Volume 6 - Issue

S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
INCORPORATION OF ROSEMARY (ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS LINN.) EXTRACT IN AN ENDODONTIC SEALER: ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION
Marcela Agne Alves Valones, Jalber Almeida Santos, Thiago Maciel Cavalcanti, Michelly Cauás Queiroz Gatis, Arnaldo França Caldas Júnior, Eliziane Pereira Costa, Janete Magali de Araújo Alessandra de Albuquerque Tavares Carvalho
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study is to evaluate the microbial activity of an endodontic sealer containing rosemary extract in comparison to Sealer 26. Agar well diffusion assays were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the materials in the presence of the following bacterial strains: S. mutans (ATCC 25175), S. aureus (ATCC 9811) and E. faecalis (ATCC 51299). Bacterial growth inhibition halos were measured. The Mann-Whitney test was used to determine the statistical significance of differences between groups. Mean inhibition halos were 27.1, 26.4 and 38.6 mm for the strains of S. aureus, E. faecalis and S. mutans when the rosemary-based sealer was used and 16.3, 15.8 and 25.5 mm, respectively, when Sealer 26 was used. Significant differences between sealers were found for each bacterial strain (p less than 0.05). The rosemary-based endodontic sealer demonstrated greater antimicrobial efficacy in comparison to Sealer 26.
1-5
2
COORDINATION OF SOME HEAVY TRANSOTION METALS COMPLEXES WITH 2-AMINO ACETIC ACID-6- METHOXY BENZOTHIAZOLE USING MICROWAVE AND THERMAL METHODS
Mahasin F. Alias, Basha\'ar A. Stephan and Farah S. Jaafer
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The ligand 2-amino acetic acid -6- methoxy benzothiazole (L) was prepared as a chelating ligand, which was treated with the ions Rh(III), Pd(II), Cd(II) and Pt(IV) in alcoholic medium in order to prepare series of new metal complexes. These complexes were prepared by conventional and microwave methods and characterized by the available techniques. FT-IR, UV-Visible, magnetic susceptibility, flame atomic absorption technique as well as elemental analysis and coductivity measurements. From the spectral studies, all complexes have square planer geometry except Cd complex have Td geometry. The nature of complexes in liquid state was studied by using molar ratio method and give results similar approximately to those obtained from isolated solid state; also, stability constant of the prepared complexes were studied and found that they were stable in molar ratio 1:1. A theoretical treatment of these compounds in gas phase was studied by Hyper Chem-8 program using Semi-empirical method. 
 
6-13
3
VALIDATED SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC AND SPECTROFLUORIMETRIC METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PREGABALIN IN ITS PURE AND DOSAGE FORMS USING EOSIN
Mohammed I. Walash, N. El-Enany and H. Askar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Two sensitive spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods were developed for determination of pregabalin (PGB) in its pure and pharmaceutical dosage forms. For spectrophotometric method (Method I), absorbance value of a binary complex with eosin was measured at 550 nm at pH 3.5. The absorbance-concentration plot was rectilinear over the range of 4-80 µg mL-1. For spectrofluorimetric method (Method II), the decreasing in the fluorescence intensity of the native fluorescence of eosin was measured at 544 nm after excitation at 304 nm at the same pH. The fluorescence-concentration plot was rectilinear over the range of 0.05-1 ug mL-1. Statistical comparison of the results with those of the reference method indicated that there was no significant difference between the two methods respectively.
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4
BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY, THROMBOLYTIC AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF BOEHMERIA PLATYPHYLLA D DON LEAVES
Md. Saif Uddin, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Syed Md. Abdul Kader, Mahmudul Hasan, Md. Abu Aiube Ansary, Md. Mosarraf Hossen, Atiqur Rahman, Mohammad Abdul Awal, Mahmud Mostofa Hridoy, Abul Hasanat, Shaikh Bokhtear Uddin, Md. Masudur Rahman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Extract from the leaves of Boehmeria platyphylla D Don were screened for their brine shrimp lethality bioassay, thrombolytic and antimicrobial activities. The cytotoxicity was surveyed with the brine shrimp lethality bioassay and thrombolytic impact with human blood. The brine shrimp lethality bioassay was utilized to assess cytotoxicity (LC50 = 75.26 µg/ml) contrasted with Vincristine sulfate (LC50 = 0.74 µg/ml). It was also assessed as thrombolytic activity when contrasted with streptokinase. It has significant thrombolytic movement (73.17±2.08%) contrasted with standard streptokinase (81.32±1.46%). The extract indicated zone of inhibition against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus) and Gram negative bacteria (Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) at 1000 µg/disc. Gram negative bacteria Staphylococcus aureus demonstrated no action against B. platyphylla leaves extract at both doses. Relative percentage inhibition of the extract against each bacterium also calculated. These results indicated that B. platyphylla have favorable thrombolytic, cytotoxic and antibacterial effects and capacities of B. platyphylla extract to be processed for pharmaceutical use.

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5
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
6
GROUP 18 CENTERED PERIODIC TABLE WITH ENHANCED INTERPRETATIONS IN CHEMICAL, PHARMACEUTICAL AND LIFE SCIENCES
Walisinghe Pathirana
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The periodic table was dissected between groups 12 and 13 followed by realigning groups 1 and 18 next to each other while ensuring proper sequencing of atomic numbers. The table now assumed a peak form. All the important elements in chemical, pharmaceutical and life sciences were captured around the peak within a v-shaped area near the table center. A useful bilateral feature emerged with elements having broadly different properties lying on either side of group 18. The new periodic table was found to represent a replica of a cross section of the earth’s crust and to some extent advanced animal forms. A well-defined position was identified for atomic number 0 assigned with symbol 0Ec. The scope for new interpretations in chemical, pharmaceutical and life sciences are possible to a greater depth and clarity.
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7
Antithrombotic, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of methanol extract of Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn leaves.
Syed Md. Abdul Kader, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Mahmudul Hasan, Md. Saif Uddin, Md. Abu Aiube Ansary, Muhammad Abdulla Al Noman, Fahima Zaheed, Md. Rabiul Hossain, Mohammad Zia Habib, Md. Ismail Hossain, Abul Hasanat, Md. Rafikul Islam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Extract from the leaves of Antidesma ghaesembilla were screened for their antithrombotic, cytotoxic and antimicrobial exercises. The cytotoxicity was surveyed with the brine shrimp lethality bioassay and antithrombotic impact with human blood. The brine shrimp lethality bioassay was utilized to assess cytotoxicity (LC50 = 432.13 µg/ml) contrasted with Vincristine sulfate (LC50 = 0.74 µg/ml). It was also assessed as antithrombotic activity when contrasted with streptokinase. It has significant antithrombotic movement (63.45±2.08%) contrasted with standard streptokinase (81.32±1.46%). The extract indicated zone of inhibition against Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram negative bacteria (Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) 1000 µg/disc. Gram negative bacteria Bacillus cereus demonstrated no action against at both doses. A. ghaesembilla leaves extract and relative percentage inhibition of the extract also calculated. These results indicate that A. ghaesembilla have favorable Antithrombotic, cytotoxic and antibacterial effects of A. ghaesembilla extract to be processed for pharmaceutical use.
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8
Evaluation of antioxidants, membrane stabilizing, cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity with phytochemical screening of Chromolaena odorata: A medicinal shrub
Md. Tanvir Haider Tanna, Aninda Kumar Nath, Mohammad Nurul Amin, Md. Ibrahim, Manjurul Islam Chowdhury, Md. Emdadul Hasan Mukul, Md. Saif Uddin Rashed, Asma Kabir, Monsur Ahmed, Mohammad Salim Hossain
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The present study was an attempt to evaluate the antioxidant, membrane stabilizing, anthelmintic and cytotoxic properties of crude methanolic extract of C. odorata and different fractions of the crude extract. The phytochemical screening revealed the potent presence of alkaloids, phytosterols, tannins, terpenes, fats and fixed oils. Determination of total phenolic contents and DPPH methods were evaluated for antioxidant activity. The total phenolic content (mg of GAE / gm) of Crude Methanol Extract (CME), Petroleum Ether Soluble Fraction (PESF), Ethyl Acetate Soluble Fraction (EASF) and Chloroform Soluble Fraction (CSF) were 71.08±0.38, 52.08±1.01, 86.33±0.38 and 54.25±0.90, respectively. In case of DPPH method, the IC50 values were 19.48±0.49 µg/ml, 22.44±0.63µg/ml, 99.05±0.81µg/ml, 166.96±0.51 µg/ml, 317.10±0.99 µg/ml for standard (BHT: tert-butyl-1-hydroxytoluene) and the four extracts, respectively. Inhibition of haemolysis by standard acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) (70.82% and 75.91%), CME (20.65% and 53.53%), PESF (35.59% and 36.28%), EASF (34.74% and 30.18%), and CSF (30.01% and 32.26%) for hypotonic and heated solution respectively, were evaluated. For the anthelmintic test, paralysis and death time for standard (albendazole) 10mg/ml and crude extracts (10, 20, 30, 40, 50) mg/ml are 56.20±0.20 and 77.4±0.24, 30.4±0.75 and 60.8±1.03, 24.6±0.32 and 50.2±0.37, 20.6±0.40 and 40.8±0.51, 16.4±0.68 and 32.4±1.29, 10.2±0.40 and 10.2±0.40 minutes respectively. Moreover, the LC50 values were 0.839µg/ml, 10.245µg/ml, 8.98µg/m, 8.28µg/ml and 9.298µg/ml for standard group (vincristin sulphate), CME, PESF, EASF and CSF respectively in brine shrimp lethality bioassay. From the study it was revealed that all the extracts were abundant of various phytochemicals and showed various biological activities.

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LIGAND-BASED VIRTUAL SCREENING AND ADME-TOX GUIDED APPROACH TO IDENTIFY NATURAL COMPOUNDS FROM CONYZA SUMATRENSIS (RETZ.) E.H.WALKER AS COX-2 INHIBITORS
Pone Kamdem Boniface, Gouado Innocent and Anirban Pal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was intended to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of fractions and compounds from Conyza sumatrensis (Retz) E.K. Walker (Cs). Extracts and three compounds 1, 2 and 3 from Cs were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity through membrane red blood cell stabilisation test. In silico studies of compounds 1, 2 and 3 towards Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme was performed through Autodock Vina. Cs exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. Among the extracts tested, ethylacetate extract was the most potent while compound 1 exhibited the highest activity among the compounds assessed. In silico studies showed that compound 3 displayed the highest binding affinity (-7.7 kcal/mol) with the target COX-2, followed by compounds 1 (-6.5 kcal/mol) and 2 (-6.1 kcal/mol). Compounds 1, 2 and 3 were also predicted free of toxicity. These results suggested that Cs might yield valuable adjunctive therapy for the treatment of inflammatory disorders.
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10
BIOASSAY OF BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY, CARDIOPROTECTIVE AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF FICUS BENJAMINA
Md. Irfan Amin Chowdury, Mohammad Nazmul Alam, Dewan Shakibuzzaman, Galib Ahsan, Rajesh Barua, Md. Faruky Azam Chowdhury, Muhammad Moin Uddin Mazumdar, Md. Rabiul Islam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Brine shrimp lethality bioassay, clot lysis and hypotonicity induced membrane lysismethod was used to evaluate the cytotoxic,cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory activity of methanolicextract of Ficus benjamnia. The extract showed moderate cytotoxic activity. LC50 value of the extract was 232.71µg/ml, which was compared with vincristine sulphate (12.59µg/ml). Methanolic leaf extract of Ficus benjamina was treated with human blood to evaluate Cardioprotective effect. It showed promising Cardioprotective activity which was about (34.95± 1.98)% compared to streptokinase which was used as standard (63.54 ± 2.61)%. In the case of anti-inflammatory study, methanolic leaf extract showed (20.79±1.07)% and (58.06±1.03)%of membrane stabilization activity at 31.25µg/ml and 1000 µg/ml concentration respectively.

