Volume 6 - Issue 1

S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
INCORPORATION OF ROSEMARY (ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS LINN.) EXTRACT IN AN ENDODONTIC SEALER: ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION
Marcela Agne Alves Valones, Jalber Almeida Santos, Thiago Maciel Cavalcanti, Michelly Cauás Queiroz Gatis, Arnaldo França Caldas Júnior, Eliziane Pereira Costa, Janete Magali de Araújo Alessandra de Albuquerque Tavares Carvalho
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study is to evaluate the microbial activity of an endodontic sealer containing rosemary extract in comparison to Sealer 26. Agar well diffusion assays were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the materials in the presence of the following bacterial strains: S. mutans (ATCC 25175), S. aureus (ATCC 9811) and E. faecalis (ATCC 51299). Bacterial growth inhibition halos were measured. The Mann-Whitney test was used to determine the statistical significance of differences between groups. Mean inhibition halos were 27.1, 26.4 and 38.6 mm for the strains of S. aureus, E. faecalis and S. mutans when the rosemary-based sealer was used and 16.3, 15.8 and 25.5 mm, respectively, when Sealer 26 was used. Significant differences between sealers were found for each bacterial strain (p less than 0.05). The rosemary-based endodontic sealer demonstrated greater antimicrobial efficacy in comparison to Sealer 26.
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2
COORDINATION OF SOME HEAVY TRANSOTION METALS COMPLEXES WITH 2-AMINO ACETIC ACID-6- METHOXY BENZOTHIAZOLE USING MICROWAVE AND THERMAL METHODS
Mahasin F. Alias, Basha\'ar A. Stephan and Farah S. Jaafer
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The ligand 2-amino acetic acid -6- methoxy benzothiazole (L) was prepared as a chelating ligand, which was treated with the ions Rh(III), Pd(II), Cd(II) and Pt(IV) in alcoholic medium in order to prepare series of new metal complexes. These complexes were prepared by conventional and microwave methods and characterized by the available techniques. FT-IR, UV-Visible, magnetic susceptibility, flame atomic absorption technique as well as elemental analysis and coductivity measurements. From the spectral studies, all complexes have square planer geometry except Cd complex have Td geometry. The nature of complexes in liquid state was studied by using molar ratio method and give results similar approximately to those obtained from isolated solid state; also, stability constant of the prepared complexes were studied and found that they were stable in molar ratio 1:1. A theoretical treatment of these compounds in gas phase was studied by Hyper Chem-8 program using Semi-empirical method. 
 
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VALIDATED SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC AND SPECTROFLUORIMETRIC METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PREGABALIN IN ITS PURE AND DOSAGE FORMS USING EOSIN
Mohammed I. Walash, N. El-Enany and H. Askar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Two sensitive spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods were developed for determination of pregabalin (PGB) in its pure and pharmaceutical dosage forms. For spectrophotometric method (Method I), absorbance value of a binary complex with eosin was measured at 550 nm at pH 3.5. The absorbance-concentration plot was rectilinear over the range of 4-80 µg mL-1. For spectrofluorimetric method (Method II), the decreasing in the fluorescence intensity of the native fluorescence of eosin was measured at 544 nm after excitation at 304 nm at the same pH. The fluorescence-concentration plot was rectilinear over the range of 0.05-1 ug mL-1. Statistical comparison of the results with those of the reference method indicated that there was no significant difference between the two methods respectively.
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BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY, THROMBOLYTIC AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF BOEHMERIA PLATYPHYLLA D DON LEAVES
Md. Saif Uddin, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Syed Md. Abdul Kader, Mahmudul Hasan, Md. Abu Aiube Ansary, Md. Mosarraf Hossen, Atiqur Rahman, Mohammad Abdul Awal, Mahmud Mostofa Hridoy, Abul Hasanat, Shaikh Bokhtear Uddin, Md. Masudur Rahman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Extract from the leaves of Boehmeria platyphylla D Don were screened for their brine shrimp lethality bioassay, thrombolytic and antimicrobial activities. The cytotoxicity was surveyed with the brine shrimp lethality bioassay and thrombolytic impact with human blood. The brine shrimp lethality bioassay was utilized to assess cytotoxicity (LC50 = 75.26 µg/ml) contrasted with Vincristine sulfate (LC50 = 0.74 µg/ml). It was also assessed as thrombolytic activity when contrasted with streptokinase. It has significant thrombolytic movement (73.17±2.08%) contrasted with standard streptokinase (81.32±1.46%). The extract indicated zone of inhibition against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus) and Gram negative bacteria (Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) at 1000 µg/disc. Gram negative bacteria Staphylococcus aureus demonstrated no action against B. platyphylla leaves extract at both doses. Relative percentage inhibition of the extract against each bacterium also calculated. These results indicated that B. platyphylla have favorable thrombolytic, cytotoxic and antibacterial effects and capacities of B. platyphylla extract to be processed for pharmaceutical use.

