Volume 6 - Issue 2

S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS CONTAINING QUETIAPINE: BRAND VERSUS GENERIC
Cristina Tomasello, Roberta Cavalli, Emanuela Peila, Marco Simiele, Anna Leggieri, Giovanni Di Perri, Antonio D\'Avolio
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Atypical antipsychotics are not only used for symptoms of schizophrenia, but also for the treatment of Behavioral Psychological Symptoms in Dementia. This work is focused on developing a selective, fast method for the quantitative and qualitative determination of quetiapine in Seroquel® 25mg and the generic Quetiapine 25 mg tablets. Analyses were conducted by dissolving tablets in a suitable solvent (water/ACN 50:50) and measuring the quetiapine amount using a UPLC-PDA instrument. Dissolution test, disintegration test, and thermal analysis were conducted with specific instrumentation according to the European Pharmacopea. Quantitative analysis showed that the difference between the two pharmaceutical products was about 0.055%, which is not statistically significant; qualitative analysis highlights a slight difference about the disintegration time (1 minute) and the dissolution, caused by different excipients. This is further confirmed by the thermal analysis (Differential Scanning Calorimetry). It is possible to conclude that no differences were identified among the reconstituted samples of the two different products containing quetiapine.
1-10
2
OBSERVATION OF RADIOTHERAPY RELATED ACUTE SIDE EFFECTS´ OCCURRENCE AND MANAGEMENT IN CANCER PATIENTS
Anmar Al-taie, Aygül Köseoğlu, Fikret V.Izzettin, Songül Tezcan, Tayf Alqozbakr, Atin Aksu
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study was to observe the most common radiotherapy related acute side effects and the effective modulating treatment of these side effects in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. A randomized retrospective study was carried out on 79 cancer patients admitted at the radiology unit. Radiotherapy related acute side effects and specific therapies were documented and assessed. The major acute side effect was diarrhea 82, 3%. While, 48, 5% of mucositis, and 62, 5% of skin reactions were managed by benzydamine mouth wash and dexpanthenol ointment respectively. A significant correlation observed between gender and skin reactions (males 55, 6%, females 83, 3%); previous chemotherapy with appetite loss (25%) and with metallic taste (60%). Concerning radiation-applied area, mucositis and stomatitis were significantly correlated with both thorax (39, 2%, 33, 1%), and head (31, 4%, 33, 1%) areas respectively. The occurrence of radiation related acute side effects indicates both the essentially for follow-up and the potential role of clinical pharmacist for better outcomes.
11-19
3
ANTI-INFECTIOUS AND IN VIVO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF ALBIZIA GUMMIFERA AQUEOUS STEM BARK EXTRACT AGAINST SALMONELLA TYPHI-INDUCED TYPHOID FEVER IN RATS
Serge Secco ATSAFACK, Norbert KODJIO, Guy Sedar Singor NJATENG, Jean Baptiste SOKOUDJOU, Jules-Roger KUIATE and Donatien GATSING
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Typhoid fever is one such disease, still remains a serious problem and a major threat to the society in most of the developing countries. In our search for therapeutic agents from natural sources with potential for the treatment of typhoid fevers, this work aims to evaluate the in vivo antisalmonellal activity and the effect of bacterial infection on tissues oxidation of aqueous extract of Albizia gummifera. The Salmonella typhi-infected rats concurrently received different doses of plant extract (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg bw) or oxytetracyclin (5 mg/kg) daily for 9 days. The parameters such as, catalase peroxidase, nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation index, malondialdehyde, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin were assessed. Results obtained showed that groups of treated animals at 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg bw of extract were healed respectively after 8, 7 and 6 days of treatment for females and after 9, 7 and 7 days of treatment for males. Antioxidant activity has shown that CAT (male) and peroxidase (both sex) activities for treated animals were increased significantly (p < 0.05) compared to the untreated control group animals while NO, MDA, ALP and bilirubin levels were significantly decreased (p > 0.05). Increase and reduction of theses antioxidants parameters to their normal value (that of the neutral control) was doses-dependent manner. The overall results of this study indicate that aqueous extract of Albizia gummifera exhibited in different in vivo systems, strong antisalmonellal activity and antioxidant activity on cell oxidation induced by infection with Salmonella typhi.
20-30
4
EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF MATRICARIA CHAMOMILLA L. ESSENTIAL OIL IN VIVO FROM MOROCCO
Ghizlane Hajjaj, Aziz Bahlouli, Mouna Tajani, Yahia Cherrah and Amina Zellou
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present work was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Matricaria chamomilla L. essential oil in rodents. The flowers of Matricaria chamomilla L. was subjected to extraction by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of the essential oil was assessed through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The effect of the essential oil against acute inflammation was studied using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats at different doses (100, 200 mg/kg p.o.) and compared with standard drug (indomethacin) and with control group. Matricaria chamomilla L. essential oil contained Chamazulene (25.21 %), Cis-beta-farnesene (12.51 %), Eucalyptol (9.19 %), Coumarin (7.72 %), Galaxolide (6.28 %) and Camphor (4.3 %) this essential oil produced significant anti-inflammatory effect (P<0.001) at all doses studied in both models when compared with control group. This study revealed that M. chamomilla L. essential oil has a potent anti-inflammatory activity. This effect, at least in part, depend upon the chemical composition properties of the essential oil of this medicinal plant from Morocco.
