Volume 5 - Issue

S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
ANTITUMOR EFFECT OF THE INFUSION OR PLUMBAGIN METABOLITE OF PLUMBAGO PULCHELLA BOISS WHEN ADMINISTERED TO CD-1 MICE WITH L5178Y LYMPHOMA CANCER CELLS
Georgina Almaguer Vargas; Miguel A Villavicencio Nieto; Blanca Estela Perez Escandon; Alejandro Chehue Romero; Lauro Figueroa Valverde; Guillermo Manuel Gonzalez Hernandez, Diana Andrea Altamirano Baez, Jose Ramon Montejano Rodriguez
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cancer is a group of diseases with a high incidence worldwide. Since existing treatments have extremely strong adverse effects and are often inaccessible to many patients, it is necessary to seek alternatives. The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of infusing Plumbago pulchella Boiss and its main metabolite, plumbagin, on L5178Y tumor growth and survival time of the animals. The acute toxicity of Plumbago. pulchella Boiss infusion was also evaluated. The results showed that the antitumor effect both infusion and plumbagin was the same, regardless of the concentration or the route of administration (oral / intraperitoneal), nor which is given as a single exposure or every 48 hours. The tumor size was inhibited between days 8 and 14 of treatment; however there was no increase in survival time of the animals. The Infusion of Plumbago pulchella shows no toxic effects. No macroscopic alterations were noted in the viscera of the treated rats.
1-8
2
DEVELOPMENT OF A SIMPLE HPLC METHOD USING CORE-SHELL PARTICLES COLUMN FOR QUANTIFICATION OF IR3535 IN INSECT REPELLENT LIQUID FORMULATIONS.
Sinh Thai Nguyen, Jean-Paul Salvi, Elodie Gilbert, Celine Serre, Fabrice Pirot, Roselyne Boulieu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, fast, precise and sensitive method for the quantification of IR3535, an insect repellent used in topical formulations, was developed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The separation was carried out by using a core-shell silica particles column (Kinetex  C18, 5??m, 4.6 mm x 150 mm) with a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid and methanol (40 : 60 v/v) in an isocratic mode at 0.5 ml/min and UV detection at 220 nm. The calibration curve was linear from 10 to 400 ??M, with regression coefficient r2 = 0.9999. Limit of detection (LOD) and Limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be 1 and 10 ??M, respectively. Precision and accuracy fulfilled the acceptance criteria. This method was validated and may be routinely used for quantitative analysis of IR3535 from various topical insect repellent liquid formulations.
9-14
3
AWARENESS OF SAFE USE OF OVER-THE-COUNTER DRUGS AMONG NURSING STUDENTS
Suzana Mlinar, Rosanda Raskovic Malnarsic
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study was to determine the degree of awareness regarding safe use of over-the-counter drugs. The study population included nursing students of the Faculty of Health Sciences in Slovenia. A cross sectional study was conducted between Feb’and Apr’2013. Descriptive statistics were determined to illustrated participant's characteristic. A t-test was used to determined gender-based differences and the contingency coefficient for determining differences per place of residence, age, the consultant for the use of over-the-counter drugs and the number of over-the-counter drugs taken within the last month. The majority of the participants will read instructions for safe use before using the over-the-counter drug, with a statistically significantly higher incidence in women (p = .021). Participants re-read the instructions after deciding to increase the dosage of the over-the-counter drug, with a statistically higher incidence in men (p = .014). It is important to raise awareness of the seriousness of self-medication among nursing students. Thus, safe use of over-the-counter drugs to improve health.
15-22
4
NON CHOLESTEROL LOWERING DOSE OF ATORVASTATIN AMELIORATES DIABETIC VENTRICULAR MYOCYTE DYSFUNCTION IN MICE
Gulgun Ozansoy, Aslı Ceylan-Isık, Fugen Aktan, Ahmet Cumaoglu, Aysel Arıcıoglu, Cimen Karasu, Nuray Arı
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study was to investigate whether atorvastatin ameliorates diabetes-induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction, independently of cholesterol-lowering effect. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were treated with atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, daily, orally) for two weeks. Ventricular cardiomyocytes were isolated and contractile properties including peak shortening (PS), time to PS (TPS), time to 90% relengthening (TR90) and maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening (+/- dL/dt) were analysed using video-based edge detection. Diabetes caused mechanical dysfunction with dampened stress tolerance of myocytes at high stress frequencies, all of which were significantly alleviated by atorvastatin without affecting hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. In addition, changes in oxidative stress parameters (CAT activity, GSH and MDA levels) were also normalized by atorvastatin. These data indicate that atorvastatin, independently of its lipid-lowering capacity, reduces myocardial oxidative stress resulting in improved myocyte mechanical function in an experimental model of diabetes. Our results supports the concept that restriction of myocardial oxidative stress is a fundamental goal in the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
23-32
5
DEVELOPMENT AND COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THEOPHYLLINE LOADED EXTENDED RELEASE CAPSULE
Mehmet Ali Ege, Tamer Guneri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study was to develop a new theophylline hard gelatin capsule drug delivery formulation. The formulation have been prepared to enhance its dissolution which could provide better oral absorption of theophylline. Therefore, the effects of the component nature and their proportion in the release rate were investigated. Extended release capsules of theophylline were prepared by physical mixing using HPMC and cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) at various drug-polymer ratios. Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC-E50) ratio was changed the release profile of theophyline. The optimum CAP % was selected as 75 % according to in vitro release studies. Flow properties of the F8 physical mixtures were evaluated by calculation of the Carr’s index, angle of repose and Hausner ratio.The results of the study indicate that new extended release hard gelatin capsules can be promising alternative for the other oral formulations of theophylline.
33-38
6
ONE POT SYNTHESIS, ANTITUMOR, ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF SOME SCHIFF BASE HETEROCYCLES
Smaail Radi, Said Tighadouini, Olivier Feron, Olivier Riant, Yahia Nasser Mabkhot, Salim S. Al-Showiman, Taibi Ben Hadda, Mohammed El-Youbi, Redouane Benabbes, Ennouamane Saalaoui
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A series of Schiff bases of furan and thiophen rings has been synthesized in one step, in good and excellent yields, using acetic acid as catalyst. The synthesized products were evaluated for their anticancer activity toward breast (MDA-MB231) and colorectal (LoVo) human cell lines cancers. The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal potential of the products were also determined using tree bacterial strains (Echerichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Micrococcus luteus) and fungal strains (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp albedinis FAO). Significant activity against breast cancer cell lines and Fungal strains was observed.
39-45
7
SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF EFAVIRENZ AFTER A SINGLE–DOSE BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY: A TREND TO CORRELATE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM EFFECT AND PLASMA CONCENTRATION
Marta Vazquez; Pietro Fagiolino; Manuel Ibarra; Laura Magallanes
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the current study was to examine safety and pharmacokinetic data obtained from a bioequivalence study of two brands of efavirenz carried out in healthy volunteers in order to assess the relationship between concentrations and appearance of adverse events. Drowsiness was reported in almost all the subjects 1 or 2 hours post dosing and generally the onset of this adverse event was 30 or 40 minutes before high efavirenz plasma concentrations, evidencing a lag time between venous plasma concentration and effect. As many studies reported, arterial drug concentration is higher than the respective venous concentration during drug inputs so adverse events experienced during drug input would correlate with arterial drug concentration rather than the respective venous concentration.
46-52
8
A NOVEL FUSED PYRIDOPYRIMIDINE DERIVATIVES: SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION
Mahmoud El-Shahat, Eman A. Elhefny, Ahmed A. El-Sayed, Mowafia A.M. Salama
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Because of its potent and significant pharmacological activities, The 2-amino-4,6-bis(4-chlorophenyl) nicotinonitrile (1) used as a starting material to synthesis of pyridopyrimidine derivatives 3–7. On the other hand, we used the pyridopyrimidine 4 to synthesis of tricycle heterocyclic derivatives; pyridopyrimidotriazine 8–10; pyridotriazolopyrimidine 11–13 and pyridotetrazolopyrimidine 14.
53-58
9
PRESCRIBING PATTERN OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVES AT A TERTIARY HEALTHCARE FACILITY IN NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA
N. Y. Ikunaiye, S. J. Madu, S. I. Yakubu and J. Muazu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Appropriate treatment of hypertension using evidence-based guidelines significantly reduces cadiovascular mobidity and mortality. This retrospective survey was aimed at assessing the prescription pattern of antihypertensive medications in order to ascertain the appropriateness and the extent of adherence to the guidelines. Details on demorgraphy, blood pressure, prescription including number of antihypertensives and number of all medications at diagnosis and at last visit as well as documented co-morbidities/compelling indication were captured from the patients folders. The results highlight high prevalence of hypertension in females (65.69%) compared to males (34.31%). At diagnosis, most female patients presented with stage 2 hypertension  while males presented with stage 1 hypertension based on Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of Hypertension  (JNC 7) classification of hypertension. Although monotherapy with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) was considerable at both visits, polytherapy was dorminant. Thus, prescribers in this healthcare facility adhered to drug treatment guidelines for hypertension.
59-64
10
ANALGESIC AND ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF FRUIT RIND OF CITRULLUS LANATUS (THUNB)
Md. Abdul Jalil, Nushrat Jahan, Md. Mohaiminul Islam, A.B. Ripon Khalipha, Chand Sultana Khatun, Md. Mofizur Rahman, Md. A.K. Azad
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Almost all diseases are associated with the inflammation and pain. The Present study was designed to evaluate analgesic and anti inflammatory potentialities of methanolic extract of Cirtrullus lanatus rind which belongs to Cucurbitaceae family. Potent analgesic activity was observed (p<0.05) in extract 400mg/kg by 66.45% inhibition of writhing reflex and mild (50.63% inhibition) activity was observed in 200mg/kg compare to inhibition of 82.91% of standard Diclofenac 10 mg/kg. On the other hand, anti-inflammatory effect was remarkable (p<0.05) with 400mg crude compare with Standard Diclofenac 5 mg/kg body weight. Dunet test represents 46% reduction of paw edema compare to standard of 56.71%. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant extract showed the presence of Glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, steroids and protein were present in the rind of Citrullus lanatus one of which has analgesic, anti inflammatory properties. These provide scientific evidence to support the isolation and development of biologically active components as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents.
65-68
11
NEW PYRIMIDINE AND FUSED PYRIMIDINE DERIVATIVES: SYNTHESIS AND ANTI HEPATITIS A VIRUS (HAV) EVALUATION
Ahmed Ali El-Sayed, Mahmoud El-Shahat, Samira T. Rabie, Eman M. Flefel, Dina N. Abd-Elshafy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Some novel fused pyrimidine derivatives 5–14 were prepared starting with compound 4. Also, Ethyl 4-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-6-methyl-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate 2 was used for the preparation of some fused pyrimidine analogs 15–19.  All synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antiviral activity against HAV virus by determination of plaque infectivity count assay on HepG2 cells. Compound 7 has high antiviral activity against HAV even higher than Amentadine (positive control) and on studying its mechanism of action it showed combined action between adsorption and replication of HAV.
69-79
12
STABILITY STUDIES OF THE OPTIMIZED ORAL CONTROLLED RELEASE VERAPAMIL HYDROCHLORIDE TABLET FORMULATIONS
Ahmad Khan, Jallat Khan, Hafiz Shoaib Sarwar, Kamran Hidayatullah, Amina Riaz, Zanib Chaudhry
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present study accelerated testing (6 month) and long term testing (12 month) were carried out on Oral Verapamil Hydrochloride control release tablet in order to assess the physical and chemical stability of Verapamil Hydrochloride tablets. All the formulations were tested for disintegration test, % drug content and % drug release over the entire period of testing. These formulations did not show any significant change in any parameter during 12 month and 6 month of testing at 25+5?C/60+5% RH and at 40+2?C/75+5% RH, respectively. All the results were within the acceptable limits. Shelf lives calculated by software R Gui were found to be 43.452, 43.577 and 43.234 months at 1, 3 and 6 months for F4 in accelerated stability. However shelf lives were 44.112, 41.634, 41.867 and 42.896 months at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months respectively in long term stability.
80-86
13
THE INFLUENCE OF PHARMACEUTICAL CARE TO IMPROVE THE KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE CLIENT BY SELF MEDICATION OF NON STEROIDAL ANTI INFLAMMATORY DRUG (STUDIES IN SEVERAL PHARMACIES IN SURABAYA-INDONESIA)
LizaPristianty, Fasich, Arief Wibowo, Mufarrihah
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Currently self medication NSAIDs getting much done in the community. Efforts are made by using drugs on their own without any guidance from health professionals. The fact that there is a lot done despite such action, but not many people who know choose and rational use of NSAIDs. NSAIDs are widely used in self-medication as an analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory. The main side effects are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach bleeding, and dyspepsia. NSAIDs area class of drugs can be delivered directly to the client by the pharmacist at the pharmacy. A pharmacist as professionals in the pharmacy has a major contribution to the client's decision to self-medication NSAIDs. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the practice of pharmaceutical care by pharmacists during a service clients NSAIDs by self medication to increase knowledge and change attitudes of clients, thus expected to achieve an optimal therapeutic effect.This study was an experimental study that conducted 7 training to pharmacists in pharmacy practice in Surabaya with a guide booklet, the pharmacist then implement pharmaceutical care in the service of self-medication NSAIDs to their clients follow the guidelines in the booklet. Monitoring results of interventions by pharmacists in selected pharmacies were evaluated using pre Experimental Design type-One Group Pre Test Post Test Design. The results showed pharmaceutical care by pharmacists in the service of self medication with NSAIDs guide booklet significant effect on attitude change in the use of NSAIDs clients with Sig. (2-tailed) 0.03=0.05andsignificant effect on the improvement of the client's knowledge of the NSAIDs with the Sig. (2-tailed) 0.00 =0.05.
87-92
14
RAPID SINGLE STEP GREEN SYNTHESIS OF COPPER OXIDE NANOPARTICLES FROM VIGNA RADIATA USING THREE COPPER SALTS AND STUDY ITS ANTIMICROBIAL NATURE
Monalisa Chakraborty, Anindita Dey, Niranjan Bala, Sukhen Das, Ruma Basu, Papiya Nandy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
18-50nm sized copper oxide nanoparticle has been synthesized by an ecofriendly method where seed electrolyte of Vigna radiata act as a phytoreducer to reduce three different copper salts separately [copper (nitrate, sulphate, chloride)]. Fastest reaction followed by smallest nanoparticle was obtained when electrolyte reacted with copper nitrate. Morphology and charge distribution of nanoparticle was confirmed by characterization and to indentify different phytochemicals which are present in electrolyte, different phytochemical assays were performed by standard techniques. This experiment showed that phenols and flavonoids present in the electrolyte are the main phytoreducer to generate negatively charged copper oxide nanoparticle. Also nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against S.aureus. So the experiment specified that nanoparticle could be generated by a low cost, nontoxic, ecofriendly method which could be further applied in different aspects of pharma industry to ameliorate living standard and health care.
93-97
15
DESIGN AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM MATRIX TABLETS
Riyaz Ahmed Khan, Kamal Ahmad Qureshi, Gamal Osman Elhassan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Diclofenac Sodium is a Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug commonly used for the treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis, Osteoarthritis, Ankylosing Spondylitis and Periarticular disorders. In this work 100 mgs of Diclofenac sodium Tablets were prepared by Direct Compression method. Pre & Post compression studies were carried out followed by In vitro release studies.
98-106
16
SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF ESOMEPRAZOLE MAGENISUM TRIHYDRATE AND NAPROXEN BY COMBINED HPLC-CHEMOMETRIC TECHNIQUES AND RP- HPLC METHOD
Amira H Kamal, Mokhtar M Mabrouk, Hamed M El-Fatatry, Sherin F Hammad
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
New chemometric approaches were applied to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for simultaneous determination of esomeprazole magenisum trihydrate and naproxen in their synthetic mixture. These chemometric approaches were applied to the multiwavelength HPLC peak area ratio obtained by plotting the chromatograms at the five wavelengths using diclofenac sodium as internal standard (IS). The multichromatograms were obtained by using the diode array detector (DAD). A mixture of 20 mM acetate buffer (pH=4.2) and acetonitrile (35:65, v/v) was used as a mobile phase on a 5µm (4.6 x 250mm) Inertsil® C18 Column at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min to separate and determine the investigated drugs in their synthetic mixture. For comparison purposes, a new validated developed classic HPLC method at 299 nm was used to confirm the results obtained from HPLC-chemometric calibration techniques. There was no significant difference between the methods compared.
107-121
17
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT CHEMICAL EXTRACTS OF PAPAYA SEEDS ON CLINICAL ISOLATES OF (FGSH HOSPITAL) ISLAMABAD
Muhammad Haseeb Tariq, Bilal Ghaffar, Tauqeer Ahmed, Abbas Sultan, Muhammad Irfan, Muhammad Junaid Farrukh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The current study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of different concentrations of aqueous and non-aqueous extracts of Carica papaya seeds. Dried and grinded papaya seeds (5g), respectively mixed with 95ml of extraction solvent (water, methanol, acetone and ether) for 24 hours were used for this study. Extraction was done by maceration and Soxhlet method. The extract was then decanted and filtered through a Whatman filter paper.  Antimicrobial activities of the each extract were determined using agar well diffusion method using fresh clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and their MIC and zone of inhibition were determined. The results were evaluated statistically using paired sample t-test. Aqueous extract of Carica papaya exhibits greater antimicrobial activities against the clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as compared to the non-aqueous plant extracts. MIC of aqueous extract against Escherichia coli was 10-3mg/mL, whereas methanolic extracts shows 10-4mg/mL MIC. Similarly MIC of aqueous extract against Staphylococcus aureus was 10-4mg/mL as compared to MIC of methanolic extract 10-6mg/mL. There was statistically significant difference between the zone of inhibition of aqueous extracts of the plant material against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (P < 0.001). Preliminary phytochemical analyses reveal that the extracts contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins and phenols. Carica papaya may be used for the treatment of infection caused by Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.
122-126
18
LARVICIDAL AND INSECTICIDAL EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF MALLOTUS REPANDUS (WILLD.) MUELL.- ARG. LEAF AND STEM AGAINST CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS SAY (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) AND SITOPHILUS ORYZAE LINN. (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE)
Md. Rakib Hasan, Nizam Uddin, Md. Mahadi Hasan, Md. Monir Hossain, Mohammad Mostafa Kamal, Kaniz Fatema, H. M. Lutfor Rahman Mazumder, Kabirul Bashar, Md. Sohel Rana
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was designed to evaluate larvicidal bioassay of different extracts of Mallotus repandus against Culex quinquefasciatus and insecticidal bioassay against Sitophilus oryzae in the laboratory. In larvicidal bioassay, methanol extract of leaf, petroleum ether extract of leaf and methanol extract of stem showed good LC50 values (median lethal time) found in three consecutive days (24, 48 and 72 hours). Methanol extract of leaf showed the highest larvicidal activity in each specific time interval. Moreover, the extract also exhibited dose dependent lethal time effect (LT50). In insecticidal bioassay, among all extracts ethyl acetate extract of stem showed the highest insecticidal activity after 24 and 48 hours while petroleum ether extract of leaf exhibited the highest insecticidal activity in 72 hours. Ethyl acetate extract of stem also showed dose dependent LT50. Highly significant (P < 0.0001) relationship between different hours and LC50 values were found in both bioassays. These findings suggest that the extracts have potential toxicity against both insects.
127-133
19
SELF CARE TIPS TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF WOMEN FOLLOWING MASTECTOMY WITH AXILLARY LYMPH NODE DISSECTION
Sheeba Wiselin.C, S. Kalavathy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
An axillary lymph node dissection surgery routinely involves the removal of lymph nodes from the (axilla) armpit. These lymph nodes and associated lymph vessels play an important role in the body’s immune system. Axillary lymph nodes help to drain the arm, upper back and chest on that side of the body. The lymph vessels pick up large proteins, toxin, wastes, bacteria, any cancer cells, and about 10-20% of the fluid that circulates throughout the body. Once this fluid enters the lymph vessel it is known as lymph fluid. he lymph vessels drain this lymph fluid into the axillary lymph nodes. The lymph nodes have macrophage cells that break up the proteins and waste. They also make lymphocytes, which helps to fight infection by destroying bacteria and toxins. The removal or impairment of these lymph nodes through surgery or radiation will be a risk for lymphedema. Education is focused on the prevention of anything that restricts lymph flow.
134-136
20
DEVELOPMENT OF LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND VISIBLE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF CLOBAZAM IN TABLET DOSAGE FORMS
K. Uma Maheshwar, Golkonda Ramu , Chintala Rambabu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
An isocratic RP-HPLC method (Method-A) and two visible spectrophotometric methods (Method B and C) were developed and validated for the determination of Clobazam in bulk and tablet dosage forms. In Method-A, a PEAK chromatographic system equipped with Zodiac C-18 (250mm, 4.6mm and 5µm) column, mobile phase of composition 10:30:60 (v/v/v) of tetra hydro furan (THF), methanol (MeOH) and acetonitrile (ACN), UV detector were adopted for the chromatographic analysis. The output signal was monitored at a detection wavelength at 227 nm and integrated by PEAK Chromatographic Software version 1.06. In spectrophotometric methods, the chromogenic reagents such as Fe (II)-1, 10 phenanthroline (Methods-B) and ferricyanide-Fe (III) (Method-C) reagents were used for color development for the estimation of Clobazam in pure and formulations. The developed methods were validated according ICH guidelines and adopted for the assay of clobazam in the bulk drug and formulations.
137-145
21
PRECLINICAL BLOOD CHEMISTRY SAFETY PROFILE STUDIES OF “BASANTA KUSUMAKAR RAS” AFTER CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION TO MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS
Kamrun Nahar, Md. Rakib Hasan, Sumon Kanti Chowdhury, Paritosh Chakma, Gulshanara Begum, Nawfel Abdullah, Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker and M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Basanta Kusumakar Ras (BKR), an Ayurvedic preparation is used as a traditional medicine in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus. We were eager to know the effect of chronic administration of BKR on the lipid profile, liver function test and kidney function test. To find out the toxicological characteristic of BKR, it was administered chronically to the male Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 400 mg/kg. After 28 days chronic administration of the BKR preparation the following toxicological changes were noted. There was a statistically significant increase in serum total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C level besides a statistically significant decrease in serum HDL-C level; thus leading to a statistically significant increase of both Cardiac Risk Ratio (TC/HDL-C) and Castelli’s Risk Index (LDL-C/HDL-C). There was a statistically significant increase in both bilirubin and creatinine level. Chronic BKR administration revealed dyslipidemia, possible loss of liver function and kidney function.
146-152
22
ECONOMIC BURDEN OF UNSTABLE ANGINA/NON-STEMI USING DIFFERENT HEALTH CARE PARAMETERS IN KARACHI
Shazia Alam, Baqir.S.Naqvi, Iyad Naeem Muhammad
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Unstable angina (UA)  and  non ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) is one of common ischemic sign of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), a serious emergency medical condition and majority of patients admitted with chest pain, affecting citizens at younger ages leading to more death and disability in low- and middle-income countries thereby having a greater economic impact. The study aim was to determine the economic burden of unstable angina in hospitalized patients by analyzing the cost of different health care parameters in public and private hospitals of Karachi. A prospective study was conducted among hospitalized UA/NSTEMI patients from September 2013 to February 2014. Data was analysed and results were obtained with the help of statistical software SPSS version 20.Overall 227 patients of UA/NSTEMI admitted in private and public hospitals. Majority of them were males 66.5% while 33.5% were females presented with chief complaint of chest pain 41.4%. UA found to have 58.1% and NSTEMI 41.9%. Total hospitalization cost has been estimated approximately $ 34485. Factors like accommodation cost, laboratory charges, medicines cost and angiography contributed differently to increase the economic burden as $ 9675 and $ 6002 whereas significant financial load found to be from medicines and angiography $ 6550 and $12247respectively. Despite advances in treatment, unstable angina/ non ST elevation myocardial infarction UA/NSTEMI presents an enormous medical, social, and economic burden on individuals of Karachi.
