Volume 5 - Issue 3

S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
EFFECTS OF THE PROPERTIES OF CREAMS ON SKIN PENETRATION
Yutaka Inoue, Arisa Shimura, Misa Horage, Rikimaru Maeda, Isamu Murata, Masahiro Sugino, Kazuhiko Juni, Ikuo Kanamoto
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The current study conducted human sensory testing and temperature-dependent measurement of the creams to examine their viscosity and viscoelasticity.  A retention on filter paper test and skin penetration test involving Yucatan micropigs (YMPs) were conducted to measure penetration of the skin and transdermal transfer.  The relationship between testing results and physical properties of the creams was then examined.  When viscosity was measured, NDFX-A and NDFX-B displayed similar behavior as gauged by viscosity and shear stress.  NDFX-C produced a large flow curve, with a larger area under the flow curve than NDFX-A or NDFX-B.  Measurement of viscoelasticity indicated that the storage modulus G’ and the loss modulus G” for NDFX-A and NDFX -B increased with a change in temperature (60°C to 10°C) while G’ and G’’ decreased for NDFX-C.  The loss tangent tan d was determined for each cream.  Prior to and after a rise in temperature to 60°C, NDFX-A had a tan d of +0.48 at 20°C, NDFX-B had a tan d of -0.34, and NDFX-C had a tan d of ±0.  In a retention on filter paper test, NDFX-B had the highest level of drug retention, followed by NDFX-C and then NDFX-A.  Water content presumably plays a role in this phenomenon.  Results of a skin penetration test indicated that NDFX-B and NDFX-A had approximately the same amount of skin penetration and the same amount of transdermal transfer after 24 hrs while NDFX-C had less skin penetration and less transdermal transfer.  This is because crystals were noted in NDFX-C.  Microscopy revealed oil droplets in that cream.  Thus, these aspects presumably affected its skin penetration and transdermal transfer.  Skin penetration amount is directly related to efficacy, so physical properties of creams may be an important aspect to consider.
645-654
2
ASSESSING PRESCRIBING PATTERNS OF ESSENTIAL MEDICINES IN THREE RURAL DISTRICT HOSPITALS IN RWANDA
Remy Pacifique Ntirenganya , Valens Mugiraneza, Bethany L. Hedt-Gauthier, Marie Paul Nisingizwe, Anicet Nyawakira, John Nyiligira Felix Rwabukwisi Cyamatare, Isaie Nsabimana, Regis Habimana, Frederic Muhoza, Cheryl L. Amoroso
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Inappropriate prescribing is a global health problem and main challenges include over prescription of antibiotics, over-use of injections, over-spending by failing to prescribe generic medicines and prescription of multiple medicines. This cross-sectional study included patient encounters at outpatient departments of three rural hospitals in Rwanda to assess prescribing patterns of essential medicines using the WHO core prescribing indicators. Patient encounters were randomly sampled. Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests were used to compare results. Our findings show that the average number of medicines prescribed per patient (1.8) was within WHO targets, the percentage of encounters with an antibiotic prescribed (37.2%) was above targets, while the percentage of encounters with an injection prescribed (7.2%) and percentage of medicines prescribed in generic names (75.0%) or from the National Essential Medicines List (70.5%) were below WHO targets. Clinicians, researchers, academics and policymakers should use these findings to plan for interventions like problem-based learning or Drug and Therapeutics Committees that promote good prescribing practices.
655-660
3
IMPROVEMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF VIRTUAL PATIENT TOOL IN TEACHING OF SKILLS FOR PRACTICE OF PHARMACEUTICAL CARE
Blicie Jennifer Balisa-Rocha, Elisa Souza Menendez, Leila Maciel de Almeida e Silva, Viviane Gibara Guimaraes, Giselle de Carvalho Britto, Alessandra Rezende Mesquita, Gabriella Fernandes Magalhaes, Divaldo Pereira Lyra Junior
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In pharmacy courses, the use of virtual patients (VPs) allows students to enhance their clinical, pharmacotherapeutical, and communication skills. Therefore, to enhance and evaluate the use of the virtual patient (VP) tool — PharmaVP Software — in the teaching of skills for the practice of pharmaceutical care (PC). A methodological development study was conducted in five stages: enhancement (pre-tests), evaluation of software by developers and mentors; application; quantitative assessment, qualitative assessment, content analysis and improvement (post-tests). Nine enhancements (pre-tests) were conducted on the system. In all, 31 students resolved the clinical cases of the VP. The evaluation demonstrated that the software is functional, enables learning, and is operational, attractive, effective, productive, and satisfactory and showed positive results regarding students’acceptance, use, learning, and satisfaction. These results were confirmedby the qualitative analysis of the VP. PharmaVP Software was improved and evaluated satisfactorily for the teaching skills required for the practice of PC.
661-674
4
A SCIENTIFIC ANALYSIS OF THE ALIQUOT METHOD OF WEIGHING
Michalakis Savva
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A comprehensive description of the application of the aliquot method of weighing in two different method examples is presented and the potential errors associated with the drug concentration in the powder mixture and in finished products are compared.
675-679
5
BOON OF VIRTUAL REALITY AND ITS APPLICATIONS AS AN EDUCATIONAL TOOL IN DENTISTRY: A REVIEW
Jafar Abdulla Mohamed Usman, Leoney Andonissamy, Asim Elsir
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Various training methods are available in the field of dentistry to obtain psychomotor skills for the dental students, dental assistants and also for dentists themselves. Modern era poses various challenges to the dental schools ranging  from increased cost of advanced equipments to unavailability of challenging cases. Virtual reality is a boon for dental schools, dentists and dental assistants in order to practice as many times they want and improve their skills to the next level. This paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the advanced virtual technologies available for the dental fraternity.
680-684
6
NORDIHYDROGUAIARETIC ACID: DUAL BEHAVIOR AS PRO- OR ANTIOXIDANT ON A EUKARYOTIC CELL MODEL (VERO CELLS).