31-36
5
PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION INTO COMPARATIVE TRANSCRANIAL BRAIN TARGETED AND TRANSDERMAL SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF DIAZEPAM ON SLEEP LATENCY
Walisinghe Pathirana, Sudath Gunasekera, Godwin Constantine, Yashasvi Sanja Perera, Wedisha Gankanda, Malsha Gunathilaka, Sandamali Senanayake and Janaki Kumari
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Emissary veins that drain blood from the scalp into sinuses of the brain are a potential route for targeted central nervous system drug delivery. Structure of the scalp, cranial bones and cerebrospinal fluid flow indicate that they can facilitate transcranial drug delivery. A cascade for the transcranial drug diffusion is proposed. Diazepam 2 mg/3 ml of sesame oil was administered transcranially and transdermally in order to investigate brain targeting in human volunteers. Sleep latencies were monitored with Multiple Sleep Latency Tests involving 5 Naps employing standard electroencephalography, electroocculography and electromyography electrodes. The six volunteers were subjected to four days of electroencephalography screenings for the base line, placebo oil, diazepam on scalp and diazepam on forearms. The mean sleep latencies for the Nap 3 with peak responses were 13.8, 8.7, 5.9 and 7.7 minutes respectively indicating that the transcranial brain targeting of diazepam is possible.
37-46
6
Spectral and cytotoxic study of complexing mixed ligand formed by sodium [5-(P-nitro phenyl)-4-phenyl-1,2,4-traizole-3-dithiocarbamato hydrazide] and 1,10 phenanthroline with Fe(III) and Mn (II) ions
Mahasin Alias, Farah Saadoon, Maha Faisal, Nibras Mohammed, Caroline Shaker
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Mixed ligands complexes have been prepared by reaction of Sodium [5-(p-nitrophenyl)-\'4-phenyl-1,2,4-traizole-3-dithiocarbamato hydrazide] (L1) and 1,10-phenanthroline (L2) with Fe(III) and Mn(II) ions. The newly prepared complexes were isolated and characterized by FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy, C.H.N., FAA technique, in addition to magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. The nature of bonding between the metal ion and the donor atoms of the ligands were demonstrated by calculating of the ligand field parameters using suitable Tanaba-Sugano diagrams. Cytotoxic effect of the prepared complexes were evaluated against Hep-2 cell line using different concentrations (3000, 1500, 750 and 375 µg/ml) respectively in an exposure time 72 hrs comparing this effect with control positive Cis-Pt as reference drug.
47-52
7
NEW VALIDATED SPECTROFLUORIMETRIC AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CLOPIDOGREL IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS USING EOSIN
M. Sharaf El-Din, F. Ibrahim, Sh. Shalan and Heba Abd El-Aziz
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
New Sensitive and accurate two spectroscopic methods were developed and validated for the determination of Clopidogrel (CLP) in tablet dosage forms. The spectrophotometric method (Method I) is based on the formation of red colored complex with eosin at (545 nm) in sodium acetate – acetic acid buffer of pH 3. The absorbance-concentration plot is rectilinear over the range (0.5-9 µg mL-1) with LOD of (0.076 µg mL-1) and LOQ of (0.23 µg mL-1). The Spectrofluorimetric method (Method II) depends on the quantitative quenching effect of Clopidogrel on the native fluorescence of eosin at the same pH. The quenching effect of the formed ion-pair complex of the drug with eosin was measured at (560 nm) after excitation at (499 nm). The fluorescence-concentration plot is rectilinear over the range (0.2-6 µg mL-1) with LOD of (0.0341 µg mL-1) and LOQ of (0.1033 µg mL-1). Under the optimized experimental conditions, the proposed methods were validated as per International Conference of Harmonization guidelines. The proposed methods were perfectly applied to the analysis of commercial tablets containing the drug. Statistical comparison of the results with those of the reference method illustrate good agreement and confirm that there were no significant difference in the accuracy and precision between the proposed and reference one respectively.
53-63
8
POTENTIAL DRUG-DRUG INTERACTIONS IN MEDICAL WARDS OF TIKUR ANBESSA SPECIALIZED HOSPITAL, ETHIOPIA
Mohammed Biset Ayalew
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs), to identify drugs frequently involved in interaction and to identify factors associated with pDDIs in medical wards of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH). A prospective crossectional study was conducted on 163 patients admitted in medical wards of TASH. Presence of interaction was cheeked using medscape drug-drug interaction checker. Data was analysed using SPSS version 21. A test of association was done using binary and multiple logistic regressions. The overall prevalence of potential drug-drug interaction was 86.5%. Interactions of major severity account for about one fifth of total pDDIs. The number of drugs taken by the patient was found to be significantly associated with pDDIs. The study highlighted the need to carefully select drugs and implement active pharmaceutical care services in order to prevent harmful effect of these interactions.