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GROUP 18 CENTERED PERIODIC TABLE WITH ENHANCED INTERPRETATIONS IN CHEMICAL, PHARMACEUTICAL AND LIFE SCIENCES
Walisinghe Pathirana
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The periodic table was dissected between groups 12 and 13 followed by realigning groups 1 and 18 next to each other while ensuring proper sequencing of atomic numbers. The table now assumed a peak form. All the important elements in chemical, pharmaceutical and life sciences were captured around the peak within a v-shaped area near the table center. A useful bilateral feature emerged with elements having broadly different properties lying on either side of group 18. The new periodic table was found to represent a replica of a cross section of the earth’s crust and to some extent advanced animal forms. A well-defined position was identified for atomic number 0 assigned with symbol 0Ec. The scope for new interpretations in chemical, pharmaceutical and life sciences are possible to a greater depth and clarity.
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Antithrombotic, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of methanol extract of Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn leaves.
Syed Md. Abdul Kader, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Mahmudul Hasan, Md. Saif Uddin, Md. Abu Aiube Ansary, Muhammad Abdulla Al Noman, Fahima Zaheed, Md. Rabiul Hossain, Mohammad Zia Habib, Md. Ismail Hossain, Abul Hasanat, Md. Rafikul Islam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Extract from the leaves of Antidesma ghaesembilla were screened for their antithrombotic, cytotoxic and antimicrobial exercises. The cytotoxicity was surveyed with the brine shrimp lethality bioassay and antithrombotic impact with human blood. The brine shrimp lethality bioassay was utilized to assess cytotoxicity (LC50 = 432.13 µg/ml) contrasted with Vincristine sulfate (LC50 = 0.74 µg/ml). It was also assessed as antithrombotic activity when contrasted with streptokinase. It has significant antithrombotic movement (63.45±2.08%) contrasted with standard streptokinase (81.32±1.46%). The extract indicated zone of inhibition against Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram negative bacteria (Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) 1000 µg/disc. Gram negative bacteria Bacillus cereus demonstrated no action against at both doses. A. ghaesembilla leaves extract and relative percentage inhibition of the extract also calculated. These results indicate that A. ghaesembilla have favorable Antithrombotic, cytotoxic and antibacterial effects of A. ghaesembilla extract to be processed for pharmaceutical use.
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Evaluation of antioxidants, membrane stabilizing, cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity with phytochemical screening of Chromolaena odorata: A medicinal shrub
Md. Tanvir Haider Tanna, Aninda Kumar Nath, Mohammad Nurul Amin, Md. Ibrahim, Manjurul Islam Chowdhury, Md. Emdadul Hasan Mukul, Md. Saif Uddin Rashed, Asma Kabir, Monsur Ahmed, Mohammad Salim Hossain
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The present study was an attempt to evaluate the antioxidant, membrane stabilizing, anthelmintic and cytotoxic properties of crude methanolic extract of C. odorata and different fractions of the crude extract. The phytochemical screening revealed the potent presence of alkaloids, phytosterols, tannins, terpenes, fats and fixed oils. Determination of total phenolic contents and DPPH methods were evaluated for antioxidant activity. The total phenolic content (mg of GAE / gm) of Crude Methanol Extract (CME), Petroleum Ether Soluble Fraction (PESF), Ethyl Acetate Soluble Fraction (EASF) and Chloroform Soluble Fraction (CSF) were 71.08±0.38, 52.08±1.01, 86.33±0.38 and 54.25±0.90, respectively. In case of DPPH method, the IC50 values were 19.48±0.49 µg/ml, 22.44±0.63µg/ml, 99.05±0.81µg/ml, 166.96±0.51 µg/ml, 317.10±0.99 µg/ml for standard (BHT: tert-butyl-1-hydroxytoluene) and the four extracts, respectively. Inhibition of haemolysis by standard acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) (70.82% and 75.91%), CME (20.65% and 53.53%), PESF (35.59% and 36.28%), EASF (34.74% and 30.18%), and CSF (30.01% and 32.26%) for hypotonic and heated solution respectively, were evaluated. For the anthelmintic test, paralysis and death time for standard (albendazole) 10mg/ml and crude extracts (10, 20, 30, 40, 50) mg/ml are 56.20±0.20 and 77.4±0.24, 30.4±0.75 and 60.8±1.03, 24.6±0.32 and 50.2±0.37, 20.6±0.40 and 40.8±0.51, 16.4±0.68 and 32.4±1.29, 10.2±0.40 and 10.2±0.40 minutes respectively. Moreover, the LC50 values were 0.839µg/ml, 10.245µg/ml, 8.98µg/m, 8.28µg/ml and 9.298µg/ml for standard group (vincristin sulphate), CME, PESF, EASF and CSF respectively in brine shrimp lethality bioassay. From the study it was revealed that all the extracts were abundant of various phytochemicals and showed various biological activities.