Brenda S. Konigheim; Juan J. Aguilar; Laura B. Tauro; Maria E. Rivarola; Marta S. Contigiani; Susana C. Nunez-Montoya.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Since Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), a potent natural antioxidant, can produce oxidation in several cell kinds, mainly by superoxide anion production (O2), the current study was designed to assess its capacity to produce or not this reactive oxygen species on Vero cell line, with the aim to establish whether this lignan behaves as a pro- or antioxidant. The O2 production was determined by the Nitro Blue Tetrazolium reduction test. Results show that NDGA has a dual-face behavior on this eukaryotic cell model depending on the biological environment and its concentration. The NDGA behaved as a pro-oxidant when it was tested single, by means of an increase in O2 production that was directly concentration-dependent. Mixed with an antioxidant (ascorbic acid) or a moderate oxidant (glucose), the NDGA behaved as pro-xidant at low concentrations and antioxidant at high concentrations.
685-692
7
CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE DIETHYL ETHER EXTRACT OF WILD SONCHUS ASPER AND SONCHUS OLERACEUS GROWING IN LIBYA
Fouad Ibrahim, Mohamed H. M. Abed El-Azim, Ahmida Mohamed and Wesam A. Kollab
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Twelve compounds were identified from Sonchus asper by using GC-Mass spectroscopy, the main constituents were found to be Phytol 33.89 % and trans-anethole 20.22 %. While, eighteen compounds were identified from Sonchus oleraceus, among them Ethyl linoleate 43.05 %, (E)-9-Octadecenoic acid ethyl ester 24.02 % were found to represent the major constituents. Anti-tumor activity of the two Sonchus species showed that Sonchus oleraceus has a moderate inhibition with Hep-G2 and HCT-116 cells, while Sonchus asper has low inhibition against all cells (Hep-G2, HCT-116 and MCF-7). The antioxidant activity of Sonchus oleraceus showed a relatively strong antioxidant scavenging affinity against DPPH radicals.
693-701
8
CONVENIENT ROUTES FOR SYNTHESIS OF PYRIDOPYRIMIDINES AND POLYNITROGEN FUSED HETEROCYCLES
Nadia R. Mohamed, Eman A. ElHefny, Reham A. Abdelmomem
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Interaction of dimethyl-N-pyrimidine-formamidine derivatives 2a,b with the reagents 3 and 7 afforded the corresponding adducts 6a,b and 8. The addition products 10 and 12 produced upon interaction of 2a,b with dimedone and barbutric acids respectively. Treatment of 2a with excess CS2 yielded adduct 13. Interaction of 2b with acrylonitrile and methyl acrylate formed compounds 14 and 16. Heterocycles 21a-c and 22-24 produced via the reaction of 19 with different aromatic amines and amino reagents.
702-710
9
EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL GENOTOXICITY AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF MANJARIX
Aida I El makawy, Ashraf B Abdel-Naim, Alaa Barakat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Manjarix is herbal drug composed of ginger and turmeric powdered as active compounds. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity and developmental toxicity of manjarix. The genotoxicity assessment was conducted by in vitro Bacterial reverse mutation assay and in vivo chromosome aberrations and micronucleus test in rats. Bacterial reverse mutations assay was performed in Salmonella typhimurium strains and Escherichia coli (WP2-uvrA/) with and without metabolic activation system (S9 mix).  For in vivo study, Manjarix in three doses (250,500 and 1000 mg /kg/daily) was tested. In the developmental toxicity study, Manjarix treated female and male rats were mated to evaluate the effect of Manjarix on their fetuses’ development. Results revealed that Manjarix did not cause any genotoxic effects, as determined by the Ames test, in vivo chromosomal aberration and micronucleus assays. In addition, Manjarix did not show obvious alteration in the reproductive performance or fetal development. Based on these ?ndings, we can conclude that the use of Manjarix in traditional medicine poses no risk.
711-720
10
CYTOTOXIC NAPHTHALENE BASED-SYMMETRICAL DISELENIDES WITH INCREASED SELECTIVITY AGAINST MCF-7 BREAST CANCER CELLS
Saad Shaaban, Hatem E. Gaffer, Yasir Jabar, Saad S. Elmorsy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A series of naphthalene based-symmetrical diselenides were synthesized in good-moderate yields and their in vitro cytotoxic activity was evaluated against breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and compared with their cytotoxicity in normal fibroblast cells (WI-38). Furthermore, their in vitro antimicrobial activities were also evaluated against gram-negative (Escherichia coli), gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria and the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. A significant difference in toxicity zones between the breast solid tumor MCF-7 cells and normal WI-38 cells was observed indicating that it is not general selenium toxicity. Within this context, compounds 2, 9, 10, 12, 19, and 20 exhibited therapeutic indices (TI) up to eleven fold and in most cases were higher than the TI of 5-fluorouracil (5-fu) suggesting their effectiveness as anti-cancer agents. Indeed, these ccompounds exhibited also good antibacterial activity against E. coli bacteria compared to the known drug, ampicillin. Moreover, compounds 2, 7, 8 and 10 exhibited good antifungal activity against C. albicans compared to colitrimazole.
721-737
11
SYNTHESIS, SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY, THEORETICAL TREATMENT AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME TRANSITION METAL IONS WITH POTASSIUM (BENZOTHIAZOLE-2-DITHIOCARBAMATO HYDRZIDE)
Mahasin. F. Alias, Samar. A. Ahmed, Khalil I. Hussain, Carolin Shakir, Ayad. S. Hameed
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
New metal complexes of the ligand Potassium (Benzothiazole-2-dithiocarbamato hydrzide) (L) with the metal ions Cr (III), Co (II), Cu (II), Pd (II) and Cd (II) were prepared in alcoholic medium. The prepared complexes were characterized by flame atomic absorption, FTIR, UV-Vis Spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. From these analysis, octahedral geometry was suggested for Cr (III), Cu (II) and Pd(II) complexes, while Co(II) and Cd(II) complexes have tetrahedral geometries, Structural geometries of these compounds were also suggested in gas phase by using hyper chem-6 program. PM3 was used to evaluate the vibrational spectra of the free ligand and these obtained frequencies agreed well with those values experimentally found. The antibacterial activity for the starting material, the ligand and its metal complexes were studied against two selected microorganisms staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa using two different concentrations (10 & 5mM) in nutrients agar medium.
