Volume 5 - Issue 4

S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CHRONIC VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AND INCIDENCE OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS IN ADULT POPULATION IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL
Mubarak Nasser Al Ameri, Emad Makramalla, Umnya Albur, Anil Kumar, Ahmad Atta Sultan and Haytham Salem.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Vitamin D, commonly known as sunshine vitamin, is both indispensable and vital for human beings. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is on the rise globally including the sunny regions such as in the UAE. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between the degree of chronic vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor of the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among adult populations. This is a single-centre observational retrospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary hospital in the UAE. It was mainly based on reviewing the electronic data-base and medical records of all chronic patients that match the inclusion criteria. The inclusion criteria of this study included all adult patients aged between 18 and 55 years old, tested for vitamin D level, visited the practice at least three times in the past year. The exclusion criteria included renal failure patients, patients who had malabsorption disorders and those with T2DM risk factors. A sample size of 35,000 adult patients who were screened in a period of 12 months for vitamin D level was selected using the lab database. Patients were checked against the inclusion criteria and of them, only 391 patients met the inclusion criteria. Other diabetes risk factors such as obesity, family history, pre-diabetes, presence of co-existing hypertension and dyslipidemia were also reviewed and excluded. The results of this study showed that a total of 56 patients [14% (95% CI 10.56- 17.44)] had normal results compared to 335 patients [86% (95% CI 82.56-89.44)] who had a chronic vitamin D deficiency. In addition, the results showed that 17% (95% CI 13.28- 20.72) of the 391 patients had mild vitamin D deficiency (VDD), 31% (95% CI 26.42- 35.58) moderate VDD and 38% (95% CI 33.2- 42.8) severe VDD. A total of 32% of patients with severe vitamin D deficiency developed diabetes compared to only 16% from patients with normal vitamin D deficiency and statistically showed significant difference from all other VDD groups as to developing T2DM. This indicates that the more the severity of vitamin D deficiency, the more the susceptibility to develop T2DM. Of a note, in the prevalence of severe chronic VDD, female patients showed significantly higher percentage (61%) of VDD compared to their male counterparts (39%). According to the results of this study, there is a clear relation between severe vitamin D deficiency and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas, mild and moderate VDD showed no difference from normal.

1010-1019
2
IN VITRO ASSESSMENT OF THE ANTIOXIDANT AND ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORY ACTIVITIES OF FICUS NOTA (BLANCO) MERR.
Karen Gem D. Ares, Christelle Venus F. Capuno, Hannah Krizzia M. Cortes, Alyssa Trizia L. Cristi, Hilton Cedrick L. Cutero, Gamaliel P. Galigao, Librado A. Santiago, Sandra C. Sy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ficus species are known to exhibit neuroprotective activity and to some extent show acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The aims of the study are to assess the antioxidant activity of the crude methanolic extract of the leaves of Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr. using scavenging assays for hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide radical, and hydrogen peroxide, and its acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity using Ellman\'s method. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids, polyphenols, and glycosides, and the total phenolic content (TPC) was found to be 3.448 mg/g GAE. The extract showed stimulatory activity towards hydrogen peroxide. On the other hand, inhibitory activity towards nitric oxide and hydroxyl radicals was exhibited in a decreasing trend. Furthermore, AChE activity was inhibited by the extract at low concentrations. The methanolic crude extract of the leaves of Ficus nota (Blanco) Merr. has pro-oxidant and AChE inhibitory activities. With these, the plant may be explored as a potential pharmaceutical substance in the future.
1020-1025
3
EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CASSIA AREREH (CAESALPINIACEAE) EXTRACTS AGAINST FREE RADICAL-INDUCED OXIDATIVE HAEMOLYSIS
Laure Brigitte KOUITCHEU MABEKU, Thibau Flaurant TCHOUANGUEU, Emmanuel TALLA, Jacques KOUAM
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In this study, the cellular and non cellular antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of the methanol and ethyl acetate extract of Cassia arereh leaves were evaluated. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of the plant extracts and the standard (ascorbic acid and gallic acid) were assessed through DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide scavenging activity and reducing power at various concentrations ranging from 1.62 to 200 mg/ml. For cellular antioxidant assay, we evaluated the haemolysis and the haematoprotective effect of Cassia arereh against hydrogen peroxide-mediated cytotoxicity of red blood cells (RBCs) induced with CuSO4/H2O2. Total polyphenol and flavonoid content of extracts were also determined using colorimetric methods. DPPH assay showed IC 50 values of 4.27 Plus or Minus 0.9 and 3.21 Plus or Minus 0.55 mg/ml respectively for methanol and ethyl acetate extract, instead of 12.5 Plus or Minus 2.99 ug/ml for standard. Methanol extract (IC50 = 41.597 Plus or Minus 7.46 mg/ml) had a significantly higher reducing power than the ethyl acetate one (IC50 = 238.89 Plus or Minus 26.56 mg/ml). The reducing power of the methanol extract was found to be not significantly different from standards. Our results showed a non significant decrease in the nitric oxide radical production due to the extracts compared to ascorbic acid or gallic acid. It was also found that, the methanol extract (IC50 = 17.06 Plus or Minus 0.82 mg/ml) was significantly more effective than that of ethyl acetate (IC50 = 76.34 Plus or Minus 3.4 mg/ml) as hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Both extracts induced haemolysis of sheep RBCs in a dose dependant-manner. Incubation of RBCs with extracts before exposing them to CuSO4/H2O2 reduced the hydrogen peroxide-mediated cytotoxicity of RBCs respectively by 30.71 and 34.75 %, for methanol and ethyl acetate extracts after one hour. The antihaemolytic activity decreased with time for all the tested products. These results demonstrate the antioxidant properties of Cassia arereh and reveal that methanol is the best extractant for antioxidant agents of this plant.
1026-1036
4
SYNTHESIS OF SOME D-GLUCOSE LINKED 1,2,3-TRIAZOLES AS UREASE INHIBITORS
Zeyad Kadhem oleiwi, Ezzat Hussein Zimam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This research include synthesis of some new 1,2,3-triazole from D-glucose .The synthesis was started by preparation of phenyl propargyl ether derivative from the reaction of phenol with propargyl bromide . The second step of synthesis was performed by the click reaction of glycosyl azide of protected glucose with acetylenic ether to form 1,2,3-triazole derivatives. The biological activity of synthesized compounds were tested against urease activity. Some of these compounds (T1, T2,Tr3) show high inhibition action on the enzyme activity , while (T4)do not show any effect on the activity .