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LIGAND-BASED VIRTUAL SCREENING AND ADME-TOX GUIDED APPROACH TO IDENTIFY NATURAL COMPOUNDS FROM CONYZA SUMATRENSIS (RETZ.) E.H.WALKER AS COX-2 INHIBITORS
Pone Kamdem Boniface, Gouado Innocent and Anirban Pal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was intended to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of fractions and compounds from Conyza sumatrensis (Retz) E.K. Walker (Cs). Extracts and three compounds 1, 2 and 3 from Cs were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity through membrane red blood cell stabilisation test. In silico studies of compounds 1, 2 and 3 towards Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme was performed through Autodock Vina. Cs exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. Among the extracts tested, ethylacetate extract was the most potent while compound 1 exhibited the highest activity among the compounds assessed. In silico studies showed that compound 3 displayed the highest binding affinity (-7.7 kcal/mol) with the target COX-2, followed by compounds 1 (-6.5 kcal/mol) and 2 (-6.1 kcal/mol). Compounds 1, 2 and 3 were also predicted free of toxicity. These results suggested that Cs might yield valuable adjunctive therapy for the treatment of inflammatory disorders.
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BIOASSAY OF BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY, CARDIOPROTECTIVE AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF FICUS BENJAMINA
Md. Irfan Amin Chowdury, Mohammad Nazmul Alam, Dewan Shakibuzzaman, Galib Ahsan, Rajesh Barua, Md. Faruky Azam Chowdhury, Muhammad Moin Uddin Mazumdar, Md. Rabiul Islam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Brine shrimp lethality bioassay, clot lysis and hypotonicity induced membrane lysismethod was used to evaluate the cytotoxic,cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory activity of methanolicextract of Ficus benjamnia. The extract showed moderate cytotoxic activity. LC50 value of the extract was 232.71µg/ml, which was compared with vincristine sulphate (12.59µg/ml). Methanolic leaf extract of Ficus benjamina was treated with human blood to evaluate Cardioprotective effect. It showed promising Cardioprotective activity which was about (34.95± 1.98)% compared to streptokinase which was used as standard (63.54 ± 2.61)%. In the case of anti-inflammatory study, methanolic leaf extract showed (20.79±1.07)% and (58.06±1.03)%of membrane stabilization activity at 31.25µg/ml and 1000 µg/ml concentration respectively.

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PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THREE ERITREAN PLANTS WITH ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY
Prof. Berhane Girmai Fisehaye Seyoum, Gabriel Dawit
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study is to evaluate the antibacterial activity of B.papyrifera, S.singuenaand T.emetica on selected microorganisms, E.coli (gram negative) and S.aureus (gram positive) with crude extracts at different concentration. The crude extract of each plant was prepared by cold extraction using three solvents of different polarity (distilled water, methanol (95%) and petroleum ether). The anti-bacterial sensitivity test was carried out by well method at different concentration of (25, 50, and 100) mg/ml. The results have shown that all the plants have significant anti-bacterial activity with methanol and water extract of the plants, but no any activity was shown by petroleum ether extracts of all the plants under study. Therefore the methanol and water extract of the selected plants have significant activity against E.coli and S.aureus.