738-746
12
EVALUATION OF TOTAL FLAVONOLS, TOTAL PROANTHOCYANIDINS CONTENT AND THROMBOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOL EXTRACTS OF THREE BANGLADESHI PLANTS
Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Mohammad Abdul Hakim Murad, Abul Hasanat, Md. Abdul Hamid, Md. Imtiaze Islam, , Tanvir Ahmad Chowdhury, Mahmudul Hasan, Mohammed Munawar Hossain, Md. Abdullah Al Masum, Mohammed Rakib Uddin
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Premna esculenta (Roxb.), Crotalaria pallida (Aiton.) and Euphorbia neriifolia (Linn.) are three Bangladeshi plants, which examined for determination of proanthocyanidins, flavonols content and thrombolytic activity of methanol extracts. Crotalaria pallida showed highest content of flavonols (82.45±0.44 mg Quercetin/g) and proanthocyanidins (120.97±1.02 mg Catechin/g). It also showed highest clot lysis effect, which was 41.81±4.12%.  Premna esculenta and Euphorbia neriifolia exhibit 17.27±1.57% and 34.57±1.99% compared with standard Streptokinase 75±0.09% clot lysis. They both showed well flavonols content, but proanthocyanidins content of Euphorbia neriifolia (17.86±0.26 mg Catechin/g) is less, where Premna esculenta had 106.62±1.29 mg Catechin/g.
747-751
13
EFFECT OF THE SUPPLY CHAIN SYSTEMS [PULL OR PUSH] ON AVAILABILITY OF ESSENTIAL MEDICINES IN THE PUBLIC HEALTH FACILITIES IN UGANDA
Olido K, Mshilla M.M, Okello T.R
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The study sought to examine the extent to which the supply chain system of essential medicines, “pull” or “push”, ensures availability of essential medicines in the public health facilities. Using a cross sectional design availability of essential medicines was appraised and compared between the public health facilities that uses the pull or push supply system between May and July 2014. The pull system ensures better availability of essential medicine compared to the push (P value 0.001). The pull system is also associated with better planning and efficiency compared with the push system (P value = 0.034). The key problems in the supply of essential medicines include inadequate essential medicine (37.4%), delayed supply (11.5%) and supplying unsolicited medicines 9.9%. The pull system is better and superior to the push system in availing and management of essential medicines in the public health facilities. Policy makers should build capacity and use to the pull supply system in all facilities.
752-758
14
TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF AN AYURVEDIC MEDICINE (BRIHOT CHANDRODOY MAKARDHWAJ) USED AS REJUVENATOR
Tahmina Akter Sony, Md. Rakib Hasan, Mst. Reshma Khatun, Md. Mamun Sikder, Mustari Hossain, Shemonty Hasan, Massnoon Ali, M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Brihot Chandrodoy Makardhwaj (BCM) is an Ayurvedic preparation used as a traditional medicine in the old age in the rural population. To find out the toxicological characteristic of BCM, it was administered chronically to the male Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg. After 32 days chronic administration of the BCM preparation the following toxicological changes were noted. All throughout the experimental period the BCM treated animals were always maintaining insignificant increase in body weight in the body weight study. There is a statistically significant increase in the relative percent weight of the male rat heart (p=0.024) and kidney (p=0.032). There is a statistically highly significant increase in the absolute weight of the male rat spleen (p=0.009) and relative percent weight of the spleen (p=0.003). There is also a statistically significant (p=0.028) increase in the absolute weight of the rat testis.
759-764
15
EFFECTS OF CRUDE ROOT EXTRACTS OF SENNA DIDYMOBOTRYA ON CAECAL AMOEBIASIS IN MICE
Lydia Bonareri Nyamwamu, Moses Ngeiywa, Margaret Mulaa, Agola Eric Lelo, Johnstone Ingonga, Albert Kimutai, Michael Gicheru
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Anti-amoebic effects of crude root extracts of Senna didymobotrya against Entamoeba histolytica infecting caecum of mice were studied. Caecal amoebiasis was induced by injection of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites directly into the caecum.  Mice were treated orally with dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol total, methanol successive, hexane, water extracts, metronidazole and normal saline for five consecutive days and examined on the sixth day. At a dose of 500mg/kg/day, extracts of dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol total, methanol successive, hexane, water had a curative rate of 50, 66.7,100, 66.7, and 83.3%, each, respectively. At a concentration of 1mg/kg/day, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol total, water, hexane extracts were effective in 33.3 each, 83.3 each and 66.7% of the cases respectively, while methanol successive extract at a dose of less than 500mg/kg/day did not cure any mice. Metronidazole at a concentration of 125mg/kg/day had a curative rate of 100%. Severity of caecal wall ulceration reduced in mice which received extracts and metronidazole compared to control animals.
765-771
16
PRODUCT QUALITY AND CUSTOMER PERCEPTION OF PRESSURIZED METERED DOSE INHALER (pMDI) MANUFACTURED IN BANGLADESH
Abdur Rashid, An-Nurul Masud, Nazrul Islam and Ayman Allahham
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was aimed to investigate the in-vitro deposition, the market status and the customer’s perception of different pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) preparations, available in Bangladesh. In order to test the efficiency of pMDI, the in-vitro deposition of locally manufactured salmeterol xinafoate from two brands, considered as product A and product B, was carried out using a Twin-Stage-Impinger (TSI) and was correlated with the customer perception. The market status and customer’s perception has been studied through three different market surveys conducted on patients, (n=50), physicians (n=50) and pharmacy shops (n=50). In all three surveys the usage pattern of salbutamol has been found to be highest among various antiasthmatic drugs and has showed market share of 18.2 %. The manufacturer of this product occupied the highest market share compared with those of others. The in-vitro deposition of salmeterol xinafoate from both products revealed that the fine particle fractions (FPF, the amount of deposited salmeterol xinafoate in the lower airway of lung) of these products were within 32-44% and deposition was observed to be higher for product A compared to product B. Both the market status and efficiency testing results indicated that product A showed superior performance and more efficacy compared to the product B.