1037-1047
5
THE CARDIOACTIVE SCREENING OF THE EXTRACT FROM THE BARK OF STROPHANTHUS CUMINGII A.DC. (APOCYNACEAE) USING ISOLATED FROG HEART
Maribeth R. Laurente, Mafel C. Ysrael
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Strophanthus cumingii A. DC. (Apocynaceae) is one of two endemic Strophanthus species in the Philippines the bark of which is used as an arrow poison [1]. Strophanthus species used for this purpose are known to contain cardiac glycoside strophanthin in the bark and seeds [2]. This study determined the cardioactivity of the bark extract S. cumingii and its sub-fractions on isolated frog hearts. The hexane fraction was the most cardioactive with a maximum of 30.58% increase in the force of contraction and 38.24% increase in the frequency of contraction. The non-polar fraction of the crude extract from the bark of S. cumingii elicited a positive inotropic and negative chronotropic effect on the isolated frog hearts.
1048-1050
6
CYTOTOXICITY AND IN VITRO ANTIAMOEBIC ACTIVITY OF SENNA DIDYMOBOTRYA CRUDE ROOT EXTRACTS IN COMPARISON WITH METRONIDAZOLE AGAINST ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA
Lydia Bonareri Nyamwamu, Moses Ngeiywa, Margaret Mulaa, Agola Eric Lelo, Johnstone Ingonga, Albert Kimutai, Michael Gicheru
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The cytotoxicity and an in vitro antiamoebic effect of Senna didymobotrya (Irwin Fresen) were studied. 300g of crushed S. didymobotrya was isolated in several solvents namely Dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, hexane and water extracts. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and IC50 of the extracts in comparison with metronidazole were then obtained on trophozoite of E. histolytica, HM-1: IMSS strain in LYI-S-2 medium. The MIC for S. didymobotrya dichloromethanolic, methanolic successive, hexanic and water extracts after 48 hours was 500mg/ml each while methanolic total had a MIC of 250mg/ml. MIC for metronidazole was 62.5mg/ml whereas ethyl acetate was inactive. The IC50 for S. didymobotrya dichloromethanolic, methanolic total, methanolic successive, hexanic and water extracts was 2.15, 3.63, 0.3, 0.46, 0.12 and 0.58 respectively. The IC50 for metronidazole was 0.03. Senna didymobotrya is effective on the trophozoites of E. histolytica species and the methanolic total extract exhibited the greatest antiamoebic activity, at the lowest MIC.
1051-1057
7
SCREENING OF IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT, BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF EXTRACTS OF BRIDELIA RETUSA (L.) SPRENG. FRUIT
Tufikul Islam, Mohammad Raquibul Hasan, Aumit Roy, Md. Shafiqul Islam, Md. Afaz Uddin, Md. Ariful Islam, Md. Nuruzzaman Neon, Md. Sohel Rana
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of present study was to investigate the antioxidant, brine shrimp lethality and antimicrobial activities of Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng. fruit using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. Several methods were used for assessing antioxidant activity. In total phenol content determination methanolic extract showed highest value of 134.5 mg/g as Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE). N-hexane extract showed highest total flavonoid content with 60.50 Plus or Minus 4.95 mg/gm as Quarcetin Equivalent (QE). Methanolic extract showed highest tannin content with 652.50 Plus or Minus 3.53 mg/gm as Tannic Acid Equivalent (TAE) and total anti-oxidant capacity with 236.00 Plus or Minus 36.78 mg/gm as Ascorbic Acid Equivalent (AAE). Methanolic extracts showed good DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 168.757 mg/mL. Ethyl acetate extract showed highest reducing capacity in CUPRAC test. Methanolic extracts showed good cytotoxic activity with IC50 value of 20 mg/ml in brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In antimicrobial assay extracts showed poor activity. Further studies are needed to isolate active compounds.
1058-1067
8
DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF POLYHERBAL ENTOBAN CAPSULES
Sadia Shakeel, Zeeshan Ahmed Sheikh, Somia Gul, Khan Usmanghani
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The present study was conducted to develop and evaluate the quality control parameters of polyherbal Entoban capsules to reassure the safety and efficacy of developed dosage form. The flow property of powdered extract was evaluated by determining bulk density, tap density, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio and angle of repose. Various physicochemical parameters including weight variation and disintegration time were calculated. Alkaloids, tanning agents and microbial limit of the polyherbal formulation were also evaluated. The powder showed good flow property. Average weight of 20 capsules was between 450 mg and 550 mg (with a mean of 506 mg Plus or Minus 10%). The maximum time for disintegration was 6 min. Both the alkaloids and tanning agents were within the specified limits. The developed formulation was in compliance of the permissible microbial limits. In the present study, the developed Entoban capsules were consistent with identity, quality, and purity specifications. So it can be concluded that developed formulation would provide an opportunity to validate its traditional claim regarding its therapeutic efficacy.
1068-1072
9
A REVIEW ON THE PREVALENCE OF COMPLICATIONS IN CHRONIC RENAL FAILUE
Mohammad Arief, Harika Bheemavarapu, Kiran Nilugul, Gunalaksmi Ramachandran
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The declination of glomerular filtration (e-GFR) rate in CKD patients, eventually leads to renal failure which is the leading source to develop cardiovascular diseases. It is estimated that about 40-50% of all deaths in the end-stage renal disease population are of cardiovascular origin. The association between renal deficiencies and cardiovascular disease were conformed in large scale studies like HOPE and HOT. Even, the US Renal Data System (2013) reveals that about 43% and 15% patients with renal complications are affected with heart failure and myocardial infarction respectively. In the current article we aimed to review the literature on the prevalence rate of various types of cardiovascular complications and non-cardiovascular complications such as hypertension, arterial vascular disease, atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure and diabetes among India community. The study also focuses on the role of novel and traditional risk factors of patients having the chronic kidney diseases. Framingham risk score supports the traditional risk factors whereas the novel risk factors include the level of homocycteine, C-reactive protein and lipoprotein.
