Volume 5 - Issue 2

S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
THE CLINICAL PRACTICE OF VANCOMYCIN DOSING AND MONITORING, AND FACTORS AFFECTING LEVELS AMONGST ONCOLOGY AND CARDIOLOGY PATIENTS IN QATAR: A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS
Shereen Elazzazy, Khalid Al Siyab, Amir Nounou, Ahmed Mahfouz, Prem Chandra, Manal Zaidan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The paper focuses on the assessment of current vancomycin (VCM) use in National Centre for Cancer Care and Research (NCCCR) and Heart Hospital (HH) (the only tertiary care specialty hospitals in Qatar) which are 2 out of 8 teaching hospitals in Hamad Medical Corporation the main and largest healthcare organization in Qatar. Primary objectives were to assess the current vancomycin use for cancer and cardiology patients among Qatar population admitted to National Centre for Cancer Care and Research (NCCCR) and Heart Hospital (HH), and to explicate the factors that affected VCM serum trough levels, secondary objective was to access the need to develop and establish a guideline, which is essential to assure the standardization of practice and meets the unique needs of our patients’ population. A retrospective cross sectional study was conducted to review patients’ medical record of the clinical practice of VCM use in two hospitals the NCCCR and HH. We reviewed all VCM level determinations performed during the 12-month (from January, to December, 2012) study period that met inclusion criteria. We retrospectively analyzed the trough and peak concentrations (if taken) of vancomycin in 206 hospitalized patients (between 16 to 92 years of age) with VCM treatment episodes. The relationship between dose and concentration of drug, dose and body weight/ CrCl were established by regression analysis. Statistical analyses were done using excel and statistical packages SPSS 19.0. This multicenter study shows that 71% (118/167) of patients received a total daily dose of 2000 mg/ day (1000 mg every 12 hours over 60 minutes); this dose was common among different body weights (40-145 kg) and estimated CrCl (11-139 ml/min) values, dose selections was not considered based on body weight and/ or CrCl, therefore no linear correlation were shown between VCM trough and body weight/ CrCl. Initial loading dose of VCM was not considered for any of the patients included in the study (n=167). Only 16% of trough concentrations presented therapeutic levels, therefore a high percentage of patients was found to have sub-therapeutic or supra-therapeutic concentrations, furthermore 31% of patients had no trough levels. No linear correlation was found between patients body weight and the total daily dose (r=0.037). Only 39% (65/167) had cultures done, out of which7.8% (13/167) showed various gram positive bacteria (MRSA, MRSE, other coagulase-negative staphylococci, or Enterococcus) were isolated. Multiple areas of improvement were identified in dosing and monitoring of VCM in NCCCR and HH, evidence based guidelines are urgently required with the direct involvement of Clinical Pharmacists and Infectious Disease department to apply the optimal VCM initial dose based on creatinine clearance (CrCl) and body weight (BW) to minimize sub-therapeutic or supra-therapeutic trough levels.
305-314
2
SAFE USE OF A DAILY 20-MG DOSE OF OMEPRAZOLE IN ORDER TO AVOID HYPOMAGNESEMIA
Cecilia Maldonado; Nicolas de Mello;Pietro Fagiolino; Marta Vazquez
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the current study was to examine the safe use of a daily standard dose of omeprazole (20 mg) regarding magnesium levels in blood in hospitalized patients. A total of 51 patients (15 women, 36 men) with different characteristics (pathologies, comedications, age, habits, etc) and taking a standard dose of omeprazole for more than three months were included. 17.6 % of the patients showed mild hypomagnesemia but we concluded that the observed low levels of this electrolyte could be attributed to comedications, age and different pathologies rather than the 20-mg dose of omeprazole. So, hypomagnesemia does not eliminate proton-pump inhibitors as a reasonable option; it just requires clinicians to be aware of this problem and use them safely at conventional doses.
315-321
3
PREPARING FOR U.S. PHARMACY PRACTICE: REGISTRATION PROCESS FOR FOREIGN PHARMACY GRADUATES
Mousa Abkhezr, Valerie U. Oji
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Practicing abroad in the global health arena is a desired objective by many foreign pharmacy graduates. By definition, a pharmacist whose undergraduate pharmacy degree was conferred by a recognized school of pharmacy outside of the 50 United States and the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico is considered a foreign pharmacy graduate. These pharmacists in order to be licensed in the USA have to pass four tests including: 1-foreign pharmacy graduate equivalency examination (FPGEE), 2- test of English as a foreign language (TOEFL), 3- North American pharmacist license examination (NAPLEX), and 4-multistate pharmacy jurisprudence examination (MPJE). There is a last requirement to complete 1500 hours internship; this may be required before or after passing NAPLEX and MPJE, depending on the specific state of intended practice. This internship has to be under the supervision of a licensed pharmacist known as preceptor. Studying and practicing abroad may be challenging, but there are opportunities and resources to navigate through the process. 
322-326
4
ASSESSMENT OF DIABETES SELF CARE BEHAVIOURS AMONG ADULTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY
Keneuoe Hycianth Thinyane, Bernard Makhanya, Thapelo Matsoso
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Performance of diabetes self care behaviours is associated with improved glycaemic control, however patient adherence to self care recommendations is often suboptimal. At present, little is known about the self management practices of diabetic patients in Lesotho. The primary objective of this study was to assess self care behaviours of patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional, qualitative, interview-based study was conducted between April and May 2013; 55 patients were selected using convenience sampling. 87.27% of the patients had received diabetes self management education. Adherence to medication, diet, foot care, self monitoring of blood glucose and exercise was 74.54%, 58.18%, 50.91%, 16.36% and 12.73% respectively. The majority of the study participants had deficient knowledge about diabetes self-management. Interventions to increase patients’ self care behaviours in this setting should focus on improving diabetes self management education and support. 
327-334
5
HIGH DOSE METHOTREXATE ASSOCIATED WITH POLYNEUROPATHY IN ADULT WITH PRIMARY CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM LYMPHOMA: CASE REPORT
El Cheikh Ali I, Ghasoub R, Al Azawi S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Methotrexate (MTX) is an anti-metabolite that is commonly used in the treatment of several hematologic malignancies. We reports a case of Polyneuropathy associated with high dose MTX administration in an adult with Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL). A 39- year-old male was started on high dose MTX (8 gm/m2) following his diagnosis with localized PCNSL .Post third cycle, the patient started losing strength over his right leg. This was followed by bilateral lower limb weakness with hyporeflexia. All laboratory investigations were normal. Naranjo scale was used to assess adverse drug reaction causality. The Patient was referred to the neurologist for further investigations, in which he was diagnosed with sensory motor polyneuropathy predominantly axonal neuropathy in the right lower limb associated with MTX. After discontinuation of MTX, the patient`s physical function improved and he was kept on thiamine 100 mg (IV) three times daily and Neurobion supplements ( Vitamin B1= 100 mg+  B6 =200mg + B12 =200mcg) 1 tablet twice daily. With the use of more aggressive treatment regimens in patients with PCNSL, toxicities related to chemotherapy is expected to be increased. Therefore, patients on high doses MTX should be carefully monitored for any neurological toxicity.