64-70
9
REVIEW ON CYPERUS ESCULENTUS : FROM FOOD SAFETY TO PHARMACOTHERAPEUTICS
Dhouha Krichène, Diana Ansorena Artieda, Mokhtar Zarrouk and Iciar Astiasarán
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Plants are potent biochemical factories and have been components of phytomedicine. Plant based natural constituents can be derived from any part of the plant (leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, seeds, etc.) which contain active principles. It is well known that traditional herbal medicines existed before the application of the modern scientific methods to health care; and even today majority of the world population depends on herbal health care practices. Cyperus esculentus L. is distributed mainly in the Southern European region and in the Western part of Africa. Its sweet tubers are highly appreciated for their nutritive value with a high content of fiber, proteins, and sugars. They are rich in oleic acid, glucose, and vitamins C and E. It is often a utile plant largely utilized in traditional system of medicine and exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, analgesic, antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antioxidant and various other activities. Our present review subsumes on chemical and biological properties of Cyperus esculentus. This compiled data reflects the therapeutic properties of this potential herb.
71-81
10
DOCKING AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL SIMILARITY STUDIES ON INDOLE BASED ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTICS
Alka Bali and Umesh Sen
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A hypothetical binding model has been proposed based on in silico (docking studies) on a series of indole derivatives with atypical antipsychotic activity in order to investigate their hypothetical binding mode with respect to the dopaminergic D3 receptors. The docking reproduced the established receptor binding profile of the standard drugs ziprasidone, risperidone, ketanserin, clozapine and eticlopride. The test compounds demonstrated a similar binding profile to the standard drugs. Salient interactions noted for the standard drugs as well as the test compounds were the hydrogen bonding interactions with the residues Asp110, Tyr373, Ser182, Ser192, Cys181 and p-p stacking with Phe345, Phe346 and His349. The D3 docking scores of the compounds lacking the atypical profile were seen to be lower compared to those having an atypical profile. Further, the physicochemical similarity of the test compounds was assessed with respect to selected standard drugs and the test compounds were seen to possess very good similarity to ziprasidone.
82-92
11
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF LOPERAMIDE LIQUISOLID COMPACTS
Madhavi Harika Srimathkandala, Sushma M, Madhu Babu Ananthula, Vasudha Bakshi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Loperamide is an anti diarrhoeal drug administered orally. It is a poorly water soluble drug with low oral bioavailability. The present study was aimed at increasing solubility of Loperamide and thus enhance its dissolution rate by a novel technique called liquisolid system. Liquisolid compacts were prepared by propylene glycol, Micro crystalline cellulose and Aerosol as solvent, carrier and coating material respectively in different ratios. By performing FTIR it was confirmed that there was no incompatibility between the drug and other excipients. Flow properties of the drug were measured and found to be within pharmacopoeal limits. Taking in vitro drug release, final formulation weight, drug content and flow properties into consideration, formulation F2 was optimized. XRD patterns show that the drug in the formulation got transformed to amorphous form. The optimized formulation showed good dissolution rate when compared to marketed formulation and pure drug. So the liquisolid technique was proved to be efficient in improving dissolution properties of Loperamide.
93-99
12
BACTERICIDAL POTENTIALITY OF FLAVONOIDS EXTRACTED FROM CELL SUSPENSION CULTURES OF MARCHANTIA LINEARIS LEHM AND LINDENB.
Remya Krishnan and Murugan K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present investigation was undertaken to isolate and fractionate flavonoids from in vitro cell culture of the liverwort Marchantia linearis Lehm and Lindenb., a poorly documented bryophyte and its mode of bactericidal potentiality. Initially, callus culture was initiated from spores in MS/5 media containing growth regulators. From suspension culture flavonoids were isolated and fractionated by HPLC PAD chromatogram, which revealed the presence of a pool of active compounds. In vitro time-kill assessment data supports the MBC and MKC. Remarkable leakage of reducing sugar and high leakage of nucleic acid and protein were observed at different concentration of flavonoid. Further, respiratory chain enzyme dehydrogenases showed lower profile in the treated bacterial strains. SEM data substantiated the bactericidal potentiality. Thus, the flavonoids of M. linearis may be a potent candidate for the in vivo biological control of pathogenic bacteria. Further studies are warranted to purify the lead molecule and to elucidate the molecular mechanism of bactericidal action.
100-112
13
A STABILITY INDICATING METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF TAPENTADOL IN BULK AND IN FORMULATIONS
Renu Chadha, Alka Bali, Gulshan Bansal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
An isocratic stability-indicating reversed phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC-UV) method for quantitative determination of tapentadol HCl has been developed and validated as per the ICH guidelines. Tapentadol HCl and the tablet formulation were subjected to forced decomposition conditions of hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis and thermal stress, as per ICH guidelines. Thermal, photostability, accelerated and real time stability testing was carried out with the marketed tablet formulation of the drug. An Inertsil ® C-18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5µ) column was used to carry out the chromatographic analysis. The mobile phase composed of methanol-water (pH 2.5 with formic acid of the aqueous part) (35:65 %v/v) (flow rate 1.0 mL/min; Detection wavelength 254 nm). The drug was found to be extremely stable and there was no degradation under various stressor conditions. Excellent linearity was observed in the range of 0.05–5.0 µg/mL (r 2= 0.9998). The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.0008 and 0.0024 µg/mL respectively. The proposed method gave good recovery of the drug in the tablet formulation as well (100.8 % in control and 98.53 - 99.73 % in the various stability samples).