772-778
17
PRECLINICAL BLOOD CHEMISTRY SAFETY PROFILE STUDIES OF \"BALARISTA\" ON THE KIDNEY FUNCTION AFTER CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION TO MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS
Sadia Sultana, Md. Rakib Hasan, Paritosh Chakma, Mohammad Jashim Uddin, Ishtiaque Ahmed Chowdhury, Marjana Khalil, Mohammed Motaher Hossain Chowdhury and M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Balarista (BLR) is an Ayurvedic preparation used as a traditional medicine to treat debility in the rural population of Bangladesh. To find out the effect of chronic administration of BLR on serum blood chemistry profile, it was administered chronically to the male Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 40 ml/kg for 28 days. In this study, the total protein (TP) content was increased (16.15 %) in BLR treated male rats and it was statistically significant (p=0.022). The globulin content was highly significantly (p=0.003) increased (62.83 %) and as a result the decrease (45.16%) in the Albumin / Globulin (A/G) ratio was noticed and it was also statistically highly significantly (p=0.004) different from their corresponding control. There were also a statistically significant decrease of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level (22.69% decrease; p=0.039) and BUN/Creatinine ratio (26.96% decrease; p=0.021).
779-783
18
IDENTIFICATION OF TREATMENT RELATED PROBLEMS AND EXPLORING THEIR IMPACT ON METABOLIC CONTROL IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS
Rola Reyad Qteishat, Salah M. Aburuz
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was done to investigate the presence and the nature of treatment related problems in diabetic patients since it was not previously investigated. Two hundred patients were recruited in this cross sectional study. The end result is that the total number of treatment related problems was found to be 1518, with an average of 7.6 problems for each patient. The presence of actual treatment related problems as the most important determinant feature of diabetes control in out patients with diabetes. Besides four variables which were significantly associated with poor diabetes control (p= 0.05); which were: untreated condition, inappropriate adherence to medications, inappropriate adherence to clinic appointment and periodic laboratory tests, and efficacy treatment related problems.
784-791
19
AN OVERVIEW OF MEGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI)
Yashvant Singh and Rajesh Asija
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has continued over 42 years from being a technique with great prospective to one that has become the primary diagnostic examination for many clinical problems. Its application was principally limited to the neuro-axis, covers whole part of the body and an increased information base has provided a better understanding of how it can be bring into more effectual ,either itself or with combination of other techniques, concerning to maximize diagnostic certainty. This article purposes to describe limited historical review of magnetic resonance imaging physics, instrumentation, fundamental sequences, and Magnetic Resonance Contrast agents of magnetic resonance imaging, its application and recent advances in Magnetic Resonance imaging.
792-799
20
REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS FOR PARENTERAL PRODUCT IN US, AUSTRALIA AND MALAYSIA WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON STABILITY AND LABELLING REQUIREMENTS
Bhargava Nupur, Shah Darshil, Maheshwari Dilip
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The drug Regulatory Requirement in US, Australia, and Malaysia countries is on the way of continuous improvement. Regulatory Requirement includes Regulatory framework, Administrative Requirements, Stability Requirements, Process Validation Requirements and Labelling Requirements. Regulation of Parenteral drug is becoming stricter day by day as its demand is increasing day by day. This article describes a comparative evaluation on Regulation of Parenteral product and it also provides brief overview of ICH CTD And ASEAN CTD. This article will be helpful to the industry to plan a better strategy for Parenteral drug Registration within short time.
800-808
21
REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS OF MEDICAL FOOD AND ITS COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS IN US, AUSTRALIA AND INDIA
Mansi Kavi, Krupa C. Thula, Dilip G. Maheshwari
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Medical food is specially formulated food which is use for dietary management of the disease that has distinctive nutritional needs which cannot be met by normal diet alone. Medical food has low cost as pre-market approval is not needed. Medical food registration requires registering the manufacturing facility and this manufacturing facility should follow GMP (Good manufacturing Practice) and contain substances which are GRAS (Generally recognized as a safe). Medical foods are growing industry in pharmaceutical field as the concept of medical food is just 50 years old. People are not aware about therapy by medical food which is economically suitable and less hazardous. This article shows regulation of medical food in US, Australia and India. Medical food have different name in different country as in US, Australia and India it is known as Medical food, Food for special dietary purpose and Functional food respectively. US have most popular use of medical food among three countries so awareness in other two countries is required.
809-816
22
CURRENT REQUIREMENTS FOR BIO-ANALYTICAL METHOD VALIDATION BY DIFFERENT REGULATORY AGENCY
Priya Patel, Darshil Shah, Dilip Maheshwari
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Different regulatory bodies have different approach towards validation of bio-analytical method.  Parameters to be performed for validation are almost same, however procedure or how to perform is somewhat different. The current regulatory guidelines issued by different regulatory agencies for the bio-analytical method validation are- 1. USFDA-2001, Draft guidance-Sept 2013(for small molecules and ligand-binding assay), 2-EMEA-2012(for small molecules and ligand- binding assay), 3-ANVISA (Re 899, RDC 27, 2012). The present review compares and summarizes these regulatory guidelines. This review also discusses evaluation of validation parameters such as selectivity, carry over effect, matrix effect, precision and accuracy, dilution integrity, various stability aspects.
817-823
23
DEVELOPMENT OF HPTLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF EUGENOL IN LAVANGADI VATI - AN AYURVEDIC FORMULATION
Iram Rakhshi, Pawar R. K. and Singh K. C.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, rapid, selective and quantitative HPTLC method has been developed for determination of Eugenol in Ayurvedic formulations of Lavangadi Vati of different manufactures. The alcoholic extract of Lavangadi Vati and Lavanga Flower Bud samples were applied on TLC Aluminium plate pre coated with Silicagel60 GF254 and developed using Toluene: Ethyl acetate (9:1) v/v as a mobile phase. The plate was sprayed (derivatized) with Anisaldehyde-Sulphuric Acid reagent followed by heating at 1100C for 10 minutes and detection and quantification were carried out densitometrically using anUV detector at wavelength of 254 nm. Content of marker compound in the samples were found similar.
