Volume 7 - Issue 3

S.NO Title & Authors Name page
1
Evaluation of edible herb Solanum tuberosum L. to be used as nutraceuticals
Banani Mondal, Sarker Ramproshad, Milon Mondal, Md. Golam Hossain
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The study was designed to explore nutraceuticals from the edible herb Solanum tuberosum L. through investigation of antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and antibacterial activities. Antioxidant activity was accomplished using DPPH free radical scavenging and reducing power assay. Oral glucose tolerance test was used to measure antihyperglycemic activity. At last, antibacterial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion method. Phytochemical assay of the plant extract indicated the presence of therapeutically active phytoconstituents. Total polyphenol, flavonoids and tannin contents were 27mg GAE/g, 22mg QE/g and 14mg GAE/g of dried extract respectively. DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power of S. tuberosum were comparable to standard antioxidant. A well-built relationship was observed between polyphenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity of extract. S. tuberosum predominantly (p<0.05) reduced blood glucose level at 400mg/kg in glucose induced hyperglycemic mice and revealed maximum inhibition against Enterococcus faecalis in the antibacterial assay. Due to these beneficial effects these edible herbs may be a good source of nutraceuticals.

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The effectiveness of leaf extract cherry (Muntingia calabura l.) as lowering cholesterol levels in white rats with simvastatin comparison
Cut Fatimah
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The flab in the body partly will form the excessive cholesterol, which can thicken the blood and the formation of thrombus in the blood can cause coronary heart disease, and even death are currently on the market have been widely circulated synthetic chemical drugs to lower blood cholesterol levels, but often cause various side effects, so it is necessary to find an alternative drugs from natural materials rational lowering cholesterol levels with relatively minor side effects. One plant has been used traditionally community to reduce body fat (obesity) is a cherry leaf. In addition cherry leaves have also been used to treat gout, diabetes, and high blood pressure, so that the possibility can be used as an alternative to cholesterol-lowering drugs. Extraction is done by percolation using 80% ethanol. Phytochemical screening performed on fresh leaves, botanicals, and cherry leaf ethanol extract. Decreased effectiveness of cholesterol using cholesterol level gauges Nesco®multicheck, the male rats induced by high cholesterol feed is duck eggs yolk mixture to 80% and 0.125% propylthiouracil orally by 4 ml, for 10 days to an increase in levels of blood cholesterol. Measurements were made once every 24 hours after the suspension of the ethanol extract of leaves of cherry with three doses of 2%, 4%, 6%, respectively 2 ml, as a blank CMC suspension 0.5%, and the comparison simvastatin dose of 0.025% respectively 4 ml. The data obtained were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by analysis of Least Significant Difference Test (BNT) using the least squares difference (Least Square Difference) with a 99% confidence level. Phytochemical screening result looks the same class of chemical compounds on fresh leaves, botanicals, and cherry leaf ethanol extract, namely alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids / steroids; and essential oils. The result of a decrease in blood cholesterol seen rats started on the third day after the administration of test materials, and showed a significant decrease in cholesterol on the seventh day, did not differ between the test material 4% and 6%. As for the test material 2%, is showing a decline on the ninth day. Of the three doses given cherry leaf extract noticeable decrease in blood cholesterol levels the most excellent rats at concentrations of 4% for the seventh day was not significantly different from the concentration of 6%.

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INFLUENCE OF SUPER DISINTEGRATING AGENTS ON IN-VITRO RELEASE OF CHLORPHENIRAMINE MALEATE SUBLINGUAL TABLETS
Reddy Sunil, Goli. Vinitha, Yasmeen Tabassum, A. Venkatesham
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The term Sublingual referred as “under the tongue”. In this route of administration the drug permeates through the tissues under tongue into the blood stream. The Sublingual route of administration play important role in avoiding first pass metabolism. The main objective is to improve bioavailability, rapid onset of action and solubility of the drug increased and protein binding is avoided. Sublingual tablets of Chlorpheniramine maleate formulated by using direct compression method. Nine formulations were formulated using Rotary compression machine to explain the effects of the sodium starch glycolate, Cross Povidone, Cross Carmellose Sodium on disintegration time, In-vitro release of the drug and % drug release. In addition the tablets are also evaluated for the weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, wetting time, water absorbivity ratio, FTIR, DSC and drug release studies. The Batch F8 is having the higher dissolution and disintegration rate for optimized sublingual Chlorpheniramine maleate tablet, for rapid onset of action for management of tussiveness. The F8 Formulation is having less wetting time and high water absorption ratio. 