335-338
6
BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF THYMUS SATUREIOIDES COLLECTED IN TAFILALET REGION, SOUTH-EAST OF MOROCCO
Mhamed Ramchoun, Khalid Sellam, Hicham Harnafi, Chakib Alem, Mohamed Benlyas, Lhoussaine EL Rhaffari, Souliman Amrani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant an antimicrobial effect of different extracts of Thymus satureoïdes. The FRAP assay shows that the antioxidant activity was between 07.03±0.29 and 117.51±6.46 mmol Trolox/g of extract. The IC50 values from different extracts of Thymus satureoides were between 0.41±0.005 and 43.89±2.46 mg/mL of extract. The different extracts were also, demonstrated the important significantly (p<0.001) reduction of the malondialdehyde. The total polyphenols extract was particularly found to possess stronger antimicrobial activity.
339-346
7
COMPARATIVE IN VITRO PHARMACEUTICAL EQUIVALENCE STUDIES OF DIFFERENT BRANDS OF ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM TABLETS MARKETED IN BANGLADESH
Md. Abir Khan, Abu Asad Chowdhury, Nur Jaharat Lubna
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The main target of the present study was to evaluate the pharmaceutical equivalence of atorvastatin calcium tablets of five brands marketed in Bangladesh using in vitro dissolution study. The dissolution was carried out using the apparatus II according to USP guidelines. Evaluation of physicochemical parameters such as content uniformity test, weight variation analysis, and hardness, friability and disintegration test was carried out according to United States of Pharmacopoeia. All brands complied with the official specification for content uniformity test, weight variation, hardness, and friability and disintegration time. Despite the inter brand and intra brand variability of dissolution profiles of the atorvastatin tablets, three out of five brands attained more than 75% dissolution within 45 minutes. For comparative analysis of dissolution, a model independent approach of similarity factor (f2) was used. The results showed that three brands of atorvastatin calcium tablets out of five passed all the pharmacopoeia tests for satisfactory quality. Thus, only these can be interchanged in clinical practice.
347-351
8
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF DAUCUS CAROTA CANOPY
Nabila Helmy Shafik, Reham Ezzat Shafek, Helana Naguib Michael
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Antimicrobial study of Daucus Carota Canopy extracts against bacteria and fungi showed that the ethanolic extract was the most active.  Phytochemical investigation of the active ethanolic extract gave rise to 12 natural flavone compounds including the new C-glycoside; diosmetin 6,8-Di-C-a-L-rhamnopyranoside besides the first isolation of luteolin 8-C-ß-L-arabinopyranoside and luteolin 6,8-Di-C-a-L-rhamnopyranoside from this plant and the rest 9 known compounds including 3 luteolin glycosides, 1 diosmetin glycosides, 2 chrysoeriol glycosides and 3 aglycones. Their structures were established by chromatographic methods, chemical degradation and various spectroscopic data.
352-356
9
EVALUATION OF IN VITRO MEMBRANE STABILIZING ACTIVITY AND THROMBOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF AVERRHOA BILIMBI LEAF EXTRACTS
Mohammad Mooneem Mannan, Rumana Akhter, Mohammad Shahriar and Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Averrhoa bilimbi L. belonging to the family Oxalidiaceae has local name include belembuis an important multipurpose tropical tree under-recognized for its nutritional medicinal properties. In this present study, the leaf extracts of A. bilimbi were subjected to a comparative evaluation of the membrane stabilization and thrombolytic activity. The thrombolytic and membrane stabilizing activities were assessed by using human erythrocyte and the results were compared with standard streptokinase (SK) and standard anti-inflammatory drug, acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) respectively. The crude chloroform extract of the leaves of A. bilimbi demonstrated better membrane stabilizing activity, whereas its methanol and ethanol soluble fractions revealed moderate membrane stabilizing properties compared with standard. The crude extracts were found to have thrombolytic activity with a maximum effect in ethanolic fraction comparable with streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control.
357-360
10
ASSESSMENT OF DIABETES KNOWLEDGE AMONG PHARMACISTS AND NURSES IN A NIGERIAN TERTIARY HOSPITAL
Sunday Yakubu Sabo, Ishaku Magaji Iliya, Abubakar Sadiq
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Inadequate knowledge of diabetes among health professionals can jeopardise the management of diabetes among patients. A Cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge of Diabetes among Pharmacists and Nurses in a Nigerian tertiary Health care centre. Knowledge of the effects of exercise on blood glucose level had a positive score of 92.3% among Pharmacists. About 100% of Pharmacists had knowledge of Diabetes and its complications. The causes of low blood glucose had a frequency score of about 96.2% among pharmacist. The result in relation to diabetes as a disease and its complications showed that more than 50% of Nurses exhibited sound knowledge. The knowledge of the complications of diabetes had also a good frequency score of about 88.1% and the causes of low blood glucose had the highest   score of about 89.1% among Nurses. Diabetes is a serious and growing health problem in the world and broad diabetes knowledge is necessary to ensure excellent care of this growing population.
361-366
11
PRECLINICAL BLOOD CHEMISTRY SAFETY PROFILE STUDIES OF \"ROHITAKARISTA\" ON THE KIDNEY FUNCTION AFTER CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION TO MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS
Md. Arif Hasan, Md. Rakib Hasan, Mohammad Jashim Uddin, Gulshanara Begum, Nawfel Abdullah, Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker, Mohammed Motaher Hossain Chowdhury and M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Rohitakarista (RHT) is an Ayurvedic preparation used as a traditional medicine in the treatment of splenomegaly. To find out the effect of chronic administration of RHT on serum blood chemistry profile, it was administered chronically to the male Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 40 ml/kg for 28 days. In this study, the albumin content was decreased (9.17 %) in RHT treated male rats and it was statistically significant (p=0.047), the globulin content was highly significantly (p=0.012) increased (53.10 %) as a result the decrease (43.18%) in the Albumin / Globulin (A/G) ratio was statistically highly significantly different from their corresponding control values (p=0.005). There were a statistically very highly significant (p=0.001) decrease of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level (23.97%) and BUN/Creatinine ratio (21.62 %). It was observed that there was a 15.0% decrease  in serum uric acid content of RHT treated male rats in comparison to their control male rats which was also statistically significant (p=0.049).