824-830
24
A VALIDATED LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC ESTIMATION OF DROTAVERINE IN HUMAN PLASMA
B.Jyothirmai, B. Syama Sundar, Tata Santosh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present work describes a rapid, selective and accurate reverse phase HPLC method for the determination of Drotaverine using Paracetamol as internal standard. The extraction process involved was protein precipitation technique.  Drotaverine and internal standard were eluted under isocratic mode. Best resolution of the drug and internal standard was achieved with a mobile phase of 10mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer and methanol in the ratio of 25:75v/v.  The recovery of Drotaverine 76.41% and of Paracetamol 84.49%.
831-837
25
VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF PANTOPRAZOLE IN PURE AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Madhukara B M, Jose Gnana Babu C, Thamizh Mani T.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, specific, accurate, precise and sensitive reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the quantitation of Pantoprazole in both pure and tablet dosage forms. A Waters XTerra RP18(C-18), 5 µm column having 250×4.6 mm i.d. in isocratic mode with mobile phase containing Acetonitrile: Methanol: Water (40:40:20 v/v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the effluents were monitored at 295 nm. The retention time was 2.9 min. The linearity was in the range of 2-10 µg/ml. This method was validated for linearity, precision, specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, ruggedness and robustness. Statistical analysis proves that the method is reproducible and selective for the estimation of the said drug.
838-842
26
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF THESPESIA POPULNEA LINN AND ANTI -OXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ISOLATED AROMATIC COMPOUND AND ITS DERIVATIVES
Mohini A. Phanse, Manohar J. Patil and Konde Abbulu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Thespesia populnea is used as herbal remedies and is traditionally used as treatment of various diseases. The aim of this study was to provide pharmacognostical data of Thespesia populnea. The compound isolated by column chromatography from hexane extract of bark Thespesia populnea. The anti-oxidant activity of the isolated and synthesized derivative from Thespesia populnea utilizing the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. The compounds displayed promising anti-oxidant activity with an IC50 value of 4.4-4.7 µg/mL.
843-851
27
STATISTICAL OPTIMIZATION OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS FOR ENHANCING THE ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF LODHRA (SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA) BARK AND ITS BIOSAFETY EVALUATION
Henna Sood, Harpreet Kaur and Daljit Singh Arora
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Screening the aqueous extract of Symplocos racemosa bark demonstrated its broad spectrum antimicrobial potential with an average zone of inhibition 12–17mm. Using one-factor-at-a-time approach, 15% concentration, extraction for 20 min at 40 oC and a pH of 3.5 and filtration through Whatman filter paper, were found to be optimal for the best antimicrobial efficacy. Statistical optimization by response surface methodology enhanced the antimicrobial activity upto 1.3 folds. MIC values of the aqueous extract ranged from 5 –15 mg/ml. The viable cell count studies revealed P. aeruginosa to be the most sensitive and got killed instantaneously at 0 h. The aqueous extract was found to be reasonably thermostable at 100 °C for 1 h and had a better shelf life at refrigeration temperature (4 °C). Biosafety evaluation of the aqueous extract showed it to be neither cytotoxic nor mutagenic as revealed by Ames test and MTT assay, thus showing its promise for further pursuance.
852-866
28
2,6-DISUBSTITUTED-4,5,6,7-TETRAHYDROTHIENO[2,3-C]PYRIDINE-3-CARBOXAMIDE DERIVATIVES AS ANTI-MYCOBACTERIAL AGENTS: A 3D QSAR APPROACH
Ranjithreddy Palreddy, Jaheer Mohmed, Reshma Palreddy, Shravan Kumar Gunda
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
3D-QSAR using CoMFA and CoMSIA were developed for a series of 26 2,6-disubstituted 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno[2,3-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide derivatives for prediction of anti-mycobacterial activity. Both COMFA and COMSIA models were obtained with LOO cross-validation q2 values of 0.825 and 0.503 were obtained respectively.  The models were validated by external test set of six compounds with conventional r2 value of 0.971 and 0.920 for CoMFA and CoMSIA analysis respectively. The contour maps from 3D-QSAR CoMFA and CoMSIA models show better interpret the structure activity relationship. Molecular docking studies were also performed to most and least active compounds. 
867-874
29
TRIBAL TREATMENT OF JAUNDICE TRADITIONALLY THROUGH SARGI CHAPDA IN BASTAR, C.G, INDIA
Tuneer Khelkar, Madhavi Tiwari and Nurul Haque
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The paper deals with the traditional treatment of Jaundice through Sargi chapda (Cheeti Chapda) popular among the tribes of Bastar. A survey among villages of Bastar showed that Chapda is used to cure Jaundice. It was found that a species of ant known as Oecophylla smaragdina which contain formic acid when spread on the patient’s body their sting cured Jaundice. Experimentally after adding 2-3 drops of extract of  Chapda to approx.2 ml of dark yellow colored urine obtained from patient suffering from Jaundice, caused increased acidification due to which yellow- greening reaction occurred which concluded that yellow bilirubin was encouraged to oxidize to green biliverdin. Spectrophotometric analysis at 546 nm showed that when 2-3 drops of extract was added to 200 µl of blood serum of patient, concentration of bilirubin declined to 1.008 mg/dl which was 29.808 mg/dl earlier before the extract which concluded that formic acid of   Chapda reduces excess concentration of bilirubin in blood.
875-880
30
VDR- A GENE MARKER TO PREDICT THE TB RESPONSIVENESS OF HUMAN WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO INDIAN POPULATION
Jamsheer A.M, Umesh C.V, Prasad M. Alex, Krishnan Namboori P.K.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported as the genetic signature for proneness of a disease. In the present study, 19 deleterious SNPs have been identified from human VDR gene and can be used as the genetic signature to assess the proneness of attack by mycobacterium tuberculosis. All the SNPs are found to be cis type supporting the possibility of methylation and variation. The SNP rs10735810, has been identified as the common SNP present in major populations of India and can be considered as the genetic signature behind the attack of TB.