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COMPARISON OF POLYPHARMACY BETWEEN GERIATRIC AND NONGERIATRIC DIABETIC PATIENTS
Rajeshwari Shastry, Prabha Adhikari MR, Ullal Sheetal D, Shashidhar Kotian M
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Geriatric diabetics have comorbidities, requiring multiple drugs. This study was conducted to compare polypharmacy between geriatric and nongeriatric diabetics. Cross sectional study conducted in type 2 diabetics, grouped into geriatric and nongeriatric. Patients’ demographic data, duration of diabetes and drugs prescribed were recorded. Polypharmacy was defined as five drugs or more per prescription. Students’ t test and Chi square test were the statistical tests. A total of 477 diabetics were included (geriatrics n equals to 320, nongeriatrics n equals to 157); mean ages were 68.31plus or minus 6.06 and 49.91plus or minus 6.93 respectively. Comorbidities observed were hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), dyslipidemia, peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy and hypothyroidism. Significantly more geriatrics had hypertension (78.75% versus 53.5%) and CAD (31.25% versus 13.37%; p equals to 0.0001). Polypharmacy was noted in 133 (41.6%) geriatrics and 40 (25.5%) nongeriatrics (p equals to 0.0009). Total number of drugs per prescription among geriatrics and nongeriatrics was 4.32 plus or minus 2.01 vs 3.39 plus or minus 1.92; p less than 0.001. Mean number of drugs for diabetes and hypertension were equal among both groups. However, polypharmacy was more in geriatric diabetics, which is due to high prevalence of CAD.
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DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF ATROPINE INDUCED PSYCHOSIS: PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY
Neethu Ros Tom, Greeshma Hanna Varghese, Hanna Alexander, Swethalekshmi. V, Hemalatha S, T.R. Ashok Kumar, Dr. T. Sivakumar.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The administration of atropine to a large population for treatment of intoxication carries the risk of allergic or toxic reactions in a small number of patients. It has been reported rarely in the literatures. Psychotic symptoms such as restlessness and excitement, hallucinations, delirium may occur due to atropine. There were ten patients who manifested slurred speech, flight of ideas, visual hallucinations, emotional lability, and ambivalence after intake of atropine. This was a prospective observational study to assess the incidence and other patterns of atropine-induced psychotic disorder in a substance abused patients. The incidence of ADR amounts to be 31.3 % in medicine wards. Psychosis was occurred on the day of administration of atropine and the mean duration of the ADR was found to be 2.7 days. Mean length of the hospital stay was 6.2 days which shows that ADR causes prolongation of the hospitalisation. The causality assessment of psychosis with atropine using Naranjo causality assessment scale and WHO-Uppsala monitoring is indicated as probable association with atropine and severity as moderate. The preventability was assessed by Schumock thronton scale in which most of them are not preventable. The patient was discontinued with the suspected drug. Physostigmine, scopolamine or glycopyrrolate can be given as replacement of therapy in atropine-induced psychosis. Length of the hospital was increased due to ADR. Patient who is taking higher doses causes more incidences of psychotic symptoms than others. So physician should be vigilant while prescribing the doses.
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LAGERSTROEMIA SPECIES: A REVIEW
Munish PAL, Deepika Thareja, Chandana Majee
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Lagerstroemia species family Lytharceae, a popular Indian medicinal plant, has long been used in ayurvedic system of medicine. The plant has been found to possess diverse number of pharmacological activities. The present paper gives an account of pharmacological activities. The review reveals that wide range of phytochemical and pharmacological activities. The review reveals that wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from the plant and it possesses important activities like anti- inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, anti-hyperglycemic, and antioxidant. Various other activities anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiviral, antineoplastic and osteoblastic activities has also been reported. These reports are very encouraging and indicate that herb should be studied more extensively for its therapeutic benefits. Clinical trials using Lagerstroemia (Banaba) for variety of combinations in different formulations should also be conducted.