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PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THREE ERITREAN PLANTS WITH ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY
Prof. Berhane Girmai Fisehaye Seyoum, Gabriel Dawit
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study is to evaluate the antibacterial activity of B.papyrifera, S.singuenaand T.emetica on selected microorganisms, E.coli (gram negative) and S.aureus (gram positive) with crude extracts at different concentration. The crude extract of each plant was prepared by cold extraction using three solvents of different polarity (distilled water, methanol (95%) and petroleum ether). The anti-bacterial sensitivity test was carried out by well method at different concentration of (25, 50, and 100) mg/ml. The results have shown that all the plants have significant anti-bacterial activity with methanol and water extract of the plants, but no any activity was shown by petroleum ether extracts of all the plants under study. Therefore the methanol and water extract of the selected plants have significant activity against E.coli and S.aureus.
78-84
12
COMPARISON OF POLYPHARMACY BETWEEN GERIATRIC AND NONGERIATRIC DIABETIC PATIENTS
Rajeshwari Shastry, Prabha Adhikari MR, Ullal Sheetal D, Shashidhar Kotian M
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Geriatric diabetics have comorbidities, requiring multiple drugs. This study was conducted to compare polypharmacy between geriatric and nongeriatric diabetics. Cross sectional study conducted in type 2 diabetics, grouped into geriatric and nongeriatric. Patients’ demographic data, duration of diabetes and drugs prescribed were recorded. Polypharmacy was defined as five drugs or more per prescription. Students’ t test and Chi square test were the statistical tests. A total of 477 diabetics were included (geriatrics n equals to 320, nongeriatrics n equals to 157); mean ages were 68.31plus or minus 6.06 and 49.91plus or minus 6.93 respectively. Comorbidities observed were hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), dyslipidemia, peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy and hypothyroidism. Significantly more geriatrics had hypertension (78.75% versus 53.5%) and CAD (31.25% versus 13.37%; p equals to 0.0001). Polypharmacy was noted in 133 (41.6%) geriatrics and 40 (25.5%) nongeriatrics (p equals to 0.0009). Total number of drugs per prescription among geriatrics and nongeriatrics was 4.32 plus or minus 2.01 vs 3.39 plus or minus 1.92; p less than 0.001. Mean number of drugs for diabetes and hypertension were equal among both groups. However, polypharmacy was more in geriatric diabetics, which is due to high prevalence of CAD.
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DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF ATROPINE INDUCED PSYCHOSIS: PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY
Neethu Ros Tom, Greeshma Hanna Varghese, Hanna Alexander, Swethalekshmi. V, Hemalatha S, T.R. Ashok Kumar, Dr. T. Sivakumar.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The administration of atropine to a large population for treatment of intoxication carries the risk of allergic or toxic reactions in a small number of patients. It has been reported rarely in the literatures. Psychotic symptoms such as restlessness and excitement, hallucinations, delirium may occur due to atropine. There were ten patients who manifested slurred speech, flight of ideas, visual hallucinations, emotional lability, and ambivalence after intake of atropine. This was a prospective observational study to assess the incidence and other patterns of atropine-induced psychotic disorder in a substance abused patients. The incidence of ADR amounts to be 31.3 % in medicine wards. Psychosis was occurred on the day of administration of atropine and the mean duration of the ADR was found to be 2.7 days. Mean length of the hospital stay was 6.2 days which shows that ADR causes prolongation of the hospitalisation. The causality assessment of psychosis with atropine using Naranjo causality assessment scale and WHO-Uppsala monitoring is indicated as probable association with atropine and severity as moderate. The preventability was assessed by Schumock thronton scale in which most of them are not preventable. The patient was discontinued with the suspected drug. Physostigmine, scopolamine or glycopyrrolate can be given as replacement of therapy in atropine-induced psychosis. Length of the hospital was increased due to ADR. Patient who is taking higher doses causes more incidences of psychotic symptoms than others. So physician should be vigilant while prescribing the doses.
88-94
14
LAGERSTROEMIA SPECIES: A REVIEW
Munish PAL, Deepika Thareja, Chandana Majee
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Lagerstroemia species family Lytharceae, a popular Indian medicinal plant, has long been used in ayurvedic system of medicine. The plant has been found to possess diverse number of pharmacological activities. The present paper gives an account of pharmacological activities. The review reveals that wide range of phytochemical and pharmacological activities. The review reveals that wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from the plant and it possesses important activities like anti- inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, anti-hyperglycemic, and antioxidant. Various other activities anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiviral, antineoplastic and osteoblastic activities has also been reported. These reports are very encouraging and indicate that herb should be studied more extensively for its therapeutic benefits. Clinical trials using Lagerstroemia (Banaba) for variety of combinations in different formulations should also be conducted.
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SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL STUDIES AND ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF 8-SUBSTITUTED-4-(2,4-DIHYDROXYPHENYL)-2-(4-CHLOROPHENYL)-2,5-DIHYDRO-1,5-BENZOTHIAZEPINES
Prerna Jain, B.S. Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new series of 1,5-benzothiazepine compounds have been synthesized by the reaction between equimolar quantities of 5-substituted-2-aminothiophenol and 1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-propenone, in the presence of absolute alcohol saturated with dry HCl gas. The reaction progress is monitored by TLC. Structure of compound is ascertained by Spectral and by elemental analysis.
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COMPARISON OF PATTERN OF ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY AND RECURRENCE OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN WOMEN WITH AND WITHOUT DIABETES MELLITUS
Saurish Hegde, Mukta Chowta, Nithyananda Chowta
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was planned with the objectives of evaluating the pattern of antimicrobials used for UTI and to determine the recurrence rate of UTI in diabetic and nondiabetic women in our settings. New diagnosis of UTI is defined as a patient with no prescription for UTI in the history (for 1 year) and a first prescription for UTI in the study period. A recurrent UTI was defined as a prescription for UTI in the follow-up period (5 days after the first prescription until 30 days after the end of the first prescription) or hospitalization admission with the diagnosis of a UTI. Among 220 patients, 106(48.18%) had recurrence. Out of these patients, 74 were diabetics (74%) and the remaining were nondiabetics (26.67%). Recurrent UTI was more frequent in diabetics of above 50 years group. Duration antimicrobial therapy was significantly longer in diabetics. Most commonly used antibiotic group is cephalosporins in both diabetics as well as non-diabetics.
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EVALUATION OF SOLASODINE FROM THE LEAVES OF SOLANUM MAURITIANUM SCOP. BY HPTLC
Jayakumar K and Murugan K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Solanum mauritianum Scop. is an exotic tree Solanum species of South America. High performance thin layer chromatography method was formulated in S. mauritianum to identify the major alkaloid fractions.  Optimal extraction of solasodine includes refluxing with 2.5N methanolic hydrochloric acid, precipitation and extraction using non-polar solvent system. Ideal and prominent bands were obtained on HPTLC silica gel plates using chloroform (9.3): methanol (0.7 v/v) solvent system at 0.32±0.06 Rf. and visualized with anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid. The resulted and derivatized plates were scanned at 530 nm for densitometric analysis. The method was found linear (r2 = 0.9978) in a wide range (20-2000 ng/ spot), accurate (88.2-101.4%), precise (% RSD < 2.88), robust (% RSD < 3.48) and specific. The LOD and LOQ of the method was found as 14 and 44 ng/spot, respectively indicating sensitive enough to analyze minute amount of solasodine in multi-component extract. The method was applied for analysis of solasodine content in samples of S. mauritianum.

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EVALUATION OF SOLASODINE FROM THE LEAVES OF SOLANUM MAURITIANUM SCOP. BY HPTLC
Jayakumar K and Murugan K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Solanum mauritianum Scop. is an exotic tree Solanum species of South America. High performance thin layer chromatography method was formulated in S. mauritianum to identify the major alkaloid fractions. Optimal extraction of solasodine includes refluxing with 2.5N methanolic hydrochloric acid, precipitation and extraction using non-polar solvent system. Ideal and prominent bands were obtained on HPTLC silica gel plates using chloroform (9.3): methanol (0.7 v/v) solvent system at 0.32plus or minus0.06 Rf. and visualized with anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid. The resulted and derivatized plates were scanned at 530 nm for densitometric analysis. The method was found linear (r2 equals to 0.9978) in a wide range (20-2000 ng/ spot), accurate (88.2-101.4%), precise (% RSD less than 2.88), robust (% RSD less than 3.48) and specific. The LOD and LOQ of the method was found as 14 and 44 ng/spot, respectively indicating sensitive enough to analyze minute amount of solasodine in multi-component extract. The method was applied for analysis of solasodine content in samples of S. mauritianum.
110-115
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A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY ON EVALUATION OF COMPARATIVE EFFICACY BETWEEN THREE COMBINATIONAL THERAPIES FOR TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS
Malarkodi Velraj, Poripiraddy Satya Prasad, Dr. V. Ravichandiran, Dr.A.PanneerSelvam, Ragesh G
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Diabetes is a condition in which the body either does not produce enough, or does not properly respond to insulin - a hormone produced in the pancreas. Insulin enables cells to absorb glucose in order to turn it into energy. In diabetes, the body either fails to properly respond to its own insulin, does not make enough insulin or both. This causes glucose to accumulate in the blood often leading to various complications. This study mainly focused on Evaluation of efficasy between the combinations therapies for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The aim were achieved through monitoring the blood sugar parameters, to assess the changes in glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus. It’s a retrospective study. Overall the study results conclude that a combination of Metformin with Acarbose, Glimepiride and Sitagliptin therapy have greater impact on control of FBS, PPBS and HbA1c, on the other hand Metformin and sitagliptin combination reveals significant reduction in FBS, PPBS and HbA1c in diabetic patients compare with Metformin + Acarbose and Metformin + Glimepiride therapies. Many research articles also conclude that metformin therapy with sitagliptin have more impression on diabetic control.
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PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILING IN THE LEAVES OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS USING GC-MS
Vinod Kumar, Anket Sharma, Ashwani Kumar Thukral and Renu Bhardwaj
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The study was aimed at screening the phytochemicals present in the leaves of some medicinally important plants. The study revealed 18, 29, 22, 23, 13 and 19 compounds from Sida acuta Burm.f., Cannabis sativa L., Debregeasia longifolia (Burm.f.) Wedd, Ageratum conyzoides L., Parthenium hysterophorus L. and Typha angustata Chamb respectively. The major compound detected from the plants were pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidine (Sida acuta), cannabinol (Cannabis sativa), cis-jasmone (Debregeasia longifolia), 2H-1-benzopyran,6,7-dimethoxy-2,2-dimethyl-ageratochromene (Ageratum conyzoides), stigmasterol (Parthenium hysterophorus) and verrucarol (Typha angustata).
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ACETYLCHOLINESTERSAE INHIBITORY POTENTIAL OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI INHABITING THREE INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS
Varinder Singh, Jyoti Bhagat, Bhupinder Singh Chadha, Rajesh Kumari Manhas and Amarjeet Kaur
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
PVC polymer has been taken the attention of the scientists in early decay as blood containers instead of glass containers. To increase the stability and flexibility of the PVC, several compounds such as Di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and ethylene oxide were applied. Some recent reports recorded the risks of these compounds toward public health. In the present study, Antimicrobial PVC films containing different amounts of eugenol as a plasticizer were prepared using traditional casting method. The physical and mechanical properties of PVC membranes e.g. surface wettability were investigated. The increase of eugenol content demonstrated an increase in surface hydrophilicity and elongation to break the film. Thermal analysis exhibited a decrease of polymer thermal stability by increasing eugenol concentration. However, the antibacterial activities against six different bacterial strains; three Gram positive: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus cereus as well as, three Gram negative: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli were promoted by addition of eugenol. Although the natural source of eugenol, the bio-evaluation of plasticized membranes showed an increase in hemolysis percent (%) and thrombus weight. It can be concluded that the addition of eugenol to PVC needs to further studies for applying in blood bags.
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METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ANALYSIS OF PENCICLOVIR AND RELATED IMPURITY IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS BY RP HPLC
Shiny Ganji and D.Satyavati
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The prime aim of the current work is to develop and validate a novel, specific, sensitive, precise, rapid and faster isocratic elution RP HPLC method for estimation of Penciclovir and its process related impurity in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Hypersil phenyl, 250 mm X4.6 mm, 5 µ with mobile phase composed of 0.1% orthophosphoric acid in 1000 ml of water and acetonitrile in the ratio of 60:40 using an isocratic mode. The temperature is maintained at 30oC, detection was made using UV detector and LC solution software at 254 nm and the flow rate was maintained at 1.0ml/min. The run rate was 20 min. The developed method was validated according to ICH guide lines. The linearity of calibration curve for each analyte in concentration range of 1200 µg/ml – 3600 µg/ml was good. The curve was linear for the impurity in concentration range of 8 - 24 µg/ml. There exists a good correlation between peak area and analyte concentration. Relative standard deviation values for penciclovir is 0.111 and its process related impurity is 0.359. LOD for the active ingredient and its impurity was found to be 0.02 % and 0.5 % respectively. LOQ for active ingredient and its impurity was found to be 0.06 % and 0.15% respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that the proposed method was found to be highly sensitive, precise, accurate, robust and fast. The shorter retention time allows the analysis of large number of samples in short period of time and it is cost effective, so it can be successfully applied for routine analysis of active pharmaceutical ingredients and related impurities in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms.
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PLASTICIZATION OF PVC MEMBRANES WITH EUGENOL FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS
Ahmed M. Omer, Tamer M. Tamer, Mohamed A. Hassan, Maysa M. Sabet, Mohamed S. Mohy Eldin
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Fungal endophytes isolated from medicinal plants viz. Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia and Ficus religiosa were screened for their ability to produce acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, which are important in the treatment of various diseases and disorders related to decline in acetylcholine levels. Nine cultures were found to exhibit significant inhibitory activity (>50%). Molecular characterization of the producer isolates was carried out using ITSI-5.8S-ITSII rDNA sequencing. The generated dendrogram showed that the isolates were distributed within Ascomycota phylum and belonged to three classes Eurotiomycetes, Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes. Maximum inhibition (95.8%) was evinced by Cladosporium uredinicola isolated from Tinospora cordifolia after 10days of incubation on malt extract medium when diethyl ether was used as an extraction solvent. Thin layer chromatography based bioassay revealed the presence of at least two bioactive molecules. Acetycholinesterase inhibitory activity is being reported for the first time from endophytic Cladosporium uredinicola, Nigrospora sp. and Colletotrichum sp.

149-155
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SAFETY AND FERTILITY ENHANCING ROLE OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN NEW ZEALAND RABBIT BUCKS
Walaa H. Khalifa, Faten M. Ibrahim, Aida I. El Makawy, Hafiza A. Sharaf, Wagdy K. B. Khalil, Nagwa A. Maghraby
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety of Moringa oleifer leaves aqueous extract and its role on fertility of New Zealand rabbit bucks.  Two doses of Moringa oleifera leaves extract (200 and 400 mg/kg/day) were administrated to rabbit bucks via gavage for 21 days. Sildenafil citrate at dosage of 5mg/kg was used as reference drug.   Liver, kidney and lipid profile functions were evaluated as safety profile agent of Moringa oleifera leaves extract.  Fertility parameters such as body weight, testosterone and thyroid hormones levels, physical characteristics of epididymal sperm, expression of reproductive genes and histopatholological changes in rabbit bucks were investigated to evaluate the role of Moringa oleifera on enhancing the fertility of rabbit bucks.  Results revealed that Moringa oleifera did not cause any toxic effect. In addition, the results illustrated that the effect of Moringa oleifera in enhancing male fertility clearly manifested in increase  the level of testosterone,  thyroid activity, sperm (motility, viability, membrane integrity), up regulation of reproductive gene expression. In addition, Moringa oleifera showed improvement in the histological structure of rabbit bucks testicular tissue. Based on these findings, we can conclude that the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera leaves is safe and has the potential to enhancing the rabbit bucks fertility.

156-168
25
PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF CATARACT PREVALENCE IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL
Alekhya Pabba, Manjusha Vanna
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Cataract  comprise an important health issue and leading cause of blindness in developing countries. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of cataract by conducting prospective review of patient records in ophthalmology department in Malla reddy hospital, Hyderabad during one year period. Majority of cases were observed in age group between 40 to 60 years (55%). Prevalence of cataract was 62.28 cases per 1225 hospitalizations in ophthalmology department.

169-171
26
ANTIEPILEPTIC ACTIVITY OF MURRAYA KOENIGII LEAF AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN PENTYLENETETRAZOLE AND STRYCHNINE INDUCED CONVULSIONS IN RATS AND MICE
Vanna Manjusha, Gella Suneel
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The aim of present study was to investigate antiepileptic activity of aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii (AEMK) on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and strychnine (STR) induced convulsions in mice and rats respectively. 24 male Swiss mice and 24 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six animals each as I, II, III and IV which were treated with 0.9 % saline (10 ml/kg, p.o.), Diazepam (4 mg/kg, i.p.), AEMK (200 mg/kg. p.o), AEMK treated (400 mg/kg. p.o). All mice were treated with PTZ (75 mg/kg, i.p.) and all rats with Strychnine (2 mg/kg, i.p.), 30 min after i.p administration of diazepam and 60 min after oral administration of saline and extract doses. Onset and duration of convulsions, percentage protection, Severity score and mortality rate in rats and mice were recorded. Statistical analysis was carried out by ANOVA followed by Barlett’s test. In present study AEMK decreased severity of convulsions, increased percentage protection, decreased mortality rate and exhibited significant antiepileptic activity.