153 -157
23
AN EVALUATION OF PACKAGE INSERTS OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS MARKETED IN INDIA
Patel Suhani V, Desai Chetna K, Patel Prakruti P, Dikshit Ram K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
PI (n=123) of marketed AMA were collected over 6 months period. Quality of information presented was assessed and scores were given for adherence to Indian i.e. Schedule D of Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 (DCR) of India (0- 20) and US guidelines (0- 35). Adequate font size was printed in 50% PI. Only 4% PI were complete as per DCR. Adequate information on contra-indications (25%), use during pregnancy/lactation (82%), warning/precautions (92%), drug-drug (59%) and drug-food interactions (36%), adverse drug reactions (61%), effect on ability to drive/use machines (17%), overdosage (36%), uses (48%), pharmacodynamic (32%) and pharmacokinetic properties (61%), use in children (80%) and elderly (52%), preclinical study data (33%), post- marketing surveillance data (7%), references (12%), recent major changes (10%) and patient counseling information (16%) was included in few PI. A more meticulous approach in preparation of PI to include approved, essential, accurate, evidence-based and updated prescribing information is needed.
158-164
24
HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF MUSA SAPIENTUM FRUIT PEEL (MSPE) AGAINST STREPTOZOTOCIN -INDUCED TOXICITY IN RATS
S. Sathiya Narayana Murthy, Christilda Felicia Jebakani, S. Sundara pandian, S. Ponmozhi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In this study, to assess the Hepatoprotective activity of Acetone extract of Musa sapientum fruit peel (MSPE) against Streptozotocin (STZ) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Totally Thirty six male albino wistar rats were divided in to 6 groups; Group I received distilled water; animals in the Groups  II,III,IV,V are induced single injections STZ 45mg/kg intraperitonialy; Groups IV,V,VI received MSPE in doses of 200,400,800 mg/kg/day respectively. The result obtained in this work was determined the MSPE at the doses 200 and 400 mg/kg/day showed significant hepatoprotective effect by reducing the serum marker enzymes such as Serum Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate amino transferase (AST) and Alkaline phosphatase(ALP) and its Histopathological studies further confirmed the hepato protective of MSPE when compared with the STZ induced  hepatotoxicity groups. In the conclusions present study findings of Acetone extract of Musa sapientum fruit peel showed significant hepatoprotective activity compared with control groups.
165-169
25
A NEW VALIDATED STABILITY INDICATING HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF RELATED SUBSTANCES OF LYSINE CLONIXINATE AND CYCLOBENZAPRINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
Morisetti. Nagendra Kumar, V. Shanmukha Kumar. Jagarlapudi, P. Lohita Varma, Raja Sekhara Prasad . Kottapalli
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new gradient reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for quantitative determination of related substances of Lysine Clonixinate (LC) and Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride (CBP) in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Chromatographic separation achieved on a column L1, C18  250 mm x 4.6 mm; 5 µm with 0.025M Potassium dihydrogen phosphate pH 3.0 buffer as mobile phase-A and Acetonitrile as mobile phase–B at a flow rate of 1.7 mL min-1. Diluent as water and acetonitrile of ratio 50:50 v/v with detection at 245 nm. The injection volume was 20 µL and a gradient program with  run time of 60 minutes. The developed method validated according to ICH guideline with the parameters specificity, forced degradation (with stress conditions of acid, base, oxidative hydrolysis, thermal and photolytic degradation), limit of detection and limit of quantification, linearity, precision, intermediate precision, accuracy, robustness and ruggedness. From all validation parameters results the method proved as specific, stability indicating, precise, accurate, robust and rugged method.
170-179
26
STUDIES ON MEDICATION ADHERENCE AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS
Nasara Reddy Nakka, M. Geeravani, M. Kranthi kumar, Tejaswi.V, K. Mudiyarasan, G. Gopala krishnan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Tuberculosis is a serious public health issue causing immense morbidity, mortality, and distress. This prospective study was conducted at DOTS centre in the Department of TB&CHEST at RMMCH. Pre-determinant questionnaire was used to assess the patient’s knowledge and adherence before and after counselling. Pill Count Method was used to assess the medication adherence rate on the monthly basis. WHO-QoL BREF which has four domains was used to assess the impact of TB on QoL. Before treatment, scores in all domains were significantly lower in patients than controls, more affected were psychological and social relationship domains. Gradual increase in scores was observed over the course of the treatment and counselling. Hence patient counselling shows positive impact on understanding their illness, the role of the medications in the treatment for improving adherence rates. This would enable health care professionals to devise relevant interventions such as patient counselling which would be useful in further improving quality of TB control programs.
180-189
27
FERTILITY EFFECT OF CYCAS CIRCINALIS.L EXTRACT ON MALE WISTER RATS
B. Senthil Kumar , J. Vijaya kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Infertility is a major public health concern. In Siddha System of Medicine many herbs were used for treating male sexual disorders. The use of herbs remarkable increased over the past few years and researcher now focuses on herbs. The present study was taken to analyze the fertility effect of an herb Cycas circinalis on male albino rats. A total of 18 healthy adult male albino rats were taken and divided into 3 groups with 6 rats in each group. One group of animal was administered orally Cycas circinalis extract (200mg/kg bodyweight) and compared to the normal control and positive control albino rats given testosterone 10µg/kg body weight subcutaneously. Various parameters were compared among the groups and the drug’s efficacy was analyzed. The administration of the drug showed significant positive results in positive control followed by experimental group. Since the synthetic hormonal preparation have grave side effects it’s better to go with herbal aphrodisiacs for better results without any side effects.
190-195
28
STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL AND ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM
Shankar Ganesh Gadepalli and Ramakrishna Sistla
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, rapid, and precise, stability indicating RP-HPLC method for simultaneous analysis of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM) and Atorvastatin (ATR) in bulk has been developed and validated. The analytes were separated by using a Waters symmetry C18 analytical column (250mm × 4.6mm, 5 µm) with a mobile phase consisting of Acetonitrile and 0.02 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer containing 0.1% heptanesulphonic acid sodium (pH 3.0, adjusted with o-phosphoric acid) in the ratio of 55:45 (v/v) at a flow rate of 1.2mL/min. The chromatographic separation was monitored at 253 nm with a run time of 10 min. A volume of 20 µL was injected into the system. Olmesartan medoxomil and Atorvastatin were eluted with approximate retention times of 4.15min and 7.36 min respectively. Calibration plots were linear over the concentration ranges 0.5 to 10µg mL-1 for both the drugs. The high recovery and low coefficients of variation confirms the suitability of the method for simultaneous analysis of the two drugs in formulations also.
196-201
29
SYNTHESIS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PYRIMIDINE DERIVATIVES
Ayushi Uniyal, Alka N. Choudhary, Preeti Kothiyal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A series of 3-amino-4,6-diphenyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrimidine-2-thione derivatives  have been synthesized by cyclization of substituted chalcones with thiosemicarbazide. The structures of all newly synthesized compounds were confirmed  by FT- IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectral analysis. The synthesized compounds were screened for  antibacterial activity (500µg/ml) concentration level by disc diffusion method against (Gram negative) Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia.
202-206
30
IMPACT OF CLINICAL PHARMACIST ON \"PATIENTS CARE\" IN ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME
Kota Lakshmi Narasimha rao, G Nikhitha Reddy, N Vinny, Soumadip Das, C K Dhanapal, S Selvamuthukumaran
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This is a single blinded interventional research in which patient were regularly followed-up. First Intervention includes collecting data to analyze cost of therapy which includes cost minimization by prescribing cheap brands/generics (pharmacoeconomics), quality of life of the patients was measured by WHO QOL BREF questionnaire as outcome of Intervention and second is early ADR detection and prevention and life style modification. The overall mean score of WHO QOL BREF questionnaire of all recruited patients at the time of admission was 30.39 which comparatively increased to 58.45 at the time of discharge. The total cumulative therapy cost was accounted Rs.451, 320.98 for all 65 patients included in the study. The average no. of drugs prescribed per prescription were approximately 7 drugs and 6 drugs in generic name and as per WHO essential list respectively. Patient counseling and life style modifications in addition to treatment showed significant evidence in improvement of patients’ therapeutic outcomes, improved quality of life.
207-212
31
A REVIEW ON PATCH VACCINATION AS A MODERN FORM OF DRUG DELIVERY
Anagha Shivaji Patil
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Nanopatch is a modern technique which designed to target the network of immunologic antigen presenting cells in the dermis and epidermis layers under the skin to enhance the efficacy of vaccination. Nano patch contains the micro sized needles that are painlessly penetrating and the nano-formulated medicines, drugs and vaccines directly go to the immune system. The comparative studies outline that there is increased stability, conventional route, easy to use and also the wide range of vaccines can be used.  Nano patch one day will be self-administered or given by a non-medical person, which reduces the administration cost and also relieve from burden on health care professionals. Receiving vaccines from doctor’s office or health clinic may soon be outdated.
213-218
32
HESPERIDIN A BIOFLAVONOID MODULATES THE EXPRESSION LEVELS OF SNCA AND PARKIN IN 6-HYDROXYDOPAMINE INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY IN RATS
Priya Nagappan, Vijayalakshmi Krishnamurthy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Parkinson disease (PD) is one of the neurodegenerative disease and oxidative stress plays a vital role in its causation. The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of hesperidin in the expression of SNCA, LRRK2, Parkin and PINK1 during 6 hydroxydopamine induced Parkinson rat model. Animals were divided into 5 groups: GroupI served as normal. GroupII was induced with 6-hydroxydopamine (8µg/2µl in 0.1% ascorbic acid-saline). Group III: 6 hydroxydopamine + 50mg/kg b.w hesperidin. GroupIV: 6-hydroxydopamine + 50mg/kg b.w hesperidin+100mg/kg b.w of L-Dopa. GroupV: 6-hydroxydopamine+100mg/kg b.w L-Dopa. The mRNA and protein expression of SNCA, LRRK2, Parkin and PINK1 was evaluated. Hesperidin 50mg/kg b.w and L-Dopa 100mg/kg b.w treated rats showed better results. It may be attributed that treatment with hesperidin and L-Dopa in combination suppress the expression level of SNCA and LRRK2, while it enhanced the expression level of parkin and PINK1. By western blot analysis, group IV treated animals showed suppressed protein levels of SNCA and LRRK2 genes while elevation in the protein level of Parkin and PINKI was noticed. The findings of these studies show that hesperidin can ameliorate 6 hydroxydopamine induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons during Parkinson disease.
219-224
33
ADVANCES IN VETERINARY DOSAGE FORMS: AN UPDATED NOTION
Om Bagade, Neha Nemlekar, Riddhi Patel
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Animal provide us with companionship, recreation, and manual labor. Just like a human these  animal receive medicine to keep them healthy, and the reasons for producing single dose veterinary dosage forms is the same as those in humans; to permit delivery of an active in a forms that is effective, safe, and able to  handled and administered by the end user. This review provides the basic background in the design and evaluation of veterinary dosage forms. The basic dosage forms are describe according to their pharmaceutical characteristic, whereas the description of advanced drug delivery system are organized according to route of administration. In contrast in the veterinary field, the major reasons for developing a drug into a long-acting drug delivery system is to minimize animal handling to reduce the stress to the animals from repeated administration and to reduce the cost of treatment in the terms of money and time spent by the end user on drug administration.
225-237
34
IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SOLANUM ERIANTHUM D. DON
Radhika Mahadev, Ramakrishnaiah Hanumanthaiah, Krishna Venkatarangaiah, Naveen Kumar Narayanaswamy, Deepalakshmi Arjunan Paranthaman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study involves assay of the in vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of leaf, stem, fruit and root of Solanum erianthum. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by using free radical scavenging studies: DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide, reducing power, phosphomolybdate, total phenol and total flavonoid assay. The methanolic extracts exhibited a dose-dependent scavenging activity of DPPH, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide. All the extracts showed significantly higher inhibition percentage and positively correlated with total phenolic content. In addition, the total antioxidant assay established the antioxidant property of the methanolic extracts. Fruit and leaf extracts proved to be effective for the said parameters.
238-243
35
EVALUATION OF DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATION
Vaijayanthimala Palanisamy, Sureshkumar Shanmugam, Sangameswaran Balakrishnan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was carried out to investigate the diuretic effect of ethanol extract of the leaves of Trichosanthes cucurmena L. (EETC), Cucumis sativus L.(EECS) and fruits of Corriandrum sativum L. (EECRS)  to make a poly herbal formulation (PHF) and  were administered to experimental rats orally at the dose level of  of 150mg/kg and compared with standard drug  Furosemide (20mg/kg). The diuretic effects of the extracts and PHF were evaluated by measuring the parameters like urine volume, sodium, potassium and chloride contents. The lipschistz method used in rat for the experiment purpose.  The extract and PHF showed a marked level of increase in urine volume and electrolytes like Na+, K+ and  Cl-  ion concentration. The moderate   diuretic effect was observed and significant diuretic effect from PHF . PHF (150mg/kg) showed more diuretic effect than standard. This might be the first formal report on diuretic effects of these three plant combinations.
244-247
36
A REVIEW ON RISKS INVOLVED IN STATIN THERAPY
V. Bhavan Kumar, Avinash A, K. Narendra, I.V.V.S.S. Kartheek Kumar, S. Parimala krishnan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
There is a controversy going on statins concerning their safety in patients, since their introduction in 1987. Statins known to show a lot of beneficial effects in treatment. However, there are number of risks associated with statin therapy such as elevated blood sugar and enzyme levels, memory impairment, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis and congenital abnormalities. The diabetes risk should be taken into account only if statin therapy is considered for patients at low CV risk, the risk of diabetes mellitus was found to be minor when compared to cardiovascular benefits. Cognitive impairment such as memory loss was found from high dose use of statins and resolves on discontinuation of therapy. In statin therapy muscle toxicity is rare however creatine kinase (CK) levels should be monitored. It is advisable to avoid statins during pregnancy. Finally, overall benefits of statin therapy takes advantage over the risks.
248-252
37
THE CLINICAL PRACTICE OF VANCOMYCIN DOSING AND MONITORING, AND FACTORS AFFECTING LEVELS AMONGST ONCOLOGY AND CARDIOLOGY PATIENTS IN QATAR: A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS
Shereen Elazzazy, Khalid Al Siyab, Amir Nounou, Ahmed Mahfouz, Prem Chandra, Manal Zaidan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The paper focuses on the assessment of current vancomycin (VCM) use in National Centre for Cancer Care and Research (NCCCR) and Heart Hospital (HH) (the only tertiary care specialty hospitals in Qatar) which are 2 out of 8 teaching hospitals in Hamad Medical Corporation the main and largest healthcare organization in Qatar. Primary objectives were to assess the current vancomycin use for cancer and cardiology patients among Qatar population admitted to National Centre for Cancer Care and Research (NCCCR) and Heart Hospital (HH), and to explicate the factors that affected VCM serum trough levels, secondary objective was to access the need to develop and establish a guideline, which is essential to assure the standardization of practice and meets the unique needs of our patients’ population. A retrospective cross sectional study was conducted to review patients’ medical record of the clinical practice of VCM use in two hospitals the NCCCR and HH. We reviewed all VCM level determinations performed during the 12-month (from January, to December, 2012) study period that met inclusion criteria. We retrospectively analyzed the trough and peak concentrations (if taken) of vancomycin in 206 hospitalized patients (between 16 to 92 years of age) with VCM treatment episodes. The relationship between dose and concentration of drug, dose and body weight/ CrCl were established by regression analysis. Statistical analyses were done using excel and statistical packages SPSS 19.0. This multicenter study shows that 71% (118/167) of patients received a total daily dose of 2000 mg/ day (1000 mg every 12 hours over 60 minutes); this dose was common among different body weights (40-145 kg) and estimated CrCl (11-139 ml/min) values, dose selections was not considered based on body weight and/ or CrCl, therefore no linear correlation were shown between VCM trough and body weight/ CrCl. Initial loading dose of VCM was not considered for any of the patients included in the study (n=167). Only 16% of trough concentrations presented therapeutic levels, therefore a high percentage of patients was found to have sub-therapeutic or supra-therapeutic concentrations, furthermore 31% of patients had no trough levels. No linear correlation was found between patients body weight and the total daily dose (r=0.037). Only 39% (65/167) had cultures done, out of which7.8% (13/167) showed various gram positive bacteria (MRSA, MRSE, other coagulase-negative staphylococci, or Enterococcus) were isolated. Multiple areas of improvement were identified in dosing and monitoring of VCM in NCCCR and HH, evidence based guidelines are urgently required with the direct involvement of Clinical Pharmacists and Infectious Disease department to apply the optimal VCM initial dose based on creatinine clearance (CrCl) and body weight (BW) to minimize sub-therapeutic or supra-therapeutic trough levels.
305-314
38
SAFE USE OF A DAILY 20-MG DOSE OF OMEPRAZOLE IN ORDER TO AVOID HYPOMAGNESEMIA
Cecilia Maldonado; Nicolas de Mello;Pietro Fagiolino; Marta Vazquez
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the current study was to examine the safe use of a daily standard dose of omeprazole (20 mg) regarding magnesium levels in blood in hospitalized patients. A total of 51 patients (15 women, 36 men) with different characteristics (pathologies, comedications, age, habits, etc) and taking a standard dose of omeprazole for more than three months were included. 17.6 % of the patients showed mild hypomagnesemia but we concluded that the observed low levels of this electrolyte could be attributed to comedications, age and different pathologies rather than the 20-mg dose of omeprazole. So, hypomagnesemia does not eliminate proton-pump inhibitors as a reasonable option; it just requires clinicians to be aware of this problem and use them safely at conventional doses.
315-321
39
PREPARING FOR U.S. PHARMACY PRACTICE: REGISTRATION PROCESS FOR FOREIGN PHARMACY GRADUATES
Mousa Abkhezr, Valerie U. Oji
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Practicing abroad in the global health arena is a desired objective by many foreign pharmacy graduates. By definition, a pharmacist whose undergraduate pharmacy degree was conferred by a recognized school of pharmacy outside of the 50 United States and the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico is considered a foreign pharmacy graduate. These pharmacists in order to be licensed in the USA have to pass four tests including: 1-foreign pharmacy graduate equivalency examination (FPGEE), 2- test of English as a foreign language (TOEFL), 3- North American pharmacist license examination (NAPLEX), and 4-multistate pharmacy jurisprudence examination (MPJE). There is a last requirement to complete 1500 hours internship; this may be required before or after passing NAPLEX and MPJE, depending on the specific state of intended practice. This internship has to be under the supervision of a licensed pharmacist known as preceptor. Studying and practicing abroad may be challenging, but there are opportunities and resources to navigate through the process. 
322-326
40
ASSESSMENT OF DIABETES SELF CARE BEHAVIOURS AMONG ADULTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY
Keneuoe Hycianth Thinyane, Bernard Makhanya, Thapelo Matsoso
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Performance of diabetes self care behaviours is associated with improved glycaemic control, however patient adherence to self care recommendations is often suboptimal. At present, little is known about the self management practices of diabetic patients in Lesotho. The primary objective of this study was to assess self care behaviours of patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional, qualitative, interview-based study was conducted between April and May 2013; 55 patients were selected using convenience sampling. 87.27% of the patients had received diabetes self management education. Adherence to medication, diet, foot care, self monitoring of blood glucose and exercise was 74.54%, 58.18%, 50.91%, 16.36% and 12.73% respectively. The majority of the study participants had deficient knowledge about diabetes self-management. Interventions to increase patients’ self care behaviours in this setting should focus on improving diabetes self management education and support. 
327-334
41
HIGH DOSE METHOTREXATE ASSOCIATED WITH POLYNEUROPATHY IN ADULT WITH PRIMARY CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM LYMPHOMA: CASE REPORT
El Cheikh Ali I, Ghasoub R, Al Azawi S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Methotrexate (MTX) is an anti-metabolite that is commonly used in the treatment of several hematologic malignancies. We reports a case of Polyneuropathy associated with high dose MTX administration in an adult with Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL). A 39- year-old male was started on high dose MTX (8 gm/m2) following his diagnosis with localized PCNSL .Post third cycle, the patient started losing strength over his right leg. This was followed by bilateral lower limb weakness with hyporeflexia. All laboratory investigations were normal. Naranjo scale was used to assess adverse drug reaction causality. The Patient was referred to the neurologist for further investigations, in which he was diagnosed with sensory motor polyneuropathy predominantly axonal neuropathy in the right lower limb associated with MTX. After discontinuation of MTX, the patient`s physical function improved and he was kept on thiamine 100 mg (IV) three times daily and Neurobion supplements ( Vitamin B1= 100 mg+  B6 =200mg + B12 =200mcg) 1 tablet twice daily. With the use of more aggressive treatment regimens in patients with PCNSL, toxicities related to chemotherapy is expected to be increased. Therefore, patients on high doses MTX should be carefully monitored for any neurological toxicity.
335-338
42
BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF THYMUS SATUREIOIDES COLLECTED IN TAFILALET REGION, SOUTH-EAST OF MOROCCO
Mhamed Ramchoun, Khalid Sellam, Hicham Harnafi, Chakib Alem, Mohamed Benlyas, Lhoussaine EL Rhaffari, Souliman Amrani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant an antimicrobial effect of different extracts of Thymus satureoïdes. The FRAP assay shows that the antioxidant activity was between 07.03±0.29 and 117.51±6.46 mmol Trolox/g of extract. The IC50 values from different extracts of Thymus satureoides were between 0.41±0.005 and 43.89±2.46 mg/mL of extract. The different extracts were also, demonstrated the important significantly (p<0.001) reduction of the malondialdehyde. The total polyphenols extract was particularly found to possess stronger antimicrobial activity.
339-346
43
COMPARATIVE IN VITRO PHARMACEUTICAL EQUIVALENCE STUDIES OF DIFFERENT BRANDS OF ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM TABLETS MARKETED IN BANGLADESH
Md. Abir Khan, Abu Asad Chowdhury, Nur Jaharat Lubna
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The main target of the present study was to evaluate the pharmaceutical equivalence of atorvastatin calcium tablets of five brands marketed in Bangladesh using in vitro dissolution study. The dissolution was carried out using the apparatus II according to USP guidelines. Evaluation of physicochemical parameters such as content uniformity test, weight variation analysis, and hardness, friability and disintegration test was carried out according to United States of Pharmacopoeia. All brands complied with the official specification for content uniformity test, weight variation, hardness, and friability and disintegration time. Despite the inter brand and intra brand variability of dissolution profiles of the atorvastatin tablets, three out of five brands attained more than 75% dissolution within 45 minutes. For comparative analysis of dissolution, a model independent approach of similarity factor (f2) was used. The results showed that three brands of atorvastatin calcium tablets out of five passed all the pharmacopoeia tests for satisfactory quality. Thus, only these can be interchanged in clinical practice.
347-351
44
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF DAUCUS CAROTA CANOPY
Nabila Helmy Shafik, Reham Ezzat Shafek, Helana Naguib Michael
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Antimicrobial study of Daucus Carota Canopy extracts against bacteria and fungi showed that the ethanolic extract was the most active.  Phytochemical investigation of the active ethanolic extract gave rise to 12 natural flavone compounds including the new C-glycoside; diosmetin 6,8-Di-C-a-L-rhamnopyranoside besides the first isolation of luteolin 8-C-ß-L-arabinopyranoside and luteolin 6,8-Di-C-a-L-rhamnopyranoside from this plant and the rest 9 known compounds including 3 luteolin glycosides, 1 diosmetin glycosides, 2 chrysoeriol glycosides and 3 aglycones. Their structures were established by chromatographic methods, chemical degradation and various spectroscopic data.
352-356
45
EVALUATION OF IN VITRO MEMBRANE STABILIZING ACTIVITY AND THROMBOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF AVERRHOA BILIMBI LEAF EXTRACTS
Mohammad Mooneem Mannan, Rumana Akhter, Mohammad Shahriar and Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Averrhoa bilimbi L. belonging to the family Oxalidiaceae has local name include belembuis an important multipurpose tropical tree under-recognized for its nutritional medicinal properties. In this present study, the leaf extracts of A. bilimbi were subjected to a comparative evaluation of the membrane stabilization and thrombolytic activity. The thrombolytic and membrane stabilizing activities were assessed by using human erythrocyte and the results were compared with standard streptokinase (SK) and standard anti-inflammatory drug, acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) respectively. The crude chloroform extract of the leaves of A. bilimbi demonstrated better membrane stabilizing activity, whereas its methanol and ethanol soluble fractions revealed moderate membrane stabilizing properties compared with standard. The crude extracts were found to have thrombolytic activity with a maximum effect in ethanolic fraction comparable with streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control.