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SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL STUDIES AND ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF 8-SUBSTITUTED-4-(2,4-DIHYDROXYPHENYL)-2-(4-CHLOROPHENYL)-2,5-DIHYDRO-1,5-BENZOTHIAZEPINES
Prerna Jain, B.S. Sharma
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new series of 1,5-benzothiazepine compounds have been synthesized by the reaction between equimolar quantities of 5-substituted-2-aminothiophenol and 1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-propenone, in the presence of absolute alcohol saturated with dry HCl gas. The reaction progress is monitored by TLC. Structure of compound is ascertained by Spectral and by elemental analysis.
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COMPARISON OF PATTERN OF ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY AND RECURRENCE OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN WOMEN WITH AND WITHOUT DIABETES MELLITUS
Saurish Hegde, Mukta Chowta, Nithyananda Chowta
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
This study was planned with the objectives of evaluating the pattern of antimicrobials used for UTI and to determine the recurrence rate of UTI in diabetic and nondiabetic women in our settings. New diagnosis of UTI is defined as a patient with no prescription for UTI in the history (for 1 year) and a first prescription for UTI in the study period. A recurrent UTI was defined as a prescription for UTI in the follow-up period (5 days after the first prescription until 30 days after the end of the first prescription) or hospitalization admission with the diagnosis of a UTI. Among 220 patients, 106(48.18%) had recurrence. Out of these patients, 74 were diabetics (74%) and the remaining were nondiabetics (26.67%). Recurrent UTI was more frequent in diabetics of above 50 years group. Duration antimicrobial therapy was significantly longer in diabetics. Most commonly used antibiotic group is cephalosporins in both diabetics as well as non-diabetics.
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EVALUATION OF SOLASODINE FROM THE LEAVES OF SOLANUM MAURITIANUM SCOP. BY HPTLC
Jayakumar K and Murugan K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Solanum mauritianum Scop. is an exotic tree Solanum species of South America. High performance thin layer chromatography method was formulated in S. mauritianum to identify the major alkaloid fractions. Optimal extraction of solasodine includes refluxing with 2.5N methanolic hydrochloric acid, precipitation and extraction using non-polar solvent system. Ideal and prominent bands were obtained on HPTLC silica gel plates using chloroform (9.3): methanol (0.7 v/v) solvent system at 0.32plus or minus0.06 Rf. and visualized with anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid. The resulted and derivatized plates were scanned at 530 nm for densitometric analysis. The method was found linear (r2 equals to 0.9978) in a wide range (20-2000 ng/ spot), accurate (88.2-101.4%), precise (% RSD less than 2.88), robust (% RSD less than 3.48) and specific. The LOD and LOQ of the method was found as 14 and 44 ng/spot, respectively indicating sensitive enough to analyze minute amount of solasodine in multi-component extract. The method was applied for analysis of solasodine content in samples of S. mauritianum.
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A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY ON EVALUATION OF COMPARATIVE EFFICACY BETWEEN THREE COMBINATIONAL THERAPIES FOR TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS
Malarkodi Velraj, Poripiraddy Satya Prasad, Dr. V. Ravichandiran, Dr.A.PanneerSelvam, Ragesh G
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Diabetes is a condition in which the body either does not produce enough, or does not properly respond to insulin - a hormone produced in the pancreas. Insulin enables cells to absorb glucose in order to turn it into energy. In diabetes, the body either fails to properly respond to its own insulin, does not make enough insulin or both. This causes glucose to accumulate in the blood often leading to various complications. This study mainly focused on Evaluation of efficasy between the combinations therapies for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The aim were achieved through monitoring the blood sugar parameters, to assess the changes in glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus. It’s a retrospective study. Overall the study results conclude that a combination of Metformin with Acarbose, Glimepiride and Sitagliptin therapy have greater impact on control of FBS, PPBS and HbA1c, on the other hand Metformin and sitagliptin combination reveals significant reduction in FBS, PPBS and HbA1c in diabetic patients compare with Metformin + Acarbose and Metformin + Glimepiride therapies. Many research articles also conclude that metformin therapy with sitagliptin have more impression on diabetic control.