1073-1078
10
ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PATTERN OF BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM ICU PATIENTS WITH URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS
Rumana Ferdousi, Syeda Najah Narjish, Dipjoy Chowdhury, Mohammad Shahriar
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This study has assessed the resistance pattern of common respiratory pathogens among the hospitalized ICUs patients. A total number of 51 clinical samples were collected of which 33 (64.71%) were from male and 18 (35.29%) were from female. Out of 51 samples, 45 (88.24%) samples yielded growth while no bacterial pathogen was isolated from rest 6 (11.76%) samples. The common infecting organisms isolated in this study were Staphylococcus aureus (n=27, 36.98%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=27, 36.98%), followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=10, 13.69%), Salmonela enterica (n=5, 6.85%), Serrata marcescens (n=1, 1.37%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=1, 1.37%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n=1, 1.37%), Enterobacter aerogenes (n=1, 1.37%). Most of the isolates were 100% resistant to Penicillin, Ceftazidime, Ceftriaxone, Tetracycline, Cotrimoxazole and Piperacillin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus show good sensitivity to all of the examined antibiotics. More specifically, Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed 100% sensitivity to Levofloxacin, Nalidixic acid, Cefotaxim, Piperacillin and Ceftriaxone.
1079-1086
11
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PRELIMINARY ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THREE DIFFERENT PLANT EXTRACTS
Mohammad Nazmul Alam, Md. Hasibur Rahman, Md. Jainul Abeden, Md. Faruk, Md. Shahrear Biozid, Sudipta Chowdhury, Md. Rafikul Islam, Mohammed Abu Sayeed
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Disk diffusion method was performed to evaluate the ex-vivo comparative study of preliminary antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of Thunbergia grandiflora, Breynia retusa and Nymphaea capensis leaves. Among the three plants, T. grandiflora and N. capensis showed more antibacterial activity than B. retusa. T. grandiflora showed its highest activity against a gram positive bacterium Bacillus cereus with the inhibition ring of 17 mm in diameter at 1000 mg/disc. In case of B. retusa, highest activity was found against the gram negative bacterium Salmonella typhi which is 16 mm at 1000 mg/disc. N. capensis exhibited its highest antibacterial activity against the gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli which is 19 mm at 1000 mg/disc.
1087-1090
12
COMPARISON OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE TOWARDS PHARMACOVIGILANCE BETWEEN INDUSTRIAL AND HOSPITAL PHARMACISTS
Sunita Kumari, Palaniappan Senthilkumar
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Pharmacist's knowledge and expertise is important to the application of drug safety profile. Pharmacists are more likely to detect adverse drug reactions than other healthcare professionals. The main objective of the study is to assess the knowledge and attitude of industry and hospital pharmacist towards pharmacovigilance and also to find out the effect of educational intervention towards the knowledge, attitude and participation in reporting adverse drug reactions at tertiary care hospital in New Delhi. This study was conducted by using validated KAP questionnaire. Out of 230 pharmacists responded, 115 were from the industry and 115 from the hospital. The overall response shows that industrial pharmacist are better in terms of knowledge, practice and attitude towards pharmacovigilance because of their regular training and updates. Hospital pharmacists lack awareness about pharmacovigilance and needs to update their knowledge and practice. There is a regular need for educational intervention. After intervention, a significant improvement in the knowledge, attitude and practice towards pharmacovigilance was observed among hospital pharmacists.
1091-1102
13
PREVALENCE OF MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT BACTERIA IN (PIPER BETEL L) LEAF WASHED-WATER OF THE ROAD SIDE PAN STALL IN NORTH BENGAL
Swapan Kumar Chowdhury
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The current study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria in Betel (Piper betel L) leaf washed-water of the road side pan stall in North Bengal. This study deals with the determining of coliform counts through MPN test, total heterotrophic load of bacteria, isolation and identification of the Bacteria through plating on different selective medium and determination of multiple antibiotic resistance Bacteria. MPN test shows that sample -2, sample-5 and sample-6 gives positive results. Total heterotrophic load of sample 1 was 5.85 ? 10 5 colony forming unit per milliliter (cfu/ml), sample 2 was 6.64 ? 10 5 cfu/ml, sample 3 was 27.8 ? 10 5 cfu/ml, sample 4 was 12.1 ? 10 5 cfu/ml, and sample 5 was 23.2 ? 10 5 cfu/ml. Many antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria are found in leaf wash-water. Significance and impact of this study is to create awareness among the common peoples who are chewing pan regularly.
1103-1115
14
BACTERIAL PROFILE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN GYNAECOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF A PRIVATE HOSPITAL
Aiswarya Purushothaman, Sanjai Krishna S
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infection in pregnancy. An untreated Urinary tract infection can lead to increased risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Urinary tract infection in pregnant women, causative organism and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of isolated uropathogens. The study was conducted in the Gynaecology department of a single speciality private hospital for a study period of 6 months and sample size of 160 patients. Urine samples of the sample population were undergone for microscopic and culture and sensitivity tests. Majority of sample population affected Urinary tract infection were between an age group of 20-29 years (58%) and the incidence of infection was common in third (51%) and second (32%) trimesters. Escherichia coli [102(64%)] was the commonest bacterial pathogen isolated and others were Klebsiella pneumonia [29(18%)], Pseudomonas aeruginosa [13(8%)], Staphylococcus aureus [9(6%)] and Proteus mirabilis [7(4%)] . Levofloxacin had the highest overall antibiotic sensitivity of 83% followed by Ofloxacin (80%) ,Ceftriaxone (77%),Ciprofloxacin(74%), Amikacin (67.5%), Gentamycin (46%), Nitrofurantoin (38%), Amoxicillin- clavulanate (26%), Amoxicillin (15%), Doxycyclin (7%), Clotrimoxazole (7%).
1116-1120
15
UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF LEVOCETERIZINE IN BULK AND DOSAGE FORMS
B. Koteswara Rao, K.R.Manjula , M. Nageswara Rao, C. Ram Babu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present study, a simple, precise, accurate and low cost U.V. spectrophotometric method is developed for the determination of Levoceterizine in bulk and dosage forms. The absorbance of aqueous Levoceterizine solutions are measured by UV- visible spectrophotometer at a wave length of 230 nm. This method obeys Beer's Law in the concentration range of 5-17.5 mg/mL in aqueous media. As per linearity studies, the correlation coefficient, slope and standard deviations are 0.9998, 0.029 and 0.1772 respectively. The % recovery of the assay of the drug in the sample in this method is 99.2 and the method is sensitive in presence of the excipients in the dosage form. According to ICH guidelines the linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ are studied and the method is validated. Hence, the present method is suitable for the accurate, precise, sensitive and low cost determination of Levoceterizine in pure and formulations.