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QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF PLASMA PROTEINS, LIPID PROFILE, LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTION PARAMETERS AFTER CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF “PRADARANTAK LOUHA” TO MALE SPRAGUE –DAWLEY RATS
Mariyam Akter, Chinmoy Kumar Sen, Mohammad Salim Hossain, M Shahabuddin Kabir Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Background: Pradarantak Louha (PDL), a herbomineral Ayurvedic medicine has been used as a traditional medicine in the treatment of leucorrhoea for many years. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of Pradarantak Louha on major body organs. We assessed the possibility of side-effects after long term administration of Pradarantak Louha. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effect of PDL, it was administered to the rats at a dose of 400 mg/kg for 54 days. Result: PDL does not change the plasma proteins (Total protein, albumin, and globulin) significantly. The change of bilirubin content was also not significant. In case of kidney function parameters, statistical significant increase was noted in both the creatinine content (p value: 0.015) and urea content (p value: 0.012). To assess the effect of PDL on cardiovascular health, lipid profile of rats were assayed and no significant changes were found. Conclusion: The outcome of this study implies that PDL is safe for our body but care should be taken when it is administered for long term and when it is accompanied by any kidney complications.

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Formulation, Characterization, and Optimization of Snakehead Fish (Ophiocephalus Striatus) Powder Nanoemulgel
Robert Tungadi, Prisca Wicita
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Snakehead fish powder was formulated into nanoemulgel utilizing the best comparison of surfactant, co-surfactant and oil. The aims of this study was to determine physical stability and characterization of snakehead fish powder nanoemulgel by spontaneous emulsification method. PEG 400 was added into Tween 80 and olive oil then water, containing 0.1% of snakehead fish powder, was added drop by drop until becoming a transparent solution by sonication. Nanoemulsion was added with 1.5% HPMC gel and mixed until nanoemulgel form. It was characterized by UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and DLS. The results of this research showed that snakehead fish nanoemulgel produced clear, stable, and transparent formula having the transmittance value of 98.825%. The characterization results described nanoemulgel had the average of particle size, PDI, and zeta potential were around 2.9 nm, 0.589 and -60.72 mV respectively. This means that nanoemulgel was stable having a uniform particle size, pH 5, and the viscosity value of 210 cP. The results of the evaluation of stability test showed a good level of stability with the viscosity and pH by one way ANOVA analysis which did not change significantly. 

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TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF AN AYURVEDIC MEDICINE KANKAYANA GUTIKA
Tanmony Sana, Md. Mamun Sikder, Paritosh Chakma, Marjana Khalil, Nayma Abedin, Md. Al Foyjul Islam, Mohammad Jashim Uddin and M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

 

Kankayana Gutika (KKY) have been used for the treatment of gulma (localized abdominal swelling or tumor) in Indian subcontinent. However, safety and efficacy of this treatment have not been evaluated. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and safety of KKY in experimental animals. During this study, various experiments on body growth rate, organ-body weight ratio and tissue hydration indices were performed to evaluate its efficacy and toxicity. To find out the toxicological characteristic of KKY, it was administered chronically to the male Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 400 mg/kg for 46 days and the following toxicological changes were noted. All throughout the experimental period the KKY treated animals were always maintaining negligible changes in body weight. There is a statistically very highly significant (p=0.001, 25.4% decrease) decrease in the relative percent weight of the male rat liver. There is also a statistically significant (p=0.026, 35.80% decrease) decrease in the relative percent weight of the male rat thymus.  