357-360
46
ASSESSMENT OF DIABETES KNOWLEDGE AMONG PHARMACISTS AND NURSES IN A NIGERIAN TERTIARY HOSPITAL
Sunday Yakubu Sabo, Ishaku Magaji Iliya, Abubakar Sadiq
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Inadequate knowledge of diabetes among health professionals can jeopardise the management of diabetes among patients. A Cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge of Diabetes among Pharmacists and Nurses in a Nigerian tertiary Health care centre. Knowledge of the effects of exercise on blood glucose level had a positive score of 92.3% among Pharmacists. About 100% of Pharmacists had knowledge of Diabetes and its complications. The causes of low blood glucose had a frequency score of about 96.2% among pharmacist. The result in relation to diabetes as a disease and its complications showed that more than 50% of Nurses exhibited sound knowledge. The knowledge of the complications of diabetes had also a good frequency score of about 88.1% and the causes of low blood glucose had the highest   score of about 89.1% among Nurses. Diabetes is a serious and growing health problem in the world and broad diabetes knowledge is necessary to ensure excellent care of this growing population.
361-366
47
PRECLINICAL BLOOD CHEMISTRY SAFETY PROFILE STUDIES OF \"ROHITAKARISTA\" ON THE KIDNEY FUNCTION AFTER CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION TO MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS
Md. Arif Hasan, Md. Rakib Hasan, Mohammad Jashim Uddin, Gulshanara Begum, Nawfel Abdullah, Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker, Mohammed Motaher Hossain Chowdhury and M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Rohitakarista (RHT) is an Ayurvedic preparation used as a traditional medicine in the treatment of splenomegaly. To find out the effect of chronic administration of RHT on serum blood chemistry profile, it was administered chronically to the male Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 40 ml/kg for 28 days. In this study, the albumin content was decreased (9.17 %) in RHT treated male rats and it was statistically significant (p=0.047), the globulin content was highly significantly (p=0.012) increased (53.10 %) as a result the decrease (43.18%) in the Albumin / Globulin (A/G) ratio was statistically highly significantly different from their corresponding control values (p=0.005). There were a statistically very highly significant (p=0.001) decrease of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level (23.97%) and BUN/Creatinine ratio (21.62 %). It was observed that there was a 15.0% decrease  in serum uric acid content of RHT treated male rats in comparison to their control male rats which was also statistically significant (p=0.049).
367-373
48
DETERMINANT OF ESSENTIAL MEDICINES AVAILABILITY IN THE PUBLIC HEALTH FACILITIES IN UGANDA
Okello T.R, Olido K, Mshilla M.M
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study aimed at examining the key essential medicines availability determinants in public health facilities in Gulu District, Northern Uganda. This cross-sectional study focused on stock-out rates of the six official tracer medicines listed by the Ministry of Health. Data from the health facilities at health centre II to IV levels were collected using questionnaires and interviews. It was established that quantification, ordering methods, lead-time, stock-card management, stores management, quality assurance, collaborative linkages, personnel, funds and health unit management committee were the key determinants of essential medicines availability (P-value 0.000). Stock-out rate was 85% and this was more prevalent in the lower health center IIs and IIIs under the push supply system than in the higher health center IVs which operate under the pull system. Quinine was the most commonly out-of-stock medicine in lower health units. There is a high stock-out rate in the public health facilities and addressing key determinants could improve stocks-in rates.
374-379
49
THE HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ALSTONIA MACROPHYLLA G. DON (APOCYNACEAE) AGAINST PARACETAMOL-INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY
Catherine Faith M. Romano, Librado A. Santiago
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of crude ethanolic leaf extract of Alstonia macrophylla G. Don in Paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. Hepatotoxicity was established by induction of Paracetamol 500mg/kg leading to elevated liver markers, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine phosphatase (ALP), and decreased Albumin levels. Single dose administration with Alstonia macrophylla crude extract (AmCE) on a 7-day duration treatment, resulted in decreased AST, ALT, and ALP and increased Albumin levels. Specifically the AmCE 600mg/kg resulted to significant effects at (p<0.01). Similarly, depleted levels of Glutathione, and Catalase levels were increased (p<0.003), (p<0.000), respectively. While Malondialdehyde – a measure of lipid peroxidation, was significantly decreased (p<0.000). Among the treatments, AmCE 600mg dose showed comparable effect with the standard drug N-acetylcysteine. This study demonstrated the hepatoprotective activity of the crude ethanolic leaf extract of Alstonia macrophylla.
380-383
50
HOW MUCH OUR GERIATRICS KNOW ABOUT THEIR MEDICATIONS
Mekdad, S.S. and AlSayed, A.D.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aging population is increasing worldwide. The decline in cognitive functions, health literacy, visual and hearing limitations add to the challenge of acquiring adequate knowledge. The level of Knowledge has been associated with overall health outcomes. This study aimed to address the Medication Knowledge (MK) in elders. Identify factors associated with knowledge and areas where the knowledge needs to be enhanced. The MK in elders was poor. Illiteracy, Polypharmacy and follow up in multiple clinics compromised knowledge. Knowledge with regards to side effects fared worse. Elders were most knowledgeable on how to store the medications and refills dates. Elders considered knowledge provided by medical staff about their medications as inadequate. The health care providers should be aware that a large gap in MK exists in elders. Multiple factors make MK enhancement in elders very challenging. Knowledge Improvement requires defining evidence based approaches and needs to be individualized. Prospective studies addressing the impact of interventions on improving knowledge and important outcomes like safety, adherence and mortality are needed.
384-388
51
SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF A MUTUAL PRODRUG
Asif Husain, Aftab Ahmad, Shah Alam Khan, Mohammad Sarafroz
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study has been to synthesize a useful drug, which may act with effectiveness both on the gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (broad-spectrum). An amide-based mutual prodrug (3) was synthesized by condensing sulfadiazine with nalidixic acid, and evaluated for in-vitro antibacterial activity with significant results. Hydrolysis kinetics of the mutual prodrug were also studied in acidic and basic buffers.
389-392
52
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF ZILEUTON IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
K. Vara Prasada Rao, M. Tanuja, Y. Srinivasa Rao and T. Hemant Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A Simple, sensitive and reproducible stability-indicating UV spectrophotometric method has been developed for estimation of zileuton in bulk and tablet dosage form using ethanol as solvent. The method is based on the measurement of absorbance at 229 nm. Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration range of 1-10 µg/ml with correlation coefficient 0.999. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, Limits of detection (LOD), Limits of quantitation (LOQ). In addition forced degradation of zileuton was conducted in accordance with the ICH guidelines. Acidic hydrolysis, basic hydrolysis, thermal stress, peroxide and photolytic degradation were used to asses the stability indicating power of the method. Extensive degradation was found in thermal condition and less degradation in photolytic condition.
393-397
53
FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP. PISI AGAINST THE LARVAE OF MAJOR MOSQUITO VECTORS: A LABORATORY INVESTIGATION
Namita Soni and Soam Prakash
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Efficacy of the metabolites of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. pisi has been investigated against the mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti in laboratory. F. oxysporum f.sp. pisi was grown on Potato dextrose broth in the laboratory at 25°C, 75±5% humidity for 15 days. Filtration process was done using whatman-1 filter paper, column chromatography and flash chromatography. Larvicidal efficacy was performed against all larval instars of Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti at six different concentrations with different effective ratios (ethanol/metabolites: 9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6, 3:7, 2:8, and 1:9) by the probit analysis for a period of 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Among all ratios, one potential ratio was selected for efficacy study. The 5:5 ratio was found highly effective against the larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus, 7:3 ratios was effective against the An. stephensi and 1:9 ratio was found effective against the larvae of Ae. aegypti. The first, second and third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus have shown 100% mortality, while fourth instar larvae have LC50 20 ppm, LC90 89.12 ppm and LC99 144.54 ppm values for the metabolites. The metabolites of F. oxysporum f.sp. pisi has not been tested against the mosquito larvae previously. The metabolites of F. oxysporum f.sp. pisi could be a fungal larvicides resource for the control of mosquitoes and could be another agent for biotechnological exploitation, if found suitable in field trials.
398-407
54
EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF ATORVASTATIN ON LEARNING AND MEMORY IN WISTAR RATS
Rahul P Nambiar, Mukta N. Chowta, Nishith RS, Priyanka Kamath, Sanjay Hadigal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effect of atorvastatin on scopolamine-induced amnesia in animal models. Male Wistar rats of 6 weeks old randomly assigned to four groups of six mice each.  Group I received 0.5%w/v CMC, 10 ml/kg, group II received donepezil 5mg/kg, group III is negative control group and group IV received atorvastatin 10mg/kg dose administered orally for 8 days, commencing on day 6. On day 13, amnesia was induced by administration of scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p.) to groups II-IV.  On the first day, all the rats were familiarized with the Hebb William maze for a period of ten minutes. From the 2nd to 5th day the rats received four consecutive trials of training per day in the maze. After 45 minutes of administration of amnestic agent, trials of learning and memory were taken on Hebb-William’s maze and the retention was observed 24 hours after. The learning score decreased significantly in donepezil and atorvastatin treated group when compared to baseline values. There was a significant difference in learning score of both donepezil and atorvastatin treated groups in comparison with scopolamine treated group, suggesting their significant effect on learning and memory in rodent models.
408-412
55
SYNTHESIS OF A PRODRUG OF ACECLOFENAC AND ITS METHOD DEVELOPMENT BY UV-SPECTROSCOPY
Niti Bhardwaj, P. Ahuja, Farah Iram, Asif Husain
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
An ester-based prodrug (2) of aceclofenac was synthesized using N-hydroxymethylsuccinimide (1) as promoiety and its structure established on the basis of IR, NMR and Mass spectral data. An analytical, rapid, cost-effective and accurate method using UV-spectroscopy has been developed for the synthesized prodrug (2). The value of R square obtained shows that the developed method is rapid, easy and precise.
413-417
56
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ONDONSETRAN USING REVERSE PHASE HPLC METHOD AND ITS APPLICATION TO DIFFERENT PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
R. Vani, B.Vijaya Kumar, G. Krishna Mohan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new simple, accurate, precise and reproducible RP-HPLC method has been developed for the estimation of Ondonsetran in its bulk and different pharmaceutical dosage forms using inertsil ODS C18 column ( 250 x 4.6 mm, 5 µm) in isocratic mode. The mobile phase consists of 0.1MKH2PO4:ACN: MeOH (30:40:30)v/v pH6.0 . The detection was carried out at 216 nm for Ondonsetran. The method was linear over the concentration range 48-112 µg/ml. The validation of method was carried out utilizing ICH-guidelines.
418-423
57
DIETARY PHYTOCHEMICALS AND THEIR ROLE IN CHEMOPREVENTION OF CANCER
Jayanti Mukherjee, Anand Patidar, Giriraj Kulkarni
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cancer is one of the most challenging health problems in the entire world today. It is a complex disease to treat. Conventional cancer therapies evoke severe side effects and in many cases, patients recover from cancer and die due to organ failure and immunosuppression. To redress these anomalies recourse to phytochemicals is advocated. The induction of apoptosis in a neoplastic cell line without affecting normal cells of the body is a key to the use of phytochemicals (chemopreventive agents) which perform a vital function in the battle against cancer. These chemopreventive agents inhibit, retard or reverse multi-stages of carcinogenesis via their anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic properties and also suppress cancer proliferation through induction and stimulation of cell growth. Research has shown that they exert these abilities by counteracting certain signals that cause genotoxic damage and reduction-oxidation imbalance in cells. This discourse reviews the role of phytochemical chemopreventive agents, benefits and limitations associated with their use in cancer prevention.
424-436
58
EFFECT OF SUTTIGAI THERAPY FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF AZHAL KEELVAYU - AN OPEN COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jiji Mol V.C, Bavya K, S. Murugesan, P. Shanmuga Priya, R. Madhavan, M. Murugesan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The main objective of the present study is to outweigh the therapeutic efficacy of suttigai therapy for the management of azhal keelvayu (osteoarthritis) by an open comparative clinical study among patients with oil application and patients with suttigai therapy receiving the same internal medicines. An open comparative study was conducted in National Inststute of Siddha IPD among 12 patients who had screened positively for Osteoarthritis. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 and Group 2 were treated with same internal medicines but different external medications oil application and suttigai therapy, respectively. There was significant reduction in pain and symptoms in patients receiving suttigai therapy as compared to patients receiving oil application. The result of the study was explored by using KOOS score .The beneficial effect of the suttigai therapy was revealed with suitable statistical analysis.
437-440
59
SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF 5-SUBSTITUTED 1(H)-TETRAZOLES
Deepthi Yada, Divya Yada, Bandari Sathish
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
An efficient and economical protocol for the synthesis of 5-substituted 1H-tetrazoles from various nitriles and sodium azide is described using ZnO as catalyst. A wide variety of aryl nitriles underwent [2+3] cycloaddition under mild reaction conditions to afford tetrazoles in moderate to excellent yields. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial activities were tested against Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gramnegative) and Streptomyces species (Actinomycetes).
441-446
60
VITAMIN E POTENTIATE THE ANTIEPILEPTIC ACTIVITY OF PHENOBARBITAL
N.P. Sawadadkar, V.S. Ughade, V.S. Shinde, P.N. Kothari, A.A. Shinde, V.J. Chaware, K.R. Biyani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Phenobarbital is the mostly used drug for the seizures. However question regarding safety and efficacy of this drug make it particularly compelling to identify adjunct therapy that could boost therapeutic benefit. Study found that one adjunct therapy is vitamin e. The main aim of present study was to evaluate potentiation of anticonvulsant activity of Phenobarbital by vitamin e in mice using PTZ induced convulsions. In these methods all the animals were divided into sixteen groups & each groups consist of six animals. All group received PTZ. Testing drugs doses were randomised within groups of animal such that each group was required during a given test series. The results revealed that vitamin e significantly potentiated efficacy of phenobarbital but did not exert antiepileptic effect on its own. Concurrent administration of phenobarbital and vitamin e also decreased serum MDA activity. It is concluded that vitamin e potentiates the antiepileptic activity of phenobarbital.
447-450
61
SYNTHESIS MIXED LIGANDS COMPLEXES OF SOME LIGHT METALS BY MICROWAVE ASSISTED USING 2-ACETAMIDE BENZOTHIAZOLE AND 1,10-PHENANTHROLIN
Mahasin F. Alias, Farah S. Jaafer and Amal S. Sadiq
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Mixed ligands of 2-acetamide benzothiazole L1 with 1,10-phenanthrolin L2complexesof  V(IV), Cr(III) , Co(II)and Ni(II )ions were prepared by microwave assisted radiation. The ligand and the complexes were isolated and characterized in solid state by using FT-IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy, flame atomic absorption, elemental analysis CHNS , magnetic susceptibility , melting points and conductivity measurements.2-acetamide benzothiazole behaves as bidenetate through carbonyl group and nitrogen atom of imine group. Fromthe analyses Oh geometry was suggested for NiL1L2, CrL1L2 complexes, square pyramidal for VL1L2 and Td for CoL1L2complex.A theoretical treatment of ligands and their metal complexes in gas phase were studied using HyperChem-8 program, moreover, ligands in gas phase also has been studied using Gaussian program (GaussView Currently Available Version (5.0.9) along with Gaussian 09 which was the latest in the Gaussian series of programs).
451-458
62
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF NOVEL ARYL SULFONE DERIVATIVES
Shipra Bhati
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A series of some new aryl sulfone derivatives containing benzimidazole moiety were synthesized. The compounds were characterized by means of IR,1HNMR and elemental analysis. The compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative organisms with standard benzyl penicillin. Synthesized compounds exhibited significant biological activity.
459-463
63
DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DIACEREIN AND CHLORZOXAZONE PULSATILE RELEASE TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Richa Dayaramani, Sandeep V. Nathwani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study was to develop and characterize press coated tablet of Diacerein and Chlorzoxazone. The drug delivery system is based on the concept of chronotherapeutics where the drug is released rapidly after a well defined lag-time. A pulsatile-release profile is characterized by a time period of no release (lag time) followed by a rapid and complete drug release. Diacerein (DMARD) and Chlorzoxazone (NSAID) combination has been used for obtaining synergistic effect in the management of arthritis. Drug polymer compatibility studies were carried out by FT-IR. Core tablet was prepared by direct compression using super disintegrant sodium starch glycolate. The core tablet was compression coated with different quantities of coating material containing different polymers. A 32 Full factorial design was used for optimization of the barrier layer. Total coat weight (X1) and % HPMC K4M (X2) were selected as independent variables. The lag time for Diacerein (Y1), CPR at 1st  hr after lag time for Diacerein (Y2), time for 90% drug release for Diacerein (Y3), the lag time for Chlorzoxazone (Y4), CPR at 1st hr after lag time for Chlorzoxazone (Y5) and time for 90% drug release for Chlorzoxazone (Y6) were selected as dependent variables. Tablets were evaluated for various evaluation parameters. Comparative dissolution profiles of all the batches indicated drug release from tablet was inversely proportional to the coat weight. From the release profile it was deduced that delay lag time was observed for the press-coated tablet containing a higher amount of HPMC K4M in the outer shell. The press coated tablets coated with HPMC K4M:HPMC K100 in 64.39:35.61 ratios with 200 mg coat weight are most likely to provide the desired delivery of Diacerein and Chlorzoxazone.
464-471
64
TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF AN AYURVEDIC MEDICINE \"KARPUR RAS\" USED IN DIARRHOEA
Md. Mamun Sikder, Md. Rakib Hasan, Swagata Sarkar Lopa, Nayma Abedin, Mohammad Jashim Uddin, Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker, Mohammed Motaher Hossain Chowdhury and M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Karpur Ras (KRP) is an Ayurvedic preparation used as a traditional medicine in the treatment of diarrhea in the rural population. To find out the toxicological characteristic of KRP, it was administered chronically to the male Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 40 mg/kg for 28 days. All throughout the experimental period the KRP treated animals were always maintaining decrease in body weight in the overall body weight study compare to their control counterpart. There were a statistically significant (p=0.013) decrease in the absolute weight of rat heart and a statistically highly significant (p=0.009) decrease in the relative percent weight of the heart. There were a statistically highly significant decrease in the absolute weight of the liver (p=0.002) and the relative percent weight of the liver (p=0.005). Also there was a statistically very highly significant (p=0.001) decrease in the organ water content of the liver. There was a statistically highly significant (p=0.004) decrease in the absolute weight of the rat kidney but a statistically significant (p=0.015) decrease was noticed in relative percent weight of the rat kidney. There were a statistically very highly significant (p=0.001) decrease in the absolute weight of spleen relative percent weight of spleen.
472-477
65
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY EVALUATION METHODS:IN VITRO AND IN VIVO
Bibekananda Meher, Trilochan Satapathy, Anupama Roy, Deepak Kumar Dash
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Free radicals are molecules or molecular fragments containing one or more unpaired electrons. Oxidative stress occurs due to free radical generation and deficiency  of antioxidant defence mechanism. Oxygen consumption inherent in cell growth leads to the generation of a series of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative damage caused by free radicals may be related to aging and diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer and cirrhosis. The growing interest in the substitution of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on vegetable sources and the screening of raw materials for identifying new antioxidants. Oxidation reactions are not an exclusive concern for the food industry, and antioxidants are widely needed to prevent deterioration of other oxidisable goods, such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and plastics. The aim of this review is to focus on the different in vitro and in vivo methods for evaluation of antioxidant activities.
478-484
66
AN IMPACT OF EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTIONS ON REPORTING OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS
Patel SV, Desai CK, Patel PP, Dikshit RK
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of educational interventions (IT) on adverse drug reaction reporting (AR). Randomly selected prescribers were assigned to group A (n= 84) or B (n= 85). Three months each of Pre (Pre- IP), Intervention – I (IP- I), IP- II and Post – IP were applied in sequence. IT included Pharmacovigilance Awareness Programme, posters, written and verbal reminders during IP-I & II. Inter-group and inter-phase change in the rate and quality of AR (score of 0-50) was estimated. Data was analyzed using Chi Square and Student’s “t” test. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Improvement in AR rate (154% increase) and quality (Pre- IP: 34; IP-I: 35.6; IP-II: 36.3) of ADR reports was observed during IP- II as compared to Pre- IP. Group A showed significant improvement in the rate (62.6%) and quality of reports as compared to group B during both IP- I & II (p<0.01). However, upon withdrawal of IT, the impact attenuated with time. A positive impact of IT on rate and quality of AR was observed, albeit temporarily. Hence, administration of IT on a regular basis is recommended for a sustainable impact.
485-492
67
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF DUTASTERIDE WITH TAMSULOSIN IN PHARMACEUTICAL CAPSULE DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC METHOD
Priyadarshani S Bansode, Chetan Singh Chauhan, Preeti Gopaliya, Chatrapal singh, Ravindra Kamble, Mahendra Singh Ranawat, Sujata S Bansode
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Analytical method development & validation play important roles in the discovery development & manufacture of pharmaceuticals. Reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) has a non-polar stationary phase and an aqueous, moderately polar mobile phase. A mixture of buffer solution and methanol in the ratio of (45:55). Drugs showed maximum absorbance at 280 nm for Dutasteriod and 225 nm for Tamsulosin. The % Accuracy is within limit (98.0 – 102.0 %) with %RSD less than 2%. The Precision RSD of Assay of six sample preparations was found to be 2.0%. The correlation coefficient value should not be less than 0.995 over the working range. The validation was performed as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines.
493-499
68
A STUDY ON RISK CATEGORIZATION AND PREVENTION STRATEGIES IN DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS
Cincy MM, Krishnakumar K, Panayappan L, Lincy George, Dineshkumar B
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of this study was to assess the risk factors of poor diabetic foot care and to find the effectiveness of health education in improving foot care practice among diabetic patients. It was a one group pre test, post test pre experimental study. About 100 patients were included in the study. Patients were enquired about their foot care practices. A structured pre-tested questionnaire was administered to the outpatients of a rural health center with type 2 diabetes. Awareness regarding diabetes, care of diabetes and foot care practice ware assessed and scored. Individual and group health education focusing on foot care was performed. Foot care practice was reassessed when the patients came for review. Mean age of included patients was 58.5 years. Only 80% were aware about foot care, majority of the patients did not learning session about foot care. 58 out of 100 were having one or the other factors responsible for them to be categorized as high risk feet. Low education status, old age and low awareness regarding diabetes were the risk factors for poor practice of foot care. The average score for the level of practice had a 65% increase after the education when comparing pre test and post test score. It was also found that proper foot care practice was related with foot care education. Foot care education for diabetics in a primary care setting improves their foot care practice and is likely to be effective in reducing the burden of diabetic foot ulcer.
500-504
69
SYNTHETIC CURCUMINOID COMPOUNDS: AN APPRAISAL OF IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY
Jyotsana Sharma, Anurag Singh Chauhan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study aimed at synthesizing curcumin and some related curcuminoid compounds and thereafter evaluation of these compounds for possible antioxidant activity. Previously synthesized and identified Curcumin and curcuminoid compounds were taken for the study. Antioxidant potential of the compounds were investigated. Total antioxidant activity, reducing power assay, nitric oxide scavenging activity, hydrogen and DPPH radical scavenging activity were performed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of these compounds in vitro. The IC50 values in DPPH model were also calculated. The results of the study revealed potential antioxidant activities of the evaluated compounds.
505-511
70
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CORDIA DICHOTOMA FRUIT MUCILAGE AS MATRIX FORMING AGENT FOR SUSTAINED RELEASE OF PROPRANOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE
D. Lohithasu, A.V.S. Madhu Latha, D. Midhun Kumar and P. Girish
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the present study was to design sustained release tablets of Propranolol HCl by direct compression using HPMC K 100 M and Cordia dichotoma fruit mucilage. Tablets were prepared by direct compression method and prepared tablets were subjected to physicochemical studies, in vitro drug release kinetic studies and stability studies. FTIR studies were shown that, there was no interaction between drug and polymer. The physicochemical properties of tablets were found within the limits. The optimized formulation (F6) was subjected to stability studies for three months at 40 °C, RH 75 ± 5 % and showed there were no significant changes in drug content, physicochemical parameters and release pattern. The kinetic treatment of selected formulation (F6) showed that the release of drug follows Higuchi models. The obtained results of the present study indicated that Cordia dichotoma fruit mucilage as matrix former in sustained release formulation of Propranolol HCl.
512-517
71
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES ON LEAF OF CHLOROXYLON SWIETENIA DC. AN ETHNOMEDICINALLY IMPORTANT MEDICINAL TREE
Sharanabasappa Melmari and M. Jayaraj
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Chloroxylon swietenia DC. belongs to the family Meliaceae is an important medicinal tree of dry deciduous forests with several medicinal uses in both folk and traditional system of medicine. Traditionally different parts of the plant are used in treating wounds, cuts, burns and skin diseases. Its pharmacognostic data for authentication of the leaf crude drug is available, but it is incomplete, hence, in the present study detailed macroscopical, microscopical, physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies of leaf are undertaken. Powder microscopy revealed the presence of xylem vessels with spiral and reticulate thickenings, phloem fibers, raphide crystals and unicellular trichomes. Anatomical studies showed the presence of raphide crystals, collateral vascular bundle, resin ducts and anomocytic stomata. The qualitative chemical tests of petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and water extracts of leaf indicated the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, amino acids, phenolic compounds and tannins.