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PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILING IN THE LEAVES OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS USING GC-MS
Vinod Kumar, Anket Sharma, Ashwani Kumar Thukral and Renu Bhardwaj
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The study was aimed at screening the phytochemicals present in the leaves of some medicinally important plants. The study revealed 18, 29, 22, 23, 13 and 19 compounds from Sida acuta Burm.f., Cannabis sativa L., Debregeasia longifolia (Burm.f.) Wedd, Ageratum conyzoides L., Parthenium hysterophorus L. and Typha angustata Chamb respectively. The major compound detected from the plants were pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidine (Sida acuta), cannabinol (Cannabis sativa), cis-jasmone (Debregeasia longifolia), 2H-1-benzopyran,6,7-dimethoxy-2,2-dimethyl-ageratochromene (Ageratum conyzoides), stigmasterol (Parthenium hysterophorus) and verrucarol (Typha angustata).
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ACETYLCHOLINESTERSAE INHIBITORY POTENTIAL OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI INHABITING THREE INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS
Varinder Singh, Jyoti Bhagat, Bhupinder Singh Chadha, Rajesh Kumari Manhas and Amarjeet Kaur
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
PVC polymer has been taken the attention of the scientists in early decay as blood containers instead of glass containers. To increase the stability and flexibility of the PVC, several compounds such as Di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and ethylene oxide were applied. Some recent reports recorded the risks of these compounds toward public health. In the present study, Antimicrobial PVC films containing different amounts of eugenol as a plasticizer were prepared using traditional casting method. The physical and mechanical properties of PVC membranes e.g. surface wettability were investigated. The increase of eugenol content demonstrated an increase in surface hydrophilicity and elongation to break the film. Thermal analysis exhibited a decrease of polymer thermal stability by increasing eugenol concentration. However, the antibacterial activities against six different bacterial strains; three Gram positive: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus cereus as well as, three Gram negative: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli were promoted by addition of eugenol. Although the natural source of eugenol, the bio-evaluation of plasticized membranes showed an increase in hemolysis percent (%) and thrombus weight. It can be concluded that the addition of eugenol to PVC needs to further studies for applying in blood bags.
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METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ANALYSIS OF PENCICLOVIR AND RELATED IMPURITY IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS BY RP HPLC
Shiny Ganji and D.Satyavati
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The prime aim of the current work is to develop and validate a novel, specific, sensitive, precise, rapid and faster isocratic elution RP HPLC method for estimation of Penciclovir and its process related impurity in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Hypersil phenyl, 250 mm X4.6 mm, 5 µ with mobile phase composed of 0.1% orthophosphoric acid in 1000 ml of water and acetonitrile in the ratio of 60:40 using an isocratic mode. The temperature is maintained at 30oC, detection was made using UV detector and LC solution software at 254 nm and the flow rate was maintained at 1.0ml/min. The run rate was 20 min. The developed method was validated according to ICH guide lines. The linearity of calibration curve for each analyte in concentration range of 1200 µg/ml – 3600 µg/ml was good. The curve was linear for the impurity in concentration range of 8 - 24 µg/ml. There exists a good correlation between peak area and analyte concentration. Relative standard deviation values for penciclovir is 0.111 and its process related impurity is 0.359. LOD for the active ingredient and its impurity was found to be 0.02 % and 0.5 % respectively. LOQ for active ingredient and its impurity was found to be 0.06 % and 0.15% respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that the proposed method was found to be highly sensitive, precise, accurate, robust and fast. The shorter retention time allows the analysis of large number of samples in short period of time and it is cost effective, so it can be successfully applied for routine analysis of active pharmaceutical ingredients and related impurities in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms.
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PLASTICIZATION OF PVC MEMBRANES WITH EUGENOL FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS
Ahmed M. Omer, Tamer M. Tamer, Mohamed A. Hassan, Maysa M. Sabet, Mohamed S. Mohy Eldin
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Fungal endophytes isolated from medicinal plants viz. Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia and Ficus religiosa were screened for their ability to produce acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, which are important in the treatment of various diseases and disorders related to decline in acetylcholine levels. Nine cultures were found to exhibit significant inhibitory activity (>50%). Molecular characterization of the producer isolates was carried out using ITSI-5.8S-ITSII rDNA sequencing. The generated dendrogram showed that the isolates were distributed within Ascomycota phylum and belonged to three classes Eurotiomycetes, Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes. Maximum inhibition (95.8%) was evinced by Cladosporium uredinicola isolated from Tinospora cordifolia after 10days of incubation on malt extract medium when diethyl ether was used as an extraction solvent. Thin layer chromatography based bioassay revealed the presence of at least two bioactive molecules. Acetycholinesterase inhibitory activity is being reported for the first time from endophytic Cladosporium uredinicola, Nigrospora sp. and Colletotrichum sp.