881-885
31
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF pH DEPENDENT COLON SPECIFIC PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF LORNOXICAM
Mayuri.B, Rao.S.Pippalla
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Chronotherapeutics is the purposeful delivery of medications in unequal amounts over time during 24 hours. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that follow rhythmic pattern. In the present study attempt has been made to design an oral site-specific, pulsatile drug delivery system containing Lornoxicam. The core tablet containing Lornoxicam(4mg) was prepared by direct compression method using 2 different polymers HPMC E15, HPMC E50 and other excepients. The core tablets were then coated with pH sensitive polymer Eudragit L100 and subjected to in vitro drug release studies and lag time. From the in vitro release it was observed that with all formulations, there was absolutely no drug release in simulated gastric fluid (0.1 N Hcl) for 2 hours and complete drug release was observed after lag time. The optimized formulation (F12) comprising 20mg of HPMC E50 showed a desired lag time of 5.5 hrs, which mimics the fluctuating symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, followed by rapid release of lornoxicam.
886-897
32
BIODIVERSITY OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS FROM TECTONA GRANDIS - LITTER LEAVES AND SOIL IN COMPARISON
Vidhya Doss, Kathiravan Govindarajan, Dhivya Ravichandran, Vardhana Janakiraman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Study revels to characterize the endophytic fungus isolated from litter leaves and soil from Perungalathur hill for their diversity and ecosystem function. Totally 45 species were isolated for two years. They comprised of Zygomycotina (6), Ascomycota (4), Hypomycetes (28) and Coelomycetes (7).The litter samples was divided into 2 active decompositions (sample 1) Leaves and (sample 2) Soil.  Litter leaves are advanced stage of decomposition, usually fragmentary, very thin and tightly compressed, were the funguses are abundant during the South West Monsoon (Jan to Aug). The fungal community is a heterogeneous assembly of species derived a homogenous habitat with a long normal pattern of distribution formed due to the interplay of many independent factors governing the relative abundance of the species. The greater variation in the species composition was due to the North West Monsoon. Taking the average percentage occurrence as colonization efficiency of a taxon it was found that Deuteromycetes were active in that order.
898-902
33
EVALUATION OF TOTAL CONDENSED TANNIN CONTENT AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITIES OF ORGANIC EXTRACTS OF FOUR BANGLADESHI PLANTS ON TUBIFEX TUBIFEX WORM USING IN VITRO METHOD
Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Shabbir Ahmad, Md. Sofi Mahamoud, Md. Abdullah Al Masum, A.T.M. Mostafa Kamal, Md. Akramul Hoque1, Nishan Chakrabarty, Abul Hasanat , Md. Adnan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
To explore the therapeutic effects of methanol extract of roots of Curculigo recurvata W. T. Aiton (Satipata), leaf of Amorphophallus bulbifer (Roxb.) Bl. (Olkachu), leaf of Phyllanthus sikkimensis Muell. Arg. (Dalpata) and whole plant of Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. (Nillata) in anthelmintic (in vitro) and to determine their total condensed tannin content. Roots of C. recurvata , leaf of A. bulbifer, leaf of P. sikkimensis and whole plant of T. grandiflora was extracted with pure methanol, which are tested for anthelmintic activity on aquarium worm Tubifex tubifex by using three concentrations viz., 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/ml of each. Total condensed tannin content determined based on the procedure of Oyedemi et al (2010). Among the four extract, P. sikkimensis exhibited strong anthelmintic activity in vitro. Where it paralyzed (6.48±0.09 min) and produced death (12.26±0.65 min) of the Tubifex tubifex at 10 mg/ml dose near the value of the standard, Levamisole (3.3±0.38 min and 6.5±0.76 min) at 1 mg/ml. The content of condensed tannin well to moderate at all, but P. sikkimensis (45.14±0.5mg catechin/g) contained highest among them. For both of experiment, activity found as follows, P. sikkimensis > A. bulbifer > T. grandiflora > C. recurvata. These findings suggest that P. sikkimensis and A. bulbifer among the four plants may be potential source for the development of new anthelmintic and condensed tannin may one of such phytochemical, which exhibit anthelmintic activity.
903-910
34
LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY - MASS SPECTROMETRY AND ITS APPLICATIONS
Renuka Jajikore, G. Ushasree, A. Ajitha, V. Umamaheswararao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Liquid chromatography is a fundamental separation technique in the life sciences and related fields of chemistry. An LC-MS is an HPLC system with a mass spec detector. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry is now a routine technique with the development of electrospray ionisation providing a simple and robust interface. It can be applied to a wide range of biological molecules and the use of tandem MS and stable isotope internal standards allows highly sensitive and accurate assays to be developed although some method optimisation is required to minimise ion suppression effects.
911-917
35
NANOCARRIER FOR INTRANASAL ADMINISTRATION
Pranita Savardekar, Amrita Bajaj, Anupama Puntambekar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the present research work study was to design, optimize and characterize Nanoemulsion for improved brain transport of the drug. Drug nanoemulsion was optimized using Box Behnken Design. Particle size, zeta potential, and Polydispersity index were measured using Malvern Zetasizer. Morphology of nanoemulsion droplets was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Drug diffusion studies were performed and drug diffused was estimated using UV spectroscopic analysis. Stable nanoemulsions were formulated. The optimized nanoemulsion showed a uniform size distribution in the range of 40-100nm with zeta potential in the range of -18mv to -30 mV. The metered dose intranasal nanoemulsion sprays of Drug will prove as an alternative to conventional intranasal delivery for therapy of bipolar disorders and mania.
918-923
36
ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF FICUS RACEMOSA (L.) IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETES MICE
Chand Sultana, Naznin Ara khatune, A. K. Azad, Bytul Mokaddesur Rahman and Mir Imam Ibne Wahed
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of ethanolic extracts of different parts from the plant Ficus racemosa (FR) in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (100mg/kg) in Swiss Albino Mice. Metformin HCl (150mg/kg body weight, op.) was used as a standard antidiabetic agent. After oral administration of fruits (300 mg/kg) and bark extracts (300 mg/kg), changes in blood sugar levels, body weight and organ weight were measured for seven days. At the end of the experiment blood samples were analyzed for the estimation of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), phospholipid levels and liver glycogen content. The result indicated that oral ingestion of FR extracts significantly reduced blood glucose levels in Group-DFF (50.45%) and Group-DFB (60.53%) when compared to Group-DC mice. Short-term treatment did not alter the body weight among the mice; however the liver weight to body weight ratios were significantly reduced in Group-DFF and Group-DFB. Administration of extracts greatly reduced the serum cholesterols, triglycerides, phospholipids levels and the glycogen content were significantly restored in Group-DFF and Group-DFB as compared to Group-DC mice. Our findings suggested that extracts from different parts of Ficus racemosa have glucose and lipid lowering efficacy and may have some beneficial effects in patients with diabetes.