518-525
72
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF SERATRODAST IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
J. Raghuram
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, precise, rapid and accurate reverse phase HPLC method was developed for the estimation of Seratrdast in tablet dosage form.ZobraxEclipseXDB-C18, 150x4.6 mm 5 µm partical size, with mobile phase consisting of water: acetonitrile in the ratio of 30:70 v/v was used. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the effluents were monitored at 265 nm. The retention time& Recovery time was 8.07min&3.273. The detector response was linear in the concentration of 15-180 mcg/ml. The respective linear regression equation being Y= 32147.7x+58628. The limit of detection and limit of quantification was 0.015mcg and 0.03mcg/ml respectively. The percentage assay of Seratrodast was 99.43 %. The method was validated by determining its accuracy, precision and system suitability.
526-530
73
ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES OF SOME SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS
Sabira Begum, Syed Tahir Ali, Syed Imran Hassan,, Syed Nawazish Ali, Bina S. Siddiqui, Khursheed Ali Khan and Nayyer Mahmood
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extracts from the roots of Raphanus sativus, fruits of Hibiscus esculentus, Citrus maxima and Capsicum annuum, leaves of Psidium guajava and Syzygium cumini was studied using disc diffusion method against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at 1000 µg/disc concentration. Significant antimicrobial activity in the extract of leaves of Psidium guajava and Syzygium cumini was observed.
531-535
74
THE ANTISPASMODIC EFFECT OF Clerodendrum quadriloculare (Blanco) Merr. LEAF EXTRACTS
Kay Ann S. Jonatas-Tongol, Mafel C. Ysrael
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Clerodendrum quadriloculare, locally named bagawak morado decoction of leaves is used to relieve abdominal pain in folklore. However, scientific data on the biological activities of the plant are limited, thus prompting this research to provide in part the scientific basis for the plant’s reputed use for smooth muscle relaxant effects. The methanolic extract of Clerodendrum quadrilocualre was subjected to phytochemical analysis, toxicity test and smooth muscle modulating effects using isolated rat ileum. Phytochemical analysis by thin layer chromatography revealed presence of flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, coumarins, tannins, phenolics and alkaloids. Toxicity study showed that C. quadriloculare is non-toxic at 5000 mg/kg. Organ bath studies of the isolated rat ileum showed that DCM fraction comparable relaxation activity of the acetylcholine-induced contraction (EC50=1376 µg/mL ± 0.03) as with the standard antagonist, Atropine (p > 0.05). The study indicates the potential use of Clerodendrum quadriloculare as a safe and effective treatment for smooth muscle spasm.
536-540
75
MEASURING SERVICE QUALITY OF PHARMACIES-A STUDY WITH REFERENCE TO THREE MAJOR INDIAN CITIES
P. Uma Maheswari Devi, B. Sankara Rao, B. RajaShekhar, N. Udaya Bhaskar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The Pharmacists have a very important role in protecting the health of the customers through proper dispensing of drugs and providing better services. But the errors made in processing prescriptions are growing with the increasing prescriptions. In this scenario we made an attempt to measure the quality of services provided by pharmacists. CFA (Confirmatory Factor analysis) was used and a PHARMQUAL scale with three dimensions-Empathy, Assurance and Reliability and nine items were developed. The relationships between the pharmacists “perceived service quality” and “satisfaction” were also examined. The analysis of data was conducted through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using AMOS (Analysis of Moment Structures). A Sample of 350 chemists from three major Indian cities was purposively selected. The role of organized and unorganized pharmacies was also examined. This study is very useful for the doctors, manufacturers (pharmaceutical companies) and customers to evaluate the role of the pharmacist and identify the deficiencies in the quality of pharmacy practice.
253-264
76
MEDICINAL USES AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF SOPHORA INTERRUPTA BEDD-A REVIEW
Pardhasaradhi Mathi, Venkata Raman Bokka and Mahendran Botlagunta
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Sophora interrupta Bedd, was a common woody perennial herb native to India. Reports suggest that the plant possesses numerous health promoting benefits such as anticancer, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The plant exhibited several potential in vitro anticancer effects on MCF-7, PC-3, HeLa and HePG-2 cell lines. In vivo assay’s suppressed in mouse models Dalton’s lymphoma ascites, along with acute toxicity studies, central nervous system and hepatoprotective studies. The major phytoconstituents isolated from this plant are prenylated flavonoids, chalcones, biochanin-A and Kaempferol. This review aims to concern about taxonomy, cultivation, biological activities of the isolated compounds and to evaluate the current status of S. interrupta to give a comprehensive view of its future development and further improvement of its suitability in curing a wide range of ailments.
265-273
77
IN VITRO ASSESSMENT OF ANTIARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF SPHAERANTHUS AMARANTHOIDES BURM F.
Gayatri S, Uma Maheswara Reddy C, Chitra K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Present study was done to assess the in vitro antiarthritic activity of the plant Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Burm F (Asteracea). Four different extract of increasing polarity namely petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol were prepared. Antiarthritic potential of the plant was assessed by two methods namely, effect on protein denaturating and effect on membrane stabilization. The results indicated that by both the methods ethyl acetate extract was having highest activity and the activity was comparable with that of standard, diclofenac sodium.
274-277
78
DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF NASAL IN SITU GEL FORMULATIONS OF ALPRAZOLAM USING IN VITRO AND IN VIVO METHODS
Hemanth Kumar Mamidi, Madhavi Harika Srimathkandala, Krishna Sanka, Madhu Babu Ananthula, Vasudha Bakshi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the present research work was to develop and evaluate the nasal in situe gel formulations of alprazolam for better availability in the brain. Formulations were developed using Pluronic F127 and sodium alginate by cold method. Formulations were evaluated for permeation study through sheep nasal mucosa, histopathological evaluation of mucosa and pharmacodynamic study in rats. Optimized formulation showed a diffusion of 78.75 ± 0.077 % drug in 240 min, effective permeation coefficient (Peff) and gelling temperature were found to be 6.44×10-5 cm sec-1 and 33.80 ± 0.57°C respectively. Histopathological study did not show any damage to the nasal mucosa during permeation. The locomotor activity and anti-anxiety effect of Alprazolam differed significantly by I.N and I.V routes compared to control. It can be concluded that Alprazolam given by nasal route is more effective and show quick onset of action when compared to Intravenous administration of equivalent dose.
278-288
79
TREATMENT OF INCURABLE LIVER CANCER (HEPATOMA) BY FOUR TRADITIONAL HERBAL MEDICINES
M. Rafiq, Muhammad Hanif, Akhtar Ahmed, Asim Awan, Salman Habib, Amir Awan, Ajaz Rasool, Miandad Zardari
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Prognosis of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is very poor. Chemotherapeutic agents in allopathic medicines are hardly effective. Long time of survival is possible only in cases of full surgical excision or liver transplantation. Use of herbal medicine in the treatment of liver cancer and other cancers has a long tradition. A total of 30 HCC patients (66% were chronic hepatitis patients) treated with four well known herbal aqueous extracts (viz Bergenia ciliata, Nigella sativa, cassia fistula and Picrorhiza scrophulariflora) in which 17 patients were females and 13 males in age group ranges from 42-72 years. Over all six cases were HBV positive, 11 cases were HCV positive and one case with co-infection HBV and HCV viruses. All others were HBV/HCV negative. All individuals were diagnosed as HCC and further monitored on ultrasound, CT scan and alpha fetoprotein; some of them were confirmed additionally with MRI and tissue biopsy. Their liver function tests and serological tests, to determine the status of HBV and HCV were also performed. Out of 30 confirmed HCC patients 10 showed hundred percent improvements displaying no evidence of mass in liver. Ten patients showed remarkable reduction in their size of tumor/mass and are still on medication. Eight patients were having non compliance who had started treatment but either left in the mid of treatment or lack of follow up while the two patients were passed away. All on medication patients showed remarkable improvement and reduction in the size of tumor. However, no adverse effects were observed. To obtain a convincible data it is proposed to treat all the patients approximately for a minimum period of 5 years.
289-297
80
ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF CAMELLIA SINENSIS AND MACROTYLOMA UNIFLORUM ON HIGH FAT DIET INDUCED WISTAR ALBINO RATS
Dhanalaxmi Mohan Raj, K. Bhaskar Reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Hyperlipidemia is a disorder of lipid metabolism manifested by elevation of plasma concentrations of the various lipid and lipoprotein fractions, which is the key risk factor for cardiovascular disorders (CVD). Camellia sinensis and Macrotyloma uniflorum used as antihyperlipidemic drugs as per literature review. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antihyperlipidaemic activity of polyherbal formulation of methanolic extract (Camellia sinensis and Macrotyloma uniflorum) in High fat diet (HFD) fed rats. Male Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to five groups: Groups I normal control; Group II HFD control; Group III HFD+ standard drug (Atorvastatin10 mg/kg), Group IV HFD + Polyherbal methanolic extract (200 mg/kg) and Group V HFD + Polyherbal methanolic extract (400 mg/kg). The whole study lasted for 28 days. Administration of HFD caused a significant (p<0.05) rise in the serum total cholesterol (T.C), LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (T.G). Simultaneous administration of polyherbal methanolic extract of Camellia sinensis and Macrotyloma uniflorum significantly (p<0.05) prevented the rise in serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, triglycerides. There was a significant decrease in body weight and increase in HDL-cholestrol was observed in polyherbal extract treated rats. Thus, the results indicate antihyperlipidaemic effect of Polyherbal formulation.
298-304
81
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF NEBIVOLOL AND VALSARTAN IN PURE BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
D. Sreelatha, R. Ramya and T. Ramarao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, Accurate, precise method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of the Nebivolol and Valsartan in Tablet dosage form. Retention time of Nebivolol and Valsartan were found to be 2.496min and 3.905min. %RSD of the Nebivolol and Valsartan were and found to be 0.4 and 0.8 respectively. %Recover was Obtained as 99.52% and 99.93% for Nebivolol and Valsartan respectively. LOD, LOQ values are obtained from regression equations of Nebivolol and Valsartan were 0.070ppm, 0.2142ppm and 0.179ppm, 0.544 ppm respectively. Regression equation of Nebivolol  is y = = 0722x + 144.0, and y = 4560x + 248.2 of Valsartan . Retention times are decreased and that run time was decreased so the method developed was simple and economical that can be adopted in regular Quality control test in Industries.
541-546
82
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF DOXOFYLINE AND SERTRALINE IN PURE BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
K. Vikram, R.V. Valli Kumari
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, Accurate, precise method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of the Doxofylline and Sertaline in Tablet dosage form. Retention time of Doxofylline and Sertaline were found to be 2.3min and 3.7min. %RSD of the Doxofylline and Sertaline were and found to be 0.98 and 1.14 respectively. %assay r was Obtained as 99.71% and 99.53% for Doxofylline and Sertaline respectively. LOD, LOQ values are obtained from regression equations of Doxofylline and Sertaline were 0.09ppm, 0.26ppm and 0.44ppm, 1.34ppm respectively. Regression equation of Doxofylline is of Sertaline   y = 14573x + 385.4 And y = 33848x + 4535. Retention times are decreased and that run time was decreased so the method developed was simple and economical that can be adopted in regular Quality control test in Industries.
547-553
83
A CASE STUDY ON LEAN SIX SIGMA FOR REDUCTION IN CHANGEOVER TIME OF DRY GRANULATION AREA IN LEADING PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANY
Mohd Ahsan Khan, Priyadarshan Pachorkar, Zeba Khan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Company XYZ is facing potential drop in throughput of roll compactor batches due to high changeover time for utilization of dry granulation area. To resolve this problem company has targeted 20% reduction in changeover time. Reduction in changeover will leads to the availability of machinery for longer period result in a production improvement. To implement this project following activities are carried out in company. Time motion study of the casual & operator involve in cleaning, analysis of changeover time & drawn of I-MR chart with reference to 3 sigma level of the process, implementation of engineering controls, implementation of 4S and 5S principle. On implementation of these changes in pilot study 43% reduction in changeover time has been achieved.
554-560
84
Molecular Docking Study of Natural Compounds against Non Receptor Protein Tyrosine Kinases Src
Pushpendra Singh, Felix Bast
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Non-receptor tyrosine kinases Src family plays an important role in signal transduction induced by diverse extracellular stimulus, including cytokine, and growth factors. Overactivity or overexpression of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src is involved in the growth, development and progression of various human cancers and their inhibitors are under intensive investigations as novel anti-cancer agents. Therefore, we studied receptor-based molecular docking of src against natural compounds. Each Selected compounds docked with the X-ray crystal structure of Src (PDB; 3EL7). The best-docked compounds have been elected for target by optimal energy value, types of interactions, and conformations. STOCK1N-75795, STOCK1N-80087, STOCK1N-72227, STOCK1N-79428, STOCK1N-72232, STOCK1N-72129, and STOCK1N-72552 compound have a better binding energy as well as binding conformation against src. Foremost, STOCK1N-80087, STOCK1N-72227, and STOCK1N-72232 are their excellent QPlogPo/w, CIQPlogS, QPlog HERG K+ channels, QPPCaco, QPlogBB, QPPMDCK, QPlogKP, QPlogKhsa and percentage of human oral absorption values which satisfy the Lipinski’s Rule of Five. This molecular docking study recapitulates docking free energy, protein ligands interaction profile, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic parameter of lead molecules, which are tremendously helpful to improve activity of natural compounds against src.
561-567
85
HINDRANCES TO PRESENT PHARMACOVIGILANCE SCENARIO AND INNOVATIVE IDEAS TO ENHANCE DRUG SAFETY
B. Srinivas teja, B. Chaitanya lakshmi, B. Divya sree, P. Sharmila Nirojini, Rama Rao Nadendla
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In India, there are several consumer groups who encourage patients to report any adverse reactions encountered by them, although there is no information for patients on how to report ADRs directly to the regulatory authority. Direct reports from the patients, the ones who actually experience ADRs, are not accepted by the monitoring centres and by regulatory authorities. To add to this is the total lack of any awareness about ADRs in the general population. So every pharmacist and pharmacovigilance system has a key role in minimising the ADRs and bring awareness about safe usage of drugs in global health care.
568-570
86
DEVELOPMENT OF A HPLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ENROFLOXACIN AND CIPROFLOXACIN IN REPTILE PLASMA AFTER TRANSDERMAL DELIVERY
Iga Czyz, Jean-Paul Salvi, Alban Ducrotte, Plamen Kirilov, Sebastien Perrot, Charly Pignon, Fabrice Pirot, Francoise Falson, Roselyne Boulieu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A rapid and simple high-performance liquid chromatography method using diode array detection for determination of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in snake’s plasma was developed. Several snakes were treated transdermally with a single dose of enrofloxacin emulsions corresponding to an antibiotic dose of 5 mg/kg. Enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were analyzed using a core-shell silica particle stationary phase (Kinetex  RP–C18, 150 × 4.6 mm, particle size 5 µm) and 0.002 M phosphoric acid/acetonitrile (83:17, v/v) as mobile phase. Calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 2–100 µM and 3–100 µM. The intra-day and inter-day coefficient of variations were below or equal to 10% for both compounds. Limits of quantification for enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were 2 µM and 3 µM respectively. Sample treatment procedure consisted of deproteinization with perchloric acid. The described HPLC method using core-shell silica particles results in better resolution, higher sensitivity and low back pressure.

571-576
87
FAST DISOLVING TABLET DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM-AN OVERVIEW
Keshari Roshan, M. Bharkatiya, Rathore K.S, Shyama S. Kumar, Gajaram Sirvi, somani Neelam Bhupal Nobels
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
FDT is regarded as the one of the most frontier and novel drug delivery system because of large range of patient compliance. It is easily administered by the large range of patient as well as the patient of, pediatrics, and dysphasic, mental illness patient and also for the active patients where there is no availability of water as it dissolves in mouth in saliva without use of water within 60sec. It also gives rapid onset of action due to the absorption in the pre gastric area and it has also improved the bioavailability. However it has also got some advantage, disadvantage, ideal properties as well as characteristic. It is prepared by two technologies, one is conventional technology and other is patentedtechnology. In conventional technology it is prepared by   Freeze drying  or lycophilisation,  Sublimation,  Spray drying, tablet  Molding,  Mass extrusion,  Direct compression,  Cotton-candy process,  Nanotization,  Fast dissolving films,  Melt granulation. And it is easily evaluated by different technique such as shape, size, thickness, diameter, weight variation , friability, wetting time, hardness of tablet, in vitro / vivo disintegration time, dissolution test, stability study and drug content etc. Many pharmaceutical industries are engaged in production of FDT and its research. We can also say that there is good future trend of FDT but it required some more advancement.
577-589
88
PRECISE AND COMPARATIVE REQUIREMENTS OF ACTIVE IMPLANTABLE MEDICAL DEVICE IN US, AUSTRALIA AND SINGAPORE
Vishal H. Parikh, Krupa C. Thula, Dilip G. Maheshwari
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Medical device market has been improving its impact globally and it is the widely growing field now a days. The Cardiovascular Device industry is rapidly expanding its impact in the market and it will reach to $97 billion by end of 2015. Worldwide many people suffering from cardiovascular diseases and number of deaths has been reported every year. So, to improve the patient life and reduce the morbidity and mortality rate the strict rules and regulation has to be developed. Cardiovascular devices are life threatening devices and it is directly affecting the patient’s life so strict and specific regulation is requiring for active implantable medical devices. In US, Food and Drug Administration high-risk medical device registered via the Pre-Market Approval process. In Australia, Therapeutic Goods Administration regulates the medical device under the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods. In Singapore, Health Science Authority regulates the medical device under the Centre for Medical Device Registration. This article discuss about the general introduction about medical device, its classification, registration procedure, labeling requirements for active implantable medical device in US, Australia and Singapore.
590-599
89
MARSILEA MINUTA(L.) PLANT EXTRACT MEDIATED SYNTHESIS OF GOLD NANOPARTICLE FOR CATALYTIC AND ANTIMICROBIAL APPLICATIONS
Niranjan Bala, Arpan Kool, Pradip Thakur, Sukhen Das, Papiya Nandy, Ruma Basu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Gold nanoparticle (GNP) was synthesized using the plant extract of Marsilea minuta (L.) for catalytic and antibacterial applications. Formation of nanoparticle was confirmed by various physical and chemical characterization techniques. Morphology of synthesized NPs was analyzed using electron microscopy. GNP synthesized via this method was highly stable and their size was found to be ~ 25 nm. Green synthesized GNPs showed well catalytic activity in complete reduction of toxic para-nitrophenol (PNP) to para-aminophenol (PAP). GNP synthesized by this method showed better antibacterial potency against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcous aureus. It was observed that GNP synthesized via this method showed synergistic effect of chemically synthesized GNP and plant extract on antimicrobial activity.
600-609
90
SIMULTANEOUS RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF CLOPIDOGREL AND RIVAROXABAN IN SYNTHETIC MIXTURE
Arun M. Prajapati, Harsh A. Patel
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Gold nanoparticle (GNP) was synthesized using the plant extract of Marsilea minuta (L.) for catalytic and antibacterial applications. Formation of nanoparticle was confirmed by various physical and chemical characterization techniques. Morphology of synthesized NPs was analyzed using electron microscopy. GNP synthesized via this method was highly stable and their size was found to be ~ 25 nm. Green synthesized GNPs showed well catalytic activity in complete reduction of toxic para-nitrophenol (PNP) to para-aminophenol (PAP). GNP synthesized by this method showed better antibacterial potency against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcous aureus. It was observed that GNP synthesized via this method showed synergistic effect of chemically synthesized GNP and plant extract on antimicrobial activity.
610-613
91
PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF A GAS FORMATION-BASED MULTIPLE UNIT GASTRO RETENTIVE FLOATING DRUGDELIVERY SYSTEM OF FAMOTIDINE
P. Utteja, B. Chandra Shekar Reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Gastro retentive Famotidine floating mini-tablets-in-capsule were prepared using three different natural polymers HPMC K4M, HPMC K15M and Guar gum in different ratios by direct compression method in order to achieve maximum local bioavailability. Buoyancy of mini-tablets was achieved for about 12 hours by an addition of optimized gas generating mixture consisting of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid to the formulations. The prepared mini-tablets were evaluated for various precompression parameters i.e., angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio including Drug Excipients compatability studies by using FT-IR studies. The prepared formulations were evaluated for various post compression parameters like weight variation, thickness, friability, hardness, floating lag time, floating buoyancy studies and in-vitro dissolution studies. The In-vitro dissolution data confirmed the success of the optimized formula F5, which contains HPMC K15M, has shown desired percentage drug release in 12 hours. The release of drug from optimized formulation followed Fickian diffusion. FT-IR studies indicated that there is no positive evidence for the interaction between Famotidine and excipients of the optimized formula. Famotidine floating mini-tablets based on HPMC K15M is a promising formulation as an effective anti-ulcerative. The developed formulation overcome and alleviates the drawback and limitation of conventional dosage forms.
614-619
92
Antibacterial and Antifungal activity of some Schiff bases of 2-(substituted-amino)-N-tolyl-5, 6-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta[b]thiophene-3-carboxamide
K. Pavan Kumar and Madhusudhanareddy Induri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Schiff bases of 2-(substituted-amino)-N-tolyl-5,6-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta[b] thiophene-3-carboxamide screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity against the standard drugs Ampicillin and amphotericin- b.Among all the compounds compound 2h has shown good activity against bacteria and fungi, other compounds has shown moderate to weak activity.
620-623
93
This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
624-630
94
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF MONTELUKAST AND LEVOCETIRIZINE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM BY USING RP-HPLC
K. Venila Rani, H. Padmalatha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, Accurate, precise method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of the Montelukast and Levocetirizine in liquid dosage form. Chromatogram was run through Hypersil BDS 250 x 4.6 mm, 5. Mobile phase containing Buffer and Acetonitrie in the ratio of 35:65A was pumped through column at a flow rate of 1ml/min. Buffer used in this method was 0.02M Potassium di-hydrogen phosphate buffer at pH 3.6. Temperature was maintained at 30°C. Optimized wavelength for Montelukast and Levocetirizine was 231nm. Retention time of Montelukast and Levocetirizine were found to be 2.599min and 3.472min %RSD of the Montelukast and Levocetirizine were and found to be 0.7 and 0.8, respectively. % recovery was obtained as 99.88% and 99.9%for Montelukast and Levocetirizine respectively. Regression equation of Montelukast is y = 35120x + 388.3 and Levocetirizine is y = 29047x + 721.3.
631-636
95
STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULATANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PYRANTEL PAMOATE AND ALBENDAZOLE IN BULK AND ITS TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Renuka Jajikore, G. Ushasree, A. Ajitha, V. Umamaheswararao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of the investigation was to develop a new RP-HPLC Method for simultaneous estimation of Pyrantel pamoate and Albendazole in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Chromatography was carried out on an BDS C-18 column (4.6 x 250mm, 5μ particle size) with a isocratic mobile phase composed of 0.1% Potassium dihyrogen Ortho phosphate (adjusted to pH 4.8 with triethylamine solution), Acetonitrile, methanol (40:40:20v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The column temperature was maintained at 30°C and the detection was carried out using a PDA detector at 311 nm. Validation parameters such as system suitability, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), Stability of sample & standard stock solutions, robustness AND degradation studies were determined as reported in the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The retention times for Pyrantel pamoate and Albendazole and were 2.161 min and 3.405 min respectively. The percentage recoveries of Pyrantel pamoate and Albendazole were 99.29% and 99.40% respectively. The relative standard deviation for assay of tablets was found to be less than 2%. The Method was fast, accurate, precise and sensitive hence it can be employed for routine quality control of tablets containing both drugs in quality control laboratories and pharmaceutical industries.