367-373
12
DETERMINANT OF ESSENTIAL MEDICINES AVAILABILITY IN THE PUBLIC HEALTH FACILITIES IN UGANDA
Okello T.R, Olido K, Mshilla M.M
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study aimed at examining the key essential medicines availability determinants in public health facilities in Gulu District, Northern Uganda. This cross-sectional study focused on stock-out rates of the six official tracer medicines listed by the Ministry of Health. Data from the health facilities at health centre II to IV levels were collected using questionnaires and interviews. It was established that quantification, ordering methods, lead-time, stock-card management, stores management, quality assurance, collaborative linkages, personnel, funds and health unit management committee were the key determinants of essential medicines availability (P-value 0.000). Stock-out rate was 85% and this was more prevalent in the lower health center IIs and IIIs under the push supply system than in the higher health center IVs which operate under the pull system. Quinine was the most commonly out-of-stock medicine in lower health units. There is a high stock-out rate in the public health facilities and addressing key determinants could improve stocks-in rates.
374-379
13
THE HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ALSTONIA MACROPHYLLA G. DON (APOCYNACEAE) AGAINST PARACETAMOL-INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY
Catherine Faith M. Romano, Librado A. Santiago
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of crude ethanolic leaf extract of Alstonia macrophylla G. Don in Paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. Hepatotoxicity was established by induction of Paracetamol 500mg/kg leading to elevated liver markers, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine phosphatase (ALP), and decreased Albumin levels. Single dose administration with Alstonia macrophylla crude extract (AmCE) on a 7-day duration treatment, resulted in decreased AST, ALT, and ALP and increased Albumin levels. Specifically the AmCE 600mg/kg resulted to significant effects at (p<0.01). Similarly, depleted levels of Glutathione, and Catalase levels were increased (p<0.003), (p<0.000), respectively. While Malondialdehyde – a measure of lipid peroxidation, was significantly decreased (p<0.000). Among the treatments, AmCE 600mg dose showed comparable effect with the standard drug N-acetylcysteine. This study demonstrated the hepatoprotective activity of the crude ethanolic leaf extract of Alstonia macrophylla.
380-383
14
HOW MUCH OUR GERIATRICS KNOW ABOUT THEIR MEDICATIONS
Mekdad, S.S. and AlSayed, A.D.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aging population is increasing worldwide. The decline in cognitive functions, health literacy, visual and hearing limitations add to the challenge of acquiring adequate knowledge. The level of Knowledge has been associated with overall health outcomes. This study aimed to address the Medication Knowledge (MK) in elders. Identify factors associated with knowledge and areas where the knowledge needs to be enhanced. The MK in elders was poor. Illiteracy, Polypharmacy and follow up in multiple clinics compromised knowledge. Knowledge with regards to side effects fared worse. Elders were most knowledgeable on how to store the medications and refills dates. Elders considered knowledge provided by medical staff about their medications as inadequate. The health care providers should be aware that a large gap in MK exists in elders. Multiple factors make MK enhancement in elders very challenging. Knowledge Improvement requires defining evidence based approaches and needs to be individualized. Prospective studies addressing the impact of interventions on improving knowledge and important outcomes like safety, adherence and mortality are needed.
384-388
15
SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF A MUTUAL PRODRUG
Asif Husain, Aftab Ahmad, Shah Alam Khan, Mohammad Sarafroz
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study has been to synthesize a useful drug, which may act with effectiveness both on the gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (broad-spectrum). An amide-based mutual prodrug (3) was synthesized by condensing sulfadiazine with nalidixic acid, and evaluated for in-vitro antibacterial activity with significant results. Hydrolysis kinetics of the mutual prodrug were also studied in acidic and basic buffers.
389-392
16
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF ZILEUTON IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
K. Vara Prasada Rao, M. Tanuja, Y. Srinivasa Rao and T. Hemant Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A Simple, sensitive and reproducible stability-indicating UV spectrophotometric method has been developed for estimation of zileuton in bulk and tablet dosage form using ethanol as solvent. The method is based on the measurement of absorbance at 229 nm. Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration range of 1-10 µg/ml with correlation coefficient 0.999. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, Limits of detection (LOD), Limits of quantitation (LOQ). In addition forced degradation of zileuton was conducted in accordance with the ICH guidelines. Acidic hydrolysis, basic hydrolysis, thermal stress, peroxide and photolytic degradation were used to asses the stability indicating power of the method. Extensive degradation was found in thermal condition and less degradation in photolytic condition.
393-397
17
FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP. PISI AGAINST THE LARVAE OF MAJOR MOSQUITO VECTORS: A LABORATORY INVESTIGATION
Namita Soni and Soam Prakash
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Efficacy of the metabolites of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. pisi has been investigated against the mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti in laboratory. F. oxysporum f.sp. pisi was grown on Potato dextrose broth in the laboratory at 25°C, 75±5% humidity for 15 days. Filtration process was done using whatman-1 filter paper, column chromatography and flash chromatography. Larvicidal efficacy was performed against all larval instars of Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti at six different concentrations with different effective ratios (ethanol/metabolites: 9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6, 3:7, 2:8, and 1:9) by the probit analysis for a period of 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Among all ratios, one potential ratio was selected for efficacy study. The 5:5 ratio was found highly effective against the larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus, 7:3 ratios was effective against the An. stephensi and 1:9 ratio was found effective against the larvae of Ae. aegypti. The first, second and third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus have shown 100% mortality, while fourth instar larvae have LC50 20 ppm, LC90 89.12 ppm and LC99 144.54 ppm values for the metabolites. The metabolites of F. oxysporum f.sp. pisi has not been tested against the mosquito larvae previously. The metabolites of F. oxysporum f.sp. pisi could be a fungal larvicides resource for the control of mosquitoes and could be another agent for biotechnological exploitation, if found suitable in field trials.
398-407
18
EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF ATORVASTATIN ON LEARNING AND MEMORY IN WISTAR RATS
Rahul P Nambiar, Mukta N. Chowta, Nishith RS, Priyanka Kamath, Sanjay Hadigal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effect of atorvastatin on scopolamine-induced amnesia in animal models. Male Wistar rats of 6 weeks old randomly assigned to four groups of six mice each.  Group I received 0.5%w/v CMC, 10 ml/kg, group II received donepezil 5mg/kg, group III is negative control group and group IV received atorvastatin 10mg/kg dose administered orally for 8 days, commencing on day 6. On day 13, amnesia was induced by administration of scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p.) to groups II-IV.  On the first day, all the rats were familiarized with the Hebb William maze for a period of ten minutes. From the 2nd to 5th day the rats received four consecutive trials of training per day in the maze. After 45 minutes of administration of amnestic agent, trials of learning and memory were taken on Hebb-William’s maze and the retention was observed 24 hours after. The learning score decreased significantly in donepezil and atorvastatin treated group when compared to baseline values. There was a significant difference in learning score of both donepezil and atorvastatin treated groups in comparison with scopolamine treated group, suggesting their significant effect on learning and memory in rodent models.