1121-1125
16
EXTENDED SYNTHESIS OF STORAGE PROTEINS IN SILKWORM BOMBYX MORI IN RESPONSE TO JUVENILE HORMONE ANALOGUE (JHA) TREATMENT
Santhy K Sivanandan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The female silkworm, Bombyx mori, rapidly accumulates two storage proteins in the haemolymph that are synthesized by the fat body during the final stage of the last larval instar. This is then sequestered from the haemolymph in to the fat body during larval -pupal transformation. Application of Methoprene (Manta) at low concentration ranging from 0.1 mg -1 mg on the third day was found to prolong the larval period by two days in a dose dependent manner which resulted in the prolonged synthesis of storage proteins as evidenced by the SDS -PAGE and densitometric scanning of haemolymph proteins. A corresponding decline in the storage protein concentration was observed in the fat body samples in lieu of the late sequestration. The prolonged synthesis of storage protein in the study was found to have an indirect impact on the silk as observed in enhanced silk production.
1126-1131
17
NEUROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS
Shobana A/P Segaran, Nesan Kumar A/L Asokumaran
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a type of disease which is characterized by a disorder of the brain in which the memory and thinking skills are slowly destroyed. This makes it difficult for a person to carry out the simplest task. It is also a type of dementia. Until now still there is no perfect cure for Alzheimer's disease. Drugs are available only to reduce or eliminate the symptoms of this disease. In this review article, Alzheimer's disease will be explained briefly along with its symptoms. Most importantly, since the treatment related to this disease is very crucial, plants or plant extracts which can be used to treat Alzheimer's disease will be discussed.
1132-1138
18
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF AZITHROMYCIN IN FIXED DOSAGE FORM
J. Raghuram, N. Appalaraju, V. Kiran Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, precise, rapid and accurate reverse phase HPLC method was developed for the estimation of Azithromycin in tablet dosage form.Xterra RP 18 (250x4.6mm, 5m particle size), with mobile phase consisting of ortho-phosphori acid:methanol 70:30 V/V was used. The flow rate 1.0 ml/min and the effluents were monitored at 205 nm.The retention time and Recovery time was 12 minutes. The detector response was linear in the concentration of 25-275 mg/mL.The respective linear regression equation being Y= 1228.302 x+5230.5524. The limit of detection and limit of quantification was 12.5mcg and 37.5mcg/ml respectively. The percentage assay of Azithromycin was 98.0%. The method was validated by determining its accuracy, precision and system suitability.The results of the study showed that the proposed RP-HPLC method is simple, rapid, precise and accurate, which is useful for the routine determination of Azithromycin in bulk drug and in its pharmaceutical dosage form.
1139-1143
19
SUBLINGUAL SPRAY: A BOOST TO NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Karishma Yogeshkumar Halatwala, Devarshi Shah, R. K. Parikh
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Sublingual dosage form is to be placed under the tongue and produce immediate systemic effect by enabling the drug absorbed directly through mucosal lining of the mouth beneath the tongue which is very reach to vascular blood supply. Here the sublingual spray is to be sprayed for faster onset of action. The absorption of drug through sublingual route is 3-10 times greater than that given oral route. Main advantages include elimination of first pass effect, rapid drug absorption, high efficacy, large surface area, drug stability, ease of termination of therapy and many more. Drug directly go to the arterial circulation by sublingual vein and capillaries and then to jugular vein and then to the Superior vena cava. Pharmaceutical preparations for sublingual administration are manufactured in the forms of: tablets, drops, film, and sprays. Therefore current write up is focused on anatomical structure of sublingual route, its blood supply, mechanism of drug absorption, advantages and disadvantages of sublingual spray with their marketed formulation has been discussed.
1144-1148
20
IN-VIVO PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF CITRUS HYSTRIX
Laboni Barai, Rumana Akhter, Uddipon Aziz, Mohammad Ali, Mohammad Shahriar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was done to evaluate in vivo anti-pyretic, gastrointestinal motility, anti-nociceptive and acute toxicity effect of different leaf extracts of Citrus hystrix in Swiss albino mice following oral administration. In vivo anti-pyretic test of methanol and ethanol extracts of Citrus hystrix leaf was done brewer's yeast method; GI motility test was done by charcoal induced anti motility test, anti-nociceptive activity was tested by acetic acid induced writhing method and tail immersion method, acute toxicity study was done by investigating mortality/morbidity status of test animal. Statistically significant (pless than 0.05) result was found in case of in vivo anti-nociceptive activity test for the 100 mg/kg methanol extract when compared to standard diclofenac-Na. None of the extracts showed any significant in vivo acute toxicity effect on mice. This plants leaf extracts exhibit some antipyretic activity and significant anti-nociceptive activity without inducing any discernible acute toxicity effect.
1149-1154
21
A STUDY OF PREVAILING SCENARIO OF FIXED-DOSE DRUG COMBINATIONS (FDCs) AVAILABLE IN INDIAN MARKET
Sumit Patel, Rima Shah, Dr.Sagun Desai
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Aim: To study the prevailing scenario of FDCs available in Indian market. Methodology: This was an observational, analytical and cross sectional study. This study involved analysis of currently available FDCs in Indian Drug Review (IDR) for essentiality and rationality. Information about number of drugs per FDC, their dosage form, ingredients, category, essentiality and rationality of FDCs was collected. Results: A total of 16599 drugs and 6485 (39.07%) FDCs were present in IDR. More than four ingredients were found in 102 (1.56%) FDCs. The highest number of drugs and FDCs were found in category of antimicrobial drugs. More than 70% FDCs were found to irrational. Conclusion: In India, irrational FDCs are freely available. There is a concern regarding the production, prescription, and use of irrational FDCs. Considering the enormous use of drugs in Indian population, it is high time that pharmaceutical companies, health care professionals and regulatory authorities join hands and prescribe guidelines for the manufacture and sale of FDCs.
1155-1163
22
INSOMNIA AND DRUGS USED: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND DRUG UTILIZATION STUDY IN PSYCHIATRY UNIT OF A TEACHING HOSPITAL
Swati Mishra, Suvendu N.Mishra, Monalisa Jena, S.S.Mishra
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Insomnia, currently the most prevalent sleep disorder characterised by difficulty in initiating and maintaining sleep. Several studies have been carried out in different populations regarding use of medications for its treatment; however there is need for more studies aimed at taking a closer look on the drugs used in our population. Hence, this study was carried out to observe the utilization pattern of drugs for insomnia in our hospital. A prospective observational drug utilization study of 252 patients of both sexes and all ages suffering from insomnia attending the Psychiatry outpatient department was carried out as per WHO - DUS(world health organisation- Drug utilisation study) and DSM-V guidelines. It involved administering a Proforma to consenting subjects whose psychiatric diagnoses were ascertained using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-V. One hundred twenty patients out of two hundred fifty two patients were from age group 25-45 years and thirty seven patients were above 65 years. Average number of drugs for insomnia per prescription was not more than two. Most commonly prescribed drug were Clonazepam 50(13.9%) followed by Lorazepam 39(10.8%). The newer benzodiazepines like Zolpidem, Zaleplon were also commonly used but Eszopiclone 6(1.67%) was the least commonly used drug. The study concludes the prevalence of insomnia in younger age groups and association of it with other disorders. Benzodiazepines and newer non-benzodiazepine hypnotics were the most frequently used drugs for treating insomnia in our population.