637-644
96
EFFECTS OF THE PROPERTIES OF CREAMS ON SKIN PENETRATION
Yutaka Inoue, Arisa Shimura, Misa Horage, Rikimaru Maeda, Isamu Murata, Masahiro Sugino, Kazuhiko Juni, Ikuo Kanamoto
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The current study conducted human sensory testing and temperature-dependent measurement of the creams to examine their viscosity and viscoelasticity.  A retention on filter paper test and skin penetration test involving Yucatan micropigs (YMPs) were conducted to measure penetration of the skin and transdermal transfer.  The relationship between testing results and physical properties of the creams was then examined.  When viscosity was measured, NDFX-A and NDFX-B displayed similar behavior as gauged by viscosity and shear stress.  NDFX-C produced a large flow curve, with a larger area under the flow curve than NDFX-A or NDFX-B.  Measurement of viscoelasticity indicated that the storage modulus G’ and the loss modulus G” for NDFX-A and NDFX -B increased with a change in temperature (60°C to 10°C) while G’ and G’’ decreased for NDFX-C.  The loss tangent tan d was determined for each cream.  Prior to and after a rise in temperature to 60°C, NDFX-A had a tan d of +0.48 at 20°C, NDFX-B had a tan d of -0.34, and NDFX-C had a tan d of ±0.  In a retention on filter paper test, NDFX-B had the highest level of drug retention, followed by NDFX-C and then NDFX-A.  Water content presumably plays a role in this phenomenon.  Results of a skin penetration test indicated that NDFX-B and NDFX-A had approximately the same amount of skin penetration and the same amount of transdermal transfer after 24 hrs while NDFX-C had less skin penetration and less transdermal transfer.  This is because crystals were noted in NDFX-C.  Microscopy revealed oil droplets in that cream.  Thus, these aspects presumably affected its skin penetration and transdermal transfer.  Skin penetration amount is directly related to efficacy, so physical properties of creams may be an important aspect to consider.
645-654
97
ASSESSING PRESCRIBING PATTERNS OF ESSENTIAL MEDICINES IN THREE RURAL DISTRICT HOSPITALS IN RWANDA
Remy Pacifique Ntirenganya , Valens Mugiraneza, Bethany L. Hedt-Gauthier, Marie Paul Nisingizwe, Anicet Nyawakira, John Nyiligira Felix Rwabukwisi Cyamatare, Isaie Nsabimana, Regis Habimana, Frederic Muhoza, Cheryl L. Amoroso
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Inappropriate prescribing is a global health problem and main challenges include over prescription of antibiotics, over-use of injections, over-spending by failing to prescribe generic medicines and prescription of multiple medicines. This cross-sectional study included patient encounters at outpatient departments of three rural hospitals in Rwanda to assess prescribing patterns of essential medicines using the WHO core prescribing indicators. Patient encounters were randomly sampled. Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests were used to compare results. Our findings show that the average number of medicines prescribed per patient (1.8) was within WHO targets, the percentage of encounters with an antibiotic prescribed (37.2%) was above targets, while the percentage of encounters with an injection prescribed (7.2%) and percentage of medicines prescribed in generic names (75.0%) or from the National Essential Medicines List (70.5%) were below WHO targets. Clinicians, researchers, academics and policymakers should use these findings to plan for interventions like problem-based learning or Drug and Therapeutics Committees that promote good prescribing practices.
655-660
98
IMPROVEMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF VIRTUAL PATIENT TOOL IN TEACHING OF SKILLS FOR PRACTICE OF PHARMACEUTICAL CARE
Blicie Jennifer Balisa-Rocha, Elisa Souza Menendez, Leila Maciel de Almeida e Silva, Viviane Gibara Guimaraes, Giselle de Carvalho Britto, Alessandra Rezende Mesquita, Gabriella Fernandes Magalhaes, Divaldo Pereira Lyra Junior
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In pharmacy courses, the use of virtual patients (VPs) allows students to enhance their clinical, pharmacotherapeutical, and communication skills. Therefore, to enhance and evaluate the use of the virtual patient (VP) tool — PharmaVP Software — in the teaching of skills for the practice of pharmaceutical care (PC). A methodological development study was conducted in five stages: enhancement (pre-tests), evaluation of software by developers and mentors; application; quantitative assessment, qualitative assessment, content analysis and improvement (post-tests). Nine enhancements (pre-tests) were conducted on the system. In all, 31 students resolved the clinical cases of the VP. The evaluation demonstrated that the software is functional, enables learning, and is operational, attractive, effective, productive, and satisfactory and showed positive results regarding students’acceptance, use, learning, and satisfaction. These results were confirmedby the qualitative analysis of the VP. PharmaVP Software was improved and evaluated satisfactorily for the teaching skills required for the practice of PC.
661-674
99
A SCIENTIFIC ANALYSIS OF THE ALIQUOT METHOD OF WEIGHING
Michalakis Savva
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A comprehensive description of the application of the aliquot method of weighing in two different method examples is presented and the potential errors associated with the drug concentration in the powder mixture and in finished products are compared.
675-679
100
BOON OF VIRTUAL REALITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS AS AN EDUCATIONAL TOOL IN DENTISTRY: A REVIEW
Jafar Abdulla Mohamed Usman, Leoney Andonissamy, Asim Elsir
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Various training methods are available in the field of dentistry to obtain psychomotor skills for the dental students, dental assistants and also for dentists themselves. Modern era poses various challenges to the dental schools ranging  from increased cost of advanced equipments to unavailability of challenging cases. Virtual reality is a boon for dental schools, dentists and dental assistants in order to practice as many times they want and improve their skills to the next level. This paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the advanced virtual technologies available for the dental fraternity.
680-684
101
NORDIHYDROGUAIARETIC ACID: DUAL BEHAVIOR AS PRO- OR ANTIOXIDANT ON A EUKARYOTIC CELL MODEL (VERO CELLS).
Brenda S. Konigheim; Juan J. Aguilar; Laura B. Tauro; Maria E. Rivarola; Marta S. Contigiani; Susana C. Nunez-Montoya.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Since Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), a potent natural antioxidant, can produce oxidation in several cell kinds, mainly by superoxide anion production (O2), the current study was designed to assess its capacity to produce or not this reactive oxygen species on Vero cell line, with the aim to establish whether this lignan behaves as a pro- or antioxidant. The O2 production was determined by the Nitro Blue Tetrazolium reduction test. Results show that NDGA has a dual-face behavior on this eukaryotic cell model depending on the biological environment and its concentration. The NDGA behaved as a pro-oxidant when it was tested single, by means of an increase in O2 production that was directly concentration-dependent. Mixed with an antioxidant (ascorbic acid) or a moderate oxidant (glucose), the NDGA behaved as pro-xidant at low concentrations and antioxidant at high concentrations.
685-692
102
CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE DIETHYL ETHER EXTRACT OF WILD SONCHUS ASPER AND SONCHUS OLERACEUS GROWING IN LIBYA
Fouad Ibrahim, Mohamed H. M. Abed El-Azim, Ahmida Mohamed and Wesam A. Kollab
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Twelve compounds were identified from Sonchus asper by using GC-Mass spectroscopy, the main constituents were found to be Phytol 33.89 % and trans-anethole 20.22 %. While, eighteen compounds were identified from Sonchus oleraceus, among them Ethyl linoleate 43.05 %, (E)-9-Octadecenoic acid ethyl ester 24.02 % were found to represent the major constituents. Anti-tumor activity of the two Sonchus species showed that Sonchus oleraceus has a moderate inhibition with Hep-G2 and HCT-116 cells, while Sonchus asper has low inhibition against all cells (Hep-G2, HCT-116 and MCF-7). The antioxidant activity of Sonchus oleraceus showed a relatively strong antioxidant scavenging affinity against DPPH radicals.
693-701
103
CONVENIENT ROUTES FOR SYNTHESIS OF PYRIDOPYRIMIDINES AND POLYNITROGEN FUSED HETEROCYCLES
Nadia R. Mohamed, Eman A. ElHefny, Reham A. Abdelmomem
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Interaction of dimethyl-N-pyrimidine-formamidine derivatives 2a,b with the reagents 3 and 7 afforded the corresponding adducts 6a,b and 8. The addition products 10 and 12 produced upon interaction of 2a,b with dimedone and barbutric acids respectively. Treatment of 2a with excess CS2 yielded adduct 13. Interaction of 2b with acrylonitrile and methyl acrylate formed compounds 14 and 16. Heterocycles 21a-c and 22-24 produced via the reaction of 19 with different aromatic amines and amino reagents.
702-710
104
EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL GENOTOXICITY AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF MANJARIX
Aida I El makawy, Ashraf B Abdel-Naim, Alaa Barakat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Manjarix is herbal drug composed of ginger and turmeric powdered as active compounds. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity and developmental toxicity of manjarix. The genotoxicity assessment was conducted by in vitro Bacterial reverse mutation assay and in vivo chromosome aberrations and micronucleus test in rats. Bacterial reverse mutations assay was performed in Salmonella typhimurium strains and Escherichia coli (WP2-uvrA/) with and without metabolic activation system (S9 mix).  For in vivo study, Manjarix in three doses (250,500 and 1000 mg /kg/daily) was tested. In the developmental toxicity study, Manjarix treated female and male rats were mated to evaluate the effect of Manjarix on their fetuses’ development. Results revealed that Manjarix did not cause any genotoxic effects, as determined by the Ames test, in vivo chromosomal aberration and micronucleus assays. In addition, Manjarix did not show obvious alteration in the reproductive performance or fetal development. Based on these ?ndings, we can conclude that the use of Manjarix in traditional medicine poses no risk.
711-720
105
CYTOTOXIC NAPHTHALENE BASED-SYMMETRICAL DISELENIDES WITH INCREASED SELECTIVITY AGAINST MCF-7 BREAST CANCER CELLS
Saad Shaaban, Hatem E. Gaffer, Yasir Jabar, Saad S. Elmorsy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A series of naphthalene based-symmetrical diselenides were synthesized in good-moderate yields and their in vitro cytotoxic activity was evaluated against breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and compared with their cytotoxicity in normal fibroblast cells (WI-38). Furthermore, their in vitro antimicrobial activities were also evaluated against gram-negative (Escherichia coli), gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria and the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. A significant difference in toxicity zones between the breast solid tumor MCF-7 cells and normal WI-38 cells was observed indicating that it is not general selenium toxicity. Within this context, compounds 2, 9, 10, 12, 19, and 20 exhibited therapeutic indices (TI) up to eleven fold and in most cases were higher than the TI of 5-fluorouracil (5-fu) suggesting their effectiveness as anti-cancer agents. Indeed, these ccompounds exhibited also good antibacterial activity against E. coli bacteria compared to the known drug, ampicillin. Moreover, compounds 2, 7, 8 and 10 exhibited good antifungal activity against C. albicans compared to colitrimazole.
721-737
106
SYNTHESIS, SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY, THEORETICAL TREATMENT AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME TRANSITION METAL IONS WITH POTASSIUM (BENZOTHIAZOLE-2-DITHIOCARBAMATO HYDRZIDE)
Mahasin. F. Alias, Samar. A. Ahmed, Khalil I. Hussain, Carolin Shakir, Ayad. S. Hameed
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
New metal complexes of the ligand Potassium (Benzothiazole-2-dithiocarbamato hydrzide) (L) with the metal ions Cr (III), Co (II), Cu (II), Pd (II) and Cd (II) were prepared in alcoholic medium. The prepared complexes were characterized by flame atomic absorption, FTIR, UV-Vis Spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. From these analysis, octahedral geometry was suggested for Cr (III), Cu (II) and Pd(II) complexes, while Co(II) and Cd(II) complexes have tetrahedral geometries, Structural geometries of these compounds were also suggested in gas phase by using hyper chem-6 program. PM3 was used to evaluate the vibrational spectra of the free ligand and these obtained frequencies agreed well with those values experimentally found. The antibacterial activity for the starting material, the ligand and its metal complexes were studied against two selected microorganisms staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa using two different concentrations (10 & 5mM) in nutrients agar medium.
738-746
107
EVALUATION OF TOTAL FLAVONOLS, TOTAL PROANTHOCYANIDINS CONTENT AND THROMBOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOL EXTRACTS OF THREE BANGLADESHI PLANTS
Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Mohammad Abdul Hakim Murad, Abul Hasanat, Md. Abdul Hamid, Md. Imtiaze Islam, , Tanvir Ahmad Chowdhury, Mahmudul Hasan, Mohammed Munawar Hossain, Md. Abdullah Al Masum, Mohammed Rakib Uddin
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Premna esculenta (Roxb.), Crotalaria pallida (Aiton.) and Euphorbia neriifolia (Linn.) are three Bangladeshi plants, which examined for determination of proanthocyanidins, flavonols content and thrombolytic activity of methanol extracts. Crotalaria pallida showed highest content of flavonols (82.45±0.44 mg Quercetin/g) and proanthocyanidins (120.97±1.02 mg Catechin/g). It also showed highest clot lysis effect, which was 41.81±4.12%.  Premna esculenta and Euphorbia neriifolia exhibit 17.27±1.57% and 34.57±1.99% compared with standard Streptokinase 75±0.09% clot lysis. They both showed well flavonols content, but proanthocyanidins content of Euphorbia neriifolia (17.86±0.26 mg Catechin/g) is less, where Premna esculenta had 106.62±1.29 mg Catechin/g.
747-751
108
EFFECT OF THE SUPPLY CHAIN SYSTEMS [PULL OR PUSH] ON AVAILABILITY OF ESSENTIAL MEDICINES IN THE PUBLIC HEALTH FACILITIES IN UGANDA
Olido K, Mshilla M.M, Okello T.R
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The study sought to examine the extent to which the supply chain system of essential medicines, “pull” or “push”, ensures availability of essential medicines in the public health facilities. Using a cross sectional design availability of essential medicines was appraised and compared between the public health facilities that uses the pull or push supply system between May and July 2014. The pull system ensures better availability of essential medicine compared to the push (P value 0.001). The pull system is also associated with better planning and efficiency compared with the push system (P value = 0.034). The key problems in the supply of essential medicines include inadequate essential medicine (37.4%), delayed supply (11.5%) and supplying unsolicited medicines 9.9%. The pull system is better and superior to the push system in availing and management of essential medicines in the public health facilities. Policy makers should build capacity and use to the pull supply system in all facilities.
752-758
109
TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF AN AYURVEDIC MEDICINE (BRIHOT CHANDRODOY MAKARDHWAJ) USED AS REJUVENATOR
Tahmina Akter Sony, Md. Rakib Hasan, Mst. Reshma Khatun, Md. Mamun Sikder, Mustari Hossain, Shemonty Hasan, Massnoon Ali, M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Brihot Chandrodoy Makardhwaj (BCM) is an Ayurvedic preparation used as a traditional medicine in the old age in the rural population. To find out the toxicological characteristic of BCM, it was administered chronically to the male Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg. After 32 days chronic administration of the BCM preparation the following toxicological changes were noted. All throughout the experimental period the BCM treated animals were always maintaining insignificant increase in body weight in the body weight study. There is a statistically significant increase in the relative percent weight of the male rat heart (p=0.024) and kidney (p=0.032). There is a statistically highly significant increase in the absolute weight of the male rat spleen (p=0.009) and relative percent weight of the spleen (p=0.003). There is also a statistically significant (p=0.028) increase in the absolute weight of the rat testis.
759-764
110
EFFECTS OF CRUDE ROOT EXTRACTS OF SENNA DIDYMOBOTRYA ON CAECAL AMOEBIASIS IN MICE
Lydia Bonareri Nyamwamu, Moses Ngeiywa, Margaret Mulaa, Agola Eric Lelo, Johnstone Ingonga, Albert Kimutai, Michael Gicheru
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Anti-amoebic effects of crude root extracts of Senna didymobotrya against Entamoeba histolytica infecting caecum of mice were studied. Caecal amoebiasis was induced by injection of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites directly into the caecum.  Mice were treated orally with dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol total, methanol successive, hexane, water extracts, metronidazole and normal saline for five consecutive days and examined on the sixth day. At a dose of 500mg/kg/day, extracts of dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol total, methanol successive, hexane, water had a curative rate of 50, 66.7,100, 66.7, and 83.3%, each, respectively. At a concentration of 1mg/kg/day, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol total, water, hexane extracts were effective in 33.3 each, 83.3 each and 66.7% of the cases respectively, while methanol successive extract at a dose of less than 500mg/kg/day did not cure any mice. Metronidazole at a concentration of 125mg/kg/day had a curative rate of 100%. Severity of caecal wall ulceration reduced in mice which received extracts and metronidazole compared to control animals.
765-771
111
PRODUCT QUALITY AND CUSTOMER PERCEPTION OF PRESSURIZED METERED DOSE INHALER (pMDI) MANUFACTURED IN BANGLADESH
Abdur Rashid, An-Nurul Masud, Nazrul Islam and Ayman Allahham
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was aimed to investigate the in-vitro deposition, the market status and the customer’s perception of different pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) preparations, available in Bangladesh. In order to test the efficiency of pMDI, the in-vitro deposition of locally manufactured salmeterol xinafoate from two brands, considered as product A and product B, was carried out using a Twin-Stage-Impinger (TSI) and was correlated with the customer perception. The market status and customer’s perception has been studied through three different market surveys conducted on patients, (n=50), physicians (n=50) and pharmacy shops (n=50). In all three surveys the usage pattern of salbutamol has been found to be highest among various antiasthmatic drugs and has showed market share of 18.2 %. The manufacturer of this product occupied the highest market share compared with those of others. The in-vitro deposition of salmeterol xinafoate from both products revealed that the fine particle fractions (FPF, the amount of deposited salmeterol xinafoate in the lower airway of lung) of these products were within 32-44% and deposition was observed to be higher for product A compared to product B. Both the market status and efficiency testing results indicated that product A showed superior performance and more efficacy compared to the product B.
772-778
112
PRECLINICAL BLOOD CHEMISTRY SAFETY PROFILE STUDIES OF \"BALARISTA\" ON THE KIDNEY FUNCTION AFTER CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION TO MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS
Sadia Sultana, Md. Rakib Hasan, Paritosh Chakma, Mohammad Jashim Uddin, Ishtiaque Ahmed Chowdhury, Marjana Khalil, Mohammed Motaher Hossain Chowdhury and M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Balarista (BLR) is an Ayurvedic preparation used as a traditional medicine to treat debility in the rural population of Bangladesh. To find out the effect of chronic administration of BLR on serum blood chemistry profile, it was administered chronically to the male Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 40 ml/kg for 28 days. In this study, the total protein (TP) content was increased (16.15 %) in BLR treated male rats and it was statistically significant (p=0.022). The globulin content was highly significantly (p=0.003) increased (62.83 %) and as a result the decrease (45.16%) in the Albumin / Globulin (A/G) ratio was noticed and it was also statistically highly significantly (p=0.004) different from their corresponding control. There were also a statistically significant decrease of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level (22.69% decrease; p=0.039) and BUN/Creatinine ratio (26.96% decrease; p=0.021).
779-783
113
IDENTIFICATION OF TREATMENT RELATED PROBLEMS AND EXPLORING THEIR IMPACT ON METABOLIC CONTROL IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS
Rola Reyad Qteishat, Salah M. Aburuz
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was done to investigate the presence and the nature of treatment related problems in diabetic patients since it was not previously investigated. Two hundred patients were recruited in this cross sectional study. The end result is that the total number of treatment related problems was found to be 1518, with an average of 7.6 problems for each patient. The presence of actual treatment related problems as the most important determinant feature of diabetes control in out patients with diabetes. Besides four variables which were significantly associated with poor diabetes control (p= 0.05); which were: untreated condition, inappropriate adherence to medications, inappropriate adherence to clinic appointment and periodic laboratory tests, and efficacy treatment related problems.
784-791
114
AN OVERVIEW OF MEGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI)
Yashvant Singh and Rajesh Asija
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has continued over 42 years from being a technique with great prospective to one that has become the primary diagnostic examination for many clinical problems. Its application was principally limited to the neuro-axis, covers whole part of the body and an increased information base has provided a better understanding of how it can be bring into more effectual ,either itself or with combination of other techniques, concerning to maximize diagnostic certainty. This article purposes to describe limited historical review of magnetic resonance imaging physics, instrumentation, fundamental sequences, and Magnetic Resonance Contrast agents of magnetic resonance imaging, its application and recent advances in Magnetic Resonance imaging.
792-799
115
REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS FOR PARENTERAL PRODUCT IN US, AUSTRALIA AND MALAYSIA WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON STABILITY AND LABELLING REQUIREMENTS
Bhargava Nupur, Shah Darshil, Maheshwari Dilip
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The drug Regulatory Requirement in US, Australia, and Malaysia countries is on the way of continuous improvement. Regulatory Requirement includes Regulatory framework, Administrative Requirements, Stability Requirements, Process Validation Requirements and Labelling Requirements. Regulation of Parenteral drug is becoming stricter day by day as its demand is increasing day by day. This article describes a comparative evaluation on Regulation of Parenteral product and it also provides brief overview of ICH CTD And ASEAN CTD. This article will be helpful to the industry to plan a better strategy for Parenteral drug Registration within short time.
800-808
116
REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS OF MEDICAL FOOD AND ITS COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS IN US, AUSTRALIA AND INDIA
Mansi Kavi, Krupa C. Thula, Dilip G. Maheshwari
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Medical food is specially formulated food which is use for dietary management of the disease that has distinctive nutritional needs which cannot be met by normal diet alone. Medical food has low cost as pre-market approval is not needed. Medical food registration requires registering the manufacturing facility and this manufacturing facility should follow GMP (Good manufacturing Practice) and contain substances which are GRAS (Generally recognized as a safe). Medical foods are growing industry in pharmaceutical field as the concept of medical food is just 50 years old. People are not aware about therapy by medical food which is economically suitable and less hazardous. This article shows regulation of medical food in US, Australia and India. Medical food have different name in different country as in US, Australia and India it is known as Medical food, Food for special dietary purpose and Functional food respectively. US have most popular use of medical food among three countries so awareness in other two countries is required.
809-816
117
CURRENT REQUIREMENTS FOR BIO-ANALYTICAL METHOD VALIDATION BY DIFFERENT REGULATORY AGENCY
Priya Patel, Darshil Shah, Dilip Maheshwari
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Different regulatory bodies have different approach towards validation of bio-analytical method.  Parameters to be performed for validation are almost same, however procedure or how to perform is somewhat different. The current regulatory guidelines issued by different regulatory agencies for the bio-analytical method validation are- 1. USFDA-2001, Draft guidance-Sept 2013(for small molecules and ligand-binding assay), 2-EMEA-2012(for small molecules and ligand- binding assay), 3-ANVISA (Re 899, RDC 27, 2012). The present review compares and summarizes these regulatory guidelines. This review also discusses evaluation of validation parameters such as selectivity, carry over effect, matrix effect, precision and accuracy, dilution integrity, various stability aspects.
817-823
118
DEVELOPMENT OF HPTLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF EUGENOL IN LAVANGADI VATI - AN AYURVEDIC FORMULATION
Iram Rakhshi, Pawar R. K. and Singh K. C.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, rapid, selective and quantitative HPTLC method has been developed for determination of Eugenol in Ayurvedic formulations of Lavangadi Vati of different manufactures. The alcoholic extract of Lavangadi Vati and Lavanga Flower Bud samples were applied on TLC Aluminium plate pre coated with Silicagel60 GF254 and developed using Toluene: Ethyl acetate (9:1) v/v as a mobile phase. The plate was sprayed (derivatized) with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric Acid reagent followed by heating at 1100C for 10 minutes and detection and quantification were carried out densitometrically using anUV detector at wavelength of 254 nm. Content of marker compound in the samples were found similar.
824-830
119
A VALIDATED LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC ESTIMATION OF DROTAVERINE IN HUMAN PLASMA
B.Jyothirmai, B. Syama Sundar, Tata Santosh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present work describes a rapid, selective and accurate reverse phase HPLC method for the determination of Drotaverine using Paracetamol as internal standard. The extraction process involved was protein precipitation technique.  Drotaverine and internal standard were eluted under isocratic mode. Best resolution of the drug and internal standard was achieved with a mobile phase of 10mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer and methanol in the ratio of 25:75v/v.  The recovery of Drotaverine 76.41% and of Paracetamol 84.49%.
831-837
120
VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF PANTOPRAZOLE IN PURE AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Madhukara B M, Jose Gnana Babu C, Thamizh Mani T.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, specific, accurate, precise and sensitive reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the quantitation of Pantoprazole in both pure and tablet dosage forms. A Waters XTerra RP18(C-18), 5 µm column having 250×4.6 mm i.d. in isocratic mode with mobile phase containing Acetonitrile: Methanol: Water (40:40:20 v/v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the effluents were monitored at 295 nm. The retention time was 2.9 min. The linearity was in the range of 2-10 µg/ml. This method was validated for linearity, precision, specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, ruggedness and robustness. Statistical analysis proves that the method is reproducible and selective for the estimation of the said drug.