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SAFETY AND FERTILITY ENHANCING ROLE OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN NEW ZEALAND RABBIT BUCKS
Walaa H. Khalifa, Faten M. Ibrahim, Aida I. El Makawy, Hafiza A. Sharaf, Wagdy K. B. Khalil, Nagwa A. Maghraby
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety of Moringa oleifer leaves aqueous extract and its role on fertility of New Zealand rabbit bucks.  Two doses of Moringa oleifera leaves extract (200 and 400 mg/kg/day) were administrated to rabbit bucks via gavage for 21 days. Sildenafil citrate at dosage of 5mg/kg was used as reference drug.   Liver, kidney and lipid profile functions were evaluated as safety profile agent of Moringa oleifera leaves extract.  Fertility parameters such as body weight, testosterone and thyroid hormones levels, physical characteristics of epididymal sperm, expression of reproductive genes and histopatholological changes in rabbit bucks were investigated to evaluate the role of Moringa oleifera on enhancing the fertility of rabbit bucks.  Results revealed that Moringa oleifera did not cause any toxic effect. In addition, the results illustrated that the effect of Moringa oleifera in enhancing male fertility clearly manifested in increase  the level of testosterone,  thyroid activity, sperm (motility, viability, membrane integrity), up regulation of reproductive gene expression. In addition, Moringa oleifera showed improvement in the histological structure of rabbit bucks testicular tissue. Based on these findings, we can conclude that the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera leaves is safe and has the potential to enhancing the rabbit bucks fertility.

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PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF CATARACT PREVALENCE IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL
Alekhya Pabba, Manjusha Vanna
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Cataract  comprise an important health issue and leading cause of blindness in developing countries. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of cataract by conducting prospective review of patient records in ophthalmology department in Malla reddy hospital, Hyderabad during one year period. Majority of cases were observed in age group between 40 to 60 years (55%). Prevalence of cataract was 62.28 cases per 1225 hospitalizations in ophthalmology department.

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ANTIEPILEPTIC ACTIVITY OF MURRAYA KOENIGII LEAF AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN PENTYLENETETRAZOLE AND STRYCHNINE INDUCED CONVULSIONS IN RATS AND MICE
Vanna Manjusha, Gella Suneel
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The aim of present study was to investigate antiepileptic activity of aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii (AEMK) on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and strychnine (STR) induced convulsions in mice and rats respectively. 24 male Swiss mice and 24 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six animals each as I, II, III and IV which were treated with 0.9 % saline (10 ml/kg, p.o.), Diazepam (4 mg/kg, i.p.), AEMK (200 mg/kg. p.o), AEMK treated (400 mg/kg. p.o). All mice were treated with PTZ (75 mg/kg, i.p.) and all rats with Strychnine (2 mg/kg, i.p.), 30 min after i.p administration of diazepam and 60 min after oral administration of saline and extract doses. Onset and duration of convulsions, percentage protection, Severity score and mortality rate in rats and mice were recorded. Statistical analysis was carried out by ANOVA followed by Barlett’s test. In present study AEMK decreased severity of convulsions, increased percentage protection, decreased mortality rate and exhibited significant antiepileptic activity.

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A NEW VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF RAMIPRIL AND OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL
Deepthi Yada, Divya Yada, T. Rajeshwari, M. Madhavilatha, G. Tulja Rani
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The present work describes a validated reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous estimation of Ramipril and and Olmesartan medoxomil in tablet formulation. Chromatography was performed on a Hypersil C18 (4.6mmx250mm, 5m) column from inisocratic mode with mobile phase containing acetonitrile: 0.05 M KH2PO4 pH 3.0 (60:40). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the eluent was monitored at 228 nm. The selected chromatographic conditions were found to effectively separate Ramipril (RT- 2.836 min) and Olmesartan (RT- 4.055 min). Linearity for Ramipril and Olmesartan medoxomil were found in the range of 5ppm-25ppm and 20ppm -100ppm respectively. The proposed method was found to be accurate, precise, reproducible and specific. The mean recovery was 99.84 ± 0.20% and 101.7 ± 0.20% for ramipril and olmesartan medoxomil respectively. The methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines.
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