1164-1169
23
FROM EVOLUTION TO PREVENTION OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTION
Angeline A/P Perumaloo
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
It is an overview of adverse drug reaction where its evolution and various classes of adverse drug reaction are being explained. Also, how patient and drugs can be factors contributing to the occurrence of adverse drug reaction are discussed here. Not only that, there are also different pathways in which adverse drug reaction can be monitored and reported to improve pharmaceutical care. The role of healthcare professionals, physicians, pharmacists and patient in averting adverse drug reaction is also being described in brief.
1170-1177
24
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF SOME DRUGS IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION
Mahesh H. Kolhe; Ujwala K. Waghmare; Ramesh D. Bhusal ; Pranit P. Hajare ; Swapnil R Chavan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate and reproducible RP-HPLC method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of Aspirin and Ticlopidine hydrochloride in tablet dosage form. The RP-HPLC analysis is carried out using Acetonitrile: Ammonium acetate buffer (0.05 M) in the ratio of (68: 32 % v/v) as the mobile phase and MOS Thermosil C8 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.), flow rate 1.0 mL/min, with detection wavelength of 240 nm. Linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 10-50 mg/mL and 20-100 mg/mL for Aspirin and Ticlopidine hydrochloride respectively. The RP-HPLC methods was developed and statistically validated as per ICH guidelines.
1178-1187
25
IN VITRO AND IN VIVO BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE WHOLE PLANT EXTRACTS OF CHROZOPHORA PROSTRATA (DALZ.)
Md. Shawkatul Islam Bakhtiar, Rumana Akhter, Syeda Najah Narjish, Sharmin Jahan Chisty, Mohammad Shahriar and Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Chrozophora prostrata (Family-Euphorbiaceae), it is an herbaceous perennial plant, is found throughout Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Western Arabia, tropical Africa from Senegal to Ethiopia, South Africa (Transvaal) and tropical Asia and it is the most important herb in ayurvedic medicine. The herb has been highly valued for its traditional use as blood purifier which is also used for the treatment of chronic persistent fever, syphilis, gonorrhea, leucoderma as well as its antioxidant properties helps to maintain cell integrity. In the present study In vitro thrombolytic activity and membrane stabilizing activity, In vivo GI motility and neurophramacological activity of the whole plant extract of C. prostrata (Suryavarta, Neel kanthi, Shad, Khudi okra) was evaluated. The plant extract showed mild thrombolytic activity and membrane stabilizing activity. This plant extracts also exhibit significant GI motility and neurophramacological activity.
1188-1195
26
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE AND CILNIDIPINE IN COMBINED TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Pavan Kumar.V, G. Lokeswara, Dr. V.Haribaskar, Dr. M.Gobinath
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, accurate and precise method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Metoprolol and Cilnidipine in Tablet dosage form. Chromatogram was run through Altima (150 x 4.6 mm, 5m). Mobile phase containing Buffer (0.1%OPA) and Methanol in the ratio of 45:55 v/v was pumped through column at rate of 1ml/min.Temperature was maintained at 30 degree C Optimized wavelength for Metoprolol and Cilnidipine was 225nm. Retention time of Metoprolol and Cilnidipine was found to be 2.249min and 3.062 min. %Assay was obtained as 101.22% and 100.45% for Metoprolol and Cilnidipine respectively. The accuracy and reliability of the method was assessed by evaluation of linearity, precision (intra-day and inter-day % RSD greater than 2), accuracy and specificity for Metoprolol and Cilnidipine in accordance with ICH guidelines.
1196-1202
27
AN ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY THE TRIBAL AND NON-TRIBAL PEOPLES OF MALDA DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA FOR THE TREATMENT OF SKIN DISEASES
Swapan Kumar Chowdhury
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was aimed at exploring the traditional Ethno medicine knowledge of native tribes on the utilization of wild plant species for local healthcare management in Malda district of West Bengal, India and its present status. With this objective in view, this ethno botanical study among the local tribal and non-tribal people of this district has been carried out during January 2012 to January 2013 in search of traditional healers or practitioners who ceaselessly use their worthy knowledge to treat several skin ailments for human purposes. The information was collected by means of open-ended conversations, semi-structured questionnaire, group discussion, etc. Information obtained from the informants was also cross verified to check the authenticity. This study revealed that a total of 75 medicinal plants under 65 genera of 42 families are frequently used to treat various types of ailments with 10 herbal preparations. of 75 plants, herbs possess the highest growth forms (40%) that were used in making traditional preparation, followed by shrubs (26%), trees (24%) and climbers (9.34%). Leaves comprised the major plant parts used (49.34%), followed by stem (1.34%), Root (8%), seeds (2.6%), bark (5.34%), whole plant (10.67%), fruits (4%), Rhizome (2.67%), Latex (6.67%), Throne (1.34%) ,Resin (1.34%) and oil (1.34) to prepare in the medicinal formulations for skin problems.
1203-1214
28
ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MAJOR PHYTOCHEMICALS FROM THE LEAVES OF PIPER BETLE. LINN
Srinivasan Srividya, Subramanian Iyyam Pillai and Sorimuthu Pillai Subramanian
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder arises from deficiency (T1DM) and/or efficiency (T2DM) of insulin. T2DM accounts for more than 90% of all diabetics and its prevalence is increasing alarmingly worldwide. It is intimately associated with improper utilization of insulin by target cells and tissues. Insulin, a polypeptide hormone synthesized by the pancreatic beta cells, is responsible for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis in human and other mammals. It is essential for the entry of glucose across the muscle and adipocyte cell membranes for energy production, hepatic glycogen synthesis, protein and nucleic acid synthesis and inhibition of gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis and lipolysis. Thus, T2DM is a multifactorial, multisystemic endocrine disorder for which monotherapy often fails as the disease progress to later stages. Traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment of DM contain various biologically active ingredients which act in a synergistic way in maintaining normal glycemia. However, only few of them have been subjected to scientific validation. One such medicinal plant which lacks scientific scrutiny is Piper betle leaves. Hence, in the present study an attempt has been made to extract and identify the chemical nature of biologically active phytochemicals present in the distinct variety of Piper betle leaves of South India. The leaves cultivated in Kumbakonam are known for their taste, quality and medicinal properties. The data obtained by HPLC analysis and spectral studies such as FTIR, Mass, 1H NMR, 13C NMR evidenced that the ethanolic extract of Piper betle leaves contains Caffeic acid, p-Coumaric acid, Eugenol, Rutin and Hydroxychavicol as major secondary metabolites which are known for their beneficial and pharmacological properties. The results of the present study suggest that the betel leaves are the rich source of pharmacologically important lead molecules and also provide the scientific rationale for the use of Piper betle leaves in the traditional medicine.