408-412
19
SYNTHESIS OF A PRODRUG OF ACECLOFENAC AND ITS METHOD DEVELOPMENT BY UV-SPECTROSCOPY
Niti Bhardwaj, P. Ahuja, Farah Iram, Asif Husain
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
An ester-based prodrug (2) of aceclofenac was synthesized using N-hydroxymethylsuccinimide (1) as promoiety and its structure established on the basis of IR, NMR and Mass spectral data. An analytical, rapid, cost-effective and accurate method using UV-spectroscopy has been developed for the synthesized prodrug (2). The value of R square obtained shows that the developed method is rapid, easy and precise.
413-417
20
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ONDONSETRAN USING REVERSE PHASE HPLC METHOD AND ITS APPLICATION TO DIFFERENT PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
R. Vani, B.Vijaya Kumar, G. Krishna Mohan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new simple, accurate, precise and reproducible RP-HPLC method has been developed for the estimation of Ondonsetran in its bulk and different pharmaceutical dosage forms using inertsil ODS C18 column ( 250 x 4.6 mm, 5 µm) in isocratic mode. The mobile phase consists of 0.1MKH2PO4:ACN: MeOH (30:40:30)v/v pH6.0 . The detection was carried out at 216 nm for Ondonsetran. The method was linear over the concentration range 48-112 µg/ml. The validation of method was carried out utilizing ICH-guidelines.
418-423
21
DIETARY PHYTOCHEMICALS AND THEIR ROLE IN CHEMOPREVENTION OF CANCER
Jayanti Mukherjee, Anand Patidar, Giriraj Kulkarni
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cancer is one of the most challenging health problems in the entire world today. It is a complex disease to treat. Conventional cancer therapies evoke severe side effects and in many cases, patients recover from cancer and die due to organ failure and immunosuppression. To redress these anomalies recourse to phytochemicals is advocated. The induction of apoptosis in a neoplastic cell line without affecting normal cells of the body is a key to the use of phytochemicals (chemopreventive agents) which perform a vital function in the battle against cancer. These chemopreventive agents inhibit, retard or reverse multi-stages of carcinogenesis via their anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic properties and also suppress cancer proliferation through induction and stimulation of cell growth. Research has shown that they exert these abilities by counteracting certain signals that cause genotoxic damage and reduction-oxidation imbalance in cells. This discourse reviews the role of phytochemical chemopreventive agents, benefits and limitations associated with their use in cancer prevention.
424-436
22
EFFECT OF SUTTIGAI THERAPY FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF AZHAL KEELVAYU - AN OPEN COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jiji Mol V.C, Bavya K, S. Murugesan, P. Shanmuga Priya, R. Madhavan, M. Murugesan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The main objective of the present study is to outweigh the therapeutic efficacy of suttigai therapy for the management of azhal keelvayu (osteoarthritis) by an open comparative clinical study among patients with oil application and patients with suttigai therapy receiving the same internal medicines. An open comparative study was conducted in National Inststute of Siddha IPD among 12 patients who had screened positively for Osteoarthritis. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 and Group 2 were treated with same internal medicines but different external medications oil application and suttigai therapy, respectively. There was significant reduction in pain and symptoms in patients receiving suttigai therapy as compared to patients receiving oil application. The result of the study was explored by using KOOS score .The beneficial effect of the suttigai therapy was revealed with suitable statistical analysis.
437-440
23
SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF 5-SUBSTITUTED 1(H)-TETRAZOLES
Deepthi Yada, Divya Yada, Bandari Sathish
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
An efficient and economical protocol for the synthesis of 5-substituted 1H-tetrazoles from various nitriles and sodium azide is described using ZnO as catalyst. A wide variety of aryl nitriles underwent [2+3] cycloaddition under mild reaction conditions to afford tetrazoles in moderate to excellent yields. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial activities were tested against Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gramnegative) and Streptomyces species (Actinomycetes).
441-446
24
VITAMIN E POTENTIATE THE ANTIEPILEPTIC ACTIVITY OF PHENOBARBITAL
N.P. Sawadadkar, V.S. Ughade, V.S. Shinde, P.N. Kothari, A.A. Shinde, V.J. Chaware, K.R. Biyani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Phenobarbital is the mostly used drug for the seizures. However question regarding safety and efficacy of this drug make it particularly compelling to identify adjunct therapy that could boost therapeutic benefit. Study found that one adjunct therapy is vitamin e. The main aim of present study was to evaluate potentiation of anticonvulsant activity of Phenobarbital by vitamin e in mice using PTZ induced convulsions. In these methods all the animals were divided into sixteen groups & each groups consist of six animals. All group received PTZ. Testing drugs doses were randomised within groups of animal such that each group was required during a given test series. The results revealed that vitamin e significantly potentiated efficacy of phenobarbital but did not exert antiepileptic effect on its own. Concurrent administration of phenobarbital and vitamin e also decreased serum MDA activity. It is concluded that vitamin e potentiates the antiepileptic activity of phenobarbital.
447-450
25
SYNTHESIS MIXED LIGANDS COMPLEXES OF SOME LIGHT METALS BY MICROWAVE ASSISTED USING 2-ACETAMIDE BENZOTHIAZOLE AND 1,10-PHENANTHROLIN
Mahasin F. Alias, Farah S. Jaafer and Amal S. Sadiq
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Mixed ligands of 2-acetamide benzothiazole L1 with 1,10-phenanthrolin L2complexesof  V(IV), Cr(III) , Co(II)and Ni(II )ions were prepared by microwave assisted radiation. The ligand and the complexes were isolated and characterized in solid state by using FT-IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy, flame atomic absorption, elemental analysis CHNS , magnetic susceptibility , melting points and conductivity measurements.2-acetamide benzothiazole behaves as bidenetate through carbonyl group and nitrogen atom of imine group. Fromthe analyses Oh geometry was suggested for NiL1L2, CrL1L2 complexes, square pyramidal for VL1L2 and Td for CoL1L2complex.A theoretical treatment of ligands and their metal complexes in gas phase were studied using HyperChem-8 program, moreover, ligands in gas phase also has been studied using Gaussian program (GaussView Currently Available Version (5.0.9) along with Gaussian 09 which was the latest in the Gaussian series of programs).
451-458
26
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF NOVEL ARYL SULFONE DERIVATIVES
Shipra Bhati
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A series of some new aryl sulfone derivatives containing benzimidazole moiety were synthesized. The compounds were characterized by means of IR,1HNMR and elemental analysis. The compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative organisms with standard benzyl penicillin. Synthesized compounds exhibited significant biological activity.