172-176
27
A NEW VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF RAMIPRIL AND OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL
Deepthi Yada, Divya Yada, T. Rajeshwari, M. Madhavilatha, G. Tulja Rani
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present work describes a validated reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous estimation of Ramipril and and Olmesartan medoxomil in tablet formulation. Chromatography was performed on a Hypersil C18 (4.6mmx250mm, 5m) column from inisocratic mode with mobile phase containing acetonitrile: 0.05 M KH2PO4 pH 3.0 (60:40). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the eluent was monitored at 228 nm. The selected chromatographic conditions were found to effectively separate Ramipril (RT- 2.836 min) and Olmesartan (RT- 4.055 min). Linearity for Ramipril and Olmesartan medoxomil were found in the range of 5ppm-25ppm and 20ppm -100ppm respectively. The proposed method was found to be accurate, precise, reproducible and specific. The mean recovery was 99.84 ± 0.20% and 101.7 ± 0.20% for ramipril and olmesartan medoxomil respectively. The methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines.
177-185
28
QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS CONTAINING QUETIAPINE: BRAND VERSUS GENERIC
Cristina Tomasello, Roberta Cavalli, Emanuela Peila, Marco Simiele, Anna Leggieri, Giovanni Di Perri, Antonio D\'Avolio
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Atypical antipsychotics are not only used for symptoms of schizophrenia, but also for the treatment of Behavioral Psychological Symptoms in Dementia. This work is focused on developing a selective, fast method for the quantitative and qualitative determination of quetiapine in Seroquel® 25mg and the generic Quetiapine 25 mg tablets. Analyses were conducted by dissolving tablets in a suitable solvent (water/ACN 50:50) and measuring the quetiapine amount using a UPLC-PDA instrument. Dissolution test, disintegration test, and thermal analysis were conducted with specific instrumentation according to the European Pharmacopea. Quantitative analysis showed that the difference between the two pharmaceutical products was about 0.055%, which is not statistically significant; qualitative analysis highlights a slight difference about the disintegration time (1 minute) and the dissolution, caused by different excipients. This is further confirmed by the thermal analysis (Differential Scanning Calorimetry). It is possible to conclude that no differences were identified among the reconstituted samples of the two different products containing quetiapine.
1-10
29
OBSERVATION OF RADIOTHERAPY RELATED ACUTE SIDE EFFECTS´ OCCURRENCE AND MANAGEMENT IN CANCER PATIENTS
Anmar Al-taie, Aygül Köseoğlu, Fikret V.Izzettin, Songül Tezcan, Tayf Alqozbakr, Atin Aksu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study was to observe the most common radiotherapy related acute side effects and the effective modulating treatment of these side effects in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. A randomized retrospective study was carried out on 79 cancer patients admitted at the radiology unit. Radiotherapy related acute side effects and specific therapies were documented and assessed. The major acute side effect was diarrhea 82, 3%. While, 48, 5% of mucositis, and 62, 5% of skin reactions were managed by benzydamine mouth wash and dexpanthenol ointment respectively. A significant correlation observed between gender and skin reactions (males 55, 6%, females 83, 3%); previous chemotherapy with appetite loss (25%) and with metallic taste (60%). Concerning radiation-applied area, mucositis and stomatitis were significantly correlated with both thorax (39, 2%, 33, 1%), and head (31, 4%, 33, 1%) areas respectively. The occurrence of radiation related acute side effects indicates both the essentially for follow-up and the potential role of clinical pharmacist for better outcomes.
11-19
30
ANTI-INFECTIOUS AND IN VIVO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF ALBIZIA GUMMIFERA AQUEOUS STEM BARK EXTRACT AGAINST SALMONELLA TYPHI-INDUCED TYPHOID FEVER IN RATS
Serge Secco ATSAFACK, Norbert KODJIO, Guy Sedar Singor NJATENG, Jean Baptiste SOKOUDJOU, Jules-Roger KUIATE and Donatien GATSING
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Typhoid fever is one such disease, still remains a serious problem and a major threat to the society in most of the developing countries. In our search for therapeutic agents from natural sources with potential for the treatment of typhoid fevers, this work aims to evaluate the in vivo antisalmonellal activity and the effect of bacterial infection on tissues oxidation of aqueous extract of Albizia gummifera. The Salmonella typhi-infected rats concurrently received different doses of plant extract (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg bw) or oxytetracyclin (5 mg/kg) daily for 9 days. The parameters such as, catalase peroxidase, nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation index, malondialdehyde, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin were assessed. Results obtained showed that groups of treated animals at 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg bw of extract were healed respectively after 8, 7 and 6 days of treatment for females and after 9, 7 and 7 days of treatment for males. Antioxidant activity has shown that CAT (male) and peroxidase (both sex) activities for treated animals were increased significantly (p < 0.05) compared to the untreated control group animals while NO, MDA, ALP and bilirubin levels were significantly decreased (p > 0.05). Increase and reduction of theses antioxidants parameters to their normal value (that of the neutral control) was doses-dependent manner. The overall results of this study indicate that aqueous extract of Albizia gummifera exhibited in different in vivo systems, strong antisalmonellal activity and antioxidant activity on cell oxidation induced by infection with Salmonella typhi.
20-30
31
EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF MATRICARIA CHAMOMILLA L. ESSENTIAL OIL IN VIVO FROM MOROCCO
Ghizlane Hajjaj, Aziz Bahlouli, Mouna Tajani, Yahia Cherrah and Amina Zellou
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present work was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Matricaria chamomilla L. essential oil in rodents. The flowers of Matricaria chamomilla L. was subjected to extraction by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of the essential oil was assessed through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The effect of the essential oil against acute inflammation was studied using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats at different doses (100, 200 mg/kg p.o.) and compared with standard drug (indomethacin) and with control group. Matricaria chamomilla L. essential oil contained Chamazulene (25.21 %), Cis-beta-farnesene (12.51 %), Eucalyptol (9.19 %), Coumarin (7.72 %), Galaxolide (6.28 %) and Camphor (4.3 %) this essential oil produced significant anti-inflammatory effect (P<0.001) at all doses studied in both models when compared with control group. This study revealed that M. chamomilla L. essential oil has a potent anti-inflammatory activity. This effect, at least in part, depend upon the chemical composition properties of the essential oil of this medicinal plant from Morocco.
31-36
32
PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION INTO COMPARATIVE TRANSCRANIAL BRAIN TARGETED AND TRANSDERMAL SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF DIAZEPAM ON SLEEP LATENCY
Walisinghe Pathirana, Sudath Gunasekera, Godwin Constantine, Yashasvi Sanja Perera, Wedisha Gankanda, Malsha Gunathilaka, Sandamali Senanayake and Janaki Kumari
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Emissary veins that drain blood from the scalp into sinuses of the brain are a potential route for targeted central nervous system drug delivery. Structure of the scalp, cranial bones and cerebrospinal fluid flow indicate that they can facilitate transcranial drug delivery. A cascade for the transcranial drug diffusion is proposed. Diazepam 2 mg/3 ml of sesame oil was administered transcranially and transdermally in order to investigate brain targeting in human volunteers. Sleep latencies were monitored with Multiple Sleep Latency Tests involving 5 Naps employing standard electroencephalography, electroocculography and electromyography electrodes. The six volunteers were subjected to four days of electroencephalography screenings for the base line, placebo oil, diazepam on scalp and diazepam on forearms. The mean sleep latencies for the Nap 3 with peak responses were 13.8, 8.7, 5.9 and 7.7 minutes respectively indicating that the transcranial brain targeting of diazepam is possible.
37-46
33
Spectral and cytotoxic study of complexing mixed ligand formed by sodium [5-(P-nitro phenyl)-4-phenyl-1,2,4-traizole-3-dithiocarbamato hydrazide] and 1,10 phenanthroline with Fe(III) and Mn (II) ions
Mahasin Alias, Farah Saadoon, Maha Faisal, Nibras Mohammed, Caroline Shaker
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Mixed ligands complexes have been prepared by reaction of Sodium [5-(p-nitrophenyl)-\'4-phenyl-1,2,4-traizole-3-dithiocarbamato hydrazide] (L1) and 1,10-phenanthroline (L2) with Fe(III) and Mn(II) ions. The newly prepared complexes were isolated and characterized by FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy, C.H.N., FAA technique, in addition to magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. The nature of bonding between the metal ion and the donor atoms of the ligands were demonstrated by calculating of the ligand field parameters using suitable Tanaba-Sugano diagrams. Cytotoxic effect of the prepared complexes were evaluated against Hep-2 cell line using different concentrations (3000, 1500, 750 and 375 µg/ml) respectively in an exposure time 72 hrs comparing this effect with control positive Cis-Pt as reference drug.
47-52
34
NEW VALIDATED SPECTROFLUORIMETRIC AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CLOPIDOGREL IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS USING EOSIN
M. Sharaf El-Din, F. Ibrahim, Sh. Shalan and Heba Abd El-Aziz
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
New Sensitive and accurate two spectroscopic methods were developed and validated for the determination of Clopidogrel (CLP) in tablet dosage forms. The spectrophotometric method (Method I) is based on the formation of red colored complex with eosin at (545 nm) in sodium acetate – acetic acid buffer of pH 3. The absorbance-concentration plot is rectilinear over the range (0.5-9 µg mL-1) with LOD of (0.076 µg mL-1) and LOQ of (0.23 µg mL-1). The Spectrofluorimetric method (Method II) depends on the quantitative quenching effect of Clopidogrel on the native fluorescence of eosin at the same pH. The quenching effect of the formed ion-pair complex of the drug with eosin was measured at (560 nm) after excitation at (499 nm). The fluorescence-concentration plot is rectilinear over the range (0.2-6 µg mL-1) with LOD of (0.0341 µg mL-1) and LOQ of (0.1033 µg mL-1). Under the optimized experimental conditions, the proposed methods were validated as per International Conference of Harmonization guidelines. The proposed methods were perfectly applied to the analysis of commercial tablets containing the drug. Statistical comparison of the results with those of the reference method illustrate good agreement and confirm that there were no significant difference in the accuracy and precision between the proposed and reference one respectively.
53-63
35
POTENTIAL DRUG-DRUG INTERACTIONS IN MEDICAL WARDS OF TIKUR ANBESSA SPECIALIZED HOSPITAL, ETHIOPIA
Mohammed Biset Ayalew
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs), to identify drugs frequently involved in interaction and to identify factors associated with pDDIs in medical wards of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH). A prospective crossectional study was conducted on 163 patients admitted in medical wards of TASH. Presence of interaction was cheeked using medscape drug-drug interaction checker. Data was analysed using SPSS version 21. A test of association was done using binary and multiple logistic regressions. The overall prevalence of potential drug-drug interaction was 86.5%. Interactions of major severity account for about one fifth of total pDDIs. The number of drugs taken by the patient was found to be significantly associated with pDDIs. The study highlighted the need to carefully select drugs and implement active pharmaceutical care services in order to prevent harmful effect of these interactions.
64-70
36
REVIEW ON CYPERUS ESCULENTUS : FROM FOOD SAFETY TO PHARMACOTHERAPEUTICS
Dhouha Krichène, Diana Ansorena Artieda, Mokhtar Zarrouk and Iciar Astiasarán
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Plants are potent biochemical factories and have been components of phytomedicine. Plant based natural constituents can be derived from any part of the plant (leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, seeds, etc.) which contain active principles. It is well known that traditional herbal medicines existed before the application of the modern scientific methods to health care; and even today majority of the world population depends on herbal health care practices. Cyperus esculentus L. is distributed mainly in the Southern European region and in the Western part of Africa. Its sweet tubers are highly appreciated for their nutritive value with a high content of fiber, proteins, and sugars. They are rich in oleic acid, glucose, and vitamins C and E. It is often a utile plant largely utilized in traditional system of medicine and exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, analgesic, antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antioxidant and various other activities. Our present review subsumes on chemical and biological properties of Cyperus esculentus. This compiled data reflects the therapeutic properties of this potential herb.
71-81
37
DOCKING AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL SIMILARITY STUDIES ON INDOLE BASED ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTICS
Alka Bali and Umesh Sen
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A hypothetical binding model has been proposed based on in silico (docking studies) on a series of indole derivatives with atypical antipsychotic activity in order to investigate their hypothetical binding mode with respect to the dopaminergic D3 receptors. The docking reproduced the established receptor binding profile of the standard drugs ziprasidone, risperidone, ketanserin, clozapine and eticlopride. The test compounds demonstrated a similar binding profile to the standard drugs. Salient interactions noted for the standard drugs as well as the test compounds were the hydrogen bonding interactions with the residues Asp110, Tyr373, Ser182, Ser192, Cys181 and p-p stacking with Phe345, Phe346 and His349. The D3 docking scores of the compounds lacking the atypical profile were seen to be lower compared to those having an atypical profile. Further, the physicochemical similarity of the test compounds was assessed with respect to selected standard drugs and the test compounds were seen to possess very good similarity to ziprasidone.
82-92
38
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF LOPERAMIDE LIQUISOLID COMPACTS
Madhavi Harika Srimathkandala, Sushma M, Madhu Babu Ananthula, Vasudha Bakshi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Loperamide is an anti diarrhoeal drug administered orally. It is a poorly water soluble drug with low oral bioavailability. The present study was aimed at increasing solubility of Loperamide and thus enhance its dissolution rate by a novel technique called liquisolid system. Liquisolid compacts were prepared by propylene glycol, Micro crystalline cellulose and Aerosol as solvent, carrier and coating material respectively in different ratios. By performing FTIR it was confirmed that there was no incompatibility between the drug and other excipients. Flow properties of the drug were measured and found to be within pharmacopoeal limits. Taking in vitro drug release, final formulation weight, drug content and flow properties into consideration, formulation F2 was optimized. XRD patterns show that the drug in the formulation got transformed to amorphous form. The optimized formulation showed good dissolution rate when compared to marketed formulation and pure drug. So the liquisolid technique was proved to be efficient in improving dissolution properties of Loperamide.
93-99
39
BACTERICIDAL POTENTIALITY OF FLAVONOIDS EXTRACTED FROM CELL SUSPENSION CULTURES OF MARCHANTIA LINEARIS LEHM AND LINDENB.
Remya Krishnan and Murugan K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present investigation was undertaken to isolate and fractionate flavonoids from in vitro cell culture of the liverwort Marchantia linearis Lehm and Lindenb., a poorly documented bryophyte and its mode of bactericidal potentiality. Initially, callus culture was initiated from spores in MS/5 media containing growth regulators. From suspension culture flavonoids were isolated and fractionated by HPLC PAD chromatogram, which revealed the presence of a pool of active compounds. In vitro time-kill assessment data supports the MBC and MKC. Remarkable leakage of reducing sugar and high leakage of nucleic acid and protein were observed at different concentration of flavonoid. Further, respiratory chain enzyme dehydrogenases showed lower profile in the treated bacterial strains. SEM data substantiated the bactericidal potentiality. Thus, the flavonoids of M. linearis may be a potent candidate for the in vivo biological control of pathogenic bacteria. Further studies are warranted to purify the lead molecule and to elucidate the molecular mechanism of bactericidal action.
100-112
40
A STABILITY INDICATING METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF TAPENTADOL IN BULK AND IN FORMULATIONS
Renu Chadha, Alka Bali, Gulshan Bansal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
An isocratic stability-indicating reversed phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC-UV) method for quantitative determination of tapentadol HCl has been developed and validated as per the ICH guidelines. Tapentadol HCl and the tablet formulation were subjected to forced decomposition conditions of hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis and thermal stress, as per ICH guidelines. Thermal, photostability, accelerated and real time stability testing was carried out with the marketed tablet formulation of the drug. An Inertsil ® C-18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5µ) column was used to carry out the chromatographic analysis. The mobile phase composed of methanol-water (pH 2.5 with formic acid of the aqueous part) (35:65 %v/v) (flow rate 1.0 mL/min; Detection wavelength 254 nm). The drug was found to be extremely stable and there was no degradation under various stressor conditions. Excellent linearity was observed in the range of 0.05–5.0 µg/mL (r 2= 0.9998). The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.0008 and 0.0024 µg/mL respectively. The proposed method gave good recovery of the drug in the tablet formulation as well (100.8 % in control and 98.53 - 99.73 % in the various stability samples).
113-120
41
ESTIMATION AND VALIDATION OF SOFOSBUVIR IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC
Ravikumar Vejendla, C.V.S. Subramanyam, G. Veerabhadram
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, sensitive, precise, and accurate isocratic reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the estimation of sofosbuvir in bulk and tablet dosage form. To optimize, a column Phenomenex prodigy ODS-3V (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm), mobile phase mixture of methanol and (0.1%) tri-fluro acetic acid as buffer having pH of 3.2 in the ratio of (30:70 v/v) found to be an efficient system for elution of drug with good peak shape as well as retention time 2.990 min., flow rate 1.0 ml/min. at UV wavelength of 260nm. Quantitative linearity was obeyed in the concentration range of 100 to 600 µg/ml, the regression equations of concentration over their peak areas were found to be Y = 18864x + 58306 R² = 0.996, where Y is the peak area and X is the concentration of drug. The number of theoretical plates obtained was 2604.352 which indicate the efficient performance of the column. The limit of detection was 0.01 µg/ml and limit of quantification was 0.03 µg/ml, which indicates the sensitivity of the method the high percentage recovery indicates that the proposed method is highly accurate. No interfering peaks were found in the chromatogram indicating that excipients used in tablet formulation did not interfere with the estimation of the drug by the proposed RP-HPLC method.
121-127
42
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF PENTOXIFYLLINE
Jagdish Chandra Rathi, Vaishali Rathi, Sengodan Tamizharasi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A sustained release system for pentoxifylline designed to increase its residence time in the stomach without contact with the mucosa was achieved through the preparation of floating microspheres by the emulsion solvent diffusion technique. Four different ratios of either Eudragit RS 100 (ES) alone or with HPMC were used to prepare the floating microspheres. The drug retained in the floating microspheres decrease with increase in HPMC content. All formulation show good flow properties. The microspheres were found to be regular by SEM. FT-IR study confirmed the drug-polymer compatibility. Although pentoxifylline release rate from Eudragit RS floating microspheres was very slow and incomplete but when HPMC was added, release rate increased, at the same time floating ability was decreasing. Formulation F2 containing ES:HPMC (9:1) which showed appropriate balance between release rate and buoyancy could be advantageous in terms of increased bioavailability of pentoxifylline. Formulation F2 was subjected for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats and showed better efficacy compare to standard preparation.
128-137
43
ISOPRENALINE: A TOOL FOR INDUCING MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS
Mohd Aftab Siddiqui, Usama Ahmad, Ahmed Abdullah Khan, Mohammad Ahmad, Badruddeen, Mohammad Khalid, Juber Akhtar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) remain the principal cause of death in both developed and developing countries, accounting for roughly 20% of all worldwide deaths per year. Due to changing lifestyles in developing countries, such as India and particularly urban areas, Myocardial infarction is making an increasingly important contribution to mortality statistics. Myocardial infarction is defined as an acute condition of necrosis of the myocardium that occurs as a result of imbalance between coronary blood supply and myocardial demand. Isoprenaline/Isoproterenol (ISO) is a synthetic catecholamine and beta adrenergic agonist, which causes severe stress in the myocardium, resulting in an infarct like necrosis of the heart muscle in experimental animal. ISO-induced myocardial infarction serves as a well standardized model because the pathophysiological changes in heart muscle of experimental animal, similar to that observed in human myocardial infarction. The present studies cover the cardioprotective activity of various drugs against Isoprenaline induced Myocardial infarction in animal model.
138-144
44
TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NARCOLEPSY: A REVIEW
V. Bindu Praneeta, B. Sukanya Bai, V. Usha Vanya, M. Mahima Swaroopa
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disorder specifying the abnormal sleep manifestations which mainly impact the quality of life of narcolepsy patients. The exact cause is unclear but found significant evidences that orexin/hypocretin deficiency causes narcolepsy which regulates sleep. Treatment focuses on symptomatic relief throughout medication, education, and behavioral therapy. Stimulants are the first line treatment for the excessive daytime sleepiness. Modafinil, sodium oxybate, amphetamine, methylphenidate, and selegiline are effectual treatments for somnolence associated with narcolepsy. Tricyclic antidepressants and SSRIs are one of the best treatments for cataplexy, sleep pa¬ralysis, and hypnagogic hallucinations. Benzodiazepines are the best regimen for disturbed nocturnal sleep.
145-149
45
A REVIEW ON BENZOTHIAZOLE – A VERSATILE SCAFFOLD IN THE FIELD OF PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY
Siddhanadham Arun Satyadev, Yejella Rajendra Prasad, Vasudeva Rao Avupati, Koduru Aparna, Manjula Jyotshana Rudru
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Heterocyclic chemistry is an integral part of synthetic chemistry which finds its use as one of the major parts in pharmaceutical chemistry as useful biological entities and improved pharmacological properties. Benzothiazoles are versatile bicyclic compounds with diversified pharmacological activities and their analogues are known for their incredible structural diversity. There is a wide scope for research in areas of synthetic, pharmaceutical chemistry and medical field. The objectives of the study mainly have a hawk eye over different common routes of synthesis and cyclization procedures followed and to have a light on diversified pharmacological importance of this potent moiety. Benzothiazoles have clinical effectiveness as potential anticancer, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal. analgesic, anti-HIV, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, antitubercular, antidiabetic, and other medicinal agents.
150-158
46
COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF CYCLODEXTRIN COMPLEXATION IN IMPROVING DISSOLUTION OF RITONAVIR
Bharani S. Sogali, Sushant M. S, Ramana Murthy K. V
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was focused on comparing different methods of preparations and the effect of hydroxy propyl beta cyclodextrin (HPßCD) and randomly methylated beta cyclodextrin (RMßCD) in enhancing dissolution and oral bioavailability of poorly soluble, antiretroviral protease inhibitor, ritonavir. Complexes of ritonavir-CD complexes were prepared at 1:1 ratio using physical mixing, co evaporation, spray drying and freeze drying methods. The prepared complexes were characterized using FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), x-ray diffraction studies (XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and scanning electron microscopy. In vitro dissolution studies were performed in 0.1N HCl and the dissolution data were subjected to one way ANOVA. Phase solubility studies proved complexation of ritonavir and were of AL type. All complexes showed enhanced dissolution rate compared to ritonavir but the complex prepared with RMßCD using freeze drying had shown complete and fast drug release. On the basis of above results, it was concluded that complex prepared with RMßCD by freeze drying was successful in improving solubility, dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of ritonavir.
159-176
47
ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: A REVIEW
Vinay B. C.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Alzheimer’s disease is a brain disorder in which the patient eventually loss the memory and thinking skills. This makes it difficult for a patient to carry out the simple task. This is also one type of dementia with no known cause or cure. In this present review article, Pathology, Pathophysiology, symptoms and stages of the disease, diagnosis and FDA approved drugs for treatment of the disease have been explained neatly and legibly with proper tables which is easy to understand
177-185
48
FABRY DISEASE AND TREATMENT-AN OVERVIEW
T. Rajeshwari, V. Manjusha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked, hereditary, lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of enzyme a-galactosidase A (a-Gal A), which results in accumulation of neutral glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide(Gb3) in walls of small blood vessels, nerves,dorsal root ganglia, renal glomerular and tubular epithelial cells and cardiomyocytes. Males are mostly affected whereas women mainly act as carriers. Onset of FD symptoms depends upon its clinical type which vary from neuropathic pain, hypohidrosis, gastrointestinal symptoms, and angiokeratomas, chronic kidney disease, cardiomyopathy and cerebral events as seen in adults to severe mental retardation as seen in infantile form which drastically affects the quality of life and reduces life span of affected individuals. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with intravenous infusions of recombinant human a-galactosidase A is approved by FDA for treating FD. Alternative treatments under investigation include substrate reduction therapy (SRT), chaperons, stem cell transplant and gene therapy.The aim of present study is to review pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment of FD.