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FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND INVITRO EVALUATION OF MATRIX TYPE TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM USING CETYL PYRIDINIUM
Vanitha Rapaka, G. Haritha, D.Sreekanth, Vishwanadham Yerragunta
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

At present, the most common form of delivery of drugs is the oral route, its advantage of easy administration. It also has significant drawbacks –poor bioavailability due to hepatic metabolism (first pass) and the tendency to produce rapid blood level spikes, which can be both cost prohibitive and inconvenient. To overcome these difficulties there is a need for the development of new drug delivery system; which will improve the therapeutic efficacy and safety of drugs. Hence in present work, an attempt is been made to provide development and optimization a matrix type Transdermal drug delivery system using water insoluble polymers with model drug as Cetylpyridinium  and to study the effect of various concentration of polymers on In-vitro membrane permeation studies.

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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CHLOROFORM FRACTION OF RUBIA CORDIFOLIA AND CARVEDILOL AGAINST IN VIVO MODEL OF MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION INJURY IN RATS
Shabari Girinath K, D. Midhun Kumar, Lohithasu Duppala, Pankaj Bhatt
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Present study evaluated the cardioprotective effect of chloroform fraction of root of Rubiacordifolia (CFRRC) against ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) and Cardioprotective effect of CFRRC was evaluated. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of CFRRC was supported by its in vitro DPPH scavenging activity. Serum estimations revealed a significant decrease in activities of cardiac biomarkers (LDH and CK-MB) in the groups pre-treated with CFRRC. Pre-treatment with CFRRC prevented GSH depletion and also inhibited lipid peroxidation in heart tissue. in vitro and in vivo studies of CFRRC and comparative study with Carvedilol indicate that pretreatment with CFRRC at the doses (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) showed significant therapeutically changes in a  dose dependent manner against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Further clinical research is needed to confirm the beneficial effects of Rubiacordifolia in various cardiovascular disorders.

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9
PRECLINICAL LIPID PROFILE STUDIES OF A CLASSICAL AYURVEDIC PREPARATION MAKARADHWAJ RAS AFTER CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION TO MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS
Uday Krishna Mondal, Md. Afaz Uddin, Sagor Chandra Roy, Tanmoy Sana, Md. Mamun Sikder, Marjana Khalil, Md. Nuruzzaman Neon and M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Makaradhwaj Ras (MRS) is an Ayurvedic preparation used in traditional medicine as a cure for debility in chronic fatigue syndrome in the rural population. The present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared MRS on different lipid profile parameters in experimental animals. Acute toxicity tests were conducted to determine the LD50 of the drug. To find out the effect of chronic administration of MRS on serum lipid profile it was administered chronically to the male Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 40 mg/kg for 28 days. The drug (MRS) did not affect triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, VLDL-C, HDL-C and Non HDL-C level significantly; thus leading to an insignificant change in atherogenic indices like Cardiac Risk Ratio (TC/HDL-C), Atherogenic Coefficient [(TC - HDL-C)/HDL-C)], Castelli’s Risk Index-II (CRI-II) (HDL-C/LDL-C) and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) (log (TG/HDL-C)). This experimental data will help the clinician for the logical use of MRS in different disease conditions with findings like no significant change in the lipid profile parameters.

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RP- HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR DETERMINATION OF RIVAROXABAN IN THE PURE AND PHARMACUETICAL DOSAGE FORM
R. Nageswara Rao, L Sivasankar Reddy2 and R. Meenakshi
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

A simple, rapid, accurate, precise, robust and reproducible RP-HPLC method was developed for the determination of Rivaroxaban in pure drug and pharmaceutical dosage form. The quantification was carried out using enable C18 (250×4.6mm, 5µm) column in a binary mode with mobile phase comprising 0.1% GAA : ACN in 30:70 %v/v at flow rate 1ml/min, detection was carried out at 250nm using PDA detector with injection volume 20µl, the retention time was found to be 3.44min.The method produced linear response in the concentration range of 2-10µg/ml (R2 ˜0.9993). The recovery studies were carried out and %RSD was found to be 0.21. LOD and LOQ of Rivaroxaban for the method were found to be 0.008µg/ml and 0.248µg/ml respectively. The proposed method was statistically evaluated and found to be highly sensitive, precise, accurate, robust and fast. The shorter retention time allows the analysis of large number of samples in short period of time and it is cost effective, so it can be successfully applied for routine analysis of quality control of raw materials and formulation of different strengths of Rivaroxaban.