459-463
27
DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DIACEREIN AND CHLORZOXAZONE PULSATILE RELEASE TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Richa Dayaramani, Sandeep V. Nathwani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study was to develop and characterize press coated tablet of Diacerein and Chlorzoxazone. The drug delivery system is based on the concept of chronotherapeutics where the drug is released rapidly after a well defined lag-time. A pulsatile-release profile is characterized by a time period of no release (lag time) followed by a rapid and complete drug release. Diacerein (DMARD) and Chlorzoxazone (NSAID) combination has been used for obtaining synergistic effect in the management of arthritis. Drug polymer compatibility studies were carried out by FT-IR. Core tablet was prepared by direct compression using super disintegrant sodium starch glycolate. The core tablet was compression coated with different quantities of coating material containing different polymers. A 32 Full factorial design was used for optimization of the barrier layer. Total coat weight (X1) and % HPMC K4M (X2) were selected as independent variables. The lag time for Diacerein (Y1), CPR at 1st  hr after lag time for Diacerein (Y2), time for 90% drug release for Diacerein (Y3), the lag time for Chlorzoxazone (Y4), CPR at 1st hr after lag time for Chlorzoxazone (Y5) and time for 90% drug release for Chlorzoxazone (Y6) were selected as dependent variables. Tablets were evaluated for various evaluation parameters. Comparative dissolution profiles of all the batches indicated drug release from tablet was inversely proportional to the coat weight. From the release profile it was deduced that delay lag time was observed for the press-coated tablet containing a higher amount of HPMC K4M in the outer shell. The press coated tablets coated with HPMC K4M:HPMC K100 in 64.39:35.61 ratios with 200 mg coat weight are most likely to provide the desired delivery of Diacerein and Chlorzoxazone.
464-471
28
TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF AN AYURVEDIC MEDICINE \"KARPUR RAS\" USED IN DIARRHOEA
Md. Mamun Sikder, Md. Rakib Hasan, Swagata Sarkar Lopa, Nayma Abedin, Mohammad Jashim Uddin, Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker, Mohammed Motaher Hossain Chowdhury and M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Karpur Ras (KRP) is an Ayurvedic preparation used as a traditional medicine in the treatment of diarrhea in the rural population. To find out the toxicological characteristic of KRP, it was administered chronically to the male Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 40 mg/kg for 28 days. All throughout the experimental period the KRP treated animals were always maintaining decrease in body weight in the overall body weight study compare to their control counterpart. There were a statistically significant (p=0.013) decrease in the absolute weight of rat heart and a statistically highly significant (p=0.009) decrease in the relative percent weight of the heart. There were a statistically highly significant decrease in the absolute weight of the liver (p=0.002) and the relative percent weight of the liver (p=0.005). Also there was a statistically very highly significant (p=0.001) decrease in the organ water content of the liver. There was a statistically highly significant (p=0.004) decrease in the absolute weight of the rat kidney but a statistically significant (p=0.015) decrease was noticed in relative percent weight of the rat kidney. There were a statistically very highly significant (p=0.001) decrease in the absolute weight of spleen relative percent weight of spleen.
472-477
29
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY EVALUATION METHODS:IN VITRO AND IN VIVO
Bibekananda Meher, Trilochan Satapathy, Anupama Roy, Deepak Kumar Dash
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Free radicals are molecules or molecular fragments containing one or more unpaired electrons. Oxidative stress occurs due to free radical generation and deficiency  of antioxidant defence mechanism. Oxygen consumption inherent in cell growth leads to the generation of a series of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative damage caused by free radicals may be related to aging and diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer and cirrhosis. The growing interest in the substitution of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on vegetable sources and the screening of raw materials for identifying new antioxidants. Oxidation reactions are not an exclusive concern for the food industry, and antioxidants are widely needed to prevent deterioration of other oxidisable goods, such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and plastics. The aim of this review is to focus on the different in vitro and in vivo methods for evaluation of antioxidant activities.
478-484
30
AN IMPACT OF EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTIONS ON REPORTING OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS
Patel SV, Desai CK, Patel PP, Dikshit RK
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of educational interventions (IT) on adverse drug reaction reporting (AR). Randomly selected prescribers were assigned to group A (n= 84) or B (n= 85). Three months each of Pre (Pre- IP), Intervention – I (IP- I), IP- II and Post – IP were applied in sequence. IT included Pharmacovigilance Awareness Programme, posters, written and verbal reminders during IP-I & II. Inter-group and inter-phase change in the rate and quality of AR (score of 0-50) was estimated. Data was analyzed using Chi Square and Student’s “t” test. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Improvement in AR rate (154% increase) and quality (Pre- IP: 34; IP-I: 35.6; IP-II: 36.3) of ADR reports was observed during IP- II as compared to Pre- IP. Group A showed significant improvement in the rate (62.6%) and quality of reports as compared to group B during both IP- I & II (p<0.01). However, upon withdrawal of IT, the impact attenuated with time. A positive impact of IT on rate and quality of AR was observed, albeit temporarily. Hence, administration of IT on a regular basis is recommended for a sustainable impact.
485-492
31
ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF DUTASTERIDE WITH TAMSULOSIN IN PHARMACEUTICAL CAPSULE DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC METHOD
Priyadarshani S Bansode, Chetan Singh Chauhan, Preeti Gopaliya, Chatrapal singh, Ravindra Kamble, Mahendra Singh Ranawat, Sujata S Bansode
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Analytical method development & validation play important roles in the discovery development & manufacture of pharmaceuticals. Reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) has a non-polar stationary phase and an aqueous, moderately polar mobile phase. A mixture of buffer solution and methanol in the ratio of (45:55). Drugs showed maximum absorbance at 280 nm for Dutasteriod and 225 nm for Tamsulosin. The % Accuracy is within limit (98.0 – 102.0 %) with %RSD less than 2%. The Precision RSD of Assay of six sample preparations was found to be 2.0%. The correlation coefficient value should not be less than 0.995 over the working range. The validation was performed as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines.
493-499
32
A STUDY ON RISK CATEGORIZATION AND PREVENTION STRATEGIES IN DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS
Cincy MM, Krishnakumar K, Panayappan L, Lincy George, Dineshkumar B
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of this study was to assess the risk factors of poor diabetic foot care and to find the effectiveness of health education in improving foot care practice among diabetic patients. It was a one group pre test, post test pre experimental study. About 100 patients were included in the study. Patients were enquired about their foot care practices. A structured pre-tested questionnaire was administered to the outpatients of a rural health center with type 2 diabetes. Awareness regarding diabetes, care of diabetes and foot care practice ware assessed and scored. Individual and group health education focusing on foot care was performed. Foot care practice was reassessed when the patients came for review. Mean age of included patients was 58.5 years. Only 80% were aware about foot care, majority of the patients did not learning session about foot care. 58 out of 100 were having one or the other factors responsible for them to be categorized as high risk feet. Low education status, old age and low awareness regarding diabetes were the risk factors for poor practice of foot care. The average score for the level of practice had a 65% increase after the education when comparing pre test and post test score. It was also found that proper foot care practice was related with foot care education. Foot care education for diabetics in a primary care setting improves their foot care practice and is likely to be effective in reducing the burden of diabetic foot ulcer.