838-842
121
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF THESPESIA POPULNEA LINN AND ANTI -OXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ISOLATED AROMATIC COMPOUND AND ITS DERIVATIVES
Mohini A. Phanse, Manohar J. Patil and Konde Abbulu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Thespesia populnea is used as herbal remedies and is traditionally used as treatment of various diseases. The aim of this study was to provide pharmacognostical data of Thespesia populnea. The compound isolated by column chromatography from hexane extract of bark Thespesia populnea. The anti-oxidant activity of the isolated and synthesized derivative from Thespesia populnea utilizing the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. The compounds displayed promising anti-oxidant activity with an IC50 value of 4.4-4.7 µg/mL.
843-851
122
STATISTICAL OPTIMIZATION OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS FOR ENHANCING THE ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF LODHRA (SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA) BARK AND ITS BIOSAFETY EVALUATION
Henna Sood, Harpreet Kaur and Daljit Singh Arora
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Screening the aqueous extract of Symplocos racemosa bark demonstrated its broad spectrum antimicrobial potential with an average zone of inhibition 12–17mm. Using one-factor-at-a-time approach, 15% concentration, extraction for 20 min at 40 oC and a pH of 3.5 and filtration through Whatman filter paper, were found to be optimal for the best antimicrobial efficacy. Statistical optimization by response surface methodology enhanced the antimicrobial activity upto 1.3 folds. MIC values of the aqueous extract ranged from 5 –15 mg/ml. The viable cell count studies revealed P. aeruginosa to be the most sensitive and got killed instantaneously at 0 h. The aqueous extract was found to be reasonably thermostable at 100 °C for 1 h and had a better shelf life at refrigeration temperature (4 °C). Biosafety evaluation of the aqueous extract showed it to be neither cytotoxic nor mutagenic as revealed by Ames test and MTT assay, thus showing its promise for further pursuance.
852-866
123
2,6-DISUBSTITUTED-4,5,6,7-TETRAHYDROTHIENO[2,3-C]PYRIDINE-3-CARBOXAMIDE DERIVATIVES AS ANTI-MYCOBACTERIAL AGENTS: A 3D QSAR APPROACH
Ranjithreddy Palreddy, Jaheer Mohmed, Reshma Palreddy, Shravan Kumar Gunda
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
3D-QSAR using CoMFA and CoMSIA were developed for a series of 26 2,6-disubstituted 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno[2,3-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide derivatives for prediction of anti-mycobacterial activity. Both COMFA and COMSIA models were obtained with LOO cross-validation q2 values of 0.825 and 0.503 were obtained respectively. &nbsp;The models were validated by external test set of six compounds with conventional r2 value of 0.971 and 0.920 for CoMFA and CoMSIA analysis respectively. The contour maps from 3D-QSAR CoMFA and CoMSIA models show better interpret the structure activity relationship. Molecular docking studies were also performed to most and least active compounds.&nbsp;
867-874
124
TRIBAL TREATMENT OF JAUNDICE TRADITIONALLY THROUGH SARGI CHAPDA IN BASTAR, C.G, INDIA
Tuneer Khelkar, Madhavi Tiwari and Nurul Haque
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The paper deals with the traditional treatment of Jaundice through Sargi chapda (Cheeti Chapda) popular among the tribes of Bastar. A survey among villages of Bastar showed that Chapda is used to cure Jaundice. It was found that a species of ant known as Oecophylla smaragdina which contain formic acid when spread on the patient’s body their sting cured Jaundice. Experimentally after adding 2-3 drops of extract of  Chapda to approx.2 ml of dark yellow colored urine obtained from patient suffering from Jaundice, caused increased acidification due to which yellow- greening reaction occurred which concluded that yellow bilirubin was encouraged to oxidize to green biliverdin. Spectrophotometric analysis at 546 nm showed that when 2-3 drops of extract was added to 200 µl of blood serum of patient, concentration of bilirubin declined to 1.008 mg/dl which was 29.808 mg/dl earlier before the extract which concluded that formic acid of   Chapda reduces excess concentration of bilirubin in blood.
875-880
125
VDR- A GENE MARKER TO PREDICT THE TB RESPONSIVENESS OF HUMAN WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO INDIAN POPULATION
Jamsheer A.M, Umesh C.V, Prasad M. Alex, Krishnan Namboori P.K.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported as the genetic signature for proneness of a disease. In the present study, 19 deleterious SNPs have been identified from human VDR gene and can be used as the genetic signature to assess the proneness of attack by mycobacterium tuberculosis. All the SNPs are found to be cis type supporting the possibility of methylation and variation. The SNP rs10735810, has been identified as the common SNP present in major populations of India and can be considered as the genetic signature behind the attack of TB.
881-885
126
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF pH DEPENDENT COLON SPECIFIC PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF LORNOXICAM
Mayuri.B, Rao.S.Pippalla
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Chronotherapeutics is the purposeful delivery of medications in unequal amounts over time during 24 hours. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that follow rhythmic pattern. In the present study attempt has been made to design an oral site-specific, pulsatile drug delivery system containing Lornoxicam. The core tablet containing Lornoxicam(4mg) was prepared by direct compression method using 2 different polymers HPMC E15, HPMC E50 and other excepients. The core tablets were then coated with pH sensitive polymer Eudragit L100 and subjected to in vitro drug release studies and lag time. From the in vitro release it was observed that with all formulations, there was absolutely no drug release in simulated gastric fluid (0.1 N Hcl) for 2 hours and complete drug release was observed after lag time. The optimized formulation (F12) comprising 20mg of HPMC E50 showed a desired lag time of 5.5 hrs, which mimics the fluctuating symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, followed by rapid release of lornoxicam.
886-897
127
BIODIVERSITY OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS FROM TECTONA GRANDIS - LITTER LEAVES AND SOIL IN COMPARISON
Vidhya Doss, Kathiravan Govindarajan, Dhivya Ravichandran, Vardhana Janakiraman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Study revels to characterize the endophytic fungus isolated from litter leaves and soil from Perungalathur hill for their diversity and ecosystem function. Totally 45 species were isolated for two years. They comprised of Zygomycotina (6), Ascomycota (4), Hypomycetes (28) and Coelomycetes (7).The litter samples was divided into 2 active decompositions (sample 1) Leaves and (sample 2) Soil.  Litter leaves are advanced stage of decomposition, usually fragmentary, very thin and tightly compressed, were the funguses are abundant during the South West Monsoon (Jan to Aug). The fungal community is a heterogeneous assembly of species derived a homogenous habitat with a long normal pattern of distribution formed due to the interplay of many independent factors governing the relative abundance of the species. The greater variation in the species composition was due to the North West Monsoon. Taking the average percentage occurrence as colonization efficiency of a taxon it was found that Deuteromycetes were active in that order.
898-902
128
EVALUATION OF TOTAL CONDENSED TANNIN CONTENT AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITIES OF ORGANIC EXTRACTS OF FOUR BANGLADESHI PLANTS ON TUBIFEX TUBIFEX WORM USING IN VITRO METHOD
Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Shabbir Ahmad, Md. Sofi Mahamoud, Md. Abdullah Al Masum, A.T.M. Mostafa Kamal, Md. Akramul Hoque1, Nishan Chakrabarty, Abul Hasanat , Md. Adnan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
To explore the therapeutic effects of methanol extract of roots of Curculigo recurvata W. T. Aiton (Satipata), leaf of Amorphophallus bulbifer (Roxb.) Bl. (Olkachu), leaf of Phyllanthus sikkimensis Muell. Arg. (Dalpata) and whole plant of Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. (Nillata) in anthelmintic (in vitro) and to determine their total condensed tannin content. Roots of C. recurvata , leaf of A. bulbifer, leaf of P. sikkimensis and whole plant of T. grandiflora was extracted with pure methanol, which are tested for anthelmintic activity on aquarium worm Tubifex tubifex by using three concentrations viz., 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/ml of each. Total condensed tannin content determined based on the procedure of Oyedemi et al (2010). Among the four extract, P. sikkimensis exhibited strong anthelmintic activity in vitro. Where it paralyzed (6.48±0.09 min) and produced death (12.26±0.65 min) of the Tubifex tubifex at 10 mg/ml dose near the value of the standard, Levamisole (3.3±0.38 min and 6.5±0.76 min) at 1 mg/ml. The content of condensed tannin well to moderate at all, but P. sikkimensis (45.14±0.5mg catechin/g) contained highest among them. For both of experiment, activity found as follows, P. sikkimensis > A. bulbifer > T. grandiflora > C. recurvata. These findings suggest that P. sikkimensis and A. bulbifer among the four plants may be potential source for the development of new anthelmintic and condensed tannin may one of such phytochemical, which exhibit anthelmintic activity.
903-910
129
LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY - MASS SPECTROMETRY AND ITS APPLICATIONS
Renuka Jajikore, G. Ushasree, A. Ajitha, V. Umamaheswararao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Liquid chromatography is a fundamental separation technique in the life sciences and related fields of chemistry. An LC-MS is an HPLC system with a mass spec detector. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry is now a routine technique with the development of electrospray ionisation providing a simple and robust interface. It can be applied to a wide range of biological molecules and the use of tandem MS and stable isotope internal standards allows highly sensitive and accurate assays to be developed although some method optimisation is required to minimise ion suppression effects.
911-917
130
NANOCARRIER FOR INTRANASAL ADMINISTRATION
Pranita Savardekar, Amrita Bajaj, Anupama Puntambekar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the present research work study was to design, optimize and characterize Nanoemulsion for improved brain transport of the drug. Drug nanoemulsion was optimized using Box Behnken Design. Particle size, zeta potential, and Polydispersity index were measured using Malvern Zetasizer. Morphology of nanoemulsion droplets was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Drug diffusion studies were performed and drug diffused was estimated using UV spectroscopic analysis. Stable nanoemulsions were formulated. The optimized nanoemulsion showed a uniform size distribution in the range of 40-100nm with zeta potential in the range of -18mv to -30 mV. The metered dose intranasal nanoemulsion sprays of Drug will prove as an alternative to conventional intranasal delivery for therapy of bipolar disorders and mania.
918-923
131
ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF FICUS RACEMOSA (L.) IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETES MICE
Chand Sultana, Naznin Ara khatune, A. K. Azad, Bytul Mokaddesur Rahman and Mir Imam Ibne Wahed
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of ethanolic extracts of different parts from the plant Ficus racemosa (FR) in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (100mg/kg) in Swiss Albino Mice. Metformin HCl (150mg/kg body weight, op.) was used as a standard antidiabetic agent. After oral administration of fruits (300 mg/kg) and bark extracts (300 mg/kg), changes in blood sugar levels, body weight and organ weight were measured for seven days. At the end of the experiment blood samples were analyzed for the estimation of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), phospholipid levels and liver glycogen content. The result indicated that oral ingestion of FR extracts significantly reduced blood glucose levels in Group-DFF (50.45%) and Group-DFB (60.53%) when compared to Group-DC mice. Short-term treatment did not alter the body weight among the mice; however the liver weight to body weight ratios were significantly reduced in Group-DFF and Group-DFB. Administration of extracts greatly reduced the serum cholesterols, triglycerides, phospholipids levels and the glycogen content were significantly restored in Group-DFF and Group-DFB as compared to Group-DC mice. Our findings suggested that extracts from different parts of Ficus racemosa have glucose and lipid lowering efficacy and may have some beneficial effects in patients with diabetes.
924-929
132
GREEN SYNTHESIS OF NICOTINIC ACID HYDRAZIDE SCHIFF BASES AND ITS BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION
Vidya Desai, Rachana Shinde
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A series of biologically active nicotinic acid hydrazide schiff bases have been synthesized from nicotinic acid hydrazide and variety of aldehydes using lemon juice as natural catalyst, in moderate to good yields. The schiff bases synthesized, exhibited excellent anti-tubercular activity in comparison to standard drugs used.
930-935
133
Efficacy of ormeloxifene in dysfunctional uterine bleeding: a boon too many
Thapa Shreya, Agrawal Rani Nisha, Chaubey Lavina
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A prospective study was conducted after ethical clearance to evaluate the efficacy of Ormeloxifene in the medical management of DUB in a Tertiary care hospital. The study included 60 women with DUB who underwent baseline assessment and were then treated with Ormeloxifene 60 mg orally twice a week for 12 weeks, followed by once a week for next 12 weeks. The efficacy of the study drug was analyzed by comparing the baseline and post treatment PABC score, menstrual cycle pattern, haemoglobin level, endometrial thickness and satisfaction with treatment. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. There was statistically significant decrease in median PABC score and endometrial thickness. The mean haemoglobin level difference was not statistically significant. The menstrual pattern regularized in 90.4% patients. There was 100% satisfaction with the treatment. Thus Ormeloxifene, a non-steroidal, non-hormonal agent, with its convenient dose schedule provides effective and favourable medical management option with least side effects, suitable for the treatment of DUB.
936-942
134
An Ethnicity Based Assessment of Adverse Drug Reactions Due To Antibiotics -Anti microbials Usage in India
Ram Krishna Prasad, D. Satyawati, Fatima Tahniyath, P. Neehar, Narayani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
To assess and evaluate the suspected ADRs reported among two ethnic groups with use of antibiotic (antimicrobials) medications. A prospective observational study was conducted over a period of approximately 2 years on inpatient population involving two ethnic groups ; Santhals and Chaush tribe attending Rajendra Institute of Medical Science (RIMS) situated in Ranchi, Jharkhand state, India and Axon hospital situated in Hyderabad, Telangana state, India. Non-statistical significance in odds for number of suspected ADRs for both ethnic groups (OR 0.99, 95% CI: 0.78 - 1.27). The study found no difference and events were preventable as per Schumocks and Thorontons criteria. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality, susceptibility varies with genetic make-up, age, sex, physiology, exogenous factors, and disease state as ethnic groups are more susceptible during treatment. Here Ethnic group may act as a marker for underlying genetic or environmental differences.
943-952
135
IN SILICO ANALYSIS, MODELING, DOCKING AND PHARMACOPHORE STUDIES OF PROTEINS INVOLVED IN AUTO IMMUNE MALADIES (RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS)
G. Prathima, A. Ravindernath, P. Raja Rao, P. Sahithi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cytokine networks participate with paracrine and autocrine loops maintaining cellular activation in the synovial intimal lining. In rheumatoid arthritis inflammatory changes occur throughout the connective tissues of the body. The most useful medications in relieving the pain and disability of rheumatoid arthritis with anti-inflammatory properties are aspirin and ibuprofen. The present project was focused on study of anti-rheumatoid arthritis activity of bioactive compounds.In the present study, homology modeling, mutagenesis, docking studies were carried out with some of the selected bioactive compounds.PDB latest version was used to identify the target protein, obtain sequence from protein sequence data bank and homology modeling for the target protein was done using modeler 9.14 version and MOE 2008. version. Docking studies using molecular operating environment program revealed that Ellagic acid, Curcuminoid and Methyl gallate possess anti rheumatoid arthritis activity. Further, pharmacophore mapping studies were performed using DISCOVERY STUDIO on these compounds in order to identify the pharmacophoric feature responsible for the observed activity of the compounds.
953-960
136
ACUTE TOXICITY, SPECTROSCOPIC AND MOLECULAR MODELING STUDIES OF SCHIFF BASE DERIVED FROM L-METHIONINE AND 2-HYDROXY-1-NAPHTHALDEHYDE
Wasfi A. Al-Masoudi, Mohammed A. Al-Diwan and Jalal A. Mojbal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Condensation 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde 1 with L-methionine 2 yielded E-((2)-(((2-hydroxynapthalene-1-yl)ethylene)amino)-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid 3 in a good yield. The synthesized compound was characterized by elemental analysis, IR and 1H, 13C, HSQC, HMBC and ROSY NMR spectroscopy. The toxicity study of the synthesized analogue 3 was assayed for its LD50 value by using Dixon,s up and down method, which exhibited value of 477 mg / kg of body weight. Molecular modeling studies were performed, showing the hydrogen bending and hydrophobic interactions.
961-969
137
Biological evaluation of some new 1,3-benzothiazole-2-yl derivatives containing pyrazole moiety
Deepa Chauhan, A. A.Siddiqui, Rajkumari Kataria, Dr. Robin Singh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A series of 2-[3-(substituted phenyl)-4-formylpyrazol-1-yl]-6-nitro benzothiazole derivatives (5a-g) have been synthesized through Vilsmeier-Haack reaction on hydrazones (4a-g) of appropriate substituted aromatic ketones with 6-nitro-benzothiazol-2-yl hydrazine under microwave irradiation in fairly good yields. Structural assignments of the synthesized compounds were based on their IR, 1HNMR, mass spectral studies and elemental analysis. Those compounds were also screened for their in vitro antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae and antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. Some of the compounds exhibited promising antibacterial and antifungal activities as compared to reference drugs Norfloxacin and ketoconazole.
970-975
138
A VALIDATED STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF TOBRAMYCIN AND CEFTAZIDIME IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
N.V.V. Jagan Mohan Reddy and S. Ganapaty
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The proposed study, a new stability- indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed for estimation of Tobramycin and Ceftazidime in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form.The present method was a sensitive, precise, and accurate RP-HPLC method for the analysis of Tobramycin and Ceftazidime. To optimize the mobile phase, various combinations of buffer and organic solvents were used on Hypersil BDS C18 (250mm x 4.6 mm, 5m) column. Then the mobile phase containing a mixture of Phosphate Buffer:Acetonitrile in the ratioof 55:45%v/v was selected at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min for developing the method and the peaks with good shape and resolution were found resulting in short retention time, baseline stability and minimum noise. The retention times of Tobramycin and Ceftazidime were found to be 4.255 and 2.823 min respectively. . Quantitative linearity was obeyed in the concentration range of 7.5-30 and 62.5-375 mg/mL of Tobramycin and Ceftazidime respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.020 mg/mL and 0.061mg/mL (TOBRA);0.246 mg/mL and 0.746 mg/mL (CEFTA) respectively, which indicates the sensitivity of the method. The high percentage recovery indicates that the proposed method is highly accurate. No interfering peaks were found in the chromatogram indicating that excipients used in injection formulations did not interfere with the estimation of the drugs by the proposed HPLC method.
976-984
139
Antibacterial activity on some gram positive and gram negative bacteria and antihelmintic activity on Tubifex tubifex worm of methanol extract of Macaranga denticulata (MUELL. ARG.) bark.
Kazi Ashfak Ahmed Chowdhury, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Tanvir Ahmad Chowdhury, Mahmudul Hasan, Syed Md. Abdul Kader, Md. Shahidul Alam, Javed Hossain, Md. Shakhawat Hossain, Abul Hasanat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study was to evaluate antibacterial activity on three Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria and antihelmintic activity on Tubifex tubifex worm of methanol extract of M. denticulata (Muell. Arg.) bark. The extract showed zone of inhibition in highest concentration of 900 mg/ml against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (8mm), Bacillus subtilis (12mm), Bacillus cereus(8mm)and Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella typhi (12mm), Salmonella paratyphi (Nil), Escherichia coli (13mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11mm).M. denticulata bark extract exhibited strong anthelmintic activity in vitro. Where it paralyzed (6.52 apx 0.53 min) and produced death (12.36 apx0.81 min) of the Tubifex tubifex at 20 mg/ml dose near the value of the standard, Levamisole (3.3,0.38 min and 6.5 apx 0.76 min) at 1 mg/ml. So methanol extract of M. denticulata barks showed moderate antibacterial activity and well antihelmintic activity.
985-990
140
A VALIDATED STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TENOFOVIR DISOPROXIL FUMARATE, COBICISTAT, EMTRICITABINE AND ELVITEGRAVIR IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
N. Khaleel, Sk. Abdul Rahaman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new simple, precise, selective, accurate and rapid RP-HPLC stability indicating method had been developed and validated for simultaneous quantitative determination of Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Cobicistat, Emtricitabine and Elvitegravir in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form using Kromasil C18 (250x4.6 mm, 5um) in isocratic mode. The optimized mobile phase consists of Orthophosphoric acid buffer: Acetonitrile (55:45 %v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and eluents were detected at 240 nm using PDA detector. The method was linear in the range of 20 -120 ug/ml for Emtricitabine, 30-180 ug/ml for Tenofovir, 15-90 ug/ml for Cobicistat and 15-90 ug/ml for Elvitegravir. Degradation studies were studied for Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Cobicistat, Emtricitabine and Elvitegravir under various stress conditions, all the degradation peaks were resolved effectively using developed method with different retention times. The developed method was validated according to ICH guidelines.
991-1002
141
In vitro drug-drug interaction study between Montelukast Sodium and Amlodipine Besylate at gastric and intestinal pH
Kazi Ashfak Ahmed Chowdhury, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Tanvir Ahmad Chowdhury, Mohammed Munawar Hossain, A.T.M. Mostafa Kamal, Md. Rafi-Uz-Zaman Akanda, Abul Hasanat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Present study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro complexation nature and strength of complex which may be formed due to interaction between Montelukast Sodium and Amlodipine Besylate. The interaction of Montelukast Sodium and Amlodipine Besylate has been studied in aqueous systems at a fixed temperature (370C) at both gastric pH (pH 1.0 and pH 3.0) and intestinal pH (pH 6.5 and pH 6.8) by using some physical methods as spectral observation, Jobs method of continuous variation, Ardons method. From spectrophotometric study, Montelukast Sodium and Amlodipine Besylate give different spectra when Montelukast Sodium mixed with Amlodipine Besylate in 1:1 ratio the intensity of the spectra of Montelukast Sodium change remarkably due to interaction. The jobs plot was obtained by plotting absorbance difference against the mole fraction of the each drug at pH 1.0, pH 3.0, pH 6.5 and pH 6.8. Montelukast Sodium strong 1:1 complex with Amlodipine Besylate and lower spectra indicate the formation of 1:1 complexes of Montelukast Sodium with Amlodipine Besylate. These may indicate strong kinetics of complexation between Montelukast Sodium with Amlodipine Besylate. The value of stability constant for the complexation of Montelukast Sodium with Amlodipine Besylate at pH 1.0, pH 3.0, pH 6.5 and pH 6.8 were obtained from the spectral data using Ardons plot. The value of stability constant for the drug-drug system at pH pH 1.0, pH 3.0, pH 6.5 and pH 6.8 are 1.9412, 2.0323, 2.0952 and 2.2203 respectively. At pH 6.8 it is found that Montelukast Sodium form relatively stable complex with Amlodipine Besylate (stability constant 2.2203) is high in comparison to pH 1. It can therefore be concluded that a careful consideration is needed during concurrent administration of Montelukast Sodium with Amlodipine Besylate.
1003-1009
142
THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CHRONIC VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AND INCIDENCE OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS IN ADULT POPULATION IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL
Mubarak Nasser Al Ameri, Emad Makramalla, Umnya Albur, Anil Kumar, Ahmad Atta Sultan and Haytham Salem.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Vitamin D, commonly known as sunshine vitamin, is both indispensable and vital for human beings. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is on the rise globally including the sunny regions such as in the UAE. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between the degree of chronic vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor of the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among adult populations. This is a single-centre observational retrospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary hospital in the UAE. It was mainly based on reviewing the electronic data-base and medical records of all chronic patients that match the inclusion criteria. The inclusion criteria of this study included all adult patients aged between 18 and 55 years old, tested for vitamin D level, visited the practice at least three times in the past year. The exclusion criteria included renal failure patients, patients who had malabsorption disorders and those with T2DM risk factors. A sample size of 35,000 adult patients who were screened in a period of 12 months for vitamin D level was selected using the lab database. Patients were checked against the inclusion criteria and of them, only 391 patients met the inclusion criteria. Other diabetes risk factors such as obesity, family history, pre-diabetes, presence of co-existing hypertension and dyslipidemia were also reviewed and excluded. The results of this study showed that a total of 56 patients [14% (95% CI 10.56- 17.44)] had normal results compared to 335 patients [86% (95% CI 82.56-89.44)] who had a chronic vitamin D deficiency. In addition, the results showed that 17% (95% CI 13.28- 20.72) of the 391 patients had mild vitamin D deficiency (VDD), 31% (95% CI 26.42- 35.58) moderate VDD and 38% (95% CI 33.2- 42.8) severe VDD. A total of 32% of patients with severe vitamin D deficiency developed diabetes compared to only 16% from patients with normal vitamin D deficiency and statistically showed significant difference from all other VDD groups as to developing T2DM. This indicates that the more the severity of vitamin D deficiency, the more the susceptibility to develop T2DM. Of a note, in the prevalence of severe chronic VDD, female patients showed significantly higher percentage (61%) of VDD compared to their male counterparts (39%). According to the results of this study, there is a clear relation between severe vitamin D deficiency and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas, mild and moderate VDD showed no difference from normal.