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EVALUATION OF INVITRO ANTICANCER AND ANTI INFLAMMATORY POTENTIAL OF MITRACARPUS VILLOSUS (Sw) DC.
K. Poonkodi, K. Vimala devi, M. Rubini, R. Priya dharsini and S. Vinitha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The present study examines the in vitro anti inflammatory potential of ethanol and petroleum ether extracts of Mitracarpus villosus by HRBC stabilization method. In addition to that invitro anti cancer potential of ethanol extract of the M.villosus was evaluated by MTT assay. The results revealed that the petroleum ether and ethanol extracts has significant anti inflammatory activities compared to the standard. The petroleum ether extract showed the percentage of lysis of about 25.64 for 20µl followed by 36.25, 47.21 for 40 µl and 60 µl respectively. The ethanol extract showed % of lysis of 54.24, 66.17 and 78.71 for 20µl, 40 µl and 60 µl respectively.  The ethanol extract showed very good percentage of membrane lysis in all the concentrations employed.  The ethanol extract was tested for its anticancer potential against MCF-7-Human breast cancer cell line and HEK- 293-Human embryonic kidney cell line by MTT assay. The ethanol extract showed significant cytotoxic effect on the MCF-7 and HEK-293 cancer cell lines in dose dependant pattern and the IC50 values were determined as 217.6 and 196.8 µg/ml, respectively. This is the first report of its kind to test the ethanol extract of M.villosus for anticancer activity. 

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ASSESSMENT OF SEASONAL VARIATION OF HEAVY METALS IN THREE DIFFERENT FISH SPECIES FROM SOUTHEAST COAST REGION OF CUDDALORE
S. Celine Hilda Mary, R. Ramabai, A.Vinodhini and R.Anandan
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Fish has been consider as a one of the most important source of nutrients. These nutrients can be affected by manmade pollution and leads to some toxic effects. The main purpose of this study to assess the seasonal variation of proximate composition, level of heavy metals such as mercury, arsenic and lead in seawater and different fish species. The muscle tissues of three commonly demanded fish species [Lutjanus sanguineus, Loligo duvauceli and Leiognathus splendens] and sea water samples was collected from southeast coast region of Cuddalore at three different seasons [winter, summer and Monsoon]. The level of heavy metals in different fish species was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The result of the current study revealed that all the metals were present below the permitted level in sea water and fish sample at all three seasons. They are present in the following order in all the seasons Hg

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FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BILAYER FLOATING TABLETS OF CIPROFLOXACIN AND ALOE VERA GEL POWDER FOR TREATMENT OF GASTRIC ULCERS
M. Yasmin Begum*, G.Prathyusha Reddy, Chitampally Sirisha, V.Lakshman rao, Muvvala Sudhakar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The aim of the present work was to design and develop a bilayer floating tablet of Ciprofloxacin and Aloe vera gel powder for the treatment of peptic ulcer, with the objective of retaining the dosage form in stomach for better antiulcer activity using the synthetic drug with a herbal product. Aloe  vera gel powder was used for its cytoprotective action. Six Bilayer floating formulations were prepared by using direct compression method.The formulation has been  developed using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose HPMC K4M and HPMC K100M at varying concentrations. FTIR studies showed no incompatibility between the drug and excipients. The ratios of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was adjusted to get the least possible lag time less than one minute with good matrix integrity and total floating log time greater than eight hours. Among all the six formulations F4 showed the maximum drug release of 96.018% within eight hours.

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DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND DISSOLUTION ENHANCEMENT OF SIMVASTATIN WITH POLOXAMER 407 BY KNEADING METHOD
Taranjit kaur, Harpreet Singh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The aim of the present study was to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of Simvastatin (SIM) under the frame of improved bioavailability and dissolution rate. Solid dispersion of SIM was prepared by using LBG, PXM407 as carrier in different ratios through Kneading method. A 32 full factorial design was applied systematically and effect the influence of the individual and combined effect of independent variables (X1) ratio and (X2) concentration of surfactants on the dependent variables percent dissolution efficiency at 60 min (percentage DE 60) and yield percent. The solid dispersions and optimized formula was characterised on the basis of drug content analysis, percentage yield and in vitro dissolution study, Differential scanning calorimetry, Scanning transmission microscopy, X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy was performed to identify the physicochemical interaction between drug, carrier and other formulation constituents. Results showed that significantly better dissolution rate of solid dispersion SIM with PXM407 in the ratio of 1:8. This study could be very much helpful for better bioavailability and dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drug avoiding first pass metabolism.