924-929
37
GREEN SYNTHESIS OF NICOTINIC ACID HYDRAZIDE SCHIFF BASES AND ITS BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION
Vidya Desai, Rachana Shinde
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A series of biologically active nicotinic acid hydrazide schiff bases have been synthesized from nicotinic acid hydrazide and variety of aldehydes using lemon juice as natural catalyst, in moderate to good yields. The schiff bases synthesized, exhibited excellent anti-tubercular activity in comparison to standard drugs used.
930-935
38
Efficacy of ormeloxifene in dysfunctional uterine bleeding: a boon too many
Thapa Shreya, Agrawal Rani Nisha, Chaubey Lavina
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A prospective study was conducted after ethical clearance to evaluate the efficacy of Ormeloxifene in the medical management of DUB in a Tertiary care hospital. The study included 60 women with DUB who underwent baseline assessment and were then treated with Ormeloxifene 60 mg orally twice a week for 12 weeks, followed by once a week for next 12 weeks. The efficacy of the study drug was analyzed by comparing the baseline and post treatment PABC score, menstrual cycle pattern, haemoglobin level, endometrial thickness and satisfaction with treatment. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. There was statistically significant decrease in median PABC score and endometrial thickness. The mean haemoglobin level difference was not statistically significant. The menstrual pattern regularized in 90.4% patients. There was 100% satisfaction with the treatment. Thus Ormeloxifene, a non-steroidal, non-hormonal agent, with its convenient dose schedule provides effective and favourable medical management option with least side effects, suitable for the treatment of DUB.
936-942
39
An Ethnicity Based Assessment of Adverse Drug Reactions Due To Antibiotics -Anti microbials Usage in India
Ram Krishna Prasad, D. Satyawati, Fatima Tahniyath, P. Neehar, Narayani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
To assess and evaluate the suspected ADRs reported among two ethnic groups with use of antibiotic (antimicrobials) medications. A prospective observational study was conducted over a period of approximately 2 years on inpatient population involving two ethnic groups ; Santhals and Chaush tribe attending Rajendra Institute of Medical Science (RIMS) situated in Ranchi, Jharkhand state, India and Axon hospital situated in Hyderabad, Telangana state, India. Non-statistical significance in odds for number of suspected ADRs for both ethnic groups (OR 0.99, 95% CI: 0.78 - 1.27). The study found no difference and events were preventable as per Schumocks and Thorontons criteria. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality, susceptibility varies with genetic make-up, age, sex, physiology, exogenous factors, and disease state as ethnic groups are more susceptible during treatment. Here Ethnic group may act as a marker for underlying genetic or environmental differences.
943-952
40
IN SILICO ANALYSIS, MODELING, DOCKING AND PHARMACOPHORE STUDIES OF PROTEINS INVOLVED IN AUTO IMMUNE MALADIES (RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS)
G. Prathima, A. Ravindernath, P. Raja Rao, P. Sahithi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cytokine networks participate with paracrine and autocrine loops maintaining cellular activation in the synovial intimal lining. In rheumatoid arthritis inflammatory changes occur throughout the connective tissues of the body. The most useful medications in relieving the pain and disability of rheumatoid arthritis with anti-inflammatory properties are aspirin and ibuprofen. The present project was focused on study of anti-rheumatoid arthritis activity of bioactive compounds.In the present study, homology modeling, mutagenesis, docking studies were carried out with some of the selected bioactive compounds.PDB latest version was used to identify the target protein, obtain sequence from protein sequence data bank and homology modeling for the target protein was done using modeler 9.14 version and MOE 2008. version. Docking studies using molecular operating environment program revealed that Ellagic acid, Curcuminoid and Methyl gallate possess anti rheumatoid arthritis activity. Further, pharmacophore mapping studies were performed using DISCOVERY STUDIO on these compounds in order to identify the pharmacophoric feature responsible for the observed activity of the compounds.
953-960
41
ACUTE TOXICITY, SPECTROSCOPIC AND MOLECULAR MODELING STUDIES OF SCHIFF BASE DERIVED FROM L-METHIONINE AND 2-HYDROXY-1-NAPHTHALDEHYDE
Wasfi A. Al-Masoudi, Mohammed A. Al-Diwan and Jalal A. Mojbal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Condensation 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde 1 with L-methionine 2 yielded E-((2)-(((2-hydroxynapthalene-1-yl)ethylene)amino)-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid 3 in a good yield. The synthesized compound was characterized by elemental analysis, IR and 1H, 13C, HSQC, HMBC and ROSY NMR spectroscopy. The toxicity study of the synthesized analogue 3 was assayed for its LD50 value by using Dixon,s up and down method, which exhibited value of 477 mg / kg of body weight. Molecular modeling studies were performed, showing the hydrogen bending and hydrophobic interactions.
961-969
42
Biological evaluation of some new 1,3-benzothiazole-2-yl derivatives containing pyrazole moiety
Deepa Chauhan, A. A.Siddiqui, Rajkumari Kataria, Dr. Robin Singh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A series of 2-[3-(substituted phenyl)-4-formylpyrazol-1-yl]-6-nitro benzothiazole derivatives (5a-g) have been synthesized through Vilsmeier-Haack reaction on hydrazones (4a-g) of appropriate substituted aromatic ketones with 6-nitro-benzothiazol-2-yl hydrazine under microwave irradiation in fairly good yields. Structural assignments of the synthesized compounds were based on their IR, 1HNMR, mass spectral studies and elemental analysis. Those compounds were also screened for their in vitro antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae and antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. Some of the compounds exhibited promising antibacterial and antifungal activities as compared to reference drugs Norfloxacin and ketoconazole.