500-504
33
SYNTHETIC CURCUMINOID COMPOUNDS: AN APPRAISAL OF IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY
Jyotsana Sharma, Anurag Singh Chauhan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study aimed at synthesizing curcumin and some related curcuminoid compounds and thereafter evaluation of these compounds for possible antioxidant activity. Previously synthesized and identified Curcumin and curcuminoid compounds were taken for the study. Antioxidant potential of the compounds were investigated. Total antioxidant activity, reducing power assay, nitric oxide scavenging activity, hydrogen and DPPH radical scavenging activity were performed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of these compounds in vitro. The IC50 values in DPPH model were also calculated. The results of the study revealed potential antioxidant activities of the evaluated compounds.
505-511
34
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CORDIA DICHOTOMA FRUIT MUCILAGE AS MATRIX FORMING AGENT FOR SUSTAINED RELEASE OF PROPRANOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE
D. Lohithasu, A.V.S. Madhu Latha, D. Midhun Kumar and P. Girish
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the present study was to design sustained release tablets of Propranolol HCl by direct compression using HPMC K 100 M and Cordia dichotoma fruit mucilage. Tablets were prepared by direct compression method and prepared tablets were subjected to physicochemical studies, in vitro drug release kinetic studies and stability studies. FTIR studies were shown that, there was no interaction between drug and polymer. The physicochemical properties of tablets were found within the limits. The optimized formulation (F6) was subjected to stability studies for three months at 40 °C, RH 75 ± 5 % and showed there were no significant changes in drug content, physicochemical parameters and release pattern. The kinetic treatment of selected formulation (F6) showed that the release of drug follows Higuchi models. The obtained results of the present study indicated that Cordia dichotoma fruit mucilage as matrix former in sustained release formulation of Propranolol HCl.
512-517
35
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES ON LEAF OF CHLOROXYLON SWIETENIA DC. AN ETHNOMEDICINALLY IMPORTANT MEDICINAL TREE
Sharanabasappa Melmari and M. Jayaraj
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Chloroxylon swietenia DC. belongs to the family Meliaceae is an important medicinal tree of dry deciduous forests with several medicinal uses in both folk and traditional system of medicine. Traditionally different parts of the plant are used in treating wounds, cuts, burns and skin diseases. Its pharmacognostic data for authentication of the leaf crude drug is available, but it is incomplete, hence, in the present study detailed macroscopical, microscopical, physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies of leaf are undertaken. Powder microscopy revealed the presence of xylem vessels with spiral and reticulate thickenings, phloem fibers, raphide crystals and unicellular trichomes. Anatomical studies showed the presence of raphide crystals, collateral vascular bundle, resin ducts and anomocytic stomata. The qualitative chemical tests of petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and water extracts of leaf indicated the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, amino acids, phenolic compounds and tannins.
518-525
36
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF SERATRODAST IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
J. Raghuram
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, precise, rapid and accurate reverse phase HPLC method was developed for the estimation of Seratrdast in tablet dosage form.ZobraxEclipseXDB-C18, 150x4.6 mm 5 µm partical size, with mobile phase consisting of water: acetonitrile in the ratio of 30:70 v/v was used. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the effluents were monitored at 265 nm. The retention time& Recovery time was 8.07min&3.273. The detector response was linear in the concentration of 15-180 mcg/ml. The respective linear regression equation being Y= 32147.7x+58628. The limit of detection and limit of quantification was 0.015mcg and 0.03mcg/ml respectively. The percentage assay of Seratrodast was 99.43 %. The method was validated by determining its accuracy, precision and system suitability.
526-530
37
ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES OF SOME SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS
Sabira Begum, Syed Tahir Ali, Syed Imran Hassan,, Syed Nawazish Ali, Bina S. Siddiqui, Khursheed Ali Khan and Nayyer Mahmood
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extracts from the roots of Raphanus sativus, fruits of Hibiscus esculentus, Citrus maxima and Capsicum annuum, leaves of Psidium guajava and Syzygium cumini was studied using disc diffusion method against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at 1000 µg/disc concentration. Significant antimicrobial activity in the extract of leaves of Psidium guajava and Syzygium cumini was observed.
531-535
38
THE ANTISPASMODIC EFFECT OF Clerodendrum quadriloculare (Blanco) Merr. LEAF EXTRACTS
Kay Ann S. Jonatas-Tongol, Mafel C. Ysrael
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Clerodendrum quadriloculare, locally named bagawak morado decoction of leaves is used to relieve abdominal pain in folklore. However, scientific data on the biological activities of the plant are limited, thus prompting this research to provide in part the scientific basis for the plant’s reputed use for smooth muscle relaxant effects. The methanolic extract of Clerodendrum quadrilocualre was subjected to phytochemical analysis, toxicity test and smooth muscle modulating effects using isolated rat ileum. Phytochemical analysis by thin layer chromatography revealed presence of flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, coumarins, tannins, phenolics and alkaloids. Toxicity study showed that C. quadriloculare is non-toxic at 5000 mg/kg. Organ bath studies of the isolated rat ileum showed that DCM fraction comparable relaxation activity of the acetylcholine-induced contraction (EC50=1376 µg/mL ± 0.03) as with the standard antagonist, Atropine (p > 0.05). The study indicates the potential use of Clerodendrum quadriloculare as a safe and effective treatment for smooth muscle spasm.
536-540
39
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF NEBIVOLOL AND VALSARTAN IN PURE BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
D. Sreelatha, R. Ramya and T. Ramarao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, Accurate, precise method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of the Nebivolol and Valsartan in Tablet dosage form. Retention time of Nebivolol and Valsartan were found to be 2.496min and 3.905min. %RSD of the Nebivolol and Valsartan were and found to be 0.4 and 0.8 respectively. %Recover was Obtained as 99.52% and 99.93% for Nebivolol and Valsartan respectively. LOD, LOQ values are obtained from regression equations of Nebivolol and Valsartan were 0.070ppm, 0.2142ppm and 0.179ppm, 0.544 ppm respectively. Regression equation of Nebivolol  is y = = 0722x + 144.0, and y = 4560x + 248.2 of Valsartan . Retention times are decreased and that run time was decreased so the method developed was simple and economical that can be adopted in regular Quality control test in Industries.