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A novel method for the simultaneous determination of Azelnidipine and Olmesartan in Human plasma by using liquid chromatography-electro spray Ionization tandem mass spectrometry and application to a pharmacokinetic study
Ramesh Adepu, Dr. B. Neelima, Dr. Leela Mohan Kumar Pallapothu and Dr. A. Ashok Kumar
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

A novel rapid, specific and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Azelnidipine and Olmesartan in K2EDTA human plasma. The method involves simple, solid phase extraction procedure and separation with an C18 column (5 µm, 100 x 4.6 mm) with Acetonitrile/5mM Ammonium Formate pH-3.00 [80/20, V/V]  isocratic elution at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL/min with a total run time of 3.0 minutes. Labeled isotopes were used as the internal standard. The protonate of analyte’s were quantitated in positive ionization by multiple reaction monitoring with a mass spectrometer. The mass transitions m/z 583.300 ?167.200 and m/z 447.400 ?207.000 were used to measure Azelnidipine and Olmesartan respectively. The method was developed and validated using 200 µL of plasma, over a concentration range of 0.100 – 40.070 ng/mL for Azelnidipine and 3.001 – 1200.340 ng/mL for Olmesartan. The intra and inter day Precision and Accuracy values were found to be within the assay variability limits as per regulatory guidelines. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study involving a single oral administration of a combination tablet to human male volunteers.

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DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MICROSPONGE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF INDOMETHACIN
Inukonda Rajitha, Dr K. Umasankar, Dr. P. Jayachandra reddy
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

In the present study controlled release formulation of Indomethacin microsponges were prepared by using Carbopol 940, PVA. Microsponges were prepared by Quasi emulsion solvent diffusion method by changing drug polymer ratio (1:0.5-1:4) and process was optimized. Microsponges were evaluated by micromeritic properties, drug content, encapsulation efficiency, and particle size. Characterization of Indomethacin microsponges were done by FT-IR spectroscopy,. In-vitro dissolution study indicated that the release of Indomethacin varied according to the concentration of matrix forming polymer, drug  release mechanism was found to be super case II transport Therefore, Indomethacin microsponges prepared in thus study are promising as being more useful than conventional formulation intherapy.

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DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A RP-HPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF LAMOTRIGINE IN A TABLET DOSAGE FORM
Dr M. Paul Richard, Dr Kiran Kumar P.Govardhan Reddy, P.Uma Mahesh
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

A simple, sensitive, and precise high performance liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of Lamotrigine has been developed and validated for the  determination of compound in commercial pharmaceutical products. The compounds were well separated on BDS Hypersil C18 reverse phase column by the use of a mobile phase of mixed phosphate buffer and acetonitrile in a ratio of 40:60 v/v, at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min with detection wavelength at 248nm. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity, robustness and solution stability. The method does require only 10 minutes as runtime for analysis which prove the adoptability of the method for the routine quality control analysis of the drug.

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FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CEFIXIME MICROSPHERES
Y. Manjula Devi, S. Venkata Naidu, G. Sailaja, R. Ramachandra Murthy, B. Ranganath
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The purpose of this research work was to increase the residence time of drug Cefixime by formulating as floating microspheres and to study the effect of formulation variables on microsphere characteristics. Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation method in which ethyl cellulose used as a release retardant polymer. Nine different formulations were prepared by changing drug to polymer ratio, volume of internal phase, volume of external phase and stirring time. The prepared microspheres were characterized for drug - polymer compatibility by IR, percentage yield, particle size analysis, drug entrapment efficiency, surface morphology by SEM, bulk density, percentage buoyancy, in-vitro release and release kinetic studies. Results of these evaluations showed that particle size in the range of 102.5±1.3µm to 110±2.21 µm, entrapment efficiency was found to be 75.69±1.91 to 88.35±2.67%, drug content was found to be in the range of 97.46±2.4 to98.95±1.8.  Fourier-Transform Infra Red (FT-IR) studies ensured that no drug - polymer interaction in the formulated microspheres and the surface topography revealed a spherical surface for all the formulations and a round cavity enclosed by an outer shell composed of the drug and polymer. In- vitro release profile of microspheres for F6 formulation was found to be 97.87±0.2 at the end of 12 hrs.  In release kinetic studies, the F6 formulation followed zero order drug release with non-Fickian diffusion mechanism.