113-120
14
ESTIMATION AND VALIDATION OF SOFOSBUVIR IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC
Ravikumar Vejendla, C.V.S. Subramanyam, G. Veerabhadram
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A simple, sensitive, precise, and accurate isocratic reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the estimation of sofosbuvir in bulk and tablet dosage form. To optimize, a column Phenomenex prodigy ODS-3V (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm), mobile phase mixture of methanol and (0.1%) tri-fluro acetic acid as buffer having pH of 3.2 in the ratio of (30:70 v/v) found to be an efficient system for elution of drug with good peak shape as well as retention time 2.990 min., flow rate 1.0 ml/min. at UV wavelength of 260nm. Quantitative linearity was obeyed in the concentration range of 100 to 600 µg/ml, the regression equations of concentration over their peak areas were found to be Y = 18864x + 58306 R² = 0.996, where Y is the peak area and X is the concentration of drug. The number of theoretical plates obtained was 2604.352 which indicate the efficient performance of the column. The limit of detection was 0.01 µg/ml and limit of quantification was 0.03 µg/ml, which indicates the sensitivity of the method the high percentage recovery indicates that the proposed method is highly accurate. No interfering peaks were found in the chromatogram indicating that excipients used in tablet formulation did not interfere with the estimation of the drug by the proposed RP-HPLC method.
121-127
15
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF PENTOXIFYLLINE
Jagdish Chandra Rathi, Vaishali Rathi, Sengodan Tamizharasi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A sustained release system for pentoxifylline designed to increase its residence time in the stomach without contact with the mucosa was achieved through the preparation of floating microspheres by the emulsion solvent diffusion technique. Four different ratios of either Eudragit RS 100 (ES) alone or with HPMC were used to prepare the floating microspheres. The drug retained in the floating microspheres decrease with increase in HPMC content. All formulation show good flow properties. The microspheres were found to be regular by SEM. FT-IR study confirmed the drug-polymer compatibility. Although pentoxifylline release rate from Eudragit RS floating microspheres was very slow and incomplete but when HPMC was added, release rate increased, at the same time floating ability was decreasing. Formulation F2 containing ES:HPMC (9:1) which showed appropriate balance between release rate and buoyancy could be advantageous in terms of increased bioavailability of pentoxifylline. Formulation F2 was subjected for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats and showed better efficacy compare to standard preparation.
128-137
16
ISOPRENALINE: A TOOL FOR INDUCING MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS
Mohd Aftab Siddiqui, Usama Ahmad, Ahmed Abdullah Khan, Mohammad Ahmad, Badruddeen, Mohammad Khalid, Juber Akhtar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) remain the principal cause of death in both developed and developing countries, accounting for roughly 20% of all worldwide deaths per year. Due to changing lifestyles in developing countries, such as India and particularly urban areas, Myocardial infarction is making an increasingly important contribution to mortality statistics. Myocardial infarction is defined as an acute condition of necrosis of the myocardium that occurs as a result of imbalance between coronary blood supply and myocardial demand. Isoprenaline/Isoproterenol (ISO) is a synthetic catecholamine and beta adrenergic agonist, which causes severe stress in the myocardium, resulting in an infarct like necrosis of the heart muscle in experimental animal. ISO-induced myocardial infarction serves as a well standardized model because the pathophysiological changes in heart muscle of experimental animal, similar to that observed in human myocardial infarction. The present studies cover the cardioprotective activity of various drugs against Isoprenaline induced Myocardial infarction in animal model.
138-144
17
TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NARCOLEPSY: A REVIEW
V. Bindu Praneeta, B. Sukanya Bai, V. Usha Vanya, M. Mahima Swaroopa
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disorder specifying the abnormal sleep manifestations which mainly impact the quality of life of narcolepsy patients. The exact cause is unclear but found significant evidences that orexin/hypocretin deficiency causes narcolepsy which regulates sleep. Treatment focuses on symptomatic relief throughout medication, education, and behavioral therapy. Stimulants are the first line treatment for the excessive daytime sleepiness. Modafinil, sodium oxybate, amphetamine, methylphenidate, and selegiline are effectual treatments for somnolence associated with narcolepsy. Tricyclic antidepressants and SSRIs are one of the best treatments for cataplexy, sleep pa¬ralysis, and hypnagogic hallucinations. Benzodiazepines are the best regimen for disturbed nocturnal sleep.