1215-1233
29
BIOAVAILABILITY ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUES OF ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS DRUGS - A REVIEW
Richa Srivastava, Neha Mathur, Nikhat Fatima.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the widespread, fatal diseases caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex affecting human population. However, infection by the organism does not necessarily lead to disease and only 5-10% of these individuals will progress to active disease each year (WHO 2007). 10% people infected with TB bacteria have a lifetime risk of falling ill with TB. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that globally there were 9.4 million cases of active TB leading to 1.3 million deaths. However, lives can also be saved with effective diagnosis and treatment. This review focuses firstly on the occurrence and prevalence of this disease, secondly, on ways of its diagnosis and treatment, thirdly on the new tuberculosis drugs under development and lastly on the various bioavailability enhancement approaches which are under process so that the problem of poor/variable bioavailability of drugs, in particular, in fixed dose combinations (FDC's) or due to their enhanced decomposition in stomach acidic conditions etc can be minimized.
1234-1241
30
STABILITY STUDY OF LIQUID PARAFFIN ORAL EMULSION (CREMAFFIN)
Yash Rakeshbhai Suthar, Prachi Barbhaiya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Stability studies ensuring the maintenance of product quality, safety and efficacy throughout the shelf life are considered as pre-requisite for the acceptance and approval of any pharmaceutical product. These studies are required to be conducted in a planned way following the guideline issused by ICH, WHO and or other agencies. Importance of various methods followed for stability testing of pharmaceutical products, guideline issued for stability testing and other aspects related to stability of pharmaceutical products have been presented in a present review.
1242-1247
31
RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS OLMESARTAN AND CILNIDIPINE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM
P. Harshalatha, K.B.Chandrasekhar M.V.Chandrasekhar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new reversed-phase HPLC method was developed and subsequently validated for simultaneous estimation of antihypertensive drugs Olmesartan and cilnidipine in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Chromatography was carried out on Inertsil C-18 column (4.6 x150mm, 5m particle size) with a mobile phase composed of buffer and acetonitrile in 55:45%v/v and the mobile phase was pumped at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a PDA detector at 225nm. Parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, specificity and ruggedness were studied as reported in the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The retention times for olmesartan and cilnidipine were 2.2 min and 3.7 min respectively. The linearity range for olmesartan and cilnidipine were 10-60 mg/mL and 5-30 mg/mL. The percentage recoveries of olmesartan and cilnidipine were 98.01% and 98.88%, respectively. This method can be employed for routine quality control of olmesartan and cilnidipine tablets in quality control laboratories and pharmaceutical industries.
1248-1254
32
PREVALENCE AND PATTERN OF SELF-MEDICATION PRACTICES IN RURAL AREAS OF CENTRAL KASHMIR
Shakeel Ahmad Mir, Shakil U Rehman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Objectives: To assess the prevalence, pattern and other demographic characteristics of Self-medication in rural areas of Central Kashmir. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2015 to July 2015 in the rural areas of two Central Kashmir districts, Budgam and Srinagar. Simple random sampling method was used.Data was analyzed by combination of manual calculators, Vassar stats and also SPSS.Out of 250 participants, 192 returned the completely filled questionnaires. Results:Prevalence of self-medication was found to be as high as 89.58%.(64.58%) of those who practiced self-medication were males. Majority of the participants (30.76%) aged between 26-35 years and only 1.56% aged above 75 years.Most of the participants (88.54%) were literate. Most common illnesses for which self medication was used were: fever, backache, myalgias (32.55%), followed by gastrointestinal symptoms/diseases (23.25 %) and respiratory symptoms/diseases(16.27 %).Some major illnesses like hypertension(6.97%),thyroid disorders(4.65%),diabetes mellitus(2.32%)and surgical illnesses(2.32%) were also treated by self-medication.34.88 % practiced self-medication to save time and 27.90% to save money. 25.58% had previous experience of treating the same illness or symptoms.9.30 % practiced self-medication as they had no trust in prescribing physician due to varied reasons. Most of the respondents (25.58 %) used pain killers, followed by antibiotics by 19.76%,GIT drugs by 17.44% and decongestants, bronchodilators by 11.62%.Other drugs used were anti hypertensives(5.81%), multivitamins(4.65%) and anti allergics(1.16%).Majority (34.88 %) consulted their pharmacists to know about the drug and dosage. 25.58% consulted their friends and co-workers and 16.27% their family members to know about the drug(s) and dosage.16.27% searched internet to know about the drug(s).Most of the respondents (53.48%) stopped the drug after symptoms disappeared.30.23% stopped the drug(s) after a few days despite the outcome. Only 15.11% continued the drug(s) till full recovery.88.37% knew that drug(s )can cause various side effects and 11.62% were ignorant of this fact.40.69% experienced adverse drug effects. Conclusion: Self- medication is an important health issue. It is commonly practiced to get quick relief. It can be hazardous especially to pregnant women and extremes of age. Consequences of such practices should always be emphasized to the community and steps to curb it considered. Prevalence rate of self medication is alarming in rural areas of Central Kashmir. Thus further work should be done on larger scale and strict policies should be formulated to address this problem.
1255-1260
33
EFFECT OF COMPETITIVE BINDING OF HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS TO HUMAN SERUM ALBUMIN ON DRUG PHARMACOLOGY
Neelam Seedher and Mamta Kanojia
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
For the highly protein-bound anti-diabetic drugs with a small volume of distribution, competitive binding to human serum albumin can significantly influence the pharmacological activity of drugs resulting in serious fluctuations in the blood glucose levels of diabetic patients. In this paper, competitive binding studies using fluorescence spectroscopic technique have been reported for a wide range of drug combinations involving oral hypoglycemic (anti-diabetic) agents. For the drug combinations used, such studies are not available in the literature. The results indicated that the combination of gliclazide and repaglinide with the studied competing drugs can increase the risk of hypoglycemia in diabetic patients and should be avoided. On the other hand, the corresponding combinations involving glimepiride and glipizide were found safe. The therapeutic efficacy of studied competing drugs, on the other hand decreased in the presence of antidiabetic drugs in most cases. Competitive binding mechanism based on the site-specificity and conformational changes in the human serum albumin molecule has been proposed.