970-975
43
A VALIDATED STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF TOBRAMYCIN AND CEFTAZIDIME IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS
N.V.V. Jagan Mohan Reddy and S. Ganapaty
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The proposed study, a new stability- indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed for estimation of Tobramycin and Ceftazidime in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form.The present method was a sensitive, precise, and accurate RP-HPLC method for the analysis of Tobramycin and Ceftazidime. To optimize the mobile phase, various combinations of buffer and organic solvents were used on Hypersil BDS C18 (250mm x 4.6 mm, 5m) column. Then the mobile phase containing a mixture of Phosphate Buffer:Acetonitrile in the ratioof 55:45%v/v was selected at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min for developing the method and the peaks with good shape and resolution were found resulting in short retention time, baseline stability and minimum noise. The retention times of Tobramycin and Ceftazidime were found to be 4.255 and 2.823 min respectively. . Quantitative linearity was obeyed in the concentration range of 7.5-30 and 62.5-375 mg/mL of Tobramycin and Ceftazidime respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.020 mg/mL and 0.061mg/mL (TOBRA);0.246 mg/mL and 0.746 mg/mL (CEFTA) respectively, which indicates the sensitivity of the method. The high percentage recovery indicates that the proposed method is highly accurate. No interfering peaks were found in the chromatogram indicating that excipients used in injection formulations did not interfere with the estimation of the drugs by the proposed HPLC method.
976-984
44
Antibacterial activity on some gram positive and gram negative bacteria and antihelmintic activity on Tubifex tubifex worm of methanol extract of Macaranga denticulata (MUELL. ARG.) bark.
Kazi Ashfak Ahmed Chowdhury, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Tanvir Ahmad Chowdhury, Mahmudul Hasan, Syed Md. Abdul Kader, Md. Shahidul Alam, Javed Hossain, Md. Shakhawat Hossain, Abul Hasanat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study was to evaluate antibacterial activity on three Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria and antihelmintic activity on Tubifex tubifex worm of methanol extract of M. denticulata (Muell. Arg.) bark. The extract showed zone of inhibition in highest concentration of 900 mg/ml against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (8mm), Bacillus subtilis (12mm), Bacillus cereus(8mm)and Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella typhi (12mm), Salmonella paratyphi (Nil), Escherichia coli (13mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11mm).M. denticulata bark extract exhibited strong anthelmintic activity in vitro. Where it paralyzed (6.52 apx 0.53 min) and produced death (12.36 apx0.81 min) of the Tubifex tubifex at 20 mg/ml dose near the value of the standard, Levamisole (3.3,0.38 min and 6.5 apx 0.76 min) at 1 mg/ml. So methanol extract of M. denticulata barks showed moderate antibacterial activity and well antihelmintic activity.
985-990
45
A VALIDATED STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TENOFOVIR DISOPROXIL FUMARATE, COBICISTAT, EMTRICITABINE AND ELVITEGRAVIR IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
N. Khaleel, Sk. Abdul Rahaman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new simple, precise, selective, accurate and rapid RP-HPLC stability indicating method had been developed and validated for simultaneous quantitative determination of Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Cobicistat, Emtricitabine and Elvitegravir in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form using Kromasil C18 (250x4.6 mm, 5um) in isocratic mode. The optimized mobile phase consists of Orthophosphoric acid buffer: Acetonitrile (55:45 %v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and eluents were detected at 240 nm using PDA detector. The method was linear in the range of 20 -120 ug/ml for Emtricitabine, 30-180 ug/ml for Tenofovir, 15-90 ug/ml for Cobicistat and 15-90 ug/ml for Elvitegravir. Degradation studies were studied for Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Cobicistat, Emtricitabine and Elvitegravir under various stress conditions, all the degradation peaks were resolved effectively using developed method with different retention times. The developed method was validated according to ICH guidelines.
991-1002
46
In vitro drug-drug interaction study between Montelukast Sodium and Amlodipine Besylate at gastric and intestinal pH
Kazi Ashfak Ahmed Chowdhury, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Tanvir Ahmad Chowdhury, Mohammed Munawar Hossain, A.T.M. Mostafa Kamal, Md. Rafi-Uz-Zaman Akanda, Abul Hasanat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Present study was aimed to evaluate the in vitro complexation nature and strength of complex which may be formed due to interaction between Montelukast Sodium and Amlodipine Besylate. The interaction of Montelukast Sodium and Amlodipine Besylate has been studied in aqueous systems at a fixed temperature (370C) at both gastric pH (pH 1.0 and pH 3.0) and intestinal pH (pH 6.5 and pH 6.8) by using some physical methods as spectral observation, Jobs method of continuous variation, Ardons method. From spectrophotometric study, Montelukast Sodium and Amlodipine Besylate give different spectra when Montelukast Sodium mixed with Amlodipine Besylate in 1:1 ratio the intensity of the spectra of Montelukast Sodium change remarkably due to interaction. The jobs plot was obtained by plotting absorbance difference against the mole fraction of the each drug at pH 1.0, pH 3.0, pH 6.5 and pH 6.8. Montelukast Sodium strong 1:1 complex with Amlodipine Besylate and lower spectra indicate the formation of 1:1 complexes of Montelukast Sodium with Amlodipine Besylate. These may indicate strong kinetics of complexation between Montelukast Sodium with Amlodipine Besylate. The value of stability constant for the complexation of Montelukast Sodium with Amlodipine Besylate at pH 1.0, pH 3.0, pH 6.5 and pH 6.8 were obtained from the spectral data using Ardons plot. The value of stability constant for the drug-drug system at pH pH 1.0, pH 3.0, pH 6.5 and pH 6.8 are 1.9412, 2.0323, 2.0952 and 2.2203 respectively. At pH 6.8 it is found that Montelukast Sodium form relatively stable complex with Amlodipine Besylate (stability constant 2.2203) is high in comparison to pH 1. It can therefore be concluded that a careful consideration is needed during concurrent administration of Montelukast Sodium with Amlodipine Besylate.
1003-1009