145-149
18
A REVIEW ON BENZOTHIAZOLE – A VERSATILE SCAFFOLD IN THE FIELD OF PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY
Siddhanadham Arun Satyadev, Yejella Rajendra Prasad, Vasudeva Rao Avupati, Koduru Aparna, Manjula Jyotshana Rudru
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Heterocyclic chemistry is an integral part of synthetic chemistry which finds its use as one of the major parts in pharmaceutical chemistry as useful biological entities and improved pharmacological properties. Benzothiazoles are versatile bicyclic compounds with diversified pharmacological activities and their analogues are known for their incredible structural diversity. There is a wide scope for research in areas of synthetic, pharmaceutical chemistry and medical field. The objectives of the study mainly have a hawk eye over different common routes of synthesis and cyclization procedures followed and to have a light on diversified pharmacological importance of this potent moiety. Benzothiazoles have clinical effectiveness as potential anticancer, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal. analgesic, anti-HIV, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, antitubercular, antidiabetic, and other medicinal agents.
150-158
19
COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF CYCLODEXTRIN COMPLEXATION IN IMPROVING DISSOLUTION OF RITONAVIR
Bharani S. Sogali, Sushant M. S, Ramana Murthy K. V
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The present study was focused on comparing different methods of preparations and the effect of hydroxy propyl beta cyclodextrin (HPßCD) and randomly methylated beta cyclodextrin (RMßCD) in enhancing dissolution and oral bioavailability of poorly soluble, antiretroviral protease inhibitor, ritonavir. Complexes of ritonavir-CD complexes were prepared at 1:1 ratio using physical mixing, co evaporation, spray drying and freeze drying methods. The prepared complexes were characterized using FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), x-ray diffraction studies (XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and scanning electron microscopy. In vitro dissolution studies were performed in 0.1N HCl and the dissolution data were subjected to one way ANOVA. Phase solubility studies proved complexation of ritonavir and were of AL type. All complexes showed enhanced dissolution rate compared to ritonavir but the complex prepared with RMßCD using freeze drying had shown complete and fast drug release. On the basis of above results, it was concluded that complex prepared with RMßCD by freeze drying was successful in improving solubility, dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of ritonavir.
159-176
20
ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: A REVIEW
Vinay B. C.
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Alzheimer’s disease is a brain disorder in which the patient eventually loss the memory and thinking skills. This makes it difficult for a patient to carry out the simple task. This is also one type of dementia with no known cause or cure. In this present review article, Pathology, Pathophysiology, symptoms and stages of the disease, diagnosis and FDA approved drugs for treatment of the disease have been explained neatly and legibly with proper tables which is easy to understand
177-185
21
FABRY DISEASE AND TREATMENT-AN OVERVIEW
T. Rajeshwari, V. Manjusha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked, hereditary, lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of enzyme a-galactosidase A (a-Gal A), which results in accumulation of neutral glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide(Gb3) in walls of small blood vessels, nerves,dorsal root ganglia, renal glomerular and tubular epithelial cells and cardiomyocytes. Males are mostly affected whereas women mainly act as carriers. Onset of FD symptoms depends upon its clinical type which vary from neuropathic pain, hypohidrosis, gastrointestinal symptoms, and angiokeratomas, chronic kidney disease, cardiomyopathy and cerebral events as seen in adults to severe mental retardation as seen in infantile form which drastically affects the quality of life and reduces life span of affected individuals. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with intravenous infusions of recombinant human a-galactosidase A is approved by FDA for treating FD. Alternative treatments under investigation include substrate reduction therapy (SRT), chaperons, stem cell transplant and gene therapy.The aim of present study is to review pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment of FD.
186-190
22
DESIGN OF OCULAR CONTROLLED RELEASE OCUSERTS OF BRINZOLAMIDE
Snehaprabha Lad, Amrita Bajaj
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The objective of research was to formulate and evaluate controlled release drug delivery system like ocuserts of Brinzolamide, an anti-glaucoma agent. Ocuserts were formulated using various polymers and plasticizers by film casting technique as drug reservoir membrane and controlled release polymers like Eudragit as the rate limiting membrane. The ocuserts were evaluated for physical characteristics, pH, uniformity in thickness & weight, swelling index, folding endurance, percent moisture loss, uniformity of drug content, in vitro diffusion studies. The ocusert containing HPMC K4M, HPMC E50 (1:1), Eudragit E100 showed controlled release with 82.00% ± 0.594 at the end of 24 hours. Ex-vivo study showed 80.00 ± 1.003% of drug permeation. SEM analysis showed drug was in crystal form in the matrix of Ocusert, the surface had pores. IR and DSC studies confirmed no drug-polymer interaction. The optimized formula was sterilized and subjected to stability studies. No ocular irritation was seen in ocular irritancy study.
191-202
23
SOLID-SUPPORTED CATALYSED GREEN SYNTHESIS OF THIAZOLIDINEDIONE DERIVATIVES AND ITS BIOLOGICAL SCREENING
Vidya Desai, Nikita Kesarkar, Swaranjali Bagve
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A new green synthesis of thiazolidinedione derivatives have been reported by reacting thiazolidinedione and variety of aldehydes using solid-supported catalyst in good yields. The thiazolidine-2,4-diones synthesized, have been biologically screened for their anti-microbial activities.
