serum cholesterol and testosterone concentrations were also recorded. Oral administration of MECA at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight&nbsp; significantly increased the MF, IF, EF and EL (P &lt; 0.05)in comparison to control groups. ML and IL significantly&nbsp; decreased (p&lt;0.05). The extract also significantly (p&lt;0.05) increased the serum cholesterol and testosterone levels. From these effects the MECA posses significant increase in the sexual activity in male rats.The augmented sexual behavior in male rats might be due to the presence of alkaloids, saponins and flavonoids&nbsp; found in MECA.
309-313
45
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM AND ENALAPRIL MALEATE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC
Sindu Yada, A. Ajitha, V. Uma Maheshwara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Losartan potassium and Enalapril maleate in tablet dosage form.&nbsp; The using Agilent C8 (4.6 x 150mm, 3.5mm) column in Isocratic mode, in mobile phase containing Acetonitrile phosphate buffer (50:50) and adjusted Ph. 6.5with ortho phosphoric acid, the flow rate was 2ml/min. The detection was carried out at wavelength 256nm. The retention times of Losartan potassium and Enalapril maleate were found to be 3.537 and 2.109 min respectively. The linearity for Losartan potassium and Enalapril maleate were in the range of 25-125&micro;g/ml and 5-25&micro;g/ml&nbsp; respectively .The recoveries of Losartan potassium and Enalapril maleate were found to be 99.7%and99.2%,respectively. The LOD values for&nbsp; and LOQ values are found to be within acceptance criteria. The LOD values were found to be 2.97 and 2.95 for Losartan potassium and Enalapril maleate respectively and LOQ values were found to be 9.91 and 9.95 for Losartan potassium and Enalapril maleate respectively.&nbsp; The proposed method was validated and successfully applied for the estimation of Losartan potassium and Enalapril maleate in combined tablet dosage forms.
314-319
46
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE AND OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL BY RP-HPLC IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
E. Mamatha rani*, K. Shilpa, A. Ajitha, V. Umamaheswararao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate and precised method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of hydrochlorthiazide and olmesartan medoxomil in formulation by RP-HPLC method. Buffer in this method was 0.01N Na2HPO4 of pH 4 used with the combination of acetonitrile in the ratio of 45:55 as mobile phase. 10µl of sample was injected and the mobile phase was run for 7min with flow rate of 1ml/min through BDS 250mm column maintained at 30°C. Wavelength optimized was 257nm. Hydrochlorthiazide and olmesartan were eluted with good resolution of 7.11. Retention times of hydrochlorthiazide and olmesartan were 2.4min and 3.8min respectively. Other system suitability parameters like tailing factor and plate count were within the limits. According to the ICH guidelines this method was validated. There was no placebo interference observed resulting that this method was specific, %RSD obtained for hydrochlorthiazide and olmesartan were 0.6% and 0.7%. On plotting the linearity graph for hydrochlorthiazide and olmesartan linearity equations obtained were y = 12341x + 864.8 and y = 11251x + 1599 respectively. Correlation coefficient was 0.999. % Average recovery was calculate and fount to be 100.05% for hydrochlorthiazide and 100.02% for olmesartan. % Labled amount of both drugs were found to be 99.77% and 99.96% for hydrochlorthiazide and olmesartan. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines. As run time was decreased this is economical and simple method that can be used in the regular analysis.
320-325
47
STABILITY INDICATING METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF AZILSARTAN MEDOXOMIL AND CHLORTHALIDONE BY RP-HPLC IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
B. Sahithi Chowdary, M. Prasada Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study aims to develop a simple economical method for estimation of Azilsartan and chlorthalidone combined dosage form by RP-HPLC technique. Buffer used in this method was 0.1% OPA buffer of pH 2.5 used in the ratio of 40B:60A run through C18 BDS 250mm column with a flow rate of 1ml/min for 7min run time. The column was maintained at 30°C temperature and optimized wavelength was 220nm. Azilsartan eluted at 2.5min and Chlorthalidone at 3.5min retention time with 5.2 resolution. System suitability parameters like plate count and tailing factors were passed according to ICH guidelines. Repeatability of Azilsartan and chlorthalidone was found to be 0.4 and 0.34 respectively. Percentage recovery of azilsartan was 99.81% and of chlorthalidone was 99.71%. Linearity performed with range of 40-240µg/ml for azilsartan and 25-150µg/ml for chlorthalidone and correlation coefficient obtained was 0.999. Robustness was found to be within the limits i.e., less than 2. Stability studies were done and degraded was with the limits. A simple method was developed for estimation of Azilsartan and chlorthalidone. All the validation parameters were succeeded and were within the range. This method can be used in the regular analysis of Azilsartan and chlorthalidone combination dosage form.
326-332
48
ENHANCEMENT OF DISSOLUTION OF POORLY SOLUBLE RITONAVIR DRUG USING SYNTHETIC POLYMERS
A. Surendra, M. Jhansirani, R. Aruna, A.M.S. Sudhakar babu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Development of solid dispersions of poorly water soluble drugs is one of the most widely used approaches to enhance the solubility as well as dissolution rate. In the current investigation, Ritonavir is selected as model drug to improve the solubility and dissolution rate by solid dispersion method. Solid dispersions were prepared using fusion method by incorporating carriers like polyethylene glycol 20000, Soluplus and Plasdone. Each carriers in different ratios (1:1, 1:2 and1:3) and evaluated for solubility studies, drug-carrier compatibility studies and in vitro dissolution studies. Based on the solubility and drug release studies, among all 10 formulations F10 formulation showed better drug release of 100% drug release at the end of 150th minute compared to other 8 formulations and plain Ritonavir formulation. So F10 (containing 1:3 ratio of PEG 20000) is the optimized formulation. In each case tablets prepared employing carriers gave higher dissolution rates as compared to the tablets prepared using pure drug. Hence solid dispersion in polymers can be used for enhancing the solubility and dissolution of Ritonavir.