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FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF ZAFIRLUKAST
T. Lakshm Prasanna, Dr. P. Jayachandra Reddy, Dr. K. Umasankar, K. Jyosthana Devi, I. Rajitha
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Pulsatile delivery system is capable of delivering drug when and where it required  most.Time delayed tablets,designed to release drug after apredictable lagtime, are intended for oral chronotherapy.The basic design consists of a core tablets prepared by direct compression method. The tablets were coated with an inner swellable layer containing sodium alginate & ethyl cellulose.The prepared pulsatile tablets were evaluated for the drug content,thickness and in-vitro release profile, etc. In-vitro releaseprofile sofpulsatile device during six hours studies were found to have very good sustaining efficacy. During the first five hour sit shows minimum drug release and at the end of six hours immediate release was observed. Increasing the level of the rupturable layer increased mechanical strength and retarded the water uptake and thus prolonged the lagtime. Stability studies proved that coating of tablets seems to decrease the effect of temperature and moisture on the degradation of Zafirlukast. The programmable pulsatile release has been achieved from table to vera 7-8 hr period, consistent with the demands of chrono therapeutic drug delivery.

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An assessment of Antioxidant potential and in-vitro SPF activity of Amaranthus tricolor and Curcuma longa
Suchita Wamankar, Anshita Gupta, Pragati Baghel, Pranita Kashyap, Chanchal Deep Kaur
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The aim of present research work is to focus on analysis of the antioxidant activity and in-vitro SPF value Amaranthus tricolor and Curcuma longa. These types of herbs contains various organic and inorganic molecules (pigments) and their mixture, it had nature of absorption light in the visible region of 400-800nm. In the phytochemical analysis of A. tricolor and C.longa it was found that they contain glycosides, alkaloids, tannin, saponin and flavonoids as well as herbal dyes. The antioxidant properties of ethanolic extract of both herbs were analysed by DPPH percentage free radical inhibition activity. The antioxidant activity was found to be 36.06 ±30.00 % for A. tricolor and 8.17± 20.7% was found for C. longa The SPF value was found to be 4.118 ± 0.0035 A. tricolor, and 4.626 ± 0.018 was found for C. longa. The future prospects of the study lies in developing novel suitable formulations of these herbal dyes.
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Considering Various Components for Rational Development of Solid Dispersion with Better Affectivity
Poonam Mogal, Deeliprao Derle
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML
The goal of pharmaceutical preparation investigation is to utilize to the full of every bang-up properties while overcoming as many another as manageable unsought properties of existent operational drugs & formed drug molecules. The choice of accepted applied science & technology in the formulation is habitually favored to maintain a time table and success rate requirements in industry. But in numerous cases new excipients for formulation or delivery technologies are required to formulate coveted clinically significant improvements, for differentiation in the market and to those fortifying for industrial protection. This is important aspect influencing development and industrialization is the scale-up in the production of formulation excipients and delivery systems. A methodical consideration of the processes taking place at a molecular stage is crucial for the logical development of solid dispersions. The parameters like manufacturing certain thermodynamic properties of BCS class II drugs, factors that affects stability of the system, physicochemical properties of drug in solid dispersion, mechanisms responsible solubility & dissolution rate enhancement as well as mechanisms to make the system stable, for choosing the right polymeric carrier & the solubilizing formation techniques all these should be well thought-out before forming solid dispersion. Systematically done workings come out to be indispensable for enhancing potential of many existing & outdated copious BCS class 2/4 drugs as well as new chemical entities.
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EFFECT OF SWARNA SINDURA ON THYROID HORMONES IN SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS
Md. Afaz Uddin, Md. Rakib Hasan, Arjyabrata Sarker, Uday Krishna Mondal, Sagor Chandra Roy, Md. Al Foyjul Islam, Marjana Khalil, M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Swarna Sindura (SS) is an ayurvedic preparation used as a traditional medicine in the treatment of neurasthenia. In this study, effect of SS on thyroid hormone profile was evaluated after chronic administration of this drug to male Sprague-Dawley rats. The acute pharmacological test of SS recorded no death or any signs of toxicity even at the highest dose of 4000 mg/Kg body weight. For chronic pharmacological evaluation, the animals were divided into two groups. The first group was given SS preparation at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight for 28 days while the second group that served as the control received water for the same period. After 28 days of chronic administration of the SS preparation the following effects on the thyroid hormone profile were noted. There was a statistically highly significant (p=0.008, 15.62 % increase) increase in the serum circulating free Triiodothyronine (fT3) level. The drug (SS) did not affect serum circulating total Thyroxine (tT4) level, total Triiodothyronine (tT3) level, free Thyroxine (fT4) level and Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) significantly.