203-208
24
ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES REGARDING EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE AMONG THE RESIDENTS OF HARAR, EASTERN ETHIOPIA
Temam Aman, Vijaibasker G
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a disease of humans and other primates, which is caused by an RNA virus of the family Filoviridae and genus Ebolavirus. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes regarding Ebola virus disease among the residents in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia. This study was carried out from March 4 to April 20, 2015. A descriptive cross sectional study design was used in this study. The respondents were interviewed on a pre-tested structured questionnaire after their verbal consent. The data was collected by direct face to face interview and the outcome variables were knowledge and attitudes regarding Ebola virus disease. The knowledge and attitudes score was classified as adequate if score was = 70%, moderately adequate if score was 41-60% and inadequate if score was < 40%. Of 269 respondents, only 67 (24.9%) had adequate knowledge, 121 (45%) had moderately adequate knowledge and 81 (30.1%) had inadequate knowledge regarding Ebola virus disease. Out of 269 respondents, 146 (54.3 %) had positive attitude and 123 (45.7 %) had negative attitude regarding Ebola virus disease. In the present study, it was found that residents in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia had unsatisfactory knowledge regarding Ebola Virus Disease. Also 123 (45.7 %) had negative attitudes regarding Ebola virus disease among the residents in kebele 18 were not satisfactory too. Hence findings of this study pinpoint the necessity of inculcation of health education programs, which will create the public to be aware against the EVD.
209-221
25
DOES DIABETES MELLITUS AFFECT THE PLASMA CONCENTRATION OF ANTITUBERCULOSIS AGENTS?
Abdallah Abdallah Mahjoub, Syed Azhar Syed Suliman, Amer Hayat Khan, Razak Lajis, Irfhan Ali Bin Hyder Ali
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Plasma concentrations of isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide were measured in 22 diabetic and 22 non-diabetic pulmonary tuberculosis patients by high performance liquid chromatographic methods. From every patient, five blood samples were taken at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after witnessed ingestion of antituberculosis agents. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and the time to reach the Cmax (Tmax) for each drug were determined directly from the concentration-time profile. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated from isoniazid and rifampicin only. The presence of diabetes mellitus did not significantly affect any pharmacokinetic parameters of the three agents. AUC0-24h of isoniazid was significantly higher in female patients. The AUC0-24h of rifampicin was significantly correlated with patients’ age. Weight-adjusted dose of each drug positively and significantly correlated with the corresponding drug Cmax.
222-230
26
ANTIOXIDANT POWER OF PURIFIED PROTEASE INHIBITORS FROM THE FRUITS OF SOLANUM ACULEATISSIMUM JACQ
Meenu Krishnan V. G and Murugan K
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Oxidative stress plays significant role in pathophysiologic events of acute and chronic diseases. Intracellular biomolecules such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids are damaged via oxidation by excessive active oxygen species (AOS). Protease inhibitor was isolated and purified from the fruits of Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq. (SAPI) via four sequential step procedure i.e., salt precipitation to Sepharose affinity chromatography. Subsequently, the antioxidant power is analysed using DPPH, H2O2, O2.-, ABTS, OH. radical scavenging activity, reducing power potential, metal chelating ability and FRAP (Ferric reducing antioxidant power) method. SAPI exhibited significant IC50 values for most of the AOX assays. DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating ability, ABTS and OH. radical scavenging activity were comparable with the synthetic antioxidants like ascorbate and BHT. Further studies are warranted to trace the molecular mechanism of AOX activity by SAPI using in vivo animal models.
231-240
27
SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME NEW CHALCONES
Padma R, Aruna R, E Mounika, I. Manjusha and B Soniya
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In this work, new substituted chalcones (1-6) were prepared by reacting 4-Methoxy acetophenone with the corresponding substituted aromatic aldehydes in the presence of methanolic potassium hydroxide solution at room temperature.Some of the compounds synthesized from methoxy, chloro, Dimethlyamino derivatives showed moderate antibacterial activity at 0.2% concentration. These compounds may show more antibacterial activity at higher concentrations.
241-245
28
SIMULTANEOUS QUANTIFICATION OF RISPERIDONE AND ESCITALOPRAM IN HUMAN PLASMA BY LC-MS/MS: APPLICATION TO A PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY
Pallavi Alegete, Prasad Kancherla, Saeed S. Albaseer, and Sathyanarayana Boodida
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
A solid phase extraction method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of risperidone and escitalopram in human plasma by a suitable ultra-performance liquid chromatographic / tandem mass spectrometric assay (LC-MS/MS) .Resperidone-D4 was used as an internal standard. The method involves simple isocratic chromatographic conditions at a flow rate of 0.400 mL min-1. Samples were separated on X-terra RP8 column (50 mm × 4.6, 5µm) in a shorter run time of only 2.0 min using a mobile phase mixture of 95:5 v/v (acetonitrile : ammonium acetate) buffer 5mM, pH 5.0±0.05). Calibration plots were linear (r2 0.99) over the concentration range of 0.050 to 26 ng mL-1 for risperidone and 0.100 to 51 ng mL-1 for escitalopram. The overall recoveries for risperidone and escitalopram were 76.88% and 81.14%, respectively. Precision was 2.9%, 5.07% (intra-day) and 4.13%, 6.43% (inter-day) for risperidone and escitalopram, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of human plasma.