1261-1271
34
DRUG POISONING TREND IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
Mallesh Kariyappa, Anil Kumar Kejjaiah, Rakesh Saraswathipura Ramachandrappa, Asha Benakappa
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Objective: Quantify burden of drug poisoning and it's trend in less than 18 years. Design: Retrospective observation study. Methods:All the children admitted with diagnosis of acute drug poisoning between January 2013 and June 2015 was studied. Results: There were 48 cases of drug poisoning accounting for 14.5% of all poisoning admissions, peaking in rainy season and in adolescence with female: male ratio of 18:1 after 14 years of age. Anti epileptic drugs and benzodiazepines were the most common drugs with 27 out of 48 cases followed by iron poisoning with7 cases. No drug belonging to narcotics and psychodysleptics, drugs acting on central nervous system was observed in our study. Drug poisoning peaked during rainy season. Conclusions: 14.5% of acute poisoning in children and adolescents is due to drug poisoning with peak during adolescence and rainy season. Anti epileptics and benzodiazepines were most commonly used drugs. Adolescent females were involved in drug poisoning in alarming proportions.
1272-1278
35
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF NICORANDIL MICROSPHERES
Sigimol Joseph, Dr.Shaji Selvin. C.D.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Present investigation describes preparation of microspheres by solvent evaporation followed by in vitro characterization of microspheres to evaluate the effect of method of preparation on physical properties and drug release profile of microspheres. The microspheres were found to be discrete, spherical with free flowing properties. The particle size distribution, entrapment efficiency and their release profiles were investigated. The yield was found to be maximum in case of solvent evaporation method. The microspheres formulation prepared by solvent evaporation method the drug carrier interactions were investigated in solid state by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy study. In vitro drug release rate for a microsphere was found to be sustained over 24 hours. Hence, it can be concluded that the Formulation prepared by solvent evaporation method, has potential to deliver nicorandil in a controlled manner in a regular fashion over extended period of time in Comparison to all other formulations and can be adopted for a successful oral delivery of nicorandil for safe management of hypertension.
1279-1287
36
RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF CANAGLIFLOZIN IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Maddu Suma, K. Manasa, Ch. Rajakumari and B. Lakshmaiah
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In this study, we describe a simple and sensitive reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of Canagliflozin in pharmaceutical dosage form. The chromatographic separation was achieved on ODS column (4.6 x150mm, 5m particle size) column. The mobile phase, water and acetonitrile (55:45v/v), were delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The eluent was monitored using PDA detection at 214 nm. Canagliflozin was detected at 2.8 minutes. Validation parameters such as system suitability, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), Stability of sample and standard stock solutions and robustness were studied as reported in the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. This method can be employed for routine quality control of Canagliflozin tablets in quality control laboratories and pharmaceutical industries.
1288-1292
37
METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ATAZANAVIR SULFATE BY VARIOUS ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES - A REVIEW
C. Divya, A. Ajitha, T. Rama Mohana Reddy, V. Umamaheswara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Atazanavir Sulfate is a sulfate salt form of atazanavir, an aza-dipeptide analogue with a bis-aryl substituent on the (hydroxethyl)hydrazine moiety with activity against both wild type and mutant forms of HIV protease. Atazanavir does not elevate serum lipids, a common problem with other protease inhibitors. In this review, we discussed various analytical methods like UV, HPLC, LC-MS for the estimation of Atazanavir Sulfate in pharmaceutical dosage forms.
1293-1296
38
UTILIZATION OF PETHIDINE INJECTION IN A QUASI-GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL IN GHANA
Afriyie Kwame Daniel, Aryeetey Justus, Annoh Joseph, Darkwah Thomas, Dogbe Justice
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pethidine is often used in management of moderate to severe pain which improves quality of life. Though used in several countries, its rational use is of concern due to its potential adverse effects. This cross-sectional descriptive study assessed pethidine utilization from 2012-2014, and prescribing trend from December 2014 to March, 2015 at the Ghana Police Hospital. Data collecting tools were used to obtain information on prescribing and utilization patterns at the dispensary within study periods. Of the 292 patient cards with pethidine analyzed, inpatients were 92.5 %, and 81% were on national insurance. Patients from the Obstetrics and gynaecology (80.5 %) had the highest proportion of pethidine prescription. Majority of indications and doses for which pethidine was prescribed were in line with National Guidelines. Proportion of annual pethidine usage to annual hospital utilization declined from 6.3 to 5.4%, in 2012 to 2014. Study revealed decline in pethidine use at the hospital, and its prescribing was with caution.
1297-1304
39
STATISTICAL OPTIMIZATION OF KETOPROFEN TABLETS COMPRESSION COATED WITH ASSAM BORA RICE STARCH/ETHYL CELLULOSE MIXTURE FOR COLONIC DRUG DELIVERY
Nirmala Devi, Manju Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this work was to prepare and optimise the ketoprofen colon targeted compression coated tablet using mixture of Assam bora rice starch and ethyl cellulose as coating agent. 32 factorial designs was used to study the effect of ethyl cellulose content (X1) and coating level (X2) on the release of ketoprofen from colon targeted tablet. Dissolution study was performed in pH1.2 for 2 hr, pH 7.4 for 3 hr and goat caecal medium for 5 hr. Multiple linear regression analysis was used for generation of polynomial equation and optimization of formulation. The optimized formulation consisted of ethyl cellulose (31.39 %) and coating level (416.8 mg) provided a release profile that is closed to estimated values.
1305-1317
40
ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIAL STRAIN PRODUCING THERMOSTABLE α- AMYLASE
Deepti Gulati and Mehvish Malik Nisar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The use of thermostable enzymes in industrial applications has been increasing rapidly due to the fact that they are more active and stable at higher temperatures, and have a longer shelf life. The present study was aimed at isolating and identifying thermostable a-amylase producing bacteria. A total of fourteen bacterial strains were isolated, of which three were found to be potent amylase producers and showed maximum enzyme activity. The three isolates were identified as Bacillus species. The cultures were optimized for maximum enzyme activity on different parameters such as pH and temperature. All three isolates showed maximum growth and produced maximum amount of enzyme after 48 hours of incubation at pH 8.0 in a medium containing nutrient agar and 1% starch. Further, it was found that B7 was stable up to temperature of 80C with optimum activity at 60C. B11 and B13 showed maximum activity at 40C but were found to be stable up to 70C.