333-339
49
A REVIEW ON DRIED NANOSUSPENSIONS- A NOVEL FORMULATION TO ENHANCE SOLUBILITY OF POORLY AQUEOUS SOLUBLE DRUGS
S Raja Shekhar and P Vijaya Lakshmi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Solubility is most important and crucial factor for drug effectiveness. Large proportions of newly discovered drugs are water insoluble, and therefore poorly bioavailable. Nanosuspensions are one of the promising drug delivery systems proved to be very effective in eliminating the solubility problems and increasing the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Nanosuspensions are very finely colloid, biphasic, dispersed, solid drug particles in an aqeous vehicle. These are prepared by using wet mill, high pressure homogenizer, emulsion-solvent evaporation, melt emulsification method and super critical fluid techniques. The most recent advancement in Nanosuspensions is Dried Nanosuspension which is prepared by freeze drying or spray drying of the formulated Nanosuspensions. It has higher stability and solubility properties than nanosuspensions. These can be delivered by oral, parenteral, pulmonary and ocular routes. Nanosuspensions can also be used for targeted drug delivery when incorporated in the ocular inserts and mucoadhesive hydrogels.

340-344
50
QUANTIFICATION OF OLMESARTAN AND ROSUVASTATIN BY STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
A.Nagavalli, M. Prasada Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The objective of the study is to develop an economical and simple and validated method for the simultaneous estimation of the olmesartan and rosuvastatin by RP-HPLC technique. In this method the 10µl of standard working solution containing both olmesartan and rosuvastatin was injected in to the mobile phase line composing of 45B and 55A, pumped through the column Altima 150mm length column containing particle of size 5µ with a flow rate of 1ml/min. the temperature of the column was maintained at 30°C. Both the drugs have their optimum absorbance at 241nm wavelength. The method was optimized based on the all system suitable parameters passed their limits as per ICH guidelines. The retention time found was 2.2min of olmesartan and 3.0min of rosuvastatin and the resolution between the peaks was 4.8. This method was set for validation as per ICH guidelines and observed to be very specific without any interference by the constituents of formulations and diluents. The method was precisied and %RSD found to be 0.56 of olmesartan and 0.42 of rosuvastatin. % recover of olmesartan was 100.09% and 99.79% for rosuvastatin. Linearity was performed with six concentrations and response was observed to be linear to the concentration. Correlation coefficient obtained was 0.999. The developed method was robust as the %RSD was within the range and without effecting system suitability parameters. The developed method passed all the parameters of the validation, the run time was decreased effectively so the method was very simple and economical that can be used in the regular analysis of the Olmesartan and rosuvastatin in marketed formulation.       

345-351
51
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ROSUVASTATIN NANOSUSPENSIONS
S Raja Shekhar and P Vijaya Lakshmi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The objective of the present study was to formulate and evaluate nanosuspensions of rosuvastatin, a poorly soluble drug in order to enhance its solubility and dissolution chatacteristics. Rosuvastatin is a Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) Class II drug having very low solubility therefore low oral bioavailability. In this study rosuvastatin nanosuspensions were prepared by precipitation technique followed by high frequency sonication by using a combination of stabilizers like PVP K90 and LUTROL F127 in different ratios. The formulated nanosuspensions were characterised by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and FTIR. The formulations were evaluated for drug content, entrapment efficacy, Zetapotential and In-Vitro dissolution. SEM results showed the particle size of the formulated nanosuspensions in nanosize. FTIR spectrum revealed that there are no interactions between drug and carriers. The effect of particle size was found to be significant on the saturation solubility of the drug and in-vitro drug release studies showed significant increase in the dissolution rate of nanosuspensions as compared with pure drug.