1010-1019
143
IN VITRO ASSESSMENT OF THE ANTIOXIDANT AND ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORY ACTIVITIES OF FICUS NOTA (BLANCO) MERR.
Karen Gem D. Ares, Christelle Venus F. Capuno, Hannah Krizzia M. Cortes, Alyssa Trizia L. Cristi, Hilton Cedrick L. Cutero, Gamaliel P. Galigao, Librado A. Santiago, Sandra C. Sy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ficus species are known to exhibit neuroprotective activity and to some extent show acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The aims of the study are to assess the antioxidant activity of the crude methanolic extract of the leaves of Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr. using scavenging assays for hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide radical, and hydrogen peroxide, and its acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity using Ellman\'s method. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids, polyphenols, and glycosides, and the total phenolic content (TPC) was found to be 3.448 mg/g GAE. The extract showed stimulatory activity towards hydrogen peroxide. On the other hand, inhibitory activity towards nitric oxide and hydroxyl radicals was exhibited in a decreasing trend. Furthermore, AChE activity was inhibited by the extract at low concentrations. The methanolic crude extract of the leaves of Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr. has pro-oxidant and AChE inhibitory activities. With these, the plant may be explored as a potential pharmaceutical substance in the future.
1020-1025
144
EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CASSIA AREREH (CAESALPINIACEAE) EXTRACTS AGAINST FREE RADICAL-INDUCED OXIDATIVE HAEMOLYSIS
Laure Brigitte KOUITCHEU MABEKU, Thibau Flaurant TCHOUANGUEU, Emmanuel TALLA, Jacques KOUAM
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In this study, the cellular and non cellular antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of the methanol and ethyl acetate extract of Cassia arereh leaves were evaluated. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of the plant extracts and the standard (ascorbic acid and gallic acid) were assessed through DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide scavenging activity and reducing power at various concentrations ranging from 1.62 to 200 mg/ml. For cellular antioxidant assay, we evaluated the haemolysis and the haematoprotective effect of Cassia arereh against hydrogen peroxide-mediated cytotoxicity of red blood cells (RBCs) induced with CuSO4/H2O2. Total polyphenol and flavonoid content of extracts were also determined using colorimetric methods. DPPH assay showed IC 50 values of 4.27 Plus or Minus 0.9 and 3.21 Plus or Minus 0.55 mg/ml respectively for methanol and ethyl acetate extract, instead of 12.5 Plus or Minus 2.99 ug/ml for standard. Methanol extract (IC50 = 41.597 Plus or Minus 7.46 mg/ml) had a significantly higher reducing power than the ethyl acetate one (IC50 = 238.89 Plus or Minus 26.56 mg/ml). The reducing power of the methanol extract was found to be not significantly different from standards. Our results showed a non significant decrease in the nitric oxide radical production due to the extracts compared to ascorbic acid or gallic acid. It was also found that, the methanol extract (IC50 = 17.06 Plus or Minus 0.82 mg/ml) was significantly more effective than that of ethyl acetate (IC50 = 76.34 Plus or Minus 3.4 mg/ml) as hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Both extracts induced haemolysis of sheep RBCs in a dose dependant-manner. Incubation of RBCs with extracts before exposing them to CuSO4/H2O2 reduced the hydrogen peroxide-mediated cytotoxicity of RBCs respectively by 30.71 and 34.75 %, for methanol and ethyl acetate extracts after one hour. The antihaemolytic activity decreased with time for all the tested products. These results demonstrate the antioxidant properties of Cassia arereh and reveal that methanol is the best extractant for antioxidant agents of this plant.
1026-1036
145
SYNTHESIS OF SOME D-GLUCOSE LINKED 1,2,3-TRIAZOLES AS UREASE INHIBITORS
Zeyad Kadhem oleiwi, Ezzat Hussein Zimam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This research include synthesis of some new 1,2,3-triazole from D-glucose .The synthesis was started by preparation of phenyl propargyl ether derivative from the reaction of phenol with propargyl bromide . The second step of synthesis was performed by the click reaction of glycosyl azide of protected glucose with acetylenic ether to form 1,2,3-triazole derivatives. The biological activity of synthesized compounds were tested against urease activity. Some of these compounds (T1, T2,Tr3) show high inhibition action on the enzyme activity , while (T4)do not show any effect on the activity .
1037-1047
146
THE CARDIOACTIVE SCREENING OF THE EXTRACT FROM THE BARK OF STROPHANTHUS CUMINGII A.DC. (APOCYNACEAE) USING ISOLATED FROG HEART
Maribeth R. Laurente, Mafel C. Ysrael
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Strophanthus cumingii A. DC. (Apocynaceae) is one of two endemic Strophanthus species in the Philippines the bark of which is used as an arrow poison [1]. Strophanthus species used for this purpose are known to contain cardiac glycoside strophanthin in the bark and seeds [2]. This study determined the cardioactivity of the bark extract S. cumingii and its sub-fractions on isolated frog hearts. The hexane fraction was the most cardioactive with a maximum of 30.58% increase in the force of contraction and 38.24% increase in the frequency of contraction. The non-polar fraction of the crude extract from the bark of S. cumingii elicited a positive inotropic and negative chronotropic effect on the isolated frog hearts.
1048-1050
147
CYTOTOXICITY AND IN VITRO ANTIAMOEBIC ACTIVITY OF SENNA DIDYMOBOTRYA CRUDE ROOT EXTRACTS IN COMPARISON WITH METRONIDAZOLE AGAINST ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA
Lydia Bonareri Nyamwamu, Moses Ngeiywa, Margaret Mulaa, Agola Eric Lelo, Johnstone Ingonga, Albert Kimutai, Michael Gicheru
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The cytotoxicity and an in vitro antiamoebic effect of Senna didymobotrya (Irwin Fresen) were studied. 300g of crushed S. didymobotrya was isolated in several solvents namely Dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, hexane and water extracts. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and IC50 of the extracts in comparison with metronidazole were then obtained on trophozoite of E. histolytica, HM-1: IMSS strain in LYI-S-2 medium. The MIC for S. didymobotrya dichloromethanolic, methanolic successive, hexanic and water extracts after 48 hours was 500mg/ml each while methanolic total had a MIC of 250mg/ml. MIC for metronidazole was 62.5mg/ml whereas ethyl acetate was inactive. The IC50 for S. didymobotrya dichloromethanolic, methanolic total, methanolic successive, hexanic and water extracts was 2.15, 3.63, 0.3, 0.46, 0.12 and 0.58 respectively. The IC50 for metronidazole was 0.03. Senna didymobotrya is effective on the trophozoites of E. histolytica species and the methanolic total extract exhibited the greatest antiamoebic activity, at the lowest MIC.
1051-1057
148
SCREENING OF IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT, BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF EXTRACTS OF BRIDELIA RETUSA (L.) SPRENG. FRUIT
Tufikul Islam, Mohammad Raquibul Hasan, Aumit Roy, Md. Shafiqul Islam, Md. Afaz Uddin, Md. Ariful Islam, Md. Nuruzzaman Neon, Md. Sohel Rana
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of present study was to investigate the antioxidant, brine shrimp lethality and antimicrobial activities of Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng. fruit using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. Several methods were used for assessing antioxidant activity. In total phenol content determination methanolic extract showed highest value of 134.5 mg/g as Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE). N-hexane extract showed highest total flavonoid content with 60.50 Plus or Minus 4.95 mg/gm as Quarcetin Equivalent (QE). Methanolic extract showed highest tannin content with 652.50 Plus or Minus 3.53 mg/gm as Tannic Acid Equivalent (TAE) and total anti-oxidant capacity with 236.00 Plus or Minus 36.78 mg/gm as Ascorbic Acid Equivalent (AAE). Methanolic extracts showed good DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 168.757 mg/mL. Ethyl acetate extract showed highest reducing capacity in CUPRAC test. Methanolic extracts showed good cytotoxic activity with IC50 value of 20 mg/ml in brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In antimicrobial assay extracts showed poor activity. Further studies are needed to isolate active compounds.
1058-1067
149
DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF POLYHERBAL ENTOBAN CAPSULES
Sadia Shakeel, Zeeshan Ahmed Sheikh, Somia Gul, Khan Usmanghani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was conducted to develop and evaluate the quality control parameters of polyherbal Entoban capsules to reassure the safety and efficacy of developed dosage form. The flow property of powdered extract was evaluated by determining bulk density, tap density, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio and angle of repose. Various physicochemical parameters including weight variation and disintegration time were calculated. Alkaloids, tanning agents and microbial limit of the polyherbal formulation were also evaluated. The powder showed good flow property. Average weight of 20 capsules was between 450 mg and 550 mg (with a mean of 506 mg Plus or Minus 10%). The maximum time for disintegration was 6 min. Both the alkaloids and tanning agents were within the specified limits. The developed formulation was in compliance of the permissible microbial limits. In the present study, the developed Entoban capsules were consistent with identity, quality, and purity specifications. So it can be concluded that developed formulation would provide an opportunity to validate its traditional claim regarding its therapeutic efficacy.
1068-1072
150
A REVIEW ON THE PREVALENCE OF COMPLICATIONS IN CHRONIC RENAL FAILUE
Mohammad Arief, Harika Bheemavarapu, Kiran Nilugul, Gunalaksmi Ramachandran
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The declination of glomerular filtration (e-GFR) rate in CKD patients, eventually leads to renal failure which is the leading source to develop cardiovascular diseases. It is estimated that about 40-50% of all deaths in the end-stage renal disease population are of cardiovascular origin. The association between renal deficiencies and cardiovascular disease were conformed in large scale studies like HOPE and HOT. Even, the US Renal Data System (2013) reveals that about 43% and 15% patients with renal complications are affected with heart failure and myocardial infarction respectively. In the current article we aimed to review the literature on the prevalence rate of various types of cardiovascular complications and non-cardiovascular complications such as hypertension, arterial vascular disease, atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure and diabetes among India community. The study also focuses on the role of novel and traditional risk factors of patients having the chronic kidney diseases. Framingham risk score supports the traditional risk factors whereas the novel risk factors include the level of homocycteine, C-reactive protein and lipoprotein.
1073-1078
151
ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PATTERN OF BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM ICU PATIENTS WITH URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS
Rumana Ferdousi, Syeda Najah Narjish, Dipjoy Chowdhury, Mohammad Shahriar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study has assessed the resistance pattern of common respiratory pathogens among the hospitalized ICUs patients. A total number of 51 clinical samples were collected of which 33 (64.71%) were from male and 18 (35.29%) were from female. Out of 51 samples, 45 (88.24%) samples yielded growth while no bacterial pathogen was isolated from rest 6 (11.76%) samples. The common infecting organisms isolated in this study were Staphylococcus aureus (n=27, 36.98%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=27, 36.98%), followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=10, 13.69%), Salmonela enterica (n=5, 6.85%), Serrata marcescens (n=1, 1.37%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=1, 1.37%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n=1, 1.37%), Enterobacter aerogenes (n=1, 1.37%). Most of the isolates were 100% resistant to Penicillin, Ceftazidime, Ceftriaxone, Tetracycline, Cotrimoxazole and Piperacillin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus show good sensitivity to all of the examined antibiotics. More specifically, Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed 100% sensitivity to Levofloxacin, Nalidixic acid, Cefotaxim, Piperacillin and Ceftriaxone.
1079-1086
152
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PRELIMINARY ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THREE DIFFERENT PLANT EXTRACTS
Mohammad Nazmul Alam, Md. Hasibur Rahman, Md. Jainul Abeden, Md. Faruk, Md. Shahrear Biozid, Sudipta Chowdhury, Md. Rafikul Islam, Mohammed Abu Sayeed
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Disk diffusion method was performed to evaluate the ex-vivo comparative study of preliminary antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of Thunbergia grandiflora, Breynia retusa and Nymphaea capensis leaves. Among the three plants, T. grandiflora and N. capensis showed more antibacterial activity than B. retusa. T. grandiflora showed its highest activity against a gram positive bacterium Bacillus cereus with the inhibition ring of 17 mm in diameter at 1000 mg/disc. In case of B. retusa, highest activity was found against the gram negative bacterium Salmonella typhi which is 16 mm at 1000 mg/disc. N. capensis exhibited its highest antibacterial activity against the gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli which is 19 mm at 1000 mg/disc.
1087-1090
153
COMPARISON OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE TOWARDS PHARMACOVIGILANCE BETWEEN INDUSTRIAL AND HOSPITAL PHARMACISTS
Sunita Kumari, Palaniappan Senthilkumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pharmacist's knowledge and expertise is important to the application of drug safety profile. Pharmacists are more likely to detect adverse drug reactions than other healthcare professionals. The main objective of the study is to assess the knowledge and attitude of industry and hospital pharmacist towards pharmacovigilance and also to find out the effect of educational intervention towards the knowledge, attitude and participation in reporting adverse drug reactions at tertiary care hospital in New Delhi. This study was conducted by using validated KAP questionnaire. Out of 230 pharmacists responded, 115 were from the industry and 115 from the hospital. The overall response shows that industrial pharmacist are better in terms of knowledge, practice and attitude towards pharmacovigilance because of their regular training and updates. Hospital pharmacists lack awareness about pharmacovigilance and needs to update their knowledge and practice. There is a regular need for educational intervention. After intervention, a significant improvement in the knowledge, attitude and practice towards pharmacovigilance was observed among hospital pharmacists.
1091-1102
154
PREVALENCE OF MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT BACTERIA IN (PIPER BETEL L) LEAF WASHED-WATER OF THE ROAD SIDE PAN STALL IN NORTH BENGAL
Swapan Kumar Chowdhury
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The current study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria in Betel (Piper betel L) leaf washed-water of the road side pan stall in North Bengal. This study deals with the determining of coliform counts through MPN test, total heterotrophic load of bacteria, isolation and identification of the Bacteria through plating on different selective medium and determination of multiple antibiotic resistance Bacteria. MPN test shows that sample -2, sample-5 and sample-6 gives positive results. Total heterotrophic load of sample 1 was 5.85 ? 10 5 colony forming unit per milliliter (cfu/ml), sample 2 was 6.64 ? 10 5 cfu/ml, sample 3 was 27.8 ? 10 5 cfu/ml, sample 4 was 12.1 ? 10 5 cfu/ml, and sample 5 was 23.2 ? 10 5 cfu/ml. Many antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria are found in leaf wash-water. Significance and impact of this study is to create awareness among the common peoples who are chewing pan regularly.
1103-1115
155
BACTERIAL PROFILE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN GYNAECOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF A PRIVATE HOSPITAL
Aiswarya Purushothaman, Sanjai Krishna S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infection in pregnancy. An untreated Urinary tract infection can lead to increased risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Urinary tract infection in pregnant women, causative organism and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of isolated uropathogens. The study was conducted in the Gynaecology department of a single speciality private hospital for a study period of 6 months and sample size of 160 patients. Urine samples of the sample population were undergone for microscopic and culture and sensitivity tests. Majority of sample population affected Urinary tract infection were between an age group of 20-29 years (58%) and the incidence of infection was common in third (51%) and second (32%) trimesters. Escherichia coli [102(64%)] was the commonest bacterial pathogen isolated and others were Klebsiella pneumonia [29(18%)], Pseudomonas aeruginosa [13(8%)], Staphylococcus aureus [9(6%)] and Proteus mirabilis [7(4%)] . Levofloxacin had the highest overall antibiotic sensitivity of 83% followed by Ofloxacin (80%) ,Ceftriaxone (77%),Ciprofloxacin(74%), Amikacin (67.5%), Gentamycin (46%), Nitrofurantoin (38%), Amoxicillin- clavulanate (26%), Amoxicillin (15%), Doxycyclin (7%), Clotrimoxazole (7%).
1116-1120
156
UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF LEVOCETERIZINE IN BULK AND DOSAGE FORMS
B. Koteswara Rao, K.R.Manjula , M. Nageswara Rao, C. Ram Babu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present study, a simple, precise, accurate and low cost U.V. spectrophotometric method is developed for the determination of Levoceterizine in bulk and dosage forms. The absorbance of aqueous Levoceterizine solutions are measured by UV- visible spectrophotometer at a wave length of 230 nm. This method obeys Beer's Law in the concentration range of 5-17.5 mg/mL in aqueous media. As per linearity studies, the correlation coefficient, slope and standard deviations are 0.9998, 0.029 and 0.1772 respectively. The % recovery of the assay of the drug in the sample in this method is 99.2 and the method is sensitive in presence of the excipients in the dosage form. According to ICH guidelines the linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ are studied and the method is validated. Hence, the present method is suitable for the accurate, precise, sensitive and low cost determination of Levoceterizine in pure and formulations.
1121-1125
157
EXTENDED SYNTHESIS OF STORAGE PROTEINS IN SILKWORM BOMBYX MORI IN RESPONSE TO JUVENILE HORMONE ANALOGUE (JHA) TREATMENT
Santhy K Sivanandan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The female silkworm, Bombyx mori, rapidly accumulates two storage proteins in the haemolymph that are synthesized by the fat body during the final stage of the last larval instar. This is then sequestered from the haemolymph in to the fat body during larval -pupal transformation. Application of Methoprene (Manta) at low concentration ranging from 0.1 mg -1 mg on the third day was found to prolong the larval period by two days in a dose dependent manner which resulted in the prolonged synthesis of storage proteins as evidenced by the SDS -PAGE and densitometric scanning of haemolymph proteins. A corresponding decline in the storage protein concentration was observed in the fat body samples in lieu of the late sequestration. The prolonged synthesis of storage protein in the study was found to have an indirect impact on the silk as observed in enhanced silk production.
1126-1131
158
NEUROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS
Shobana A/P Segaran, Nesan Kumar A/L Asokumaran
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a type of disease which is characterized by a disorder of the brain in which the memory and thinking skills are slowly destroyed. This makes it difficult for a person to carry out the simplest task. It is also a type of dementia. Until now still there is no perfect cure for Alzheimer's disease. Drugs are available only to reduce or eliminate the symptoms of this disease. In this review article, Alzheimer's disease will be explained briefly along with its symptoms. Most importantly, since the treatment related to this disease is very crucial, plants or plant extracts which can be used to treat Alzheimer's disease will be discussed.
1132-1138
159
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF AZITHROMYCIN IN FIXED DOSAGE FORM
J. Raghuram, N. Appalaraju, V. Kiran Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, precise, rapid and accurate reverse phase HPLC method was developed for the estimation of Azithromycin in tablet dosage form.Xterra RP 18 (250x4.6mm, 5m particle size), with mobile phase consisting of ortho-phosphori acid:methanol 70:30 V/V was used. The flow rate 1.0 ml/min and the effluents were monitored at 205 nm.The retention time and Recovery time was 12 minutes. The detector response was linear in the concentration of 25-275 mg/mL.The respective linear regression equation being Y= 1228.302 x+5230.5524. The limit of detection and limit of quantification was 12.5mcg and 37.5mcg/ml respectively. The percentage assay of Azithromycin was 98.0%. The method was validated by determining its accuracy, precision and system suitability.The results of the study showed that the proposed RP-HPLC method is simple, rapid, precise and accurate, which is useful for the routine determination of Azithromycin in bulk drug and in its pharmaceutical dosage form.
1139-1143
160
SUBLINGUAL SPRAY: A BOOST TO NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Karishma Yogeshkumar Halatwala, Devarshi Shah, R. K. Parikh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Sublingual dosage form is to be placed under the tongue and produce immediate systemic effect by enabling the drug absorbed directly through mucosal lining of the mouth beneath the tongue which is very reach to vascular blood supply. Here the sublingual spray is to be sprayed for faster onset of action. The absorption of drug through sublingual route is 3-10 times greater than that given oral route. Main advantages include elimination of first pass effect, rapid drug absorption, high efficacy, large surface area, drug stability, ease of termination of therapy and many more. Drug directly go to the arterial circulation by sublingual vein and capillaries and then to jugular vein and then to the Superior vena cava. Pharmaceutical preparations for sublingual administration are manufactured in the forms of: tablets, drops, film, and sprays. Therefore current write up is focused on anatomical structure of sublingual route, its blood supply, mechanism of drug absorption, advantages and disadvantages of sublingual spray with their marketed formulation has been discussed.
1144-1148
161
IN-VIVO PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF CITRUS HYSTRIX
Laboni Barai, Rumana Akhter, Uddipon Aziz, Mohammad Ali, Mohammad Shahriar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was done to evaluate in vivo anti-pyretic, gastrointestinal motility, anti-nociceptive and acute toxicity effect of different leaf extracts of Citrus hystrix in Swiss albino mice following oral administration. In vivo anti-pyretic test of methanol and ethanol extracts of Citrus hystrix leaf was done brewer's yeast method; GI motility test was done by charcoal induced anti motility test, anti-nociceptive activity was tested by acetic acid induced writhing method and tail immersion method, acute toxicity study was done by investigating mortality/morbidity status of test animal. Statistically significant (pless than 0.05) result was found in case of in vivo anti-nociceptive activity test for the 100 mg/kg methanol extract when compared to standard diclofenac-Na. None of the extracts showed any significant in vivo acute toxicity effect on mice. This plants leaf extracts exhibit some antipyretic activity and significant anti-nociceptive activity without inducing any discernible acute toxicity effect.
1149-1154
162
A STUDY OF PREVAILING SCENARIO OF FIXED-DOSE DRUG COMBINATIONS (FDCs) AVAILABLE IN INDIAN MARKET
Sumit Patel, Rima Shah, Dr.Sagun Desai
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Aim: To study the prevailing scenario of FDCs available in Indian market. Methodology: This was an observational, analytical and cross sectional study. This study involved analysis of currently available FDCs in Indian Drug Review (IDR) for essentiality and rationality. Information about number of drugs per FDC, their dosage form, ingredients, category, essentiality and rationality of FDCs was collected. Results: A total of 16599 drugs and 6485 (39.07%) FDCs were present in IDR. More than four ingredients were found in 102 (1.56%) FDCs. The highest number of drugs and FDCs were found in category of antimicrobial drugs. More than 70% FDCs were found to irrational. Conclusion: In India, irrational FDCs are freely available. There is a concern regarding the production, prescription, and use of irrational FDCs. Considering the enormous use of drugs in Indian population, it is high time that pharmaceutical companies, health care professionals and regulatory authorities join hands and prescribe guidelines for the manufacture and sale of FDCs.
1155-1163
163
INSOMNIA AND DRUGS USED: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND DRUG UTILIZATION STUDY IN PSYCHIATRY UNIT OF A TEACHING HOSPITAL
Swati Mishra, Suvendu N.Mishra, Monalisa Jena, S.S.Mishra
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Insomnia, currently the most prevalent sleep disorder characterised by difficulty in initiating and maintaining sleep. Several studies have been carried out in different populations regarding use of medications for its treatment; however there is need for more studies aimed at taking a closer look on the drugs used in our population. Hence, this study was carried out to observe the utilization pattern of drugs for insomnia in our hospital. A prospective observational drug utilization study of 252 patients of both sexes and all ages suffering from insomnia attending the Psychiatry outpatient department was carried out as per WHO - DUS(world health organisation- Drug utilisation study) and DSM-V guidelines. It involved administering a Proforma to consenting subjects whose psychiatric diagnoses were ascertained using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-V. One hundred twenty patients out of two hundred fifty two patients were from age group 25-45 years and thirty seven patients were above 65 years. Average number of drugs for insomnia per prescription was not more than two. Most commonly prescribed drug were Clonazepam 50(13.9%) followed by Lorazepam 39(10.8%). The newer benzodiazepines like Zolpidem, Zaleplon were also commonly used but Eszopiclone 6(1.67%) was the least commonly used drug. The study concludes the prevalence of insomnia in younger age groups and association of it with other disorders. Benzodiazepines and newer non-benzodiazepine hypnotics were the most frequently used drugs for treating insomnia in our population.
1164-1169
164
FROM EVOLUTION TO PREVENTION OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTION
Angeline A/P Perumaloo
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
It is an overview of adverse drug reaction where its evolution and various classes of adverse drug reaction are being explained. Also, how patient and drugs can be factors contributing to the occurrence of adverse drug reaction are discussed here. Not only that, there are also different pathways in which adverse drug reaction can be monitored and reported to improve pharmaceutical care. The role of healthcare professionals, physicians, pharmacists and patient in averting adverse drug reaction is also being described in brief.