191-195
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HONEY A BOOSTER FOR THE ACTIVITY OF ANTIBIOTICS
Samsom Mehari, Gabriel Dawit
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The objective of this study is to show the efficacy of honey as booster for the activity of antibiotics in wound healing for mothers who has done cesear section (CS) during delivery. The study was prospective study for five months. The research was conducted for mother with sepsis after 7 days from the day CS has done. There were two groups one control group who took only antibiotic (Metrondazole + ceftriaxone + dressing with normal saline) and the other group (metrondazole + ceftriaxone + honey dressing). The symptom observed during the follow up on the wound are pus, smell, pain, hotness, wound length, swelling and tenderness. The follow up was for 12 days. The average time for disappearance of each symptoms of the wound was calculated.. As a result, the average time for disapearing of the symptoms in patients under honey dressing are with much fewer days than patients without honey dressing.

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A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY ON AVAILABILITY OF ESSENTIAL MEDICINES AND BASIC DIAGNOSTIC EQUIPMENTS IN TANZANIA
Henry Irunde, Omary Minzi, and Candida Moshiro
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

The objective of this study was to determine availability of medicines and diagnostic equipments in public and private health care facilities in Tanzania. Four regions participated in the study and for each region, two districts were randomly chosen, one rural and one urban, in which 67 health facilities were drawn studied. Sixteen medicines were picked from National Essential Medicines List and ten diagnostic equipments were selected and their availability determined. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 SPSS, Inc. Chicago, USA, was used to analyse data. Mean availability of medicines was 80% in studied facilities; regional mean availability of medicines was 86% for Dar es Salaam, 82% for Kilimanjaro, 85% for Mbeya, and 70% for Mwanza. Availability of diagnostic equipments in consultation rooms was 39% (N=143). Availability of medicines and diagnostic equipments in studied health facilities were sub-optimal and interventions to address the situation are required.

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PRECLINICAL LIPID PROFILE STUDIES OF AN AYURVEDIC PREPARATION NARADIYA LAKSMIVILASA RASA AFTER CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION TO MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS
S. J. Sarah Muneem, Tania Nasrin, Md. Rakib Hasan, Mohammad Jashim Uddin, Md. Mamun Sikder, Latifa Bulbul, Jannatul Fardous and M. S. K. Choudhuri
 Abstract                  View                 Download                 XML

Naradiya Laksmivilasa Rasa (NMB) is a classical Ayurvedic formulation markedly used in the treatment of sinusitis, chronic skin diseases, diabetes, fistula, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, ascites, headache, gynecological disorders and urinary tract disorders. The present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared NMB on different lipid profile parameters in experimental animals, for providing scientific data base for its logical use in clinical practice. Acute toxicity tests were conducted to determine the LD50 of the drug. To find out the effect of chronic administration of NMB on serum lipid profile it was administered chronically to the male Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 400 mg/kg for 43 days. A significant decrease in HDL cholesterol level (p=0.02, 25.98% decrease) was observed. The drug (NMB) did not affect triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), LDL, VLDL, and Non-HDL level significantly; thus leading to an insignificant change in atherogenic indices like Cardiac Risk Ratio (TC/HDL), Atherogenic Coefficient [(TC-HDL)/HDL)], Castelli’s Risk Index-II (CRI-II) (HDL/LDL) and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) (log (TG/HDL)). This experimental data will help the clinician for the logical use of NMB in different disease conditions.

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