246-256
29
PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF GLORIOSA SUPERBA LINN. IN LEAD INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY IN RATS
V. Uma Rani, M. Sudhakar, A. Ramesh, B.V.S.Lakshmi, Yengala Srinivas
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
In the present study, tubers of Gloriosa superba Linn (Liliaceae) was selected for evaluating the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba linn in lead induced neurotoxicity in rats. Thirty six wistar rats (150-200g) were selected and divided into six groups of six in each. Group I (normal control) received distilled water, group II-lead nitrate (10 mg/kg, p.o.), group III-lead nitrate + vitamin E (10 mg/kg, p.o. + 100 mg/kg, p.o.), group IV-lead nitrate + HEGS (10 mg/kg, p.o. + 50 mg/kg, p.o.), group V-lead nitrate + HEGS (10 mg/kg, p.o. + 100 mg/kg, p.o.), group VI-lead nitrate + HEGS (10 mg/kg, p.o. + 200 mg/kg, p.o.) experiment was carried out for 21 days. At end of the experiment various behavioral, biochemical and histopathological assessments were carried out. The animals showed increase in transfer latencies indicating learning and memory implairment in lead control group, but administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba Linn decreased the transfer latencies, strengthened its memory improvement action in drug treated animals.Hence showed decrease in muscle strength measured by rota-rod test whereas, in hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba linn treated group there was improvement in muscle strength. The locomotor activity assessed by actophotometer and open field test was decreased in lead nitrate group compared with hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba Linn treated group. Biochemical analysis of brain revealed that the chronic administration of lead nitrate significantly increased lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase (GR), an index of oxidative stress process. Administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba Linn attenuated the lipid peroxidation and reversed the decreased brain CAT and GSH levels. Lead exposed rats showed increased levels of various serum parameters like glucose, ALT, ALP, TG and TC. Lead toxicity also leads to alteration in acetylcholinesterase levels, might have caused neurobehavioral changes which was measured by the change in acetylcholinesterase activity but prior administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba Linn ahead of lead nitrate ameliorated the change. There was marked changes at the subcellular level which were observed by histopathology studies in lead treated group and better improvement in these changes was observed in hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba Linn treated group. Therefore hydroalcoholic extract of Gloriosa superba Linn helps to combat the oxidative stress produced by the accumulation of lead in the body.
257-266
30
STABILITY INDICATING METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF RESIDUE OF ABIRATERONE BY HPLC
M. Ramesh Babu, V Umamaheswara Rao
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The purpose of the investigation was to develop a new RP-HPLC Method for estimation of Abiraterone in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Chromatography was carried out on an Symmetry shield RP-18, 250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5µm with a isocratic mobile phase composed of Buffer: mixture of solvent in the ratio of 10:90 % v/v (mixture of solvent of solvents in the ratio of Acetonitrile and Water in the ratio of 90:10 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The column temperature was maintained at 40°C and the detection was carried out using a PDA detector at 252 nm. Validation parameters such as system suitability, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), Stability of sample and standard stock solutions and robustness were studied as reported in the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The retention time for Abiraterone was 7.20 min. The percentage recovery of Abiraterone was 101.65%. The relative standard deviation for assay of tablet was found to be less than 2%. The Method was fast, accurate, precise and sensitive hence it can be employed for routine quality control of tablets containing drugs in quality control laboratories and pharmaceutical industries.
267-276
31
Total phenol, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of methanol extract of Lygodium palmatum (Bernh.) Sw. leaves.
Tanvir Ahmad Chowdhury, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Syed Md. Abdul Kader, Mahmudul Hasan, Md. Ariful Islam, Md. Rakibul Hasan, Md. Nazmul Huda, Shefatun Nur, Joy Chakraborty, Abul Hasanat, Md. Mominur Rahman
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Lygodium palmatum (Bernh.) Sw. leaves are deliberated as worthy traditional medicine. To give a scientific basis for traditional usage of this medicinal plant, the leaf extract were appreciated for its antioxidant activity. In this study, in vitro antioxidant activities of the leaf extract of L. palmatum were determined by total antioxidant, DPPH, Reducing power capacity, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content. The extract showed a dose dependent radical scavenging effect in DPPH assay. IC50 for free radicals achieved by the extract is 46.94 µg/ml. The extract showed significant reducing power activity as compared to ascorbic acid and proportionally increased with the increasing concentration of the extract. Increase in absorbance of the reaction mixture indicates the increase in the reducing power of the extract. Phenol content was 96.67± 0.82 mg gallic acid/g and flavonoid content was 27.30 ± 0.30 mg quercetin/g. Our current results emerged that L. palmatum act as an antioxidant agent due to its free radical scavenging and cytoprotective activity. So, the plant may be further pursued to find out for its pharmacological active natural products.