1170-1177
165
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF SOME DRUGS IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION
Mahesh H. Kolhe; Ujwala K. Waghmare; Ramesh D. Bhusal ; Pranit P. Hajare ; Swapnil R Chavan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate and reproducible RP-HPLC method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of Aspirin and Ticlopidine hydrochloride in tablet dosage form. The RP-HPLC analysis is carried out using Acetonitrile: Ammonium acetate buffer (0.05 M) in the ratio of (68: 32 % v/v) as the mobile phase and MOS Thermosil C8 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.), flow rate 1.0 mL/min, with detection wavelength of 240 nm. Linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 10-50 mg/mL and 20-100 mg/mL for Aspirin and Ticlopidine hydrochloride respectively. The RP-HPLC methods was developed and statistically validated as per ICH guidelines.
1178-1187
166
IN VITRO AND IN VIVO BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE WHOLE PLANT EXTRACTS OF CHROZOPHORA PROSTRATA (DALZ.)
Md. Shawkatul Islam Bakhtiar, Rumana Akhter, Syeda Najah Narjish, Sharmin Jahan Chisty, Mohammad Shahriar and Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Chrozophora prostrata (Family-Euphorbiaceae), it is an herbaceous perennial plant, is found throughout Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Western Arabia, tropical Africa from Senegal to Ethiopia, South Africa (Transvaal) and tropical Asia and it is the most important herb in ayurvedic medicine. The herb has been highly valued for its traditional use as blood purifier which is also used for the treatment of chronic persistent fever, syphilis, gonorrhea, leucoderma as well as its antioxidant properties helps to maintain cell integrity. In the present study In vitro thrombolytic activity and membrane stabilizing activity, In vivo GI motility and neurophramacological activity of the whole plant extract of C. prostrata (Suryavarta, Neel kanthi, Shad, Khudi okra) was evaluated. The plant extract showed mild thrombolytic activity and membrane stabilizing activity. This plant extracts also exhibit significant GI motility and neurophramacological activity.
1188-1195
167
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE AND CILNIDIPINE IN COMBINED TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Pavan Kumar.V, G. Lokeswara, Dr. V.Haribaskar, Dr. M.Gobinath
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate and precise method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Metoprolol and Cilnidipine in Tablet dosage form. Chromatogram was run through Altima (150 x 4.6 mm, 5m). Mobile phase containing Buffer (0.1%OPA) and Methanol in the ratio of 45:55 v/v was pumped through column at rate of 1ml/min.Temperature was maintained at 30 degree C Optimized wavelength for Metoprolol and Cilnidipine was 225nm. Retention time of Metoprolol and Cilnidipine was found to be 2.249min and 3.062 min. %Assay was obtained as 101.22% and 100.45% for Metoprolol and Cilnidipine respectively. The accuracy and reliability of the method was assessed by evaluation of linearity, precision (intra-day and inter-day % RSD greater than 2), accuracy and specificity for Metoprolol and Cilnidipine in accordance with ICH guidelines.
1196-1202
168
AN ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY THE TRIBAL AND NON-TRIBAL PEOPLES OF MALDA DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA FOR THE TREATMENT OF SKIN DISEASES
Swapan Kumar Chowdhury
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was aimed at exploring the traditional Ethno medicine knowledge of native tribes on the utilization of wild plant species for local healthcare management in Malda district of West Bengal, India and its present status. With this objective in view, this ethno botanical study among the local tribal and non-tribal people of this district has been carried out during January 2012 to January 2013 in search of traditional healers or practitioners who ceaselessly use their worthy knowledge to treat several skin ailments for human purposes. The information was collected by means of open-ended conversations, semi-structured questionnaire, group discussion, etc. Information obtained from the informants was also cross verified to check the authenticity. This study revealed that a total of 75 medicinal plants under 65 genera of 42 families are frequently used to treat various types of ailments with 10 herbal preparations. of 75 plants, herbs possess the highest growth forms (40%) that were used in making traditional preparation, followed by shrubs (26%), trees (24%) and climbers (9.34%). Leaves comprised the major plant parts used (49.34%), followed by stem (1.34%), Root (8%), seeds (2.6%), bark (5.34%), whole plant (10.67%), fruits (4%), Rhizome (2.67%), Latex (6.67%), Throne (1.34%) ,Resin (1.34%) and oil (1.34) to prepare in the medicinal formulations for skin problems.
1203-1214
169
ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MAJOR PHYTOCHEMICALS FROM THE LEAVES OF PIPER BETLE. LINN
Srinivasan Srividya, Subramanian Iyyam Pillai and Sorimuthu Pillai Subramanian
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder arises from deficiency (T1DM) and/or efficiency (T2DM) of insulin. T2DM accounts for more than 90% of all diabetics and its prevalence is increasing alarmingly worldwide. It is intimately associated with improper utilization of insulin by target cells and tissues. Insulin, a polypeptide hormone synthesized by the pancreatic beta cells, is responsible for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis in human and other mammals. It is essential for the entry of glucose across the muscle and adipocyte cell membranes for energy production, hepatic glycogen synthesis, protein and nucleic acid synthesis and inhibition of gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis and lipolysis. Thus, T2DM is a multifactorial, multisystemic endocrine disorder for which monotherapy often fails as the disease progress to later stages. Traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment of DM contain various biologically active ingredients which act in a synergistic way in maintaining normal glycemia. However, only few of them have been subjected to scientific validation. One such medicinal plant which lacks scientific scrutiny is Piper betle leaves. Hence, in the present study an attempt has been made to extract and identify the chemical nature of biologically active phytochemicals present in the distinct variety of Piper betle leaves of South India. The leaves cultivated in Kumbakonam are known for their taste, quality and medicinal properties. The data obtained by HPLC analysis and spectral studies such as FTIR, Mass, 1H NMR, 13C NMR evidenced that the ethanolic extract of Piper betle leaves contains Caffeic acid, p-Coumaric acid, Eugenol, Rutin and Hydroxychavicol as major secondary metabolites which are known for their beneficial and pharmacological properties. The results of the present study suggest that the betel leaves are the rich source of pharmacologically important lead molecules and also provide the scientific rationale for the use of Piper betle leaves in the traditional medicine.
1215-1233
170
BIOAVAILABILITY ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUES OF ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS DRUGS - A REVIEW
Richa Srivastava, Neha Mathur, Nikhat Fatima.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the widespread, fatal diseases caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex affecting human population. However, infection by the organism does not necessarily lead to disease and only 5-10% of these individuals will progress to active disease each year (WHO 2007). 10% people infected with TB bacteria have a lifetime risk of falling ill with TB. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that globally there were 9.4 million cases of active TB leading to 1.3 million deaths. However, lives can also be saved with effective diagnosis and treatment. This review focuses firstly on the occurrence and prevalence of this disease, secondly, on ways of its diagnosis and treatment, thirdly on the new tuberculosis drugs under development and lastly on the various bioavailability enhancement approaches which are under process so that the problem of poor/variable bioavailability of drugs, in particular, in fixed dose combinations (FDC's) or due to their enhanced decomposition in stomach acidic conditions etc can be minimized.
1234-1241
171
STABILITY STUDY OF LIQUID PARAFFIN ORAL EMULSION (CREMAFFIN)
Yash Rakeshbhai Suthar, Prachi Barbhaiya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Stability studies ensuring the maintenance of product quality, safety and efficacy throughout the shelf life are considered as pre-requisite for the acceptance and approval of any pharmaceutical product. These studies are required to be conducted in a planned way following the guideline issused by ICH, WHO and or other agencies. Importance of various methods followed for stability testing of pharmaceutical products, guideline issued for stability testing and other aspects related to stability of pharmaceutical products have been presented in a present review.
1242-1247
172
RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS OLMESARTAN AND CILNIDIPINE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
P. Harshalatha, K.B.Chandrasekhar M.V.Chandrasekhar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new reversed-phase HPLC method was developed and subsequently validated for simultaneous estimation of antihypertensive drugs Olmesartan and cilnidipine in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Chromatography was carried out on Inertsil C-18 column (4.6 x150mm, 5m particle size) with a mobile phase composed of buffer and acetonitrile in 55:45%v/v and the mobile phase was pumped at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a PDA detector at 225nm. Parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, specificity and ruggedness were studied as reported in the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The retention times for olmesartan and cilnidipine were 2.2 min and 3.7 min respectively. The linearity range for olmesartan and cilnidipine were 10-60 mg/mL and 5-30 mg/mL. The percentage recoveries of olmesartan and cilnidipine were 98.01% and 98.88%, respectively. This method can be employed for routine quality control of olmesartan and cilnidipine tablets in quality control laboratories and pharmaceutical industries.
1248-1254
173
PREVALENCE AND PATTERN OF SELF-MEDICATION PRACTICES IN RURAL AREAS OF CENTRAL KASHMIR
Shakeel Ahmad Mir, Shakil U Rehman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Objectives: To assess the prevalence, pattern and other demographic characteristics of Self-medication in rural areas of Central Kashmir. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2015 to July 2015 in the rural areas of two Central Kashmir districts, Budgam and Srinagar. Simple random sampling method was used.Data was analyzed by combination of manual calculators, Vassar stats and also SPSS.Out of 250 participants, 192 returned the completely filled questionnaires. Results:Prevalence of self-medication was found to be as high as 89.58%.(64.58%) of those who practiced self-medication were males. Majority of the participants (30.76%) aged between 26-35 years and only 1.56% aged above 75 years.Most of the participants (88.54%) were literate. Most common illnesses for which self medication was used were: fever, backache, myalgias (32.55%), followed by gastrointestinal symptoms/diseases (23.25 %) and respiratory symptoms/diseases(16.27 %).Some major illnesses like hypertension(6.97%),thyroid disorders(4.65%),diabetes mellitus(2.32%)and surgical illnesses(2.32%) were also treated by self-medication.34.88 % practiced self-medication to save time and 27.90% to save money. 25.58% had previous experience of treating the same illness or symptoms.9.30 % practiced self-medication as they had no trust in prescribing physician due to varied reasons. Most of the respondents (25.58 %) used pain killers, followed by antibiotics by 19.76%,GIT drugs by 17.44% and decongestants, bronchodilators by 11.62%.Other drugs used were anti hypertensives(5.81%), multivitamins(4.65%) and anti allergics(1.16%).Majority (34.88 %) consulted their pharmacists to know about the drug and dosage. 25.58% consulted their friends and co-workers and 16.27% their family members to know about the drug(s) and dosage.16.27% searched internet to know about the drug(s).Most of the respondents (53.48%) stopped the drug after symptoms disappeared.30.23% stopped the drug(s) after a few days despite the outcome. Only 15.11% continued the drug(s) till full recovery.88.37% knew that drug(s )can cause various side effects and 11.62% were ignorant of this fact.40.69% experienced adverse drug effects. Conclusion: Self- medication is an important health issue. It is commonly practiced to get quick relief. It can be hazardous especially to pregnant women and extremes of age. Consequences of such practices should always be emphasized to the community and steps to curb it considered. Prevalence rate of self medication is alarming in rural areas of Central Kashmir. Thus further work should be done on larger scale and strict policies should be formulated to address this problem.
1255-1260
174
EFFECT OF COMPETITIVE BINDING OF HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS TO HUMAN SERUM ALBUMIN ON DRUG PHARMACOLOGY
Neelam Seedher and Mamta Kanojia
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
For the highly protein-bound anti-diabetic drugs with a small volume of distribution, competitive binding to human serum albumin can significantly influence the pharmacological activity of drugs resulting in serious fluctuations in the blood glucose levels of diabetic patients. In this paper, competitive binding studies using fluorescence spectroscopic technique have been reported for a wide range of drug combinations involving oral hypoglycemic (anti-diabetic) agents. For the drug combinations used, such studies are not available in the literature. The results indicated that the combination of gliclazide and repaglinide with the studied competing drugs can increase the risk of hypoglycemia in diabetic patients and should be avoided. On the other hand, the corresponding combinations involving glimepiride and glipizide were found safe. The therapeutic efficacy of studied competing drugs, on the other hand decreased in the presence of antidiabetic drugs in most cases. Competitive binding mechanism based on the site-specificity and conformational changes in the human serum albumin molecule has been proposed.
1261-1271
175
DRUG POISONING TREND IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
Mallesh Kariyappa, Anil Kumar Kejjaiah, Rakesh Saraswathipura Ramachandrappa, Asha Benakappa
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Objective: Quantify burden of drug poisoning and it's trend in less than 18 years. Design: Retrospective observation study. Methods:All the children admitted with diagnosis of acute drug poisoning between January 2013 and June 2015 was studied. Results: There were 48 cases of drug poisoning accounting for 14.5% of all poisoning admissions, peaking in rainy season and in adolescence with female: male ratio of 18:1 after 14 years of age. Anti epileptic drugs and benzodiazepines were the most common drugs with 27 out of 48 cases followed by iron poisoning with7 cases. No drug belonging to narcotics and psychodysleptics, drugs acting on central nervous system was observed in our study. Drug poisoning peaked during rainy season. Conclusions: 14.5% of acute poisoning in children and adolescents is due to drug poisoning with peak during adolescence and rainy season. Anti epileptics and benzodiazepines were most commonly used drugs. Adolescent females were involved in drug poisoning in alarming proportions.
1272-1278
176
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF NICORANDIL MICROSPHERES
Sigimol Joseph, Dr.Shaji Selvin. C.D.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Present investigation describes preparation of microspheres by solvent evaporation followed by in vitro characterization of microspheres to evaluate the effect of method of preparation on physical properties and drug release profile of microspheres. The microspheres were found to be discrete, spherical with free flowing properties. The particle size distribution, entrapment efficiency and their release profiles were investigated. The yield was found to be maximum in case of solvent evaporation method. The microspheres formulation prepared by solvent evaporation method the drug carrier interactions were investigated in solid state by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy study. In vitro drug release rate for a microsphere was found to be sustained over 24 hours. Hence, it can be concluded that the Formulation prepared by solvent evaporation method, has potential to deliver nicorandil in a controlled manner in a regular fashion over extended period of time in Comparison to all other formulations and can be adopted for a successful oral delivery of nicorandil for safe management of hypertension.
1279-1287
177
RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF CANAGLIFLOZIN IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Maddu Suma, K. Manasa, Ch. Rajakumari and B. Lakshmaiah
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In this study, we describe a simple and sensitive reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of Canagliflozin in pharmaceutical dosage form. The chromatographic separation was achieved on ODS column (4.6 x150mm, 5m particle size) column. The mobile phase, water and acetonitrile (55:45v/v), were delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The eluent was monitored using PDA detection at 214 nm. Canagliflozin was detected at 2.8 minutes. Validation parameters such as system suitability, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), Stability of sample and standard stock solutions and robustness were studied as reported in the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. This method can be employed for routine quality control of Canagliflozin tablets in quality control laboratories and pharmaceutical industries.
1288-1292
178
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ATAZANAVIR SULFATE BY VARIOUS ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES - A REVIEW
C. Divya, A. Ajitha, T. Rama Mohana Reddy, V. Umamaheswara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Atazanavir Sulfate is a sulfate salt form of atazanavir, an aza-dipeptide analogue with a bis-aryl substituent on the (hydroxethyl)hydrazine moiety with activity against both wild type and mutant forms of HIV protease. Atazanavir does not elevate serum lipids, a common problem with other protease inhibitors. In this review, we discussed various analytical methods like UV, HPLC, LC-MS for the estimation of Atazanavir Sulfate in pharmaceutical dosage forms.
1293-1296
179
UTILIZATION OF PETHIDINE INJECTION IN A QUASI-GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL IN GHANA
Afriyie Kwame Daniel, Aryeetey Justus, Annoh Joseph, Darkwah Thomas, Dogbe Justice
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pethidine is often used in management of moderate to severe pain which improves quality of life. Though used in several countries, its rational use is of concern due to its potential adverse effects. This cross-sectional descriptive study assessed pethidine utilization from 2012-2014, and prescribing trend from December 2014 to March, 2015 at the Ghana Police Hospital. Data collecting tools were used to obtain information on prescribing and utilization patterns at the dispensary within study periods. Of the 292 patient cards with pethidine analyzed, inpatients were 92.5 %, and 81% were on national insurance. Patients from the Obstetrics and gynaecology (80.5 %) had the highest proportion of pethidine prescription. Majority of indications and doses for which pethidine was prescribed were in line with National Guidelines. Proportion of annual pethidine usage to annual hospital utilization declined from 6.3 to 5.4%, in 2012 to 2014. Study revealed decline in pethidine use at the hospital, and its prescribing was with caution.
1297-1304
180
STATISTICAL OPTIMIZATION OF KETOPROFEN TABLETS COMPRESSION COATED WITH ASSAM BORA RICE STARCH/ETHYL CELLULOSE MIXTURE FOR COLONIC DRUG DELIVERY
Nirmala Devi, Manju Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this work was to prepare and optimise the ketoprofen colon targeted compression coated tablet using mixture of Assam bora rice starch and ethyl cellulose as coating agent. 32 factorial designs was used to study the effect of ethyl cellulose content (X1) and coating level (X2) on the release of ketoprofen from colon targeted tablet. Dissolution study was performed in pH1.2 for 2 hr, pH 7.4 for 3 hr and goat caecal medium for 5 hr. Multiple linear regression analysis was used for generation of polynomial equation and optimization of formulation. The optimized formulation consisted of ethyl cellulose (31.39 %) and coating level (416.8 mg) provided a release profile that is closed to estimated values.
1305-1317
181
ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIAL STRAIN PRODUCING THERMOSTABLE α- AMYLASE
Deepti Gulati and Mehvish Malik Nisar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The use of thermostable enzymes in industrial applications has been increasing rapidly due to the fact that they are more active and stable at higher temperatures, and have a longer shelf life. The present study was aimed at isolating and identifying thermostable a-amylase producing bacteria. A total of fourteen bacterial strains were isolated, of which three were found to be potent amylase producers and showed maximum enzyme activity. The three isolates were identified as Bacillus species. The cultures were optimized for maximum enzyme activity on different parameters such as pH and temperature. All three isolates showed maximum growth and produced maximum amount of enzyme after 48 hours of incubation at pH 8.0 in a medium containing nutrient agar and 1% starch. Further, it was found that B7 was stable up to temperature of 80C with optimum activity at 60C. B11 and B13 showed maximum activity at 40C but were found to be stable up to 70C.
1318-1326
182
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, CUPRIC REDUCING ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY (CUPRAC), NITRIC OXIDE SCAVENGING ASSAY, SCAVENGING OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AND REDUCING POWER CAPACITY ASSESSMENT OF LEAF EXTRACT OF AVERRHOA BILIMBI (FAMILY- OXALIDIACEAE)
Mohammad Mooneem Mannan, Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan, Mohammad Shahriar, Fariha Nowshin Ara Khan, Milton Kumar Kundu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The leaf extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi were subjected to a comparative evaluation of the phytochemical screening, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, nitric oxide scavenging assay, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and reducing power capacity assessment. The preliminary phytochemical screening of three different extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi leaves was carried out according to the standard methods and found tannin, phenol, carbohydrate, flavonoid, cardiac glycoside, alkaloid and saponin. In addition, the three different extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi leaves were screened to evaluate cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, nitric oxide scavenging assay, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and reducing power capacity assessment. It is demonstrated that the three different extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi leaves showed different level of antioxidant activity and is a potential source of antioxidants and thus could prevent many radical related diseases.
1327-1332
183
IN VITRO BIOEVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN HEDYCHIUM CORONARIUM
Prasanthi Donipati, Dr. S. Hara Sreeramulu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Hedychium coronarium Koen. (Family Zingiberaceae), popularly named butterfly ginger, is widely available in tropical and subtropical regions.The present study was undertaken to compare the antioxidant activity of hexane, chloroform and methanolic extract of rhizomes between ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and Diphenyl picrial hydrazyl radical scavenging assay (DPPH). The results showed that, Diphenyl picrial hydrazyl radical scavenging assay (DPPH) has more hexane, chloroform and methanolic concerntrations than FRAP. The objective of the present study was to identify the main constituents of the rhizomes of H. coronarium and to investigate the antioxidant activity.
1333-1335
184
ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC And AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF AERIAL PART OF THESPESIA LAMPAS (CAV) DALZ AND GIBS ON STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
Syed Mujtaba Ahmed, Anil Middha, Mohammed Omer, D. Ramakrishna
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The study evaluates antidiabetic activity of ethanolic And aqueous extract of aerial part of Thespesia.lampas on streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. Ethanol And Aqueous extract were prepared by soxhlet And maceration process respectively. Antidiabetic activity of the aerial part of the extract at dose 200mg/kg in STZ (i.p 65mg/kg body weight) induced diabetic rats. The study also included the estimation of different biochemical parameters on STZ induced diabetes. The reduced blood glucose levels was statistically significant (Pless than 0.05) in the dose of 200mg/kg of ethanol and aqueous leaf extract when compared with control. The results exhibited potent antihyperglycemic activity in normal and STZ induced diabetic rats so it might be useful in the treatment of diabetes.
1336-1340
185
STEM CELL PRESERVATION FROM UMBILICAL CORD - A LIFESAVER FOR LIFE
Pooja Agarwal, Nafiza Banu, V. Shalini, M. Manasa Padma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the study was to evaluate the importance of umbilical stem cells in present scenario. Stem cells are the very foundation of the human body. Every part of our body including blood, bones, skin and muscles are formed from master cells known as stem cells. Stem cells have three important qualities. They have the capacity to turn into any type of cell in the body such as muscle cell, bone cell, blood cell, tissues and brain cell, can replicate or copy them limitlessly and are responsible for repair and regeneration functions in the body. Owing to these qualities, stem cells are taking center stage in medicine today. Research has proven that stem cells can be used in the treatment of many medical conditions. In the past 50 years, over a million people have benefited from the power of stem cells and are now living a renewed life. The human body has different sources of stem cells such as the bone marrow, tooth, peripheral blood and the umbilical cord. Umbilical cord is a rich source of stem cells that have the potential to treat medical conditions. The umbilical cord that forms the bond between the mother and the baby inside the womb is the richest source of lifesaving stem cells. There is every reason to preserve the umbilical cord blood and the tissue at the time of birth.
1341-1346
186
ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC AND AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF TROPAEOLUM MAJUS L
Syed Mujtaba Ahmed, Anil Middha, Mohammed Omer, D. Ramakrishna
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present study ethanolic and aqueous leaf extract of Tropaeolum majus L was investigated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. Analgesic activity was determined by three different methods (tail immersion, hot plate and writhing method), anti-inflammatory activity was determined by three different methods (carrageenan, histamine induced paw edema And cotton pellet granuloma) at dose 200,400mg/kg b.wt in experimental animals using diclofenac sodium, tramadol, Indomethacin as reference drugs. In all the animals models the results obtained were statistically significant (p less than 0.05) in comparison to control. The results obtained indicate that Tropaeloum majus L has significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in those animal models.
1347-1353
187
ANTIOXIDANT AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING PROPERTIES OF PUNICA GRANATUM FRUIT EXTRACT
Keerthana Gnanavel, Elangovan Namasivayam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the oldest known edible fruit tree, originating in central Asia prominent activity of the three different acetone extracts of pomegranate fruit: arils with seeds (R), rind with inner septal FRAP, Nitric oxide radical scavenging assay were the methods adopted to study the antioxidant potential of the fruit (F) has the highest antioxidant capacity when compared to Aril seed Extract (R) and Rind Septum extract(Y). management.
1354-1359
188
BIOANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF VALSARTAN IN RABBIT PLASMA
Sandhya Pamu, C. V. S. Subrahmanyam and K. S. K. Rao Patnaik
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

To develop a liquid–liquid extraction based reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method for estimation of valsartan in rabbit plasma. Methods: Chromatographic separation was carried out using ODS Thermosil C18 (250mm×4.6mm) 5µm, with mobile phase composed of ammonium acetate buffer (20mM) and acetonitrile in 60:40 v/v ratio, pH 6.5. The analyte was monitored with UV detector at 265nm. The developed method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ and ruggedness. Results: The peak area ratio of valsartan to that of internal standard was used for the quantification of samples. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the eluent was monitored at 265 nm. Calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 10-200 ng/mL. The LOD and LOQ of present method were found to be 1.8 ng/mL and 5.4 ng/mL respectively. Extraction recoveries of drug from rabbit plasma were found to be >90 %.  Conclusion: A simple, specific, reproducible and sensitive RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the estimation of valsartan in rabbit plasma.

1360-1364