186-190
49
DESIGN OF OCULAR CONTROLLED RELEASE OCUSERTS OF BRINZOLAMIDE
Snehaprabha Lad, Amrita Bajaj
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of research was to formulate and evaluate controlled release drug delivery system like ocuserts of Brinzolamide, an anti-glaucoma agent. Ocuserts were formulated using various polymers and plasticizers by film casting technique as drug reservoir membrane and controlled release polymers like Eudragit as the rate limiting membrane. The ocuserts were evaluated for physical characteristics, pH, uniformity in thickness & weight, swelling index, folding endurance, percent moisture loss, uniformity of drug content, in vitro diffusion studies. The ocusert containing HPMC K4M, HPMC E50 (1:1), Eudragit E100 showed controlled release with 82.00% ± 0.594 at the end of 24 hours. Ex-vivo study showed 80.00 ± 1.003% of drug permeation. SEM analysis showed drug was in crystal form in the matrix of Ocusert, the surface had pores. IR and DSC studies confirmed no drug-polymer interaction. The optimized formula was sterilized and subjected to stability studies. No ocular irritation was seen in ocular irritancy study.
191-202
50
SOLID-SUPPORTED CATALYSED GREEN SYNTHESIS OF THIAZOLIDINEDIONE DERIVATIVES AND ITS BIOLOGICAL SCREENING
Vidya Desai, Nikita Kesarkar, Swaranjali Bagve
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new green synthesis of thiazolidinedione derivatives have been reported by reacting thiazolidinedione and variety of aldehydes using solid-supported catalyst in good yields. The thiazolidine-2,4-diones synthesized, have been biologically screened for their anti-microbial activities.
203-208
51
ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES REGARDING EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE AMONG THE RESIDENTS OF HARAR, EASTERN ETHIOPIA
Temam Aman, Vijaibasker G
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a disease of humans and other primates, which is caused by an RNA virus of the family Filoviridae and genus Ebolavirus. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes regarding Ebola virus disease among the residents in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia. This study was carried out from March 4 to April 20, 2015. A descriptive cross sectional study design was used in this study. The respondents were interviewed on a pre-tested structured questionnaire after their verbal consent. The data was collected by direct face to face interview and the outcome variables were knowledge and attitudes regarding Ebola virus disease. The knowledge and attitudes score was classified as adequate if score was = 70%, moderately adequate if score was 41-60% and inadequate if score was < 40%. Of 269 respondents, only 67 (24.9%) had adequate knowledge, 121 (45%) had moderately adequate knowledge and 81 (30.1%) had inadequate knowledge regarding Ebola virus disease. Out of 269 respondents, 146 (54.3 %) had positive attitude and 123 (45.7 %) had negative attitude regarding Ebola virus disease. In the present study, it was found that residents in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia had unsatisfactory knowledge regarding Ebola Virus Disease. Also 123 (45.7 %) had negative attitudes regarding Ebola virus disease among the residents in kebele 18 were not satisfactory too. Hence findings of this study pinpoint the necessity of inculcation of health education programs, which will create the public to be aware against the EVD.
209-221
52
DOES DIABETES MELLITUS AFFECT THE PLASMA CONCENTRATION OF ANTITUBERCULOSIS AGENTS?
Abdallah Abdallah Mahjoub, Syed Azhar Syed Suliman, Amer Hayat Khan, Razak Lajis, Irfhan Ali Bin Hyder Ali
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Plasma concentrations of isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide were measured in 22 diabetic and 22 non-diabetic pulmonary tuberculosis patients by high performance liquid chromatographic methods. From every patient, five blood samples were taken at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after witnessed ingestion of antituberculosis agents. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and the time to reach the Cmax (Tmax) for each drug were determined directly from the concentration-time profile. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated from isoniazid and rifampicin only. The presence of diabetes mellitus did not significantly affect any pharmacokinetic parameters of the three agents. AUC0-24h of isoniazid was significantly higher in female patients. The AUC0-24h of rifampicin was significantly correlated with patients’ age. Weight-adjusted dose of each drug positively and significantly correlated with the corresponding drug Cmax.
222-230
53
ANTIOXIDANT POWER OF PURIFIED PROTEASE INHIBITORS FROM THE FRUITS OF SOLANUM ACULEATISSIMUM JACQ
Meenu Krishnan V. G and Murugan K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Oxidative stress plays significant role in pathophysiologic events of acute and chronic diseases. Intracellular biomolecules such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids are damaged via oxidation by excessive active oxygen species (AOS). Protease inhibitor was isolated and purified from the fruits of Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq. (SAPI) via four sequential step procedure i.e., salt precipitation to Sepharose affinity chromatography. Subsequently, the antioxidant power is analysed using DPPH, H2O2, O2.-, ABTS, OH. radical scavenging activity, reducing power potential, metal chelating ability and FRAP (Ferric reducing antioxidant power) method. SAPI exhibited significant IC50 values for most of the AOX assays. DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating ability, ABTS and OH. radical scavenging activity were comparable with the synthetic antioxidants like ascorbate and BHT. Further studies are warranted to trace the molecular mechanism of AOX activity by SAPI using in vivo animal models.
231-240
54
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME NEW CHALCONES
Padma R, Aruna R, E Mounika, I. Manjusha and B Soniya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In this work, new substituted chalcones (1-6) were prepared by reacting 4-Methoxy acetophenone with the corresponding substituted aromatic aldehydes in the presence of methanolic potassium hydroxide solution at room temperature.Some of the compounds synthesized from methoxy, chloro, Dimethlyamino derivatives showed moderate antibacterial activity at 0.2% concentration. These compounds may show more antibacterial activity at higher concentrations.
241-245
55
SIMULTANEOUS QUANTIFICATION OF RISPERIDONE AND ESCITALOPRAM IN HUMAN PLASMA BY LC-MS/MS: APPLICATION TO A PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY
Pallavi Alegete, Prasad Kancherla, Saeed S. Albaseer, and Sathyanarayana Boodida
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A solid phase extraction method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of risperidone and escitalopram in human plasma by a suitable ultra-performance liquid chromatographic / tandem mass spectrometric assay (LC-MS/MS) .Resperidone-D4 was used as an internal standard. The method involves simple isocratic chromatographic conditions at a flow rate of 0.400 mL min-1. Samples were separated on X-terra RP8 column (50 mm × 4.6, 5µm) in a shorter run time of only 2.0 min using a mobile phase mixture of 95:5 v/v (acetonitrile : ammonium acetate) buffer 5mM, pH 5.0±0.05). Calibration plots were linear (r2 0.99) over the concentration range of 0.050 to 26 ng mL-1 for risperidone and 0.100 to 51 ng mL-1 for escitalopram. The overall recoveries for risperidone and escitalopram were 76.88% and 81.14%, respectively. Precision was 2.9%, 5.07% (intra-day) and 4.13%, 6.43% (inter-day) for risperidone and escitalopram, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of human plasma.
246-256
56
PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF GLORIOSA SUPERBA LINN. IN LEAD INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY IN RATS
V. Uma Rani, M. Sudhakar, A. Ramesh, B.V.S.Lakshmi, Yengala Srinivas
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present study, tubers of Gloriosa superba Linn (Liliaceae) was selected for evaluating the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba linn in lead induced neurotoxicity in rats. Thirty six wistar rats (150-200g) were selected and divided into six groups of six in each. Group I (normal control) received distilled water, group II-lead nitrate (10 mg/kg, p.o.), group III-lead nitrate + vitamin E (10 mg/kg, p.o. + 100 mg/kg, p.o.), group IV-lead nitrate + HEGS (10 mg/kg, p.o. + 50 mg/kg, p.o.), group V-lead nitrate + HEGS (10 mg/kg, p.o. + 100 mg/kg, p.o.), group VI-lead nitrate + HEGS (10 mg/kg, p.o. + 200 mg/kg, p.o.) experiment was carried out for 21 days. At end of the experiment various behavioral, biochemical and histopathological assessments were carried out. The animals showed increase in transfer latencies indicating learning and memory implairment in lead control group, but administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba Linn decreased the transfer latencies, strengthened its memory improvement action in drug treated animals.Hence showed decrease in muscle strength measured by rota-rod test whereas, in hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba linn treated group there was improvement in muscle strength. The locomotor activity assessed by actophotometer and open field test was decreased in lead nitrate group compared with hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba Linn treated group. Biochemical analysis of brain revealed that the chronic administration of lead nitrate significantly increased lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase (GR), an index of oxidative stress process. Administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba Linn attenuated the lipid peroxidation and reversed the decreased brain CAT and GSH levels. Lead exposed rats showed increased levels of various serum parameters like glucose, ALT, ALP, TG and TC. Lead toxicity also leads to alteration in acetylcholinesterase levels, might have caused neurobehavioral changes which was measured by the change in acetylcholinesterase activity but prior administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba Linn ahead of lead nitrate ameliorated the change. There was marked changes at the subcellular level which were observed by histopathology studies in lead treated group and better improvement in these changes was observed in hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba Linn treated group. Therefore hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba Linn helps to combat the oxidative stress produced by the accumulation of lead in the body.
257-266
57
STABILITY INDICATING METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF RESIDUE OF ABIRATERONE BY HPLC
M. Ramesh Babu, V Umamaheswara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of the investigation was to develop a new RP-HPLC Method for estimation of Abiraterone in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Chromatography was carried out on an Symmetry shield RP-18, 250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5µm with a isocratic mobile phase composed of Buffer: mixture of solvent in the ratio of 10:90 % v/v (mixture of solvent of solvents in the ratio of Acetonitrile and Water in the ratio of 90:10 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The column temperature was maintained at 40°C and the detection was carried out using a PDA detector at 252 nm. Validation parameters such as system suitability, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), Stability of sample and standard stock solutions and robustness were studied as reported in the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The retention time for Abiraterone was 7.20 min. The percentage recovery of Abiraterone was 101.65%. The relative standard deviation for assay of tablet was found to be less than 2%. The Method was fast, accurate, precise and sensitive hence it can be employed for routine quality control of tablets containing drugs in quality control laboratories and pharmaceutical industries.
267-276
58
Total phenol, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of methanol extract of Lygodium palmatum (Bernh.) Sw. leaves.
Tanvir Ahmad Chowdhury, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Syed Md. Abdul Kader, Mahmudul Hasan, Md. Ariful Islam, Md. Rakibul Hasan, Md. Nazmul Huda, Shefatun Nur, Joy Chakraborty, Abul Hasanat, Md. Mominur Rahman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Lygodium palmatum (Bernh.) Sw. leaves are deliberated as worthy traditional medicine. To give a scientific basis for traditional usage of this medicinal plant, the leaf extract were appreciated for its antioxidant activity. In this study, in vitro antioxidant activities of the leaf extract of L. palmatum were determined by total antioxidant, DPPH, Reducing power capacity, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content. The extract showed a dose dependent radical scavenging effect in DPPH assay. IC50 for free radicals achieved by the extract is 46.94 µg/ml. The extract showed significant reducing power activity as compared to ascorbic acid and proportionally increased with the increasing concentration of the extract. Increase in absorbance of the reaction mixture indicates the increase in the reducing power of the extract. Phenol content was 96.67± 0.82 mg gallic acid/g and flavonoid content was 27.30 ± 0.30 mg quercetin/g. Our current results emerged that L. palmatum act as an antioxidant agent due to its free radical scavenging and cytoprotective activity. So, the plant may be further pursued to find out for its pharmacological active natural products.
277-282
59
In vitro and In vivo drug-drug interaction between Sitagliptin phosphate and Atenolol
Md. Mosarraf Hossen, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Atiqur Rahman, Kazi Ashfak Ahmed Chowdhury, Mohammed Emranul Huq, Nirjhar Das, Md. Shalah Uddin Pasha, Mohammed Aktar Sayeed, Abul Hasanat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo complexation nature and strength of complex which may be formed due to interaction between sitagliptin phosphate and atenolol. The interaction of sitagliptin phosphate and atenolol has been studied in aqueous system at a fixed temperature (370C) at both gastric pH (pH 1.2 and pH 3.2) and intestinal pH (pH 6.8) by using Job’s method of continuous variation and Ardon’s method. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used to identify in vivo DDI in mice. From spectrophotometric study, sitagliptin phosphate and atenolol give different spectra when sitagliptin phosphate mixed with atenolol in 1:1 ratio. The intensity of the spectra of sitagliptin phosphate slightly changes due to interaction. The jobs plot was obtained by plotting absorbance difference against the mole fraction of the each drug at pH 1.2, pH 3.2 and pH 6.8. When the spectra of pure sitagliptin phosphate and atenolol were compared with 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 mixture, there was a change observed which indicate the formation of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 complexes of sitagliptin phosphate with atenolol. The values of stability constant is more than one at al pH (1.2, 3.2 and 6.8), which is the indication of strong complex. The stability constant values are 1.2073, 1.1839 and 1.2075 respectively. From the in vivo observation of Oral glucose tolerance test, at 1:1 complex, blood glucose level decrease (13.88%) less compared to Sitagliptin phosphate (22.22%) significantly. Complex (1:1) showed different activity rather than pure sitagliptin phosphate treatment due to complexation. Therefore, it can be concluded that a careful consideration is needed during concurrent administration of Sitagliptin phosphate with Atenolol.
283-291
60
Sedative and Anxiolytic activities of methanol extract of Boehmeria platyphylla D Don Leaves.
Syed Md. Abdul Kader, Md. Abdullah al Masum, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Md. Saif Uddin, Mohammad Nazmul Hoque Jony, Mohammed Sohel Chowdhury, Imran Bin Habib, Arkajyoti Paul, Shefatun Nur, Joy Chakraborty, Abul Hasanat, Md. Rafikul Islam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Boehmeria platyphylla leaves are deliberated as worthy traditional medicine. To give a scientific basis for traditional usage of this medicinal plant, the methanol leaf extract (MEBP) was applied for its sedative and anxiolytic activities. In this study, the sedative activity was also evaluated using open field test, hole-cross test. Besides, elevated plus maze test, hole-board test for exploratory behavior in mice were used to evaluate its anxiolytic activities. The in vivo action was done using mice of both sexes. The extract showed a dose dependent sedative effect. The number of squares traveled by the mice was decreased significantly (P<0.01) from its initial value at 0 to 90 min at the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract. In the EPM, the behavior of mice model, as observed, confirmed the anxiolytic activity of diazepam as reported previously. The methanol extract of B. platyphylla leaves (MEBP) at the dose of 400 mg/kg, significantly increased the time spent in the open arms. Hole Board test proved that the extract have significant anxiolytic activity. Because, head dipping of mice increased with the treatment of MEBP. The obtained results support that B. platyphylla has well sedative and anxiolytic effects and deserve further investigation to isolate the specific components that are responsible for the sedative and anxiolytic effects. Components from this plant may have a great potential value as medicinal agents, as leads or model compounds for synthetic or semi synthetic structure modifications and optimization.
292-298
61
Development and Validation of a stability indicating RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of Telmisartan, Chlorthalidone and Cilnidipine in pharmaceutical combined dosage forms
Mathews Bommella, Ramisetti Nageswara Rao, Priyanka Peddi, Mukkanti Khagga, Sarbani pal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The study describes development and subsequent validation of a stability indicating reverse-phase HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of the Telmisartan, Chlorthalidone and Cilnidipine in combined solid dosage forms using RP-HPLC. Separation was accomplished on Kromasil 250 x 4.6 mm, 5mm C18 column using 0.1% OPA buffer and acetonitrile (57:43 v/v) as mobile phase pumped through at a flow rate of 1.2 ml/min at 30°C. Optimized wavelength was 238nm. Retention time of Telmisartan, Chlorthalidone and Cilnidipine were found to be 3.106min, 2.573min and 3.924 min respectively. %RSD of the Telmisartan, Chlorthalidone and Cilnidipine were found to be 0.87, 0.96 and 0.94 respectively. % recovery was obtained as 100.18%, 100.06% and 100.13% for Telmisartan, Chlorthalidone and Cilnidipine respectively. The proposed method also proved to be suitable as a rapid and reliable quality control method.
299-311
62
Interns Experiential Training Perspectives with Pharmacist Prescribing Protocol Development
Elhaum Khobahy, Nkechiamaka Nwosu, Reza Abbasgholizadeh, Mousa Abkhezr, Valerie U. Oji
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Pharmacist intern impressions on prescribing roles and protocol development in the course of their advanced experiential training experiences are described. The objectives of this qualitative study were to: 1) Identify core protocol requirements, 2) Compare/Contrast protocols from U.S. states with extensive pharmacist prescribing protocol history and 3) Design a pharmacist prescribing protocol based on integrated or collaborative care theory. Feedback on prescribing protocol development and pharmacist prescribing roles was gathered from a focus group of pharmacist interns’ activities that included 1) review of the local State Pharmacy law requirements (TX); and 2) comparison of these requirements with six other states or territories (CA, MD, DC, KS, VA, WA) where services are provided by the experiential training site and/or that state has a long history of experience with collaborative drug therapy management; 3) review of local state and out-of-state sample protocols; and 4) key general discussion questions. Prescribing protocols were obtained via Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), known samples, and data on hand. A concise, comprehensive prescribing protocol was developed for application of collaborative chronic care. Core protocol requirements identified were State Pharmacy and Medical Board approval and guidelines; pharmacist and physician licensure; specified prescribing-related and medication-management activities to be delivered by the pharmacists; how medication-management decisions would be made, documented and evaluated. Differences across U.S. states included the issuance of Pharmacist DEA numbers, pharmacist educational requirements, treatment algorithms, state/local guidelines and protocols. Interns\' shared experiences led to a perceived underutilization of pharmacists in meeting existing patient health service access needs and addressing medication-related problems. They also identified potential implementation challenges such as time and staffing limitations, provider status recognition, third-party reimbursement, overcoming multidisciplinary stereotypes of pharmacists’ roles, unfamiliarity with pharmacist prescribing as compared to other providers, educational needs for reinforcement on patient diagnoses, laboratory value orders/interpretations, medical record and claims documentation, and interprofessional communication. A positive interest in prescribing roles and protocol development was identified in contributing to patient health service needs. Implementation can be facilitated with an understanding of core protocol requirements, state laws, treatment guidelines and algorithms, potential service implementation challenges, and educational strategies for clinicians, administrators and policy-makers. Educational preparedness should consider the incorporation of these experiences, especially across multidisciplinary settings, to improve collaborative care.
1-10
63
Antibiotic susceptibility testing: a review on current practices
Uddhav S Bagul and Sivagurunathan M. Sivakumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
An increasing Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has resulted in morbidity and mortality from treatment failures and increased health care costs. Appropriate antimicrobial drug use has unquestionable benefit, but physicians and the public frequently use these agents inappropriately hence, it became necessary to perform the antimicrobial susceptibility test as a routine. The aim of antimicrobial susceptibility testing is to determine the lowest concentration of existing or even new antimicrobial agents which inhibits the visible growth of the bacterium being investigated, under certain test conditions. The Disk diffusion, well diffusion, stokes and gradient diffusion methods are manual methods that provide flexibility and possible cost savings. The most commonly used testing methods include broth microdilution method using commercially available 96-well micro dilution panel. Broth dilution, tube dilution and E test provide quantitative results (e.g. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration) whereas other methods provide qualitative results which are categorized as susceptible, intermediate or resistant. Although available testing methods provide accurate detection of common antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, emerging newer mechanisms of resistance certainly attracts researcher for the development of advanced, reproducible, automated and reliable antimicrobial testing methods.
11-17
64
Preclinical lipid profile studies of an ayurvedic preparation \"saraguna balijarita makaradhvaja\" used as antipyretic
Md. Ashraful Alam, Shahnaz Jalil, Fariha Tasnim, Nahida Akhter, Mohsina Mukti, Md. Rakib Hasan, Satchit Neupane and MSK Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Saraguna Balijarita Makaradhvaja (SBM) is an Ayurvedic preparation used in traditional medicine as an antipyretic in the rural population. We were eager to know the effect of chronic administration of SBM on the lipid profile test. To find out the effect of chronic administration of SBM on the lipid profile, it was administered chronically to the male Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 400 mg/Kg. After 28 days of chronic administration of the SBM preparation, the following effects on the lipid profile were noted. There was a statistical significant increase in LDL and Non-HDL Cholesterol (p=0.01). A very highly significant (p=0.001) decrease was noticed in HDL-C level; thus leading to a statistically very highly significant (p=0.001) increase in Cardiac Risk Ratio (CRR) (TC/HDL-C), Castelli’s Risk Index-II (CRI-II) (HDL C/LDL-C) and Atherogenic Coefficient (AC) [(TC/HDLC)/ HDL-C)]. No significant change was found in case of TG, TC, VLDL and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) (log (TG/HDL-C)).
18-22
65
Anti-inflammatory activity of Cuscuta Campestris hydro alcoholic extract on anti-inflammatory animal model
Asad Ullah Faiz Ghalib, Muhammad Nadeem, Syed Muzaffar Ali, Prof. Dr. Bakir Shyum Naqvi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cuscuta campestris Yunck having common names like Golden Dodder, field Dodder and Bay Parri which is widely distributed in America, Africa, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, South and East America. Cuscuta campestris grows on other plant as a host having antibacterial, parasitic properties and anti-inflammatory due to presence of certain chemicals. The main purpose of research work was to find out the anti-inflammatory activity of plant extract. For evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Cuscuta campestris, adult Wistar rats of both sexes weighing between 150-200 g were used. Edema was induced in sub planter region of right hind paw of Wister rats by injecting 0.1 ml of 1% suspension of Carrageenan in normal saline. After establishing animal model, treatment was started by giving the plant extract 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg. Control was treated by normal saline. To compare the activity of extract, standard drug (Acetyl Salicylic Acid) was used. The results were documented on 0, 1, 2 and 3 hours after treatment and percentage inhibition was recorded. From the results, it was concluded that; the hydro alcoholic extract (200mg/kg) of plant Cuscuta campestris produced better inhibition of paw edema as compared to standard anti-inflammatory drug available.
23-26
66
Toxocological studies of an ayurvedic medicine “Slesma Sailendra Ras(SLS)” after chronic administration to male Sprague-dawley rats
Chinmoy Kumar Sen, Mariyam Akter, Palash Karmakar, Latifa Bulbul, M.S.K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Slesma Sailendra Ras (SLS) an Ayurvedic preparation used as a traditional medicine in the treatment of cold, flu and fever in the rural population of Indian subcontinent. After 54 days chronic administration of the SLS preparation to the male rats at a dose of 400 mg/kg, the following toxicological changes were noted. In the male rats there were decrease in Total Protein, Albumin and Globulin content in the plasma. Statistically very highly significant decrease plasma Total Protein content was noted. There was a negligible increase Triglyceride level and VLDL content in the plasma whereas statistically very highly significant decrease in Total Cholesterol, HDL and LDL content. After chronic administration of SLS to the male rats’ decrease of plasma Bilirubin and Creatinine level were noted in comparison to their control group. On the contrary, a very highly significant decrease in urea & Urea/Creatinine level in plasma were noted. SLS caused decrease in plasma uric acid which was not statistically significant.