277-282
32
In vitro and In vivo drug-drug interaction between Sitagliptin phosphate and Atenolol
Md. Mosarraf Hossen, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Atiqur Rahman, Kazi Ashfak Ahmed Chowdhury, Mohammed Emranul Huq, Nirjhar Das, Md. Shalah Uddin Pasha, Mohammed Aktar Sayeed, Abul Hasanat
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of the present study to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo complexation nature and strength of complex which may be formed due to interaction between sitagliptin phosphate and atenolol. The interaction of sitagliptin phosphate and atenolol has been studied in aqueous system at a fixed temperature (370C) at both gastric pH (pH 1.2 and pH 3.2) and intestinal pH (pH 6.8) by using Job’s method of continuous variation and Ardon’s method. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used to identify in vivo DDI in mice. From spectrophotometric study, sitagliptin phosphate and atenolol give different spectra when sitagliptin phosphate mixed with atenolol in 1:1 ratio. The intensity of the spectra of sitagliptin phosphate slightly changes due to interaction. The jobs plot was obtained by plotting absorbance difference against the mole fraction of the each drug at pH 1.2, pH 3.2 and pH 6.8. When the spectra of pure sitagliptin phosphate and atenolol were compared with 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 mixture, there was a change observed which indicate the formation of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 complexes of sitagliptin phosphate with atenolol. The values of stability constant is more than one at al pH (1.2, 3.2 and 6.8), which is the indication of strong complex. The stability constant values are 1.2073, 1.1839 and 1.2075 respectively. From the in vivo observation of Oral glucose tolerance test, at 1:1 complex, blood glucose level decrease (13.88%) less compared to Sitagliptin phosphate (22.22%) significantly. Complex (1:1) showed different activity rather than pure sitagliptin phosphate treatment due to complexation. Therefore, it can be concluded that a careful consideration is needed during concurrent administration of Sitagliptin phosphate with Atenolol.
283-291
33
Sedative and Anxiolytic activities of methanol extract of Boehmeria platyphylla D Don Leaves.
Syed Md. Abdul Kader, Md. Abdullah al Masum, Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Md. Saif Uddin, Mohammad Nazmul Hoque Jony, Mohammed Sohel Chowdhury, Imran Bin Habib, Arkajyoti Paul, Shefatun Nur, Joy Chakraborty, Abul Hasanat, Md. Rafikul Islam
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
Boehmeria platyphylla leaves are deliberated as worthy traditional medicine. To give a scientific basis for traditional usage of this medicinal plant, the methanol leaf extract (MEBP) was applied for its sedative and anxiolytic activities. In this study, the sedative activity was also evaluated using open field test, hole-cross test. Besides, elevated plus maze test, hole-board test for exploratory behavior in mice were used to evaluate its anxiolytic activities. The in vivo action was done using mice of both sexes. The extract showed a dose dependent sedative effect. The number of squares traveled by the mice was decreased significantly (P<0.01) from its initial value at 0 to 90 min at the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract. In the EPM, the behavior of mice model, as observed, confirmed the anxiolytic activity of diazepam as reported previously. The methanol extract of B. platyphylla leaves (MEBP) at the dose of 400 mg/kg, significantly increased the time spent in the open arms. Hole Board test proved that the extract have significant anxiolytic activity. Because, head dipping of mice increased with the treatment of MEBP. The obtained results support that B. platyphylla has well sedative and anxiolytic effects and deserve further investigation to isolate the specific components that are responsible for the sedative and anxiolytic effects. Components from this plant may have a great potential value as medicinal agents, as leads or model compounds for synthetic or semi synthetic structure modifications and optimization.
292-298
34
Development and Validation of a stability indicating RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of Telmisartan, Chlorthalidone and Cilnidipine in pharmaceutical combined dosage forms
Mathews Bommella, Ramisetti Nageswara Rao, Priyanka Peddi, Mukkanti Khagga, Sarbani pal
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The study describes development and subsequent validation of a stability indicating reverse-phase HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of the Telmisartan, Chlorthalidone and Cilnidipine in combined solid dosage forms using RP-HPLC. Separation was accomplished on Kromasil 250 x 4.6 mm, 5mm C18 column using 0.1% OPA buffer and acetonitrile (57:43 v/v) as mobile phase pumped through at a flow rate of 1.2 ml/min at 30°C. Optimized wavelength was 238nm. Retention time of Telmisartan, Chlorthalidone and Cilnidipine were found to be 3.106min, 2.573min and 3.924 min respectively. %RSD of the Telmisartan, Chlorthalidone and Cilnidipine were found to be 0.87, 0.96 and 0.94 respectively. % recovery was obtained as 100.18%, 100.06% and 100.13% for Telmisartan, Chlorthalidone and Cilnidipine respectively. The proposed method also proved to be suitable as a rapid and reliable quality control method.
299-311