1318-1326
41
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, CUPRIC REDUCING ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY (CUPRAC), NITRIC OXIDE SCAVENGING ASSAY, SCAVENGING OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AND REDUCING POWER CAPACITY ASSESSMENT OF LEAF EXTRACT OF AVERRHOA BILIMBI (FAMILY- OXALIDIACEAE)
Mohammad Mooneem Mannan, Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan, Mohammad Shahriar, Fariha Nowshin Ara Khan, Milton Kumar Kundu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The leaf extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi were subjected to a comparative evaluation of the phytochemical screening, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, nitric oxide scavenging assay, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and reducing power capacity assessment. The preliminary phytochemical screening of three different extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi leaves was carried out according to the standard methods and found tannin, phenol, carbohydrate, flavonoid, cardiac glycoside, alkaloid and saponin. In addition, the three different extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi leaves were screened to evaluate cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, nitric oxide scavenging assay, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and reducing power capacity assessment. It is demonstrated that the three different extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi leaves showed different level of antioxidant activity and is a potential source of antioxidants and thus could prevent many radical related diseases.
1327-1332
42
IN VITRO BIOEVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN HEDYCHIUM CORONARIUM
Prasanthi Donipati, Dr. S. Hara Sreeramulu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Hedychium coronarium Koen. (Family Zingiberaceae), popularly named butterfly ginger, is widely available in tropical and subtropical regions.The present study was undertaken to compare the antioxidant activity of hexane, chloroform and methanolic extract of rhizomes between ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and Diphenyl picrial hydrazyl radical scavenging assay (DPPH). The results showed that, Diphenyl picrial hydrazyl radical scavenging assay (DPPH) has more hexane, chloroform and methanolic concerntrations than FRAP. The objective of the present study was to identify the main constituents of the rhizomes of H. coronarium and to investigate the antioxidant activity.
1333-1335
43
ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC And AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF AERIAL PART OF THESPESIA LAMPAS (CAV) DALZ AND GIBS ON STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
Syed Mujtaba Ahmed, Anil Middha, Mohammed Omer, D. Ramakrishna
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The study evaluates antidiabetic activity of ethanolic And aqueous extract of aerial part of Thespesia.lampas on streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. Ethanol And Aqueous extract were prepared by soxhlet And maceration process respectively. Antidiabetic activity of the aerial part of the extract at dose 200mg/kg in STZ (i.p 65mg/kg body weight) induced diabetic rats. The study also included the estimation of different biochemical parameters on STZ induced diabetes. The reduced blood glucose levels was statistically significant (Pless than 0.05) in the dose of 200mg/kg of ethanol and aqueous leaf extract when compared with control. The results exhibited potent antihyperglycemic activity in normal and STZ induced diabetic rats so it might be useful in the treatment of diabetes.
1336-1340
44
STEM CELL PRESERVATION FROM UMBILICAL CORD - A LIFESAVER FOR LIFE
Pooja Agarwal, Nafiza Banu, V. Shalini, M. Manasa Padma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the study was to evaluate the importance of umbilical stem cells in present scenario. Stem cells are the very foundation of the human body. Every part of our body including blood, bones, skin and muscles are formed from master cells known as stem cells. Stem cells have three important qualities. They have the capacity to turn into any type of cell in the body such as muscle cell, bone cell, blood cell, tissues and brain cell, can replicate or copy them limitlessly and are responsible for repair and regeneration functions in the body. Owing to these qualities, stem cells are taking center stage in medicine today. Research has proven that stem cells can be used in the treatment of many medical conditions. In the past 50 years, over a million people have benefited from the power of stem cells and are now living a renewed life. The human body has different sources of stem cells such as the bone marrow, tooth, peripheral blood and the umbilical cord. Umbilical cord is a rich source of stem cells that have the potential to treat medical conditions. The umbilical cord that forms the bond between the mother and the baby inside the womb is the richest source of lifesaving stem cells. There is every reason to preserve the umbilical cord blood and the tissue at the time of birth.
1341-1346
45
ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC AND AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF TROPAEOLUM MAJUS L
Syed Mujtaba Ahmed, Anil Middha, Mohammed Omer, D. Ramakrishna
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present study ethanolic and aqueous leaf extract of Tropaeolum majus L was investigated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. Analgesic activity was determined by three different methods (tail immersion, hot plate and writhing method), anti-inflammatory activity was determined by three different methods (carrageenan, histamine induced paw edema And cotton pellet granuloma) at dose 200,400mg/kg b.wt in experimental animals using diclofenac sodium, tramadol, Indomethacin as reference drugs. In all the animals models the results obtained were statistically significant (p less than 0.05) in comparison to control. The results obtained indicate that Tropaeloum majus L has significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in those animal models.
1347-1353
46
ANTIOXIDANT AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING PROPERTIES OF PUNICA GRANATUM FRUIT EXTRACT
Keerthana Gnanavel, Elangovan Namasivayam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the oldest known edible fruit tree, originating in central Asia prominent activity of the three different acetone extracts of pomegranate fruit: arils with seeds (R), rind with inner septal FRAP, Nitric oxide radical scavenging assay were the methods adopted to study the antioxidant potential of the fruit (F) has the highest antioxidant capacity when compared to Aril seed Extract (R) and Rind Septum extract(Y). management.
1354-1359
47
BIOANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF VALSARTAN IN RABBIT PLASMA
Sandhya Pamu, C. V. S. Subrahmanyam and K. S. K. Rao Patnaik
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

To develop a liquid–liquid extraction based reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method for estimation of valsartan in rabbit plasma. Methods: Chromatographic separation was carried out using ODS Thermosil C18 (250mm×4.6mm) 5µm, with mobile phase composed of ammonium acetate buffer (20mM) and acetonitrile in 60:40 v/v ratio, pH 6.5. The analyte was monitored with UV detector at 265nm. The developed method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ and ruggedness. Results: The peak area ratio of valsartan to that of internal standard was used for the quantification of samples. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the eluent was monitored at 265 nm. Calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 10-200 ng/mL. The LOD and LOQ of present method were found to be 1.8 ng/mL and 5.4 ng/mL respectively. Extraction recoveries of drug from rabbit plasma were found to be >90 %.  Conclusion: A simple, specific, reproducible and sensitive RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the estimation of valsartan in rabbit plasma.

1360-1364