352-358
52
RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF BALSALAZIDE IN BULK AND CAPSULE DOSAGE FORM
G. Parimala, D. Narasimharao, M. Prasadarao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

A RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of  Balsalazide in bulk and Capsule dosage form and the method was proposed for the validation for the parameters like accuracy, precision, linearity, range, robustness, ruggedness, % of recovery and limit of detection and limit of quantitation. Still now there were number of analytical methods were developed for the estimation and validation of Balsalazide alone and in combined dosage form like UV-Visible spectroscopy, fluorimetry and RP-HPLC method but compared to those methods the present study was a simple and selective LC method for the quantitative estimation of Balsalazide in capsule dosage form. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a c18 column using Inertsil ODS 3V column, C18 (250x4.6 ID) mobile phase consisting of a mixture of KH2PO4:ACN:MEOH (50:30:20 v/v/v %)PH: 4.5 with detection of 304 nm. The retention time was found to be 2.487 min and linearity was observed in the range 90-210µg /ml for Balsalazide. The method was found to be precise as indicated by the repeatability analysis, showing %RSD less than 2.

359-364
53
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ZOLMITRIPTAN FAST DISSOLVING TABLET USING SYNTHETIC SUPERDISINTEGRANTS
Ch. Saidulu, M. Jhansirani, R. Aruna, A.M.S. Sudhakar babu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

In recent decades, a variety of pharmaceutical research has been conducted to develop new dosage forms. Among them, the fast disintegrating tablet (FDTs) is one of the most widely employed commercial products to facilitate ease of medication. Upon introduction into the mouth, these tablets dissolve or disperse in the mouth in the absence of additional water and the active pharmaceutical ingredients are readily released from the dosage form. In present study Zolmitriptan tablets were formulated by using synthetic superdisintegrant namely Amberlite, Sodium starch glycolate and Indion in different ratio then compared with marketed Zolmitriptan tablets were prepared namely F1 to F10 formulation and these are characterized by hardness, thickness, weight variation, friability, wettability time and dissolution studies. Fast dissolving tablets can be prepared by direct compression method using synthetic superdisintegrant. The values obtained from the evaluation studies indicate that all the parameters within the standard limits. In vitro disintegration studies showed that fast dissolving tablets from F9 (Indion 1:3 ratio) showed the best disintegration time with in 32sec. In vitro dissolution studies showed that the formulation F9 gave the maximum percentage drug release (100%) with in 7min.

365-370
54
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF OMEPRAZOLE AND DICYCLOMINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN COMBINED TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Ch.Nikhila, M. Prasadarao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The main objective of the work is to develop a new, simple and economical method for the simultaneous estimation of omeprazole and dicyclomine hcl by using RP-HPLC technique In this method mobile phase of composition Phosphate buffer 0.02M,pH6.5 and acetonitrile in the ratio of 65:35 was pumped with a flow rated of 1ml/min through C18 250mm column which was maintained at 25°C temperature. The wavelength 223nm was optimized as the both drugs have optimum absorbance. Volume of injection was 10µl. The retention time of the omeprazole and dicyclomine hcl was 2.02min and 9.93min respectively with appreciable resolution of 9.15. Using the above method the run was performed and the system suitability parameters were calculated and were within the limits. So the method was set for validation, the method was found to be specific in the determination of drug without any interference. The method was observed to be precisied as the %RSD was 0.59 and 0.63 for omeprazole and dicyclomine hcl respectively. Recovery studies were performed and found to be 99.45% for omeprazole and 100.35% for dicyclomine hcl. Calibration curve was plote and correlation coefficient was 0.999. The method was also found to be robust. The method was valid as all the parameters were passed. This method was precise, accurate and accurate, this method can be used in the regular assay of the formulations.

371-376
55
ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM STEM BARK ATTENUATES GENTAMICIN-INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN RATS
Karra Geetha , Nadendla Rama rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Objective: To study the nephroprotective, nephrocurative effect of Alangium salvifolium ethanolic stem bark extract in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. Materials and methods: Nephrotoxicity was induced in wistar male rats by intraperitoneal administration of gentamicin at 40mg/kg b.wt /day for 7 days. Alangium salvifolium was selected to check the effect by using ethanolic bark extract with different doses (250,500,750 mg/kg body weight respectively), was given by oral route. Serum parameters (serum creatinine, serum proteins and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)), other parameters like body weight, in vivo antioxidants catalase, Superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and Lipid peroxidase level were determined on 22nd day in wistar male rats. Histopathological study of kidney was studied. Results: The three doses of the extracts produced significant nephroprotective, nephrocurative activities with increased doses. The increased actions of nephroprotective, nephrocurative activity in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity models as evident by decrease in serum creatinine, serum urea, serum proteins, BUN levels and lipid peroxidation (MDA).The increased glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) activities when compared to gentamicin control group which was further confirmed by histopathological study. Conclusion: The study revealed that ethanolic bark extract of Alangium salvifolium (EBAS) recovered the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin experimental animals. 

377-383