27-32
67
Anthocyanin diversity in osbeckia l. Species from munnar hills
Bosco Lawarence and K Murugan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Melastomataceae family is known for colours. The members possess diverse polyphenolic compounds. The major constituents of this family belong to terpenoids, simple phenolics, quinones, lignans, glycosides, tannins or hydrolyzable tannin oligomers of molecular weights up to 4600 Da, and flavonoids and anthocyanins. Anthocyanin show many biological potentialities including food colourant. Therefore, the present study aims to unravel diversity of Osbeckia, viz. species along Munnar hills and also to analyze their anthocyanin content. Six species and three varieties of O. aspera were collected i.e., O. gracilis, O. wynadensis, O. leschenaultiana O. aspera var. aspera, O. aspera var. travancorica, Osbseckia aspera (L.) var. wightiana, Osbeckia reticulata, Osbeckia virgata. A taxonomic key was prepared for the identification of these species and the germ plasm was maintained in the garden as part of conservation. Anthocyanin content showed remarkable variations both in leaves and flowers among the species. Highest level was noticed with Osbseckia aspera (L.) var. wightiana and Osbeckia reticulata. Habitat of the plant also influences the production of anthocyanins, red or blue coloured pigments. The abiotic stress induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis has evaluated only on a small number of species. In order to meet the demand for this natural product, it’s essential to evaluate anthocyanin biosynthesis in terms of their habitat. Thus, further studies are planned in terms of in vitro culture, elucidation of anthocyanin and its fractionation from Osbseckia aspera (L.) var. wightiana and Osbeckia reticulata.
33-37
68
Synthesis and biological investigation of some novel sulfonamide derivatives containing benzimidazole moiety
Shipra Bhati and Pratibha Bidawat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new class of potentially biological active sulfonamide derivatives containing Benzimidazole moiety has been synthesized. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods and elemental analysis. Further, the synthesized compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and antioxidant activity. Their antibacterial activity was assigned using the conventional cup plate method and antioxidant activity was assessed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The synthesized compounds exhibited significant antibacterial and antioxidant activities compared to standard compounds.
38-43
69
Interactive educational module: an intervention among nurses on knowledge, attitude and practice towards pharmacovigilance and adr reporting at a tertiary care hospital
Sunita Kumari, Senthilkumar¬ Palaniappan, Poonam Rishishwar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Nurse’s knowledge and expertise is important to the application of drug safety profile. Nurses are more likely to report & detect adverse drug reactions than other healthcare professionals as they are the first point of contact to patients and doctors. The main objective of the study is to find out the effect of educational intervention among the nurses towards the knowledge, attitude & participation in reporting adverse drug reactions at tertiary care hospital in New Delhi. This study was conducted using validated Knowledge Attitude Practice (KAP) questionnaire. A total of 230 nurses responded, from the hospital. In Pre-KAP survey it was observed that hospital nurses lacked awareness about pharmacovigilance and needs to update their knowledge and practice. After intervention, a significant improvement in the knowledge, attitude and practice towards pharmacovigilance was observed among hospital nurses.
44-51
70
Nutritional composition and pharmacological actions of spirulina
Bibekananda Meher, Anupama Roy, Navaneet Verma, Arun Kumar Mishra
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The popular edible algae, Spirulina are use as food worldwide. It is riched with large number of nutrients. C-phycocyanin, a molecule which contains phycocyanobilin, an homolog of biliverdin, is one of the major proteins present in Spirulina, It is also a good source of essential fatty acids like gamma-linolenic, linoleic and oleic acids. Sea algae is riched with exceptionally high content of vitamin B12 and tocopherol. Tocopherol is responsible for antioxidant action. It also contenins high concentration of minerals like Iron. It also posses different therapeutic potentials like: Anti-diabetic, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-anemic, anti-viral, and blood improvement, hepatoprotective, heavy metal detoxification from body. It can be cultivated in both normal and saline sea water. In present scenario to meet the demand of the increasing population it can be utilize as a good source of food supplement.
52-56
71
Formulation and In Vitro Evaluation of solid dispersions of BCS Class II Drug Febuxostat by employing L-HPC
P.Tripura Sundari and Krutika Lad
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Febuxostat (FBX) is a non purine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase/xanthine reductase. Because of low solubility the bioavailability of the drug is hampered, food also interferes with the absorption of drug and decreases the Cmax by 38-49%. In the category of poorly soluble drugs the change in surface area of the drug will show considerable changes in the solubility and dissolution of the drug. In the present study, the attempts were made to improve the bioavailability of FBX by solid dispersions technique by employing L-HPC as carrier molecules. Different ratios on weight basis were prepared viz 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1. These preparations were characterized in liquid state by phase solubility studies and in solid state by Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Powdered X ray diffraction studies (PXRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The aqueous solubility of FBX is favored by the presence of carrier polymer. Solid state characterization indicated that FBX was present as fine amorphous form in the carrier polymeric molecules. In contrast to the solution rate of pure FBX the dissolution of drug in carrier considerably improved the dissolution rate, this can be attributed to the increased wettability and dispersibility as well as decreased crystallinity and increased amorphous fraction of drug.
57-63
72
Surface modified liposomes for targeted drug delivery
Anupama Puntambekar, Amrita Bajaj, Pranita Savardekar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study was to design and develop a suitable intranasal spray formulation of surface modified liposomes to improve the concentration of anti-psychotic drug into the brain tissue for therapy of schizophrenia. Liposomal spray solution was optimized; particle size, zeta potential and polydispersity index were measured using Malvern Zetasizer. Morphology of liposomal spray droplets was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Drug diffusion studies were performed and drug diffused was estimated using UV spectroscopic analysis. Stable liposomal spray was formulated. The optimized liposomal spray showed uniform vesicles in the size range 155-170 nm and zeta potential of optimized formulation was found to be 29.77. Surface coating was done using chitosan solution in glacial acetic acid and evaluated. Intranasal surface modified liposomal spray exhibited higher deposition in brain tissues compared to conventional solution after intranasal and intramuscular administration indicating potential for nose to brain targeting. Thus nasal drug delivery offers a viable alternative to oral and injectable routes of administration.
64-70
73
Antibiotic and Analgesic utilization review in an orthopedics in-patient department of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Hyderabad
Sushanta Kr. Das, Vyshnavi Kurra, Pravalika Guttu, Md. Amer Quadri, Nymisha Chowdary T, B. Valya, T. Rama Mohan Reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Drug utilization review is ‘an authorized, structured, ongoing review of prescription, dispensing and medicine use’ facilitating rational drug use. Antibiotics and analgesics are common and frequently prescribed in orthopedic department. We aimed to evaluate the usage of antibiotics & analgesics in orthopedics department. Six month prospective case observational study was conducted in Orthopedics Department, Gandhi hospital, Secunderabad with approval from Institutional Ethical committee, CMR College of Pharmacy. Final outcome obtained by statistical analysis using ANOVA. In this study, male gender of 20-40 yrs was pre-dominant with common diagnosis; fractures and trauma. Common antibiotic prescribed were; Ceftriaxone, Cephalexin & Amikacin and analgesics; Paracetamol & Diclofenac. A total of 311 times antibiotic and 222 times Analgesic were prescribed in collected cases respectively. 3 antibiotics and 2 analgesics per case were predominant. Antibiotic & analgesic drug switch were also seen in study. Drug utilization review indicates 83% and 88% rationality of antibiotics and analgesics respectively. Slight irrationality was observed, those mainly due to insufficient lab data. Overall utilization of both antibiotic and analgesic was approximately in rational manner in Orthopedics department. Inclusion of regular lab test will make the prescription more appropriate, ultimately leading to better patient care.
71-79
74
Formulation, optimization and evaluation of Cyclobenzaprine hcl pellets for extended release
Sarada Anepu, Balasubrahmanyam A.V.S, Lohithasu Duppala, Anu Pravallika.J
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study is to formulate and evaluate the cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride extended release pellets by using commercially available sugar pellets by powder layer (using fluidized bed coater) process using different polymers like ethyl cellulose N-50, hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), and eudragit E-100. FTIR studies of the F6 formulation indicating no chemical interaction between cyclobenzaprine HCl and excipients. In order to get the optimized formulation, the various process parameters were adjusted. The various evaluations for formulations were carried out, that to based on the in-vitro drug release studies of F6 formulation shows better drug release profile than other formulations. The results conclude that trial F6 has met the objective of extended release, cost effective as once day of drug.
80-90
75
Review on multiparticulate system
Swapnil Waghmare, R.V. kshirsagar, Prachi patil, Sagar punde
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Novel drug delivery offers new ways to administer the medication Multiparticulate system is one of them. It helps to sustained & controlled the dose of drug. Implementation of Multiparticulate system can be done using oral, mucosal, transdermal & pulsatile type of delivery method. The Pelletization, granulation, microspheres, nanoparticles could be used for formulation of multiparticulates system. Multiparticulate drug delivery systems are the most extensively used dosage than unit dosage forms for their improved bioavailability and reduced chances of dose dumping. It serves many applications over traditional system.
91-96
76
Ftir analysis and reverse phase high performance chromatographic determination of phenolic acids of hypnea musciformis (wulfen) j.v.lamouroux.
Sumayya S S, Bosco Lawarence, Dinesh Babu KV, Murugan K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Sea weeds have been one of the promising resources of biologically active metabolites and their extraction has significantly expanded in the last few decades. Hypnea, a proven candidate among the sea weeds for its rich mucopolysaccharides. In this study, Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux. was screened for phenolic acid profile and further subjected to FTIR analysis of the different solvent extracts to know the functional groups.Reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method with gradient elution was adapted to fractionate and quantify free phenolic acids (gallic, vanillic, chlorogenic, sinapic, p-coumaric, ferulic, hydroxybenzoic, phloroglucinol, catechol and cinnamic acid). Chromatographic separation was performed with C18 column and detection was conducted at the wavelengths 254, 278 and 300 nm according to the absorption maxima of the analyzed compounds. Validation procedures were conducted and the method was proven to be precise, accurate and sensitive. The experimental results revealed high concentrations of sinapate, coumarate, phloroglucinol and ferulate, whereas,other phenolic acids were in low concentrations. Sinapate was established as the dominating phenolic acid. Diverse FT-IR peaks for each solvent extract has been determined and identified their specific functional groups. Remarkable correlation was found between the phenolics and FTIR peaks. 1743 cm-1 may be considered as optimal indicator of phenolics concentration. FTIR spectroscopy is recommended as rapid and reliable tools to predict the phytochemical composition of herbals. Further studies are warranted to isolate, purify the lead molecule and to evaluate its biological potentialities.
97-104
77
Self Micron Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SMEEDS) as a potential drug delivery system - Novel applications and future prespectives - A review
Gritta Sebastain, Rajasree P.H, Jessen George, Gowda D. V
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
SMEDDS are defined as mixtures of oils, co-solvents and surfactants, which is isotropic in nature and which spontaneously emulsify to produce fine oil-in-water emulsions when introduced into aqueous phase under mild agitation. After oral delivery of BCS class-II drugs, over one-half of the drug compounds are diminished in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. BCS class-II drugs having less water solubility and dissolution there by low bioavailability and this is a major issue face by the pharmaceutical industries. For the treatment of chronic diseases, delivery of poorly soluble drugs by SMEDDS as a vehicle via oral route which may enhances the bioavailability. Researchers are focusing on novel formulations of SMEEDS for various diseases having promising in-vitro and in-vivo results. Thus, this current review provides a brief updated collection of information about SMEDDS, its novel applications and future prospective.
105-110
78
Phytochemical analysis and antiproliferative studies of various extracts of mollugo cerviana
Senthilkumar Manoharan and Manivannan Rangasamy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present work, phytochemical analysis and antiproliferative activities of various extracts of Mollugo cerviana were evaluated by trypan blue dye exclusion and MTT assay models. The extracts produce potent cytotoxic effect against Human cancer cell lines viz. Human cervical cancer (HeLa), lung cancer (A549), breast cancer (MCF7) and liver cancer (HepG2) cell lines. Hexane and water extracts showed moderate activity whereas ethanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts showed potent activity against the tested cell lines. At the same time all the tested extracts showed 3-4 fold high IC50 values for the normal human dermal fibroblast cell line. The results revealed that the selective cytotoxicity of the plant extracts towards the cancer cells. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of these extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, polyphenolics and saponins. Antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity of the extracts may be due to the rich amount of these phytochemicals. Hence, the plant could be considered as a very good anticancer drug with renowned therapeutic potential.
111-115
79
Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial property of different extracts of litsea salicifolia (roxb.ex nees) leaf.
Md. Afaz Uddin, D. M. Jakaria, Aumit Roy, Md. Ariful Islam, Md. Emdadullah,Md. Sameul Ahmed , F. M. Shah NomanUl Bari, Md. Nuruzzaman Neon
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A lot of research works are going on worldwide to find out natural antioxidants of plants origins as various oxidative stress related diseases result due to accumulation of free radicals in the body. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activities and antimicrobial property of Litseasalicifolia(ROXB.EX NEES) leaf.In total phenol content determination methanolic extract showed highest value of 102±1.414 mg/gm as Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE). Ethyl acetate extract showed highest total flavonoid content with 285.5±6.364 mg/gm as Quarcetin Equivalent (QE) and total anti-oxidant capacity with 264.5 ±10.607 mg/gm as Ascorbic Acid Equivalent (AAE). Methanolic extract showed highest tannin content with 253.5714 ±5.051mg/gm as Tannic Acid Equivalent (TAE) and good DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 251.227 µg/mL. In antimicrobial assay extracts showed poor activity. Further studies are needed to isolate active compounds.
116-123
80
Formulation and evaluation of atorvastatin calcium sustained release tablets
Sandhya Mandadi, Vishwanadham Yerragunta, Umema Naaz Tarkash
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of the study was to develop the sustained release matrix tablets of various concentrations of natural and synthetic hydrophilic polymers on in-vitro release rate from the prepared Atorvastatin calcium tablets. The obtained in-vitro dissolution data were fitted in different models and for F2 batch (higher concentration of xanthan gum) the highest correlation was found to korsesmeyer-peppas(R2>0.9022), which indicates the drug diffusion may takes place by erosion mechanism. Formulation F4 and F6 (higher concentration of guar gum and Carrageenan) the data were fitted in to zero order profile where R2 values were found to be 0.9244 and 0.9348 indicates the diffusion mechanism of drug release. Natural polymers were showing good release rate up to 17 h as compared to synthetic polymer in which the xanthan gum at higher concentration can exhibit drug release rate in predictable manner.
124-130
81
In vitro anthelmintic activity of Macaranga denticulata and in silico molecular docking analysis of its isolated compounds with tubulin
Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Arkajyoti Paul, Mohuya Mojumdar, Abul Hasanat, Md. Mohaiminul Islam, Afia Nabila, Md. Jakiul Islam, Md. Rabiul Hossain, Nishan Chakrabarty, Mohammad Nazmul Islam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study was to evaluate anthelmintic activity on Tubifex tubifex worm of methanol extract of Macaranga denticulata (Muell. Arg.) leaves and in silico molecular docking used for six phytoconstituents namely 3-acetylaleuritolic acid, oleanolic acid, macarangin, scopoletin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol isolated from M. denticulata, to identify whether these compounds interact with tubulin. M. denticulata leaves extract exhibited strong anthelmintic activity in vitro. Where it paralyzed (10.22±0.69min) and produced death (19.43±0.80 min) of the Tubifex tubifex at 10 mg/ml dose and the standard, Levamisole (3.3±0.38min and 6.5±0.76min) at 1 mg/ml. A wide range of docking score found during molecular docking by Schrodinger. 3-acetylaleuritolic acid, oleanolic acid, macarangin, scopoletin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol showed the docking score -5.733, -3.951, -7.584, -6.115, -8.307-, and 8.021 respectively. Among all the compounds, β-sitosterol showed highest docking score. So, β-sitosterol is the best compounds as anthelmintic drug, as it possessed higher value in Molecular docking. Methanol extract of M. Denticulata leaves showed well anthelmintic activity. Further in vivo investigation need to identify that isolated compounds from M. denticulata have anthelmintic activity.
131-136
82
Formulation and Evaluation of Sildenafil Citrate Nanosuspension
M. Sreenivasulu Reddy, A. Jayaraju, M. Rafiyuddin and J. Sreeramulu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present study, an attempt was made to prepare oral Nanosuspension of Sildenafil citrate is a vasoactive agent used to treat erectile dysfunction and reduce symptoms in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Nano suspension containing the drug were prepared by precipitation method using combinations of polymers (such as PVP K-25, Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), TWEEN-80, poloxamer (188), and methanol). Estimation of Sildenafil citrate was carried out spectrophotometrically at 293nm. The Oral Nanosuspension were evaluated for various physical and biological parameters, drug content uniformity, particle size analysis, zeta potential, in-vitro drug release, short-term stability, drug- excipient interactions (FTIR). IR spectroscopic studies indicated that there are no drug-excipient interactions. The formulations F1 to F9 (containing PVP K-25, TWEEN-80, SLS, Poloxamer (188), and Methanol) used different ratio were found to be promising, of that formulation F3 containing PVP-K25 showed 99.85% release at the end of 20min & it follows zero order drug release kinetics. These formulations have displayed good Nanosuspension strength.
137-142
83
In vivo antidepressant and anxiolytic activities of ethanol extract of Trema orientalis leaves in mice
Md. Saiful Islam Arman, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Sumya Afroze, Md. Forhad Alam, Md. Amdadul Haque, Tariqul Islam, Abdullah Al Ragib, Md. Tareq Rahman, Khondoker Md. Akter-Uz-Zaman, Md. Mominur Rahman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The goal of our investigation was to determine whether the leaf extracts of Trema orientalis held any significant antidepressant and anxiolytic properties. Leaves of T. orientalis was extracted with pure ethanol (EETO). The forced swimming and tail suspension tests were used as predictive animal models of antidepressant activity, where the time of immobility was considered. Anxiolytic activity was evaluated by elevated plus mazes (EPM) and hole board model. For all in vivo tests, doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight were used. The extract also significantly decreases the duration of immobility in both animal models of antidepressant activity, forced swimming and tail suspension tests. In EPM test, the extract significantly increased time spent in open arms compared to control and in the hole board test, they also significantly increase in the number of head pokes in comparison to control. The overall results of the study indicated significant antidepressant and anxiolytic activities of ethanol extract of T. orientalis leaves. So this plant deserves further investigation to isolate the active constituents responsible for these activities and to establish the mechanism of action.
143-148
84
STABILITY INDICATING METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF OLMESARTAN, CHLORTHALIDONE AND CILNIDIPINE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM BY USING RP-HPLC
Krishna chinthala, M. Krishnamurthy, Dr. Pramod kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of the investigation was to develop a simple, rapid and accurate RP-HPLC method to determine assay of Olmesartan, chlorthalidone And Cilnidipine in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form. The chromatographic separation was performed on Kromosil 250 x 4.6 mm, 5µm. Eluents were monitored on PDA detector at a wavelength of 240 nm using a mixture Buffer: Acetonitrile: methanol (45:50:5v/v). The column temperature was maintained at 30°C. Validation parameters such as system suitability, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), Stability of sample and standard stock solutions and robustness were studied as reported in the ICH guidelines. The retention time for Olmesartan, chlorthalidone And Cilnidipine was 3.357 min, 2.838 min and 3.722min respectively. Assay method further evaluated for Olmesartan, chlorthalidone And Cilnidipine analysis at low concentration of analyte and found limit of detection is 0.03, 0.05 and 0.02 ppm respectively and limit of Quantitation is 0.08, 0.16 and 0.07 ppm respectively. The percentage recovery of Olmesartan, chlorthalidone And Cilnidipine was 100.70%, 100.34% and 100.47% respectively. The %RSD for Olmesartan, chlorthalidone And Cilnidipine was found to be less than 1.08%, 0.9% and 1.3% respectively. Linearity of Olmesartan chlorthalidone, and Cilnidipine performed from 25% to 150% and the R2 is 0.999, intercept and slope found to be y = 43191x + 562.0, y = 65434x + 1255 and y = 76821x + 1619 respectively. The method was fast, accurate, precise and sensitive hence it can be employed for routine quality control of Olmesartan, chlorthalidone And Cilnidipine containing drug in quality control laboratories and pharmaceutical industries.
149-160
85
Molecular docking and PASS prediction for antinociceptive activity of some isolated compounds from Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze. and ADME/T property analysis of the compounds
Arkajyoti Paul, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Mohuya Mojumdar, Joy Chakraborty, Hilton Banik, Risan Paul, Kishwar Ayesha Siddika, Joynab Al Gazzaly, Mohammed Sohel Chowdhury, Md. Mominur Rahman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Anisomeles Indica (L.) Kuntze (Family - Lamiaceae) is commonly known as Gobura, is found in fallow lands throughout Bangladesh. The plant has used for carminative, astringent, tonic properties and uterine infection by the tribal in Khagrachari, Bangladesh. The aim of present study to investigate in silico molecular docking study used for four phytoconstituents Acteoside, betonyoside A, campneoside II, β-Sitosterol, Isoacteoside, Ovatodiolide and stigmasterol which are isolated from A. indica to identify whether these compounds interact with the responsible protein (Cyclooxygenase 1 enzyme) and PASS prediction is done by sever. Also ADME/T properties of the phytoconstituents were analyzed using Qikprop 3.2 module. A wide range of docking score found during molecular docking by Schrodinger. Acteoside, betonyoside A, campneoside II, β-Sitosterol, Isoacteoside, Ovatodiolide and stigmasterol showed the docking score -5.362 , -2.468 , -4.711 , -2.575 , -6.771 , -1.806 and -2.397 respectively . Among all the compounds Isoacteoside showed highest docking score. So, Isoacteoside is the best compounds for selective Cyclooxygenase 1 (COX 1) enzyme inhibition, as it possessed best value in Molecular docking. In the PASS prediction for their analgesic activity of the isolated phytoconstituents, we found wide range of activity and all the compounds showed greater Pa than Pi value. From the ADME/T profiles of all the tested compounds, it cleared that they might safe for human. Further in vivo investigation need to identify Cyclooxygenase (COX 1) enzyme inhibitory activity of isolated compounds from A. indica.
161-167
86
UPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CEFPIROME SULPHATE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
Satish Pavuluri, Sridhar Siddiraju
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, rapid, and precise UPLC method is developed for the quantitative determination of Cefpirome sulphate in pharmaceutical dosage form. The chromatographic separation of Cefpirome sulphate was achieved with an phenomnex c18 (2.5 X 100 mm, 3.0 µm) analytical column using 0.01M phosphate buffer and acetonitrile taken in 50:50%v/v and the response was detected at 265 nm by using PDA detector. The retention time was found to be 0.652 min. The described method shows excellent linearity over a range of 7.5-75 μg/mL. The correlation coefficient for Cefpirome sulphate was found to be 0.999. The relative standard deviation for six measurements in two sets of Cefpirome sulphate in injection is always less than 2%. The proposed method was found to be suitable and accurate for quantitative determination of Cefpirome sulphate in pharmaceutical preparations.
168-173
87
Feedback of pharmacy students toward teaching-learning pharmacology in Northern Cyprus
Sonia SANAJOU, louai Mohammad ALSALOUMI, Bilgen BASGUT
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