541-546
40
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF DOXOFYLINE AND SERTRALINE IN PURE BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
K. Vikram, R.V. Valli Kumari
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, Accurate, precise method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of the Doxofylline and Sertaline in Tablet dosage form. Retention time of Doxofylline and Sertaline were found to be 2.3min and 3.7min. %RSD of the Doxofylline and Sertaline were and found to be 0.98 and 1.14 respectively. %assay r was Obtained as 99.71% and 99.53% for Doxofylline and Sertaline respectively. LOD, LOQ values are obtained from regression equations of Doxofylline and Sertaline were 0.09ppm, 0.26ppm and 0.44ppm, 1.34ppm respectively. Regression equation of Doxofylline is of Sertaline   y = 14573x + 385.4 And y = 33848x + 4535. Retention times are decreased and that run time was decreased so the method developed was simple and economical that can be adopted in regular Quality control test in Industries.
547-553
41
A CASE STUDY ON LEAN SIX SIGMA FOR REDUCTION IN CHANGEOVER TIME OF DRY GRANULATION AREA IN LEADING PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANY
Mohd Ahsan Khan, Priyadarshan Pachorkar, Zeba Khan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Company XYZ is facing potential drop in throughput of roll compactor batches due to high changeover time for utilization of dry granulation area. To resolve this problem company has targeted 20% reduction in changeover time. Reduction in changeover will leads to the availability of machinery for longer period result in a production improvement. To implement this project following activities are carried out in company. Time motion study of the casual & operator involve in cleaning, analysis of changeover time & drawn of I-MR chart with reference to 3 sigma level of the process, implementation of engineering controls, implementation of 4S and 5S principle. On implementation of these changes in pilot study 43% reduction in changeover time has been achieved.
554-560
42
Molecular Docking Study of Natural Compounds against Non Receptor Protein Tyrosine Kinases Src
Pushpendra Singh, Felix Bast
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Non-receptor tyrosine kinases Src family plays an important role in signal transduction induced by diverse extracellular stimulus, including cytokine, and growth factors. Overactivity or overexpression of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src is involved in the growth, development and progression of various human cancers and their inhibitors are under intensive investigations as novel anti-cancer agents. Therefore, we studied receptor-based molecular docking of src against natural compounds. Each Selected compounds docked with the X-ray crystal structure of Src (PDB; 3EL7). The best-docked compounds have been elected for target by optimal energy value, types of interactions, and conformations. STOCK1N-75795, STOCK1N-80087, STOCK1N-72227, STOCK1N-79428, STOCK1N-72232, STOCK1N-72129, and STOCK1N-72552 compound have a better binding energy as well as binding conformation against src. Foremost, STOCK1N-80087, STOCK1N-72227, and STOCK1N-72232 are their excellent QPlogPo/w, CIQPlogS, QPlog HERG K+ channels, QPPCaco, QPlogBB, QPPMDCK, QPlogKP, QPlogKhsa and percentage of human oral absorption values which satisfy the Lipinski’s Rule of Five. This molecular docking study recapitulates docking free energy, protein ligands interaction profile, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic parameter of lead molecules, which are tremendously helpful to improve activity of natural compounds against src.
561-567
43
HINDRANCES TO PRESENT PHARMACOVIGILANCE SCENARIO AND INNOVATIVE IDEAS TO ENHANCE DRUG SAFETY
B. Srinivas teja, B. Chaitanya lakshmi, B. Divya sree, P. Sharmila Nirojini, Rama Rao Nadendla
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In India, there are several consumer groups who encourage patients to report any adverse reactions encountered by them, although there is no information for patients on how to report ADRs directly to the regulatory authority. Direct reports from the patients, the ones who actually experience ADRs, are not accepted by the monitoring centres and by regulatory authorities. To add to this is the total lack of any awareness about ADRs in the general population. So every pharmacist and pharmacovigilance system has a key role in minimising the ADRs and bring awareness about safe usage of drugs in global health care.
568-570
44
DEVELOPMENT OF A HPLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ENROFLOXACIN AND CIPROFLOXACIN IN REPTILE PLASMA AFTER TRANSDERMAL DELIVERY
Iga Czyz, Jean-Paul Salvi, Alban Ducrotte, Plamen Kirilov, Sebastien Perrot, Charly Pignon, Fabrice Pirot, Francoise Falson, Roselyne Boulieu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A rapid and simple high-performance liquid chromatography method using diode array detection for determination of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in snake’s plasma was developed. Several snakes were treated transdermally with a single dose of enrofloxacin emulsions corresponding to an antibiotic dose of 5 mg/kg. Enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were analyzed using a core-shell silica particle stationary phase (Kinetex  RP–C18, 150 × 4.6 mm, particle size 5 µm) and 0.002 M phosphoric acid/acetonitrile (83:17, v/v) as mobile phase. Calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 2–100 µM and 3–100 µM. The intra-day and inter-day coefficient of variations were below or equal to 10% for both compounds. Limits of quantification for enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were 2 µM and 3 µM respectively. Sample treatment procedure consisted of deproteinization with perchloric acid. The described HPLC method using core-shell silica particles results in better resolution, higher sensitivity and low back pressure.

571-576
45
FAST DISOLVING TABLET DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM-AN OVERVIEW
Keshari Roshan, M. Bharkatiya, Rathore K.S, Shyama S. Kumar, Gajaram Sirvi, somani Neelam Bhupal Nobels
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
FDT is regarded as the one of the most frontier and novel drug delivery system because of large range of patient compliance. It is easily administered by the large range of patient as well as the patient of, pediatrics, and dysphasic, mental illness patient and also for the active patients where there is no availability of water as it dissolves in mouth in saliva without use of water within 60sec. It also gives rapid onset of action due to the absorption in the pre gastric area and it has also improved the bioavailability. However it has also got some advantage, disadvantage, ideal properties as well as characteristic. It is prepared by two technologies, one is conventional technology and other is patentedtechnology. In conventional technology it is prepared by   Freeze drying  or lycophilisation,  Sublimation,  Spray drying, tablet  Molding,  Mass extrusion,  Direct compression,  Cotton-candy process,  Nanotization,  Fast dissolving films,  Melt granulation. And it is easily evaluated by different technique such as shape, size, thickness, diameter, weight variation , friability, wetting time, hardness of tablet, in vitro / vivo disintegration time, dissolution test, stability study and drug content etc. Many pharmaceutical industries are engaged in production of FDT and its research. We can also say that there is good future trend of FDT but it required some more advancement.
577-589
46
PRECISE AND COMPARATIVE REQUIREMENTS OF ACTIVE IMPLANTABLE MEDICAL DEVICE IN US, AUSTRALIA AND SINGAPORE
Vishal H. Parikh, Krupa C. Thula, Dilip G. Maheshwari
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Medical device market has been improving its impact globally and it is the widely growing field now a days. The Cardiovascular Device industry is rapidly expanding its impact in the market and it will reach to $97 billion by end of 2015. Worldwide many people suffering from cardiovascular diseases and number of deaths has been reported every year. So, to improve the patient life and reduce the morbidity and mortality rate the strict rules and regulation has to be developed. Cardiovascular devices are life threatening devices and it is directly affecting the patient’s life so strict and specific regulation is requiring for active implantable medical devices. In US, Food and Drug Administration high-risk medical device registered via the Pre-Market Approval process. In Australia, Therapeutic Goods Administration regulates the medical device under the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods. In Singapore, Health Science Authority regulates the medical device under the Centre for Medical Device Registration. This article discuss about the general introduction about medical device, its classification, registration procedure, labeling requirements for active implantable medical device in US, Australia and Singapore.
590-599
47
MARSILEA MINUTA(L.) PLANT EXTRACT MEDIATED SYNTHESIS OF GOLD NANOPARTICLE FOR CATALYTIC AND ANTIMICROBIAL APPLICATIONS
Niranjan Bala, Arpan Kool, Pradip Thakur, Sukhen Das, Papiya Nandy, Ruma Basu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Gold nanoparticle (GNP) was synthesized using the plant extract of Marsilea minuta (L.) for catalytic and antibacterial applications. Formation of nanoparticle was confirmed by various physical and chemical characterization techniques. Morphology of synthesized NPs was analyzed using electron microscopy. GNP synthesized via this method was highly stable and their size was found to be ~ 25 nm. Green synthesized GNPs showed well catalytic activity in complete reduction of toxic para-nitrophenol (PNP) to para-aminophenol (PAP). GNP synthesized by this method showed better antibacterial potency against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcous aureus. It was observed that GNP synthesized via this method showed synergistic effect of chemically synthesized GNP and plant extract on antimicrobial activity.
600-609
48
SIMULTANEOUS RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF CLOPIDOGREL AND RIVAROXABAN IN SYNTHETIC MIXTURE
Arun M. Prajapati, Harsh A. Patel
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Gold nanoparticle (GNP) was synthesized using the plant extract of Marsilea minuta (L.) for catalytic and antibacterial applications. Formation of nanoparticle was confirmed by various physical and chemical characterization techniques. Morphology of synthesized NPs was analyzed using electron microscopy. GNP synthesized via this method was highly stable and their size was found to be ~ 25 nm. Green synthesized GNPs showed well catalytic activity in complete reduction of toxic para-nitrophenol (PNP) to para-aminophenol (PAP). GNP synthesized by this method showed better antibacterial potency against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcous aureus. It was observed that GNP synthesized via this method showed synergistic effect of chemically synthesized GNP and plant extract on antimicrobial activity.
610-613
49
PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF A GAS FORMATION-BASED MULTIPLE UNIT GASTRO RETENTIVE FLOATING DRUGDELIVERY SYSTEM OF FAMOTIDINE
P. Utteja, B. Chandra Shekar Reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Gastro retentive Famotidine floating mini-tablets-in-capsule were prepared using three different natural polymers HPMC K4M, HPMC K15M and Guar gum in different ratios by direct compression method in order to achieve maximum local bioavailability. Buoyancy of mini-tablets was achieved for about 12 hours by an addition of optimized gas generating mixture consisting of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid to the formulations. The prepared mini-tablets were evaluated for various precompression parameters i.e., angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio including Drug Excipients compatability studies by using FT-IR studies. The prepared formulations were evaluated for various post compression parameters like weight variation, thickness, friability, hardness, floating lag time, floating buoyancy studies and in-vitro dissolution studies. The In-vitro dissolution data confirmed the success of the optimized formula F5, which contains HPMC K15M, has shown desired percentage drug release in 12 hours. The release of drug from optimized formulation followed Fickian diffusion. FT-IR studies indicated that there is no positive evidence for the interaction between Famotidine and excipients of the optimized formula. Famotidine floating mini-tablets based on HPMC K15M is a promising formulation as an effective anti-ulcerative. The developed formulation overcome and alleviates the drawback and limitation of conventional dosage forms.
614-619
50
Antibacterial and Antifungal activity of some Schiff bases of 2-(substituted-amino)-N-tolyl-5, 6-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta[b]thiophene-3-carboxamide
K. Pavan Kumar and Madhusudhanareddy Induri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Schiff bases of 2-(substituted-amino)-N-tolyl-5,6-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta[b] thiophene-3-carboxamide screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity against the standard drugs Ampicillin and amphotericin- b.Among all the compounds compound 2h has shown good activity against bacteria and fungi, other compounds has shown moderate to weak activity.
620-623
51
This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
624-630
52
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF MONTELUKAST AND LEVOCETIRIZINE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM BY USING RP-HPLC
K. Venila Rani, H. Padmalatha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, Accurate, precise method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of the Montelukast and Levocetirizine in liquid dosage form. Chromatogram was run through Hypersil BDS 250 x 4.6 mm, 5. Mobile phase containing Buffer and Acetonitrie in the ratio of 35:65A was pumped through column at a flow rate of 1ml/min. Buffer used in this method was 0.02M Potassium di-hydrogen phosphate buffer at pH 3.6. Temperature was maintained at 30°C. Optimized wavelength for Montelukast and Levocetirizine was 231nm. Retention time of Montelukast and Levocetirizine were found to be 2.599min and 3.472min %RSD of the Montelukast and Levocetirizine were and found to be 0.7 and 0.8, respectively. % recovery was obtained as 99.88% and 99.9%for Montelukast and Levocetirizine respectively. Regression equation of Montelukast is y = 35120x + 388.3 and Levocetirizine is y = 29047x + 721.3.
631-636
53
STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULATANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PYRANTEL PAMOATE AND ALBENDAZOLE IN BULK AND ITS TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Renuka Jajikore, G. Ushasree, A. Ajitha, V. Umamaheswararao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of the investigation was to develop a new RP-HPLC Method for simultaneous estimation of Pyrantel pamoate and Albendazole in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Chromatography was carried out on an BDS C-18 column (4.6 x 250mm, 5μ particle size) with a isocratic mobile phase composed of 0.1% Potassium dihyrogen Ortho phosphate (adjusted to pH 4.8 with triethylamine solution), Acetonitrile, methanol (40:40:20v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The column temperature was maintained at 30°C and the detection was carried out using a PDA detector at 311 nm. Validation parameters such as system suitability, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), Stability of sample & standard stock solutions, robustness AND degradation studies were determined as reported in the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The retention times for Pyrantel pamoate and Albendazole and were 2.161 min and 3.405 min respectively. The percentage recoveries of Pyrantel pamoate and Albendazole were 99.29% and 99.40% respectively. The relative standard deviation for assay of tablets was found to be less than 2%. The Method was fast, accurate, precise and sensitive hence it can be employed for routine quality control of tablets containing both drugs in quality control laboratories and pharmaceutical industries.
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