This study explores pharmacy students’ feedback on teaching–learning methods of pharmacology in faculties of pharmacy in Northern Cyprus universities. 150 students randomly selected and participated by filling self-administered questionnaires. The majority of participants were female and most of them were in the 4th year of their study. The results showed that high percentage of students had good understanding and grasping of pharmacology subjects in class, and the pharmacology is the most favored course in comparison with others. Moreover, participants taught that pharmacology course will have most usage in their future pharmacy practice. It can be concluded that the general attitude of students toward pharmacology were positive; however, some changes in curriculum are still required in order to make the pharmacology courses more interesting.

1-12
88
Effect of cyclodextrin on postprandial blood glucose and triglycerides
Mitsuki Sugahara, Yutaka Inoue, Isamu Murata, Daisuke Nakata, Keiji Terao, Ikuo Kanamoto
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

This study explores pharmacy students’ feedback on teaching–learning methods of pharmacology in faculties of pharmacy in Northern Cyprus universities. 150 students randomly selected and participated by filling self-administered questionnaires. The majority of participants were female and most of them were in the 4th year of their study. The results showed that high percentage of students had good understanding and grasping of pharmacology subjects in class, and the pharmacology is the most favored course in comparison with others. Moreover, participants taught that pharmacology course will have most usage in their future pharmacy practice. It can be concluded that the general attitude of students toward pharmacology were positive; however, some changes in curriculum are still required in order to make the pharmacology courses more interesting.

13-19
89
Evaluation of the Anti-cancer Activity of most potent Ethanolic fraction of Prunus avium on EAC Cells in RPMI 1640
Lopamudra Roy, Mounamukhar Bhattacharjee
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Our present study aims to determine the most potent fraction of ethanolic extract of Prunus aviun as well as to evaluate the anticancer activity of most potent fraction on EAC cells in long time incubation (by using RPMI 1640 media). Ethanolic extract of the fruit was prepared by using maceration (70% C2H5OH + 30% H20) for 10 days followed by solvent evaporation by rotary vacuum evaporator. Most potent fraction was determined by fractionation by using Chloroform, n-butanol and ethyl acetate followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis. Most potent fraction was introduced into fresh collected and sufficiently diluted EAC cells to check the cell viability under microscope by using RPMI 1640 medium. Results of fractionation shows ethyl acetate fraction is probably most potential fraction due to presence highest amount of flavonoid and phenolic compounds than the other fractions. On addition of ethyl acetate fraction to fresh collected and diluted EAC cells, it shows IC50 values 43.03 ± 0.54 µg/ml, 34.62 ± 0.21 µg/ml and 26.94 ± 0.22 µg/ml respectively on 2 hr, 4hr and 8 hrs of incubation by using RPMI 1640 medium. Results indicates that the ethyl acetate fraction of ethanolic extract of Prunus avium is the most potential fraction and it has good anti-cancer activity in long time incubation as well. Still future studies can be performed to isolate the bioactive principles.

20-25
90
CO-CRYSTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NICOTINAMIDE AND UREA
Yutaka Inoue, Hirotaka Onoda, Hiroyasu Sato, Isamu Murata, Ikuo Kanamoto
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Aim of this study, a co-crystal (nicotinamide and urea) was prepared, and it was used to investigate the relevance of single-crystal structure analysis in combination with other measurement techniques. Results of both single-crystal X-ray diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction confirmed that the nicotinamide and urea co-crystals had a molar ratio of 2/1 and comprised a monoclinic system. Results of differential scanning calorimetry showed that the melting point of the co-crystals was different from that of nicotinamide and urea alone. Results of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectrometry showed that the co-crystals interacted between nicotinamide and urea due to amino group. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that the co-crystal and nicotinamide and urea alone have different appearances. Thus, the combination of single-crystal structure analysis with other measurement methods is very useful for analyzing the crystal structure in detail.

26-34
91
DEVELOPMENT OF A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR PHARMACOKINETIC STUDIES OF TOLTERODINE TARTRATE ORODISPERSIBLE TABLETS IN RATS
Y Padmavathi, Sumedha Kapre, K Latha, Renuka Menda, Rohini Kagithala
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

A selective and high throughput reverse phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for studying pharmacokinetics of tolterodine tartrate (TT) orodispersible tablets (ODT) in rats. Quantification is achieved by the peak-area ratio method with reference to the internal standard. Metaxalone was used as internal standard. After liquid- liquid extraction the analyte and the internal standard were chromatographed on Enable 18H (5µ, 250×4.6mm) C18 column. Mobile phase used consists of phosphate buffer pH 3 and acetonitrile (55:45 %v/v). The elute was monitored with the UV–VIS detector at 280 nm with a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The peaks of the drug and IS were obtained at retention times of 6.74 min and 10.5 min respectively. The method was validated according to USFDA guidelines. The absolute recovery of analyte was consistent and reproducible. The method was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetics of tolterodine tartrate orodispersible tablets in rats.
 

35-43
92
ANTIOXIDANT, BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF GALPHIMIA GRACILIS BARTL. STEM USING IN VITRO ASSAY MODELS
Md. Rakib Hasan, Nizam Uddin, Md. Monir Hossain, Sabiha Begum, Arjyabrata Sarker, D. M. Jakaria, Md. Emtiaz Yousuf, Md. Sohel Rana
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Galphimia gracilis Bartl. (Family- Malpighiaceae) is known as gold shower and available almost everywhere in Bangladesh. This plant has some medicinal properties and is used as a source of vitamins. The current study was designed to evaluate in vitro antioxidant, brine shrimp lethality and antimicrobial activities of methanol (GSM), ethyl-acetate (GSEA) and petroleum ether (GSPE) extracts of G. gracilis stem. In vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts were studied using DPPH radical scavenging assay, NO scavenging assay, total phenol, total flavonoid content, total antioxidant capacity, total tannin content and lipid peroxidation in human erythrocyte cell assays. Lethality bioassay was performed on Artemia salina Leach nauplii. Antimicrobial activity was investigated by disc diffusion technique. Presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, tannins, saponins and glycosides were identified in the extracts. Ethyl-acetate extract showed highest activities in DPPH (IC50 22.82±0.172 µg/ml), NO (IC50 72.886±0.394 µg/ml) and total antioxidant assay (210.86±3.436 mg/gm Ascorbic Acid Equivalent). Methanol extract showed highest content in total phenol (972.02±4.56 mg/g Gallic Acid Equivalent), total flavonoid (135.98±1.103 mg/g Quercetin Equivalent) and total tannin content assays (111.454±1.462 mg/g Tannic Acid Equivalent). Ethyl acetate extract showed promising reducing capacity than other extracts in cupric reducing (correlation coefficient r= 0.99 and P<0.01) and reducing power capacity assays (r= 0.99 and P<0.001). Besides, it showed dose dependent activity in both assays. In brine shrimp lethality bioassay, methanol extract was found to be more potent than other extracts (LC50=58.583 µg/ml, ?2=170.967, P<0.001). In disk diffusion technique methanol extract showed highest zone of inhibition against maximum number of microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella abony and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.75±0.353 mm). The present findings suggest that the stem extracts of G. gracilis can be used as a source of potential candidates for lead compounds.

44-52
93
A PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL
Sindhoosha Malay, Shanmukhi.C, Rashmitha.G, Shravani.V, Venugopal.M
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The aim of the present study was to detect and analyze the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of antibiotics and other drugs in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 61 ADRs were reported during the study period with male predominance (51.85%) and geriatric age group. Number of ADRs was reported more from General Medicine (45.90%) and ICU (21.31%) departments in which the most affected organ systems were the GIT (34.42%), skin (18.03%) and Central Nervous System 7(11.47%). The class of drugs most commonly associated with the reported ADRs was antimicrobials 20(32.75%). The severity assessment revealed that most of them were mild level 1 (32.78%) followed by moderate and severe reactions. Of the reported reactions 57.37% of ADRs were definitely preventable, 29.50% of ADRs were probably preventable and 13.11% were not preventable. The study concluded that ADRs to antibiotics are common and less compared to other studies. Proper monitoring and reporting can ensure drug safety profile of drug.

53-60
94
RP-HPLC ANALYSIS FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF RABEPRAZOLE SODIUM AND DOMPERIDONE FROM TABLET AND BULK DRUG BY INTERNAL STANDARD METHOD
Seema A. Gosavi, Rasika D Bhalke, Girija B. Bhavar, Atul A. Shirkhedkar, Sanjay J. Surana
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

A specific and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of rabeprazole sodium and domperidone in bulk drug and capsules was developed. Ranitidine hydrochloride was used as an internal standard. Separation of the drugs was carried out on the Luna C18 (5µ, 250 mm X 4.60 mm i.d.) at ambient temperature using a mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate buffer pH 7.4 and acetonitrile (60:40 v/v). Flow rate was 1.0 ml/min with an average operating pressure of 158 kg/cm2. Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 286 nm based on peak area with linear calibration curves at concentration ranges 10-50 µg/ml and 15-75 µg/ml for rabeprazole and domperidone, respectively. The method has been successively applied to pharmaceutical formulation. No chromatographic interference from the capsule excipients was found. The method was validated in terms of precision, robustness, recovery and limit of detection and quantitation.

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ASSESSMENT OF HOMOEOPATHIC PREPARATION OF SULPHUR WITH THE HELP OF U.V SPECTROSCOPY
Dr. Parth Aphale, Dr. Atul Balasaheb Rajgurav
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Spectroscopy is a technique that uses the interaction of energy with a sample to perform an analysis. The data that is obtained from spectroscopy is called as a spectrum. A spectrum is nothing but a plot of the intensity of energy detected versus the wavelength of the energy. Often, spectra are used to identify the components of a sample (Qualitative analysis). Spectra may also be used to measure the amount of material in a sample (Quantitative analysis). The main aim of this study was to judge the efficacy of U.V. Spectroscopy in differentiating different potencies of the same medicine. [1]. 3 centesimal scale of potencies of sulphur were selected namely 30, 200 and 1M/1000. It was observed that the UV trans-mission for homeopathic preparations of Sulphur was significantly different for different potencies of Sulphur that were tested which was evident from  ?max.

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UPLC METHOD VALIDATION FOR 3-ACETYLPYRIDINE CONTENT IN RISEDRONIC ACID
Sagar VLN, Sharma GVR, Omprakash G, Bharat KB
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

An Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) impurity profile method for the Risedronic acid monohydrate was validated in the present work. The validation method utilizes an Inertsil C-8 (100X4.6 mm), 5µ column at 50°C temperature, isocratic elution with aqueous sodium phosphate buffer at pH 7.5±0.05 and methanol as the mobile phase. The mobile-phase flow rate was 0.40 mL min–1. The linearity, method precision, method ruggedness, limit of quantitation and limit of detection of the impurity profile UPLC method are found to be satisfactory. This study showed that 3-acetylpyridine peak was well resolved from the other known impurities and Risedronic acid monohydrate, the purity angle of 3-acetylpyridine is less than the purity threshold and there is no blank interference at the retention time of 3-acetylpyridine peak. Therefore the method is determined to be specific, as judged by resolving 3-acetylpyridine content in Risedronic acid monohydrate by UPLC.

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EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CUSCUTA REFLEXA ROXB.
Deepti Gulati and Abhinav Mishra
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

In the present study antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of stem of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. was evaluated against Gram positive bacteria like Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative bacteria like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extract was poured into the wells of sterile Mueller hinton agar plates and antibacterial activity was determined by agar diffusion assay. The plates were observed for the inhibition of bacterial growth that was indicated by a clear zone around the wells. The size of the zones of inhibition was measured and the antibacterial activity was expressed in terms of average diameter of the zone of inhibition in millimeters. The results showed remarkable inhibition of growth for the tested organisms. More activity was observed against Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) as compared to Gram positive bacteria.
 

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SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATUION OF SOME NOVEL MERCAPTOBENZIMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES
Pratik P Maske, Sunil Nalavade, Satheesh Patil
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

A new class of potentially biological active mercaptobezimidazole derivatives containing Benzimidazole moiety has been synthesized. New series of acids and aldehyde substituted benzimidazoles A6–10 were synthesized by the Schiff’s Base method. Synthesized compounds A6–10 were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, Mass and elemental analysis and further screened for antimicrobial activity and antiprotozoal activity. The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal potential of the products were also determined using bacterial strains.( E.coli ATCC 25922, S.Aureus ATCC 29213, P.aeruginosa MTCC741, C.albicansATCC 9025, A.nigerATCC 1015) The synthesized compounds exhibited significant antimicrobial & antiprotozoal activities compared to standard compounds.

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CONSUMPTION OF ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS: BOON OR BANE
Anusha T, Ashritha D, Kiranmai M, Uma Rajeswari B
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Artificial Sweeteners (AS) having low/non-calorific value are among the most widely used food additives worldwide and also regularly consumed by lean and obese individuals alike. AS consumption is considered safe and beneficial owing to their low caloric content, yet supporting scientific data remains sparse and controversial. The objective of the present study was to review whether consumption of artificial sweetners is boon or bane to human health. It has outlined the health effects of AS with respect to their association with weight gain and other metabolic health effects. Consumption of AS in the form of carbonated beverages may cause excessive weight gain. A case control study reveals the fact that AS can induce glucose intolerance by altering gut microbiota associated with the development of metabolic syndrome such as type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, sugar based sweeteners have long been suspected as the cause of obesity and consequent cardiovascular risk.
 

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STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PIOGLITAZONE HYDROCHLORIDE AND ALOGLIPTIN BENZOATE IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION
T. Hemant Kumar and D. Gowri Sankar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

A simple, efficient, sensitive and stability indicating RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Pioglitazone HCl and Alogliptin Benzoate in pharmaceutical formulation using Enable C 18G   column (250 ×4.6 mm, 0.5 µm) with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.01M Ammonium acetate (pH 4.0 adjusted with acetic acid) in the ratio of 60:40 %v/v at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min .UV detection was carried out at 269 nm. The retention time for Pioglitazone HCl and Alogliptin Benzoate were found to be 4.611 and 4.153 min respectively. The proposed method was validated for linearity, range, accuracy, precision, robustness, LOD and LOQ. Linearity was observed over a concentration range 5-220 µg/ml for Pioglitazone HCl and 15-175 µg/ml for Alogliptin Benzoate. Pioglitazone HCl and Alogliptin Benzoate were subjected to stress conditions of degradation including acidic, alkaline, oxidative, thermal and photolysis. The developed method was found to be precise and robust for the simultaneous estimation of Pioglitazone HCl and Alogliptin Benzoate in pharmaceutical formulation.

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FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF GASTRO RETENTIVE NON EFFERVESCENT TABLETS OF BALOFLOXACIN
Swaroopa Arvapalli*, D. Swapna, MD Faizal, K. Rajashekar, J.V.C. Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The purpose of present investigation was to develop and evaluate gastroretentive drug delivery system of fluoroquinolone antibiotics (Balofloxacin). These floating tablets were prepared with the objective to obtain site-specific drug delivery and to extend its duration of action. More over the non effervescent system of balofloxacin will provide increased local and systemic action in stomach. Floating non-effervescent tablets were formulated by various materials like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose HPMC (K 15M, E50), Xanthum gum, Guar gum, Carbopol 976P, polypropylene foam powder were used. All the formulations were evaluated for floating properties, swelling characteristics and drug release studies.  In  vitro drug release studies were performed and drug release kinetics evaluated using the linear regression method was  found  to  follow  zero order release  and  super case 2 transport diffusion mechanism.  The floating lag time were found to be significantly increased with the increasing concentration of the polymers. After the dissolution study of prepared balofloxacin non-effervescent floating tablet was concluded that the formulation NF9 with HPMC K15 and carbopol 976P show best controlled release effect (98.24%). The release kinetic data implies that the release mechanism of all the formulations was Zero order kinetics and super case 2 transport mechanism. The developed floating tablets of balofloxacin may be used to prolong drug release for at least 12h, thereby improving the bioavaibility and patient compliance.

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In vitro α-amylase inhibition effect of ethanol extract of Alpinia nigra (Gaertn.) leaves and molecular docking, ADME/T property studies of some of its isolated compounds.
Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Syed Mohammed Tareq, Mohammad Nazmul Islam, Bishwajit Guha, Rahul Mutsuddy, Md. Mazharul Islam, Mohammad Hossain, Mohammed Shamim hasan, Arkajyoti Paul, Abul Hasanat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study aims to investigate the α-amylase inhibition of ethanol extract of Alpinia nigra (EEAN) (Gaertn.) leaves by modified enzyme inhibitory action and in silico molecular docking used for five phytoconstituents namely α-fenchyl acetate, α-pinene, α-terpineol, camphene, camphor isolated from A. nigra, to identify whether these compounds interact with the responsible protein (α-amylase enzyme). And also ADME/T properties of the phytoconstituents were analyzed using Qikprop 3.2 module. EEAN had good α-amylase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 1.803±0.032 mg/ml) as compared to Acarbose. A wide range of docking score found during molecular docking by Schrodinger. α-fenchyl acetate, α-pinene, α-terpineol, camphene, camphor showed the docking score -3.938, -3.344, -3.291, -3.463, -3.547, respectively. Among all the compounds, α-fenchyl acetate showed highest docking score. So, α-fenchyl acetate is the best compounds for α-amylase inhibition, as it possessed higher value in Molecular docking. From the ADME profiles of all the tested compounds, it cleared that they might safe for human. Further in vivo investigation need to identify whether isolated compounds from A. nigra have α-amylase inhibitory activity or not.

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Calculation of predominant drug release mechanism using Peppas-Sahlin model (substitution method): A linear regression approach
B. Ravindra Babu and K. Naveen Babu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of this study was to develop NCRD controlled release floating tablets using combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers by melt granulation technique. The in vitro drug release characteristics were determined using USP XXII type 2 (paddle type) apparatus, in a medium of 0.1N HCl. The dissolution profile of all the batches were extended up to 24 hrs. To study and model the drug delivery from polymeric floating tablets, the dissolution data was fitted to a pioneered method Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. The results indicate that, all the formulations followed super Case-II release mechanism, except MCS4 which followed non-Fickian or anomalous release mechanism. In order to determine the predominant mechanism (diffusion/ relaxation model), drug release data was incorporated into Peppas-Sahlin model. The results revealed that, Fickian release contribution was preponderance than corresponding Case-II relaxational contribution in all the formulations. In addition to this, the relaxational contribution was observed with negative sign in all the formulations but, only at specific time intervals. Relaxational contribution with negative values indicates the Fickian release mechanism was more pronounced than relaxation i.e. almost the relaxational mechanism was absent.
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DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE AND EMPAGLIFLOZIN IN BULK AND IN A SYNTHETIC MIXTURE
C. Rupasi Pratyusha, M. Bhagavan Raju
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The purpose of the investigation was to develop a simple, rapid and accurate RP-HPLC method to determine assay of Metformin Hydrochloride And Empagliflozin in Bulk and synthetic mixture. The chromatographic separation was performed on Kromosil 250 x 4.6 mm, 5µm. Eluents were monitored on PDA detector at a wavelength of 233 nm using a Buffer: Acetonitrile (45:55v/v). The column temperature was maintained at 30°C. Validation parameters such as system suitability, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), Stability of sample and standard stock solutions and robustness were studied as reported in the ICH guidelines. The retention time for Metformin Hydrochloride And Empagliflozin was 2.270 min and 3.413 min  respectively. Assay method further evaluated for Metformin Hydrochloride and Empagliflozin   analysis at low concentration of analyte and found limit of detection is 0.48 and 0.016 ppm respectively and limit of Quantitation is 1.49 and 0.049 ppm respectively. The percentage recovery of Metformin Hydrochloride   And Empagliflozin was 99.64% and 99.47% respectively. The %RSD for Metformin Hydrochloride And Empagliflozin was less than 2. Linearity of Metformin Hydrochloride and Empagliflozin performed from 25% to150% and the R2 is 0.999, intercept and slope found to be y = 26850x + 439840 and y = 47664x + 9394.7 respectively. The method was fast, accurate, precise and sensitive hence it can be employed for routine quality control of Metformin Hydrochloride and  Empagliflozin containing drug in quality control laboratories and pharmaceutical industries.

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Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Arthritic Activity of Cobalt Derivative of 3-Methoxysalicylaldehyde-2-AminoBenzoylhydrazone in Rats
Imad Uddin MD, Firasat Ali, Parvinder Singh, Chandrashekhar VM, Gudasi KB, Badiger DS
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was piloted to screen anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic effect of Cobalt (Co) derivative of 3-methoxysalicylaldehyde-2-aminobenzoylhydrazone (AQF). Acute oral toxicity study was conducted according to guidelines OECD-425. Widely accepted carrageenan model was adopted in this study to evaluate Anti-inflammatory effect of Co-AQF. Freunds Complete Adjuvant (FCA) was used for screening anti-arthritic effect and was evaluated by paw edema volume, paw width, paw height, Development of Arthritis (DOA), vascular permeability, release of histamine from blood, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), Radiographic Analysis and Histopathological assessment. Reference standard Diclofenac Sodium (DS) and Co-AQF have shown significant decrease in all Arthritis evaluating parameters as compared to control group. Pathological changes and histopathological abnormalities which occurred in control group animals were treated with DS and Co-AQF. Hence, based on the results Co-AQF was recognized as anti-arthritic compound and further it can be elucidated at molecular level to establish its potency.
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ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC AND AQUEOUS WHOLE PLANT EXTRACT OF ASYSTASIA GANGETICA
Mohd Mudassir Hussain, Vinesh Kumar, G Jeyabalan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

In the present study ethanolic and aqueous whole plant extract of Asystasia gangetica was investigated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. Analgesic activity was determined by two different methods (tail immersion & hot plate) & anti-inflammatory activity was determined by three different methods (carrageenan, formalin induced paw edema & cotton pellet granuloma) at dose 200 & 400mg/kg b.wt in experimental animals using diclofenac sodium, tramadol, Indomethacin as reference drugs. In all the animals models the results obtained were statistically significant (P<0.05) in comparison to control. The results obtained indicate that Asystasia gangetica has significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